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by Richard Henry Dana


The fourteenth of August was the day fixed upon for the sailing of the brigPilgrim on her voyage from Boston round Cape Horn to the western coast of NorthAmerica. As she was to get under weigh early in the afternoonI made myappearance on board at twelve o'clockin full sea-rigand with my chestcontaining an outfit for a two or three years' voyagewhich I had undertakenfrom a determination to cureif possibleby an entire change of lifeand by along absence from books and studya weakness of the eyeswhich had obliged meto give up my pursuitsand which no medical aid seemed likely to cure.

The change from the tight dress coatsilk cap and kid gloves of anundergraduate at Cambridgeto the loose duck trowserschecked shirt andtarpaulin hat of a sailorthough somewhat of a transformationwas soon madeand I supposed that I should pass very well for a jack tar. But it is impossibleto deceive the practised eye in these matters; and while I supposed myself to belooking as salt as Neptune himselfI wasno doubtknown for a landsman byevery one on board as soon as I hove in sight. A sailor has a peculiar cut tohis clothesand a way of wearing them which a green hand can never get. Thetrowserstight round the hipsand thence hanging long and loose round the feeta superabundance of checked shirta low-crownedwell varnished black hatwornon the back of the headwith half a fathom of black ribbon hanging over theleft eyeand a peculiar tie to the black silk neckerchiefwith sundry otherminutiaeare signsthe want of which betray the beginnerat once. Besides thepoints in my dress which were out of the waydoubtless my complexion and handswere enough to distinguish me from the regular saltwhowith a sunburnt cheekwide stepand rolling gaitswings his bronzed and toughened hands athwartshipshalf openas though just ready to grasp a rope.

"With all my imperfections on my head" I joined the crewand wehauled out into the streamand came to anchor for the night. The next day wewere employed in preparations for seareeving studding-sail gearcrossingroyal yardsputting on chafing gearand taking on board our powder. On thefollowing nightI stood my first watch. I remained awake nearly all the firstpart of the night from fear that I might not hear when I was called; and when Iwent on deckso great were my ideas of the importance of my trustthat Iwalked regularly fore and aft the whole length of the vessellooking out overthe bows and taffrail at each turnand was not a little surprised at thecoolness of the old salt whom I called to take my placein stowing himselfsnugly away under the long boatfor a nap. That was a sufficient look-outhethoughtfor a fine nightat anchor in a safe harbor.

The next morning was Saturdayand a breeze having sprung up from thesouthwardwe took a pilot on boardhove up our anchorand began beating downthe bay. I took leave of those of my friends who came to see me offand hadbarely opportunity to take a last look at the cityand well-known objectsasno time is allowed on board ship for sentiment. As we drew down into the lowerharborwe found the wind ahead in the bayand were obliged to come to anchorin the roads. We remained there through the day and a part of the night. Mywatch began at eleven o'clock at nightand I received orders to call thecaptain if the wind came out from the westward. About midnight the wind becamefairand having called the captainI was ordered to call all hands. How Iaccomplished this I do not knowbut I am quite sure that I did not give thetrue hoarseboatswain call of "A-a-ll ha-a-a-nds! up anchora-ho-oy!"In a short time every one was in motionthe sails loosedthe yards bracedandwe began to heave up the anchorwhich was our last hold upon Yankee land. Icould take but little part in all these preparations. My little knowledge of avessel was all at fault. Unintelligible orders were so rapidly given and soimmediately executed; there was such a hurrying aboutand such an interminglingof strange cries and stranger actionsthat I was completely bewildered. Thereis not so helpless and pitiable an object in the world as a landsman beginning asailor's life. At length those peculiarlongdrawn soundswhich denote that thecrew are heaving at the windlassbeganand in a few moments we were underweigh. The noise of the water thrown from the bows began to be heardthe vesselleaned over from the damp night breezeand rolled with the heavy ground swelland we had actually begun our longlong journey. This was literally bidding"good night" to my native land.


The first day we passed at sea was the Sabbath. As we were just from portand there was a great deal to be done on boardwe were kept at work all dayand at night the watches were setand everything put into sea order. When wewere called aft to be divided into watchesI had a good specimen of the mannerof a sea captain. After the division had been madehe gave a shortcharacteristic speechwalking the quarter deck with a cigar in his mouthanddropping the words out between the puffs.

"Nowmy menwe have begun a long voyage. If we get along well togetherwe shall have a comfortable time; if we don'twe shall have hell afloat.- Allyou've got to do is to obey your orders and do your duty like men- then you'llfare well enough;- if you don'tyou'll fare hard enough- I can tell you. If wepull togetheryou'll find me a clever fellow; if we don'tyou'll find me abloody rascal.- That's all I've got to say.- Go belowthe larboard watch!"

I being in the starboardor second mate's watchhad the opportunity ofkeeping the first watch at sea. S---a young manmakinglike myselfhisfirst voyagewas in the same watchand as he was the son of a professionalmanand had been in a countingroom in Bostonwe found that we had many friendsand topics in common. We talked these matters over- Bostonwhat our friendswere probably doingour voyageetc.until he went to take his turn at thelook-outand left me to myself. I had now a fine time for reflection. I feltfor the first time the perfect silence of the sea. The officer was walking thequarter deckwhere I had no right to goone or two men were talking on theforecastlewhom I had little inclination to joinso that I was left open tothe full impression of everything about me. However much I was affected by thebeauty of the seathe bright starsand the clouds driven swiftly over themIcould not but remember that I was separating myself from all the social andintellectual enjoyments of life. Yetstrange as it may seemI did then andafterwards take pleasure in these reflectionshoping by them to prevent mybecoming insensible to the value of what I was leaving.

But all my dreams were soon put to flight by an order from the officer totrim the yardsas the wind was getting ahead; and I could plainly see by thelooks the sailors occasionally cast to windwardand by the dark clouds thatwere fast coming upthat we had bad weather to prepare forand had heard thecaptain say that he expected to be in the Gulf Stream by twelve o'clock. In afew minutes eight bells were struckthe watch calledand we went below. I nowbegan to feel the first discomforts of a sailor's life. The steerage in which Ilived was filled with coils of riggingspare sailsold junk and ship storeswhich had not been stowed away. Moreoverthere had been no berths built for usto sleep inand we were not allowed to drive nails to hang our clothes upon.The seatoohad risenthe vessel was rolling heavilyand everything waspitched about in grand confusion. There was a complete "hurrah's nest"as the sailors say"everything on top and nothing at hand." A largehawser had been coiled away upon my chest; my hatsbootsmattress and blanketshad all fetched away and gone over to leewardand were jammed and broken underthe boxes and coils of rigging. To crown allwe were allowed no light to findanything withand I was just beginning to feel strong symptoms of sea-sicknessand that listlessness and inactivity which accompany it. Giving up all attemptsto collect my things togetherI lay down upon the sailsexpecting every momentto hear the cry of "all hands ahoy" which the approaching storm wouldsoon make necessary. I shortly heard the rain-drops falling on deckthick andfastand the watch evidently had their hands full of workfor I could hear theloud and repeated orders of the matethe trampling of feetthe creaking ofblocksand all the accompaniments of a coming storm. In a few minutes the slideof the hatch was thrown backwhich let down the noise and tumult of the deckstill louderthe loud cry of "All handsahoy! tumble up here and take insail" saluted our earsand the hatch was quickly shut again. When I gotupon decka new scene and a new experience was before me. The little brig wasclose hauled upon the windand lying overas it then seemed to menearly uponher beam ends. The heavy head sea was beating against her bows with the noiseand force almost of a sledge hammerand flying over the deckdrenching uscompletely through. The topsail halyards had been let goand the great sailswere filling out topsoil and backing against the masts with a noise like thunder.The wind was whistling through the riggingloose ropes flying about; loud andto meunintelligible orders constantly given and rapidly executedand thesailors "singing out" at the ropes in their hoarse and peculiarstrains. In addition to all thisI thisI had not got my "sea legson" was dreadfully sickwith hardly strength enough to hold on toanythingand it was "pitch dark." This was my state when I wasordered aloftfor the first timeto reef topsails.

How I got alongI cannot now remember. I "laid out" on the yardsand held on with all my strength. I could not have been of much servicefor Iremember having been sick several times before I left the topsail yard. Soon allwas snug aloftand we were again allowed to go below. This I did not considermuch of a favorfor the confusion of everything belowand that inexpressiblesickening smellcaused by the shaking up of the bilge-water in the holdmadethe steerage but an indifferent refuge from the coldwet decks. I had oftenread of the nautical experiences of othersbut I felt as though there could benone worse than mine; for in addition to every other evilI could not butremember that this was only the first night of a two years' voyage. When we wereon deck we were not much better offfor we were continually ordered about bythe officerwho said that it was good for us to be in motion. Yet anything wasbetter than the horrible state of things below. I remember very well going tothe hatchway and putting my head downwhen I was oppressed by nauseaandalways being relieved immediately. It was as good as an emetic.

This state of things continued for two days. -

WednesdayAug. 20th. We had the watch on deck from four till eightthismorning. When we came on deck at four o'clockwe found things much changed forthe better. The sea and wind had gone downand the stars were out bright. Iexperienced a corresponding change in my feelings; yet continued extremely weakfrom my sickness. I stood in the waist on the weather sidewatching the gradualbreaking of the dayand the first streaks of the early light. Much has beensaid of the sun-rise at sea; but it will not compare with the sun-rise on shore.It wants the accompaniments of the songs of birdsthe awakening hum of menandthe glancing of the first beams upon treeshillsspiresand house-topstogive it life and spirit. But though the actual rise of the sun at sea is not sobeautifulyet nothing will compare with the early breaking of day upon the wideocean.

There is something in the first grey streaks stretching along the easternhorizon and throwing an indistinct light upon the face of the deepwhichcombines with the boundlessness and unknown depth of the sea around youandgives one a feeling of lonelinessof dreadand of melancholy forebodingwhichnothing else in nature can give. This gradually passes away as the light growsbrighterand when the sun comes upthe ordinary monotonous sea day begins.

From such reflections as theseI was aroused by the order from the officer"Forward there! rig the head-pump!" I found that no time was allowedfor day-dreamingbut that we must "turn to" at the first light.Having called up the "idlers" namelycarpentercookstewardetc.and rigged the pumpwe commenced washing down the decks. This operationwhichis performed every morning at seatakes nearly two hours; and I had hardlystrength enough to get through it. After we had finishedswabbed downandcoiled up the riggingI sat down on the sparswaiting for seven bellswhichwas the sign for breakfast. The officerseeing my lazy postureordered me toslush the main-mast from the royal-mast-headdown. The vessel was then rollinga littleand I had taken no sustenance for three daysso that I felt temptedto tell him that I had rather wait till after breakfast; but I knew that I must"take the bull by the horns" and that if I showed any sign of want ofspirit or of backwardnessthat I should be ruined at once. So I took my bucketof grease and climbed up to the royal-mast-head. Here the rocking of the vesselwhich increases the higher you go from the foot of the mastwhich is thefulcrum of the leverand the smell of the greasewhich offended my fastidioussensesupset my stomach againand I was not a little rejoiced when I got uponthe comparative terra firma of the deck. In a few minutes seven bells werestruckthe log hovethe watch calledand we went to breakfast. Here I cannotbut remember the advice of the cooka simple-hearted African. "Now"says he"my ladyou are well cleaned out; you haven't got a drop of your'long-shore swash aboard of you. You must begin on a new tack- pitch all yoursweetmeats overboardand turn-to upon good hearty salt beef and sea breadandI'll promise youyou'll have your ribs well sheathedand be as hearty as anyof 'emafore you are up to the Horn." This would be good advice to give topassengerswhen they speak of the little niceties which they have laid inincase of sea-sickness.

I cannot describe the change which half a pound of cold salt beef and abiscuit or two produced in me. I was a new being. We had a watch below untilnoonso that I had some time to myself; and getting a huge piece of strongcoldsalt beef from the cookI kept gnawing upon it until twelve o'clock. Whenwe went on deck I felt somewhat like a manand could begin to learn my sea dutywith considerable spirit. At about two o'clock we heard the loud cry of"Sail ho!" from aloftand soon saw two sails to windwardgoingdirectly athwart our hawse. This was the first time that I had seen a sail atsea. I thought thenand have always sincethat it exceeds every other sight ininterest and beauty. They passed to leeward of usand out of hailing distance;but the captain could read the names on their sterns with the glass. They werethe ship Helen Marof New Yorkand the brig Mermaidof Boston. They were bothsteering westwardand were bound in for our "dear native land." -

ThursdayAug. 21st. This day the sun rose clearwe had a fine windandeverything was bright and cheerful. I had now got my sea legs onand wasbeginning to enter upon the regular duties of a sea-life. About six bellsthatisthree o'clock P. M.we saw a sail on our larboard bow. I was very anxiouslike every new sailorto speak her. She came down to usbacked hermain-topsailand the two vessels stood "head on" bowing andcurvetting at each other like a couple of war-horses reined in by their riders.It was the first vessel that I had seen nearand I was surprised to find outhow much she rolled and pitched in so quiet a sea. She plunged her head into theseaand thenher stern settling gradually downher huge bows rose upshowingthe bright copperand her sternand breast-hooks drippinglike old Neptune'slockswith the brine. Her decks were filled with passengers who had come up atthe cry of "sail ho" and who by their dress and features appeared tobe Swiss and French emigrants. She hailed us at first in Frenchbut receivingno answershe tried us in English. She was the ship La Carolinafrom Havrefor New York. We desired her to report the brig Pilgrimfrom Bostonfor thenorth-west coast of Americafive days out. She then filled away and left us toplough on through our waste of waters. This day ended pleasantly; we had gotinto regular and comfortable weatherand into that routine of sea-life which isonly broken by a storma sailor the sight of land.


As we had now a long "spell" of fine weatherwithout any incidentto break the monotony of our livesthere can be no better place to describe thedutiesregulationsand customs of an American merchantmanof which ours was afair specimen.

The captainin the first placeis lord paramount. He stands no watchcomesand goes when he pleasesand is accountable to no oneand must be obeyed ineverythingwithout a questioneven from his chief officer. He has the power toturn his officers off dutyand even to break them and make them do duty assailors in the forecastle. Where there are no passengers and no supercargoasin our vesselhe has no companion but his own dignityand no pleasuresunlesshe differs from most of his kindbut the consciousness of possessing supremepowerandoccasionallythe exercise of it.

The prime ministerthe official organand the active and superintendingofficeris the chief mate. He is first lieutenantboatswainsailing-masterand quarter-master. The captain tells him what he wishes to have doneandleaves to him the care of overseeingof allotting the workand also theresponsibility of its being well done. The mate (as he is always calledparexcellence) also keeps the log-bookfor which he is responsible to the ownersand insurersand has the charge of the stowagesafe keepingand delivery ofthe cargo. He is alsoex-officiothe wit of the crew; for the captain does notcondescend to joke with the menand the second mate no one cares for; so thatwhen "the mate" thinks fit to entertain "the people" with acoarse joke or a little practical witevery one feels bound to laugh.

The second mate's is proverbially a dog's berth. He is neither officer norman. The men do not respect him as an officerand he is obliged to go aloft toreef and furl the topsailsand to put his hands into the tar and slushwiththe rest. The crew call him the "sailors' waiter" as he has tofurnish them with spun-yarnmarlineand all other stuffs that they need intheir workand has charge of the boatswain's lockerwhich includesserving-boardsmarline-spikesetc.etc. He is expected by the captain tomaintain his dignity and to enforce obedienceand still is kept at a greatdistance from the mateand obliged to work with the crew. He is one to whomlittle is given and of whom much is required. His wages are usually double thoseof a common sailorand he eats and sleeps in the cabin; but he is obliged to beon deck nearly all his timeand eats at the second tablethat ismakes a mealout of what the captain and chief mate leave.

The steward is the captain's servantand has charge of the pantryfromwhich every oneeven the mate himselfis excluded. These distinctions usuallyfind him an enemy in the matewho does not like to have any one on board who isnot entirely under his control; the crew do not consider him as one of theirnumberso he is left to the mercy of the captain.

The cook is the patron of the crewand those who are in his favor can gettheir wet mittens and stockings driedor light their pipes at the galley on thenight watch. These two worthiestogether with the carpenter and sailmakerifthere be onestand no watchbutbeing employed all dayare allowed to"sleep in" at nightunless all hands are called.

The crew are divided into two divisionsas equally as may becalled thewatches. Of these the chief mate commands the larboardand the second mate thestarboard. They divide the time between thembeing on and off dutyoras itis calledon deck and belowevery other four hours. Iffor instancethechief mate with the larboard watch have the first night-watch from eight totwelve; at the end of the four hoursthe starboard watch is calledand thesecond mate takes the deckwhile the larboard watch and the first mate go belowuntil four in the morningwhen they come on deck again and remain until eight;having what is called the morning watch. As they will have been on deck eighthours out of twelvewhile those who had the middle watch- from twelve to fourwill only have been up four hoursthey have what is called a "forenoonwatch below" that isfrom eightA.M.till twelveP.M. In a man-of-warand in some merchantmenthis alternation of watches is kept up throughout thetwenty-four hours; but our shiplike most merchantmenhad "allhands" from twelve o'clock till darkexcept in bad weatherwhen we had"watch and watch."

An explanation of the "dog watches" mayperhapsbe of use to onewho has never been at sea. They are to shift the watches each nightso that thesame watch need not be on deck at the same hours. In order to effect thisthewatch from four to eightP. divided into two halfor dowatchesonefrom four to sixand the other from six to eight. By this means they divide thetwenty-four hours into seven watches instead of sixand thus shift the hoursevery night. As the dog watches come during twilight after the day's work isdoneand before the night watch is setthey are the watches in which everybodyis on deck. The captain is upwalking on the weather side of the quarter-deckthe chief mate on the leesideand the second mate about the weather gangway.The steward has finished his work in the cabinand has come up to smoke hispipe with the cook in the galley. The crew are sitting on the windlass or lyingon the forecastlesmoking or telling long yarns. At eight o'clockeight bellsare struckthe log is hovethe watch setthe wheel relievedthe galley shutupand the other watch goes below.

The morning commences with the watch on deck's "turning-to" atday-break and washing downscrubbing and swabbing the decks. Thistogetherwith filling the "scuttled butt" with fresh waterand coiling up theriggingusually occupies the time until seven bells(half after seven) whenall hands get breakfast. At eightthe day's work beginsand lasts untilsundownwith the exception of an hour for dinner.

Before I end my explanationsit may be well to define a day's workand tocorrect a mistake prevalent among landsmen about a sailor's life. Nothing ismore common than to hear people say- "Are not sailors very idle at sea?-what can they find to do?" This is a very natural mistakeand being veryfrequently madeit is one which every sailor feels interested in havingcorrected. In the first placethenthe discipline of the ship requires everyman to be at work upon something when he is on deckexcept at night and onSundays. Except at these timesyou will never see a manon board awell-ordered vesselstanding idle on decksitting down or leaning over theside. It is the officers' duty to keep every one at workeven if there isnothing to be done but to scrape the rust from the chain cables. In no stateprison are the convicts more regularly set to workand more closely watched. Noconversation is allowed among the crew at their dutyand though they frequentlydo talk when aloftor when near one anotheryet they always stop when anofficer is nigh.

With regard to the work upon which the men are putit is a matter whichprobably would not be understood by one who has not been at sea. When I firstleft portand found that we were kept regularly employed for a week or twoIsupposed that we were getting the vessel into sea trimand that it would soonbe overand we should have nothing to do but to sail the ship but I found thatit continued so for two yearsand at the end of the two years there was as muchto be done as ever. As has often been saida ship is like a lady's watchalways out of repair. When first leaving portstudding-sail gear is to be roveall the running rigging to be examinedthat which is unfit for use to be gotdownand new rigging rove in its place: then the standing rigging is to beoverhauledreplacedand repairedin a thousand different ways; and whereverany of the numberless ropes or the yards are chafing or wearing upon itthere"chafing gear" as it is calledmust be put on. This chafing gearconsists of wormingparcellingroundingbattensand service of all kinds-both rope-yarnsspun-yarnmarline and seizing-stuffs. Taking offputting onand mending the chafing gear aloneupon a vesselwould find constantemployment for two or three menduring working hoursfor a whole voyage.

The next point to be considered isthat all the "small stuffs"which are used on board a ship- such as spun-yarnmarlineseizing-stuffetc.etc.- are made on board. The owners of a vessel buy up incredible quantities of"old junk" which the sailors unlayafter drawing out the yarnsknotthem togetherand roll them up in balls. These "rope-yarns" areconstantly used for various purposesbut the greater part is manufactured intospun-yarn. For this purpose every vessel is furnished with a "spun-yarnwinch"; which is very simpleconsisting of a wheel and spindle. This maybe heard constantly going on deck in pleasant weather; and we had employmentduring a great part of the timefor three hands in drawing and knotting yarnsand makingspun-yarn.

Another method of employing the crew is"setting up" rigging.Whenever any of the standing rigging becomes slack(which is continuallyhappening) the seizing and coverings must be taken offtackles got upandafter the rigging is bowsed well taughtthe seizings and coverings replaced;coverings which is a very nice piece of work. There is also such a connectionbetween different parts of a vesselthat one rope can seldom be touched withoutaltering another. You cannot stay a mast aft by the back stayswithout slackingup the head staysetc.etc. If we add to this all the tarringgreasingoilingvarnishingpaintingscrapingand scrubbing which is required in thecourse of a long voyageand also remember this is all to be done in addition towatching at nightsteeringreefingfurlingbracingmaking and setting sailand pullinghauling and climbing in every directionone will hardly ask"What can a sailor find to do at sea?"

Ifafter all this labor- after exposing their lives and limbs in stormswetand cold-

"Wherein the cub-drawn bear would couch:

The lion and the belly-pinched wolf

Keep their furs dry;-" - the merchants and captains think that they havenot earned their twelve dollars a month(out of which they clothe themselves)and their salt beef and hard breadthey keep them picking oakum- ad infinitum.This is the usual resource upon a rainy dayfor then it will not do to workupon rigging; and when it is pouring down in floodsinstead of letting thesailors stand about in sheltered placesand talkand keep themselvescomfortablethey are separated to different parts of the ship and kept at workpicking oakum. I have seen oakum stuff placed about in different parts of theshipso that the sailors might not be idle in the snatches between the frequentsqualls upon crossing the equator. Some officers have been so driven to findwork for the crew in a ship ready for seathat they have set them to poundingthe anchors (often done) and scraping the chain cables. The "PhiladelphiaCatechism" is-

"Six days shalt thou labor and do all thou art able

And on the seventh- holystone the decks and scrape the cable." -

This kind of workof courseis not kept up off Cape HornCape of GoodHopeand in extreme north and south latitudes; but I have seen the decks washeddown and scrubbedwhen the water would have frozen if it had been fresh; andall hands kept at work upon the riggingwhen we had on our pea-jacketsand ourhands so numb that we could hardly hold our marline-spikes.

I have here gone out of my narrative course in order that any who may readthis may form as correct an idea of a sailor's life and duty as possible. I havedone it in this place becausefor some timeour life was nothing but theunvarying repetition of these dutieswhich can be better described together.Before leaving this descriptionhoweverI would statein order to showlandsmen how little they know of the nature of a shipthat a ship-carpenter iskept in constant employ during good weather on board vessels which are inwhatis calledperfect sea order.


After speaking the Carolinaon the 21st Augustnothing occurred to breakthe monotony of our life until- -

FridaySeptember 5thwhen we saw a sail on our weather (starboard) beam.She proved to be a brig under English colorsand passing under our sternreported herself as forty-nine days from Buenos Ayresbound to Liverpool.Before she had passed ussail ho!" was cried againand we made anothersailfar on our weather bowand steering athwart our hawse. She passed out ofhailbut we made her out to be an hermaphrodite brigwith Brazilian colors inher main rigging. By her courseshe must have been bound from Brazil to thesouth of Europeprobably Portugal. -

SundaySeptember 7th. Fell in with the north-east trade-winds. This morningwe caught our first dolphinwhich I was very eager to see. I was disappointedin the colors of this fish when dying. They were certainly very beautifulbutnot equal to what had been said of them. They are too indistinct. To do the fishjusticethere is nothing more beautiful than the dolphin when swimming a fewfeet below the surfaceon a bright day. It is the most elegantly formedandalso the quickest fishin salt water; and the rays of the sun striking upon itin its rapid and changing motionsreflected from the watermake it look like astray beam from a rainbow.

This day was spent like all pleasant Sabbaths at sea. The decks are washeddownthe rigging coiled upand everything put in order; and throughout the dayonly one watch is kept on deck at a time. The men are all dressed in their bestwhite duck trowsersand red or checked shirtsand have nothing to do but tomake the necessary changes in the sails. They employ themselves in readingtalkingsmokingand mending their clothes. If the weather is pleasanttheybring their work and their books upon deckand sit down upon the forecastle andwindlass. This is the only day on which these privileges are allowed them. WhenMonday comesthey put on their tarry trowsers againand prepare for six daysof labor.

To enhance the value of the Sabbath to the crewthey are allowed on that daya puddingoras it is calleda "duff." This is nothing more thanflour boiled with waterand eaten with molasses. It is very heavydarkandclammyyet it is looked upon as a luxuryand really forms an agreeable varietywith salt beef and pork. Many a rascally captain has made friends of his crew byallowing them duff twice a week on the passage home.

On board some vessels this is made a day of instruction and of religiousexercises; but we had a crew of swearersfrom the captain to the smallest boy;and a day of rest and of something like quietsocial enjoymentwas all that wecould expect.

We continued running large before the north-east trade winds for severaldaysuntil Monday- -

September 22dwhenupon coming on deck at seven bells in the morningwefound the other watch aloftthrowing water upon the sails; and looking asternwe saw a small clipper-built brig with a black hull heading directly after us.We went to work immediatelyand put all the canvas upon the brig which we couldget upon herrigging out oars for studding-sail yards; and continued wettingdown the sails by buckets of water whipped up to the mast-headuntil about nineo'clockwhen there came on a drizzling rain. The vessel continued in pursuitchanging her course as we changed ours to keep before the wind. The captainwhowatched her with his glasssaid that she was armedand full of menand showedno colors. We continued running dead before the windknowing that we sailedbetter soand that clippers are fastest on the wind. We had also anotheradvantage. The wind was lightand we spread more canvas than she didhavingroyals and sky-sails fore and aftand ten studding-sails; while shebeing anhermaphrodite brighad only a gaff top-sailaft. Early in the morning she wasoverhauling us a littlebut after the rain came on and the wind grew lighterwe began to leave her astern. All hands remained on deck throughout the dayandwe got our arms in order; but we were too few to have done anything with herifshe had proved to be what we feared. Fortunately there was no moonand thenight which followed was exceedingly darkso that by putting out all the lightson board and altering our course four pointswe hoped to get out of her reach.We had no light in the binnaclebut steered by the starsand kept perfectsilence through the night. At daybreak there was no sign of anything in thehorizonand we kept the vessel off to her course. -

WednesdayOctober 1st. Crossed the equator in long. 24 deg. 24' W. I nowfor the first timefelt at libertyaccording to the old usageto call myselfa son of Neptuneand was very glad to be able to claim the title without thedisagreeable initiation which so many have to go through. After once crossingthe line you can never be subjected to the processbut are considered as a sonof Neptunewith full powers to play tricks upon others. This ancient custom isnow seldom allowedunless there are passengers on boardin which case there isalways a good deal of sport.

It had been obvious to all hands for some time that the second matewhosename was F---was an idlecareless fellowand not much of a sailorand thatthe captain was exceedingly dissatisfied with him. The power of the captain inthese cases was well knownand we all anticipated a difficulty. F--- (calledMr. by virtue of his office) was but half a sailorhaving always been shortvoyages and remained at home a long time between them. His father was a man ofsome propertyand intended to have given his son a liberal education; but hebeing idle and worthlesswas sent off to seaand succeeded no better there;forunlike many scampshe had none of the qualities of a sailor- he was"not of the stuff that they make 'lors of." He was one of that classof officers who are disliked by their captain and despised by the crew. He usedto hold long yarns with the crewand talk about the captainand play with theboysand relax discipline in every way. This kind of conduct always makes thecaptain suspiciousand is never pleasantin the endto the men; theypreferring to have an officer activevigilantand distant as may bewithkindness. Among other bad practiceshe frequently slept on his watchandhaving been discovered asleep by the captainhe was told that he would beturned off duty if he did it again. To prevent it in every way possible thehen-coops were ordered to be knocked upfor the captain never sat down on deckhimselfand never permitted an officer to do so.

The second night after crossing the equatorwe had the watch from eight tilltwelveand it was "my helm" for the last two hours. There had beenlight squalls through the nightand the captain told Mr. F---who commandedour watchto keep a bright lookout. Soon after I came to the helmI found thathe was quite drowsyand at last he stretched himself on the companion and wentfast asleep. Soon afterwardsthe captain came very quietly on deckand stoodby me for some time looking at the compass. The officer at length became awareof the captain's presencebut pretending not to know itbegan humming andwhistling to himselfto show that he was not asleepand went forwardwithoutlooking behind himand ordered the main royal to be loosed. On turning round tocome afthe pretended surprise at seeing the master on deck. This would not do.The captain was too "wide awake" for himand beginning upon him atoncegave him a grand blow-upin true nautical style- "You're a lazygood-for-nothing rascal; you're neither manboysogernor sailor! you're nomore than a thing aboard a vessel! you don't earn your salt; you're worse than aMahon soger!" and other still more choice extracts from the sailor'svocabulary. After the poor fellow had taken this haranguehe was sent into hisstateroomand the captain stood the rest of the watch himself.

At seven bells in the morningall hands were called aft and told that F---was no longer an officer on boardand that we might choose one of our ownnumber for second mate. It is usual for the captain to make this offerand itis very good policyfor the crew think themselves the choosers and areflattered by itbut have to obeynevertheless. Our crewas is usualrefusedto take the responsibility of choosing a man of whom we would never be able tocomplainand left it to the captain. He picked out an active and intelligentyoung sailorborn near the Kennebecwho had been several Canton voyagesandproclaimed him in the following manner: "I choose Jim Hall- he's yoursecond mate. All you've got to do is to obey him as you would me; and rememberthat he is Mr. Hall." F--- went forward into the forecastle as a commonsailorand lost the handle to his namewhile young foremast Jim became Mr.Halland took up his quarters in the land of knives and forks and tea-cups. -

SundayOctober 5th. It was our morning watch; whensoon after the day beganto breaka man on the forecastle called out"Land ho!" I had neverheard the cry beforeand did not know what it meant(and few would suspectwhat the words werewhen hearing the strange sound for the first time) but Isoon foundby the direction of all eyesthat there was land stretching alongon our weather beam. We immediately took in studding-sails and hauled our windrunning in for the land. This was done to determine our longitude; for by thecaptain's chronometer we were in 25 deg. W.but by his observations we weremuch fartherand he had been for some time in doubt whether it was hischronometer or his sextant which was out of order. This land-fall settled thematterand the former instrument was condemnedandbecoming still worsewasnever afterwards used.

As we ran in towards the coastwe found that we were directly off the portof Pernambucoand could see with the telescope the roofs of the housesand onelarge churchand the town of Olinda. We ran along by the mouth of the harborand saw a full-rigged brig going in. At twoP. M.we again kept off before thewindleaving the land on our quarterand at sun-downit was out of sight. Itwas here that I first saw one of those singular things called catamarans. Theyare composed of logs lashed together upon the water; have one large sailarequite fastandstrange as it may seemare trusted as good sea boats. We sawseveralwith from one to three men in eachboldly putting out to seaafter ithad become almost dark. The Indians go out in them after fishand as theweather is regular in certain seasonsthey have no fear. After taking a newdeparture from Olindawe kept off on our way to Cape Horn.

We met with nothing remarkable until we were in the latitude of the river LaPlata. Here there are violent gales from the southwestcalled Pamperoswhichare very destructive to the shipping in the riverand are felt for many leaguesat sea. They are usually preceded by lightning. The captain told the mates tokeep a bright lookoutand if they saw lightning at the south-westto take insail at once. We got the first touch of one during my watch on deck. I waswalking in the lee gangwayand thought that I saw lightning on the lee bow. Itold the second matewho came over and looked out for some time. It was veryblack in the south-westand in about ten minutes we saw a distinct flash. Thewindwhich had been south-easthad now left usand it was dead calm. Wesprang aloft immediately and furled the royals and top-gallant-sailsand tookin the flying jibhauled up the mainsail and trysailsquared the after yardsand awaited the attack. A huge mist capped with black clouds came drivingtowards usextending over that quarter of the horizonand covering the starswhich shone brightly in the other part of the heavens. It came upon us at oncewith a blastand a shower of hail and rainwhich almost took our breath fromus. The hardiest was obliged to turn his back. We let the halyards runandfortunately were not taken aback. The little vessel "paid off" fromthe windand ran for some time directly before ittearing through the waterwith everything flying. Having called all handswe closereefed the topsails andtrysailfurled the courses and jibset the fore-topmast staysailand broughther up nearly to her coursewith the weather braces hauled in a littleto easeher.

This was the first blowthat I had seenwhich could really be called agale. We had reefed our topsails in the Gulf Streamand I thought it somethingseriousbut an older sailor would have thought nothing of it. As I had nowbecome used to the vessel and to my dutyI was of some service on a yardandcould knot my reef-point as well as anybody. I obeyed the order to lay *001aloft with the restand found the reefing a very exciting scene; for one watchreefed the fore-topsailand the other the mainand every one did his utmost toget his topsail hoisted first. We had a great advantage over the larboard watchbecause the chief mate never goes aloftwhile our new second mate used to jumpinto the rigging as soon as we began to haul out the reef-tackleand have theweather earing passed before there was a man upon the yard. In this way we werealmost always able to raise the cry of "Haul out to leeward" beforethemand having knotted our pointswould slide down the shrouds andback-staysand sing out at the topsail halyards to let it be known that we wereahead of them. Reefing is the most exciting part of a sailor's duty. All handsare engaged upon itand after the halyards are let gothere is no time to belost- no "sogering" or hanging backthen. If one is not quickenoughanother runs over him. The first on the yard goes to the weather earingthe second to the leeand the next two to the "dog's ears;" while theothers lay along into the buntjust giving each other elbow-room. In reefingthe yard-arms (the extremes of the yards) are the posts of honor; but infurlingthe strongest and most experienced stand in the slings(ormiddle ofthe yard) to make up the bunt. If the second mate is a smart fellowhe willnever let any one take either of these posts from him; but if he is wantingeither in seamanshipstrengthor activitysome better man will get the buntand earings from him; which immediately brings him into disrepute.

We remained for the rest of the nightand throughout the next dayunder thesame close sailfor it continued to blow very fresh; and though we had no morehailyet there was a soaking rainand it was quite cold and uncomfortable; themore so because we were not prepared for cold weatherbut had on our thinclothes. We were glad to get a watch belowand put on our thick clothingbootsand south-westers. Towards sundown the gale moderated a little and itbegan to clear off in the south-west. We shook our reefs outone by oneandbefore midnight had top-gallant sails upon her.

We had now made up our minds for Cape Horn and cold weatherand entered uponevery necessary preparation. -

TuesdayNov. 4th. At day-break saw land upon our larboard quarter. Therewere two islandsof different size but of the same shape; rather highbeginning low at the water's edgeand running with a curved ascent to themiddle. They were so far off as to be of a deep blue colorand in a few hourswe sank them in the northeast. These were the Falkland Islands. We had runbetween them and the main land of Patagonia. At sunset the second matewho wasat the mast-headsaid that he saw land on the starboard bow. This must havebeen the island of Staten Land; and we were now in the region of Cape Hornwitha fine breeze from the northwardtop-mast and top-gallant studding-sails setand every prospect of a speedy and pleasant passage round.


WednesdayNov. 5th.- The weather was fine during the previous nightand wehad a clear view of the Magellan Cloudsand of the Southern Cross. The MagellanClouds consist of three small nebulae in the southern part of the heavens- twobrightlike the milky-wayand one dark. These are first seenjust above thehorizonsoon after crossing the southern tropic. When off Cape Hornthey arenearly over head. The cross is composed of four stars in that formand is saidto be the brightest constellation in the heavens.

During the first part of this day (Wednesday) the wind was lightbut afternoon it came on freshand we furled the royals. We still kept thestudding-sails outand the captain said he should go round with themif hecould. Just before eight o'clock (then about sundownin that latitude) the cryof "All hands ahoy!" was sounded down the fore scuttle and the afterhatchwayand hurrying upon deckwe found a large black cloud rolling on towardus from the south-westand blackening the whole heavens. "Here comes CapeHorn!" said the chief mate; and we had hardly time to haul down and clewupbefore it was upon us. In a few momentsa heavier sea was raised than I hadever seen beforeand as it was directly aheadthe little brigwhich was nobetter than a bathing machineplunged into itand all the forward part of herwas under water; the sea pouring in through the bow-ports and hawse-hole andover the knightheadsthreatening to wash everything overboard. In the leescuppers it was up to a man's waist. We sprang aloft and double reefed thetopsailsand furled all the other sailsand made all snug. But this would notdo; the brig was laboring and straining against the head seaand the gale wasgrowing worse and worse. At the same time sleet and hail were driving with allfury against us. We clewed downand hauled out the reef-tackles againandclose-reefed the fore-topsailand furled the mainand hove her to on thestarboard tack. Here was an end to our fine prospects. We made up our minds tohead winds and cold weather; sent down the royal yardsand unrove the gear; butall the rest of the top hamper remained alofteven to the sky-sail masts andstudding-sail booms.

Throughout the night it stormed violently- rainhailsnowand sleetbeating upon the vessel- the wind continuing aheadand the sea running high. Atday-break (about threeA.M.) the deck was covered with snow. The captain sentup the steward with a glass of grog to each of the watch; and all the time thatwe were off the Capegrog was given to the morning watchand to all handswhenever we reefed topsails. The clouds cleared away at sunriseand the windbecoming more fairwe again made sail and stood nearly up to our course. -

ThursdayNov. 6th. It continued more pleasant through the first part of thedaybut at night we had the same scene over again. This timewe did not heavetoas on the night beforebut endeavored to beat to windward underclose-reefed topsailsbalance-reefed trysailand fore-topmast staysail. Thisnight it was my turn to steeroras the sailors saymy trick at the helmfortwo hours. Inexperienced as I wasI made out to steer to the satisfaction ofthe officerand neither S--- nor myself gave up our tricksall the time thatwe were off the Cape. This was something to boast offor it requires a gooddeal of skill and watchfulness to steer a vessel close hauledin a gale ofwindagainst a heavy head sea. "Ease her when she pitches" is theword; and a little carelessness in letting her ship a heavy seamight sweep thedecksor knock the masts out of her. -

FridayNov. 7th. Towards morning the wind went downand during the wholeforenoon we lay tossing about in a dead calmand in the midst of a thick fog.The calms here are unlike those in most parts of the worldfor there is alwaysa high sea runningand the periods of calm are so shortthat it has no time togo down; and vesselsbeing under no command of sails or rudderlie like logsupon the water. We were obliged to steady the booms and yards by guys andbracesand to lash everything well below. We now found our top hamper of someusefor though it is liable to be carried away or sprung by the sudden"bringing up" of a vessel when pitching in a chopping seayet it is agreat help in steadying a vessel when rolling in a long swell; giving moreslownesseaseand regularity to the motion.

The calm of the morning reminds me of a scene which I forgot to describe atthe time of its occurrencebut which I remember from its being the first timethat I had heard the near breathing of whales. It was on the night that wepassed between the Falkland Islands and Staten Land. We had the watch fromtwelve to fourand coming upon deckfound the little brig lying perfectlystillsurrounded by a thick fogand the sea as smooth as though oil had beenpoured upon it; yet now and then a longlow swell rolling under its surfaceslightly lifting the vesselbut without breaking the glassy smoothness of thewater. We were surrounded far and near by shoals of sluggish whales andgrampuseswhich the fog prevented our seeingrising slowly to the surfaceorperhaps lying out at lengthheaving out those peculiar lazydeepandlong-drawn breathings which give such an impression of supineness and strength.Some of the watch were asleepand the others were perfectly stillso thatthere was nothing to break the illusionand I stood leaning over the bulwarkslistening to the slow breathings of the mighty creatures- now one breaking thewater just alongsidewhose black body I almost fancied that I could see throughthe fog; and again anotherwhich I could just hear in the distance- until thelow and regular swell seemed like the heaving of the ocean's mighty bosom to thesound of its heavy and long-drawn respirations.

Towards the evening of this day(Friday7th) the fog cleared offand wehad every appearance of a cold blow; and soon after sundown it came on. Again itwas a clew up and haul downreef and furluntil we had got her down toclose-reefed topsoilsdoublereefed trysailand reefed forespenser. Snowhailand sleet were driving upon us most of the nightand the sea breaking over thebows and covering the forward part of the little vessel; but as she would layher course the captain refused to heave her to. -

SaturdayNov. 8th. This day commenced with calm and thick fogand endedwith hailsnowa violent windand close-reefed topsails. -

SundayNov. 9th. To-day the sun rose clearand continued so until twelveo'clockwhen the captain got an observation. This was very well for Cape Hornand we thought it a little remarkable thatas we had not had one unpleasantSunday during the whole voyagethe only tolerable day here should be a Sunday.We got time to clear up the steerage and forecastleand set things to rightsand to overhaul our wet clothes a little. But this did not last very long.Between five and six- the sun was then nearly three hours high- the cry of"All starbowlines ahoy!" summoned our watch on deck; and immediatelyall hands were called. A true specimen of Cape Horn was coming upon us. A greatcloud of a dark slate color was driving on us from the south-west; and we didour best to take in sail ( for the light sails had been set during the firstpart of the day) before we were in the midst of it. We had got the light sailsfurledthe courses hauled upand the topsail reef-tackles hauled outand werejust mounting the fore-riggingwhen the storm struck us. In an instant the seawhich had been comparatively quietwas running higher and higher; and it becamealmost as dark as night. The hail and sleet were harder than I had yet feltthem; seeming almost to pin us down to the rigging. We were longer taking insail than ever before; for the sails were stiff and wetthe ropes and riggingcovered with snow and sleetand we ourselves cold and nearly blinded with theviolence of the storm. By the time we had got down upon deck againthe littlebrig was plunging madly into a tremendous head seawhich at every drive rushedin through the bow-ports and over the bowsand buried all the forward part ofthe vessel. At this instant the chief matewho was standing on the top of thewindlassat the foot of the spenser mastcalled out"Lay out there andfurl the jib!" This was no agreeable or safe dutyyet it must be done. Anold Swede(the best sailor on board) who belonged on the forecastlesprangout upon the bowsprit. Another one must go: I was near the mateand sprangforwardthrew the downhaul over the windlassand jumped between theknight-heads out upon the bowsprit. The crew stood abaft the windlass and hauledthe jib down while we got out upon the weather side of the jib-boomour feet onthe foot-ropesholding on by the sparthe great jib flying off to leeward andslatting so as almost to throw us off of the boom. For some time we could donothing but hold onand the vessel diving into two huge seasone after theotherplunged us twice into the water up to our chins. We hardly knew whetherwe were on or off; when coming updripping from the waterwe were raised highinto the air. John (that was the sailor's name) thought the boom would goeverymomentand called out to the mate to keep the vessel offand haul down thestay-sail; but the fury of the wind and the breaking of the seas against thebows defied every attempt to make ourselves heardand we were obliged to do thebest we could in our situation. Fortunatelyno other seas so heavy struck herand we succeeded in furling the jib "after a fashion;" andcoming inover the staysail nettingswere not a little pleased to find that all was snugand the watch gone below; for we were soaked throughand it was very cold. Theweather continued nearly the same through the night. -

MondayNov. 10th. During a part of this day we were hove tobut the rest ofthe time were driving onunder close-reefed sailswith a heavy seaa stronggaleand frequent squalls of hail and snow. -

TuesdayNov. 11th. The same. -

Wednesday. The same. -

Thursday. The same. -

We had now got hardened to Cape weatherthe vessel was under reduced sailand everything secured on deck and belowso that we had little to do but tosteer and to stand our watch. Our clothes were all wet throughand the onlychange was from wet to more wet. It was in vain to think of reading or workingbelowfor we were too tiredthe hatchways were closed downand everything waswet and uncomfortableblack and dirtyheaving and pitching. We had only tocome below when the watch was outwring out our wet clotheshang them upandturn in and sleep as soundly as we coulduntil the watch was called again. Asailor can sleep anywhere- no sound of windwaterwood or iron can keep himawake- and we were always fast asleep when three blows on the hatchwayand theunwelcome cry of "All starbowlines ahoy! Eight bells there below' do youhear the news?" (the usual formula of calling the watch) roused us up fromour berths upon the coldwet decks. The only time when we could be said to takeany pleasure was at night and morningwhen we were allowed a tin pot full ofhot tea(oras the sailors significantly call it "water bewitched")sweetened with molasses. Thisbad as it waswas still warm and comfortingandtogether with our sea biscuit and cold salt beefmade quite a meal. Yeteven this meal was attended with some uncertainty. We had to go ourselves to thegalley and take our kid of beef and tin pots of teaand run the risk of losingthem before we could get below. Many a kid of beef have I seen rolling in thescuppersand the bearer lying at his length on the decks. I remember an Englishlad who was always the life of the crewbut whom we afterwards lost overboardstanding for nearly ten minutes at the galleywith his pot of tea in his handwaiting for a chance to get down into the forecastle; and seeing what he thoughtwas a "smooth spell" started to go forward. He had just got to theend of the windlasswhen a great sea broke over the bowsand for a moment Isaw nothing of him but his head and shoulders; and at the next instantbeingtaken off his legshe was carried aft with the seauntil her stern lifting upand sending the water forwardhe was left high and dry at the side of thelong-boatstill holding on to his tin potwhich had now nothing in it but saltwater. But nothing could ever daunt himor overcomefor a momenthis habitualgood humor. Regaining his legsand shaking his fist at the man at the wheelherolled belowsayingas he passed"A man's no sailorif he can't take ajoke." The ducking was not the worst of such an affairforas there wasan allowance of teayou could get no more from the galley; and though thesailors would never suffer a man to go withoutbut would always turn in alittle from their own pots to fill up hisyet this was at best but dividing theloss among all hands.

Something of the same kind befell me a few days after. The cook had just madefor us a mess of hot "scouse"- that isbiscuit pounded finesaltbeef cut into small piecesand a few potatoesboiled up together and seasonedwith pepper. This was a rare treatand Ibeing the last at the galleyhad itput in my charge to carry down for the mess. I got along very well as far as thehatchwayand was just getting down the stepswhen a heavy sealifting thestern out of waterand passing forwarddropping it down againthrew the stepsfrom their placeand I came down into the steerage a little faster than I meanttowith the kid on top of meand the whole precious mess scattered over thefloor. Whatever your feelings may beyou must make a joke of everything at sea;and if you were to fall from aloft and be caught in the belly of a sailandthus saved from instant deathit would not do to look at all disturbedor tomake a serious matter of it. -

FridayNov. 14th. We were now well to the westward of the Capeand werechanging our course to the northward as much as we daredsince the strongsouth-west windswhich prevailed thencarried us in towards Patagonia. At twoP. M.we saw a sail on our larboard beamand at four we made it out to be alarge ship steering our courseunder single-reefed topsails. We at that timehad shaken the reefs out of our topsailsas the wind was lighterand set themain top-gallant sail. As soon as our captain saw what sail she was underheset the fore top-gallant sail and flying jib; and the old whaler- for suchhisboats and short sail showed him to be- felt a little ashamedand shook thereefs out of his topsoilsbut could do no morefor he had sent down histop-gallant masts off the Cape. He ran down for usand answered our hail as thewhale-shipNew Englandof Poughkeepsieone hundred and twenty days from NewYork. Our captain gave our nameand added ninety-two days from Boston. Theythen had a little conversation about longitudein which they found that theycould not agree. The ship fell asternand continued in sight during the night.Toward morningthe wind having become lightwe crossed our royal and skysailyardsand at daylightwe were seen under a cloud of sailhaving royals andskysails fore and aft. The "spouter" as the sailors call a whalemanhad sent out his main top-gallant mast and set the sailand made signal for usto heave to. About half-past seven their whale-boat came alongsideand CaptainJob Terry sprang on boarda man known in every port and by every vessel in thePacific ocean. "Don't you know Job Terry? I thought everybody knew JobTerry" said a green-handwho came in the boatto mewhen I asked himabout his captain. He was indeed a singular man. He was six feet highworethick cowhide bootsand brown coat and trowsersandexcept a sun-burntcomplexionhad not the slightest appearance of a sailor; yet he had been fortyyears in the whale tradeandas he said himselfhad owned shipsbuilt shipsand sailed ships. His boat's crew were a pretty raw setjust set out of thebushandas the sailor's phrase is"hadn't got the hayseed out of theirhair." Captain Terry convinced our captain that our reckoning was a littleoutandhaving spent the day on boardput off in his boat at sunset for hisshipwhich was now six or eight miles astern. He began a "yarn" whenhe came aboardwhich lastedwith but little intermissionfor four hours. Itwas all about himselfand the Peruvian governmentand the Dublin frigateandLord James Townshendand President Jacksonand the ship Ann M'Kim ofBaltimore. It would probably never have come to an endhad not a good breezesprung upwhich sent him off to his own vessel. One of the lads who came in hisboata thoroughly countrified-looking fellowseemed to care very little aboutthe vesselriggingor anything elsebut went round looking at the live stockand leaned over the pig-styand said he wished he was back again tending hisfather's pigs.

At eight o'clock we altered our course to the northwardbound for JuanFernandez.

This day we saw the last of the albatrosseswhich had been our companions agreat part of the time off the Cape. I had been interested in the bird fromdescriptions which I had read of itand was not at all disappointed. We caughtone or two with a baited hook which we floated astern upon a shingle. Theirlongflapping wingslong legsand large staring eyesgive them a verypeculiar appearance. They look well on the wing; but one of the finest sightsthat I have ever seenwas an albatross asleep upon the waterduring a calmoff Cape Hornwhen a heavy sea was running. There being no breezethe surfaceof the water was unbrokenbut a longheavy swell was rollingand we saw thefellowall whitedirectly ahead of usasleep upon the waveswith his headunder his wing; now rising on the top of a huge billowand then falling slowlyuntil he was lost in the hollow between. He was undisturbed for some timeuntilthe noise of our bowsgradually approachingroused himwhenlifting hisheadhe stared upon us for a momentand then spread his wide wings and tookhis flight.


MondayNov. 19th. This was a black day in our calendar. At seven o'clock inthe morningit being our watch belowwe were aroused from a sound sleep by thecry of "All hands ahoy! a man overboard!" This unwonted cry sent athrill through the heart of every oneand hurrying on deckwe found the vesselhove flat abackwith all her studding-sails set; for the boy who was at thehelm left it to throw something overboardand the carpenterwho was an oldsailorknowing that the wind was lightput the helm down and hove her aback.The watch on deck were lowering away the quarter-boatand I got on deck just intime to heave myself into her as she was leaving the side; but it was not untilout upon the wide Pacificin our little boatthat I knew whom we had lost. Itwas George Ballmera young English sailorwho was prized by the officers as anactive and willing seamanand by the crew as a livelyhearty fellowand agood shipmate. He was going aloft to fit a strap round the main top-mastheadfor ringtail halyardsand had the strap and blocka coil of halyardsand amarline-spike about his neck. He fell from the starboard futtock shroudsandnot knowing how to swimand being heavily dressedwith all those things roundhis neckhe probably sank immediately. We pulled asternin the direction inwhich he felland though we knew that there was no hope of saving himyet noone wished to speak of returningand we rowed about for nearly an hourwithoutthe hope of doing anythingbut unwilling to acknowledge to ourselves that wemust give him up. At length we turned the boat's head and made towards thevessel.

Death is at all times solemnbut never so much so as at sea. A man dies onshore; his body remains with his friendsand "the mourners go about thestreets;" but when a man falls overboard at sea and is lostthere is asuddenness in the eventand a difficulty in realizing itwhich give to it anair of awful mystery. A man dies on shore- you follow his body to the graveanda stone marks the spot. You are often prepared for the event. There is alwayssomething which helps you to realize it when it happensand to recall it whenit has passed. A man is shot down by your side in battleand the mangled bodyremains an objectand a real evidence; but at seathe man is near you- at yourside- you hear his voiceand in an instant he is goneand nothing but avacancy shows his loss. Thentooat sea- to use a homely but expressivephrase- you miss a man so much. A dozen men are shut up together in a littlebarkupon the widewide seaand for months and months see no forms and hearno voices but their own and one is taken suddenly from among themand they misshim at every turn. It is like losing a limb. There are no new faces or newscenes to fill up the gap. There is always an empty berth in the forecastleandone man wanting when the small night watch is mustered. There is one less totake the wheel and one less to lay out with you upon the yard. You miss hisformand the

sound of his voicefor habit had made them almost necessary to youand eachof your senses feels the loss.

All these things make such a death peculiarly solemnand the effect of itremains upon the crew for some time. There is more kindness shown by theofficers to the crewand by the crew to one another. There is more quietnessand seriousness. The oath and the loud laugh are gone. The officers are morewatchfuland the crew go more carefully aloft. The lost man is seldommentionedor is dismissed with a sailor's rude eulogy- "Wellpoor Georgeis gone! His cruise is up soon! He knew his workand did his dutyand was agood shipmate." Then usually follows some allusion to another worldforsailors are almost all believers; but their notions and opinions are unfixed andat loose ends. They says- "God won't be hard upon the poor fellow"and seldom get beyond the common phrase which seems to imply that theirsufferings and hard treatment here will excuse them hereafter- "To workhardlive harddie hardand go to hell after allwould be hard indeed!"Our cooka simple-hearted old Africanwho had been through a good deal in hisdayand was rather seriously inclinedalways going to church twice a day whenon shoreand reading his Bible on a Sunday in the galleytalked to the crewabout spending their Sabbaths badlyand told them that they might go assuddenly as George hadand be as little prepared.

Yet a sailor's life is at best but a mixture of a little good with much eviland a little pleasure with much pain. The beautiful is linked with therevoltingthe sublime with the commonplaceand the solemn with the ludicrous.

We had hardly returned on board with our sad reportbefore an auction washeld of the poor man's clothes. The captain had firsthowevercalled all handsaft and asked them if they were satisfied that everything had been done to savethe manand if they thought there was any use in remaining there longer. Thecrew all said that it was in vainfor the man did not know how to swimand wasvery heavily dressed. So we then filed away and kept her off to her course.

The laws regulating navigation make the captain answerable for the effects ofa sailor who dies during the voyageand it is either a law or a universalcustomestablished for conveniencethat the captain should immediately hold anauction of his thingsin which they are bid off by the sailorsand the sumswhich they give are deducted from their wages at the end of the voyage. In thisway the trouble and risk of keeping his things through the voyage are avoidedand the clothes are usually sold for more than they would be worth on shore.Accordinglywe had no sooner got the ship before the windthan his chest wasbrought up upon the forecastleand the sale began. The jackets and trowsers inwhich we had seen him dressed but a few days beforewere exposed and bid offwhile the life was hardly out of his bodyand his chest was taken aft and usedas a store-chestso that there was nothing left which could be called his.Sailors have an unwillingness to wear a dead man's clothes during the samevoyageand they seldom do so unless they are in absolute want.

As is usual after a deathmany stories were told about George. Some hadheard him say that he repented never having learned to swimand that he knewthat he should meet his death by drowning. Another said that he never knew anygood to come of a voyage made against the willand the deceased man shipped andspent his advanceand was afterwards very unwilling to gobut not being ableto refundwas obliged to sail with us. A boytoowho had become quiteattached to himsaid that George talked to him during most of the watch on thenight before about his mother and family at homeand this was the first timethat he had mentioned the subject during the voyage.

The night after this eventwhen I went to the galley to get a lightI foundthe cook inclined to be talkativeso I sat down on the sparsand gave him anopportunity to hold a yarn. I was the more inclined to do soas I found that hewas full of the superstitions once more common among seamenand which therecent death had waked up in his mind. He talked about George's having spoken ofhis friendsand said he believed few men died without having a warning of itwhich he supported by a great many stories of dreamsand the unusual behaviorof men before death. From this he went on to other superstitionsthe FlyingDutchmanetc.and talked rather mysteriouslyhaving something evidently onhis mind. At length he put his head out of the galley and looked carefully aboutto see if any one was within hearingand being satisfied on that pointaskedme in a low tone-

"I say! you know what countryman 'e carpenter be?"

"Yes" said I"he's a German."

"What kind of a German?" said the cook.

"He belongs to Bremen" said I.

"Are you sure o' dat?" said he.

I satisfied him on that point by saying that he could speak no language butthe German and English.

"I'm plaguy glad o' dat" said the cook. "I was mighty 'fraidhe was a Fin. I tell you whatI been plaguy civil to that man all the voyage.

I asked him the reason of thisand found that he was fully possessed withthe notion that Fins are wizardsand especially have power over winds andstorms. I tried to reason with him about itbut he had the best of allargumentsthat from experienceat handand was not to be moved. He had beenin a vessel to the Sandwich Islandsin which the sail-maker was a Finandcould do anything he was of a mind to. This sail-maker kept a junk bottle in hisberthwhich was always just half full of rumthough he got drunk upon itnearly every day. He had seen him sit for hours togethertalking to thisbottlewhich he stood up before him on the table. The same man cut his throatin his berthand everybody said he was possessed.

He had heard of shipstoobeating up the gulf of Finland against a headwind and having a ship heave in sight asternoverhaul and pass themwith asfair a wind as could blowand all studding-sails outand find she was fromFinland.

"Ohno!" said he; "I've seen too much of them men to want tosee 'board a ship. If they can't have their own waythey'll play the d--l withyou."

As I still doubtedhe said he would leave it to Johnwho was the oldestseaman aboardand would knowif anybody did. Johnto be surewas the oldestand at the same time the most ignorantman in the ship; but I consented to havehim called. The cook stated the matter to himand Johnas I anticipatedsidedwith the cookand said that he himself had been in a ship where they had a headwind for a fortnightand the captain found out at last that one of the menwhom he had had some hard words with a short time beforewas a Finandimmediately told him if he didn't stop the head wind he would shut him down inthe fore peak. The Fin would not give inand the captain shut him down in thefore peakand would not give him anything to eat. The Fin held out for a dayand a halfwhen he could not stand it any longerand did something or otherwhich brought the wind round againand they let him up.

"There" said the cook"what you think o' dat?"

I told him I had no doubt it was trueand that it would have been odd if thewind had not changed in fifteen daysFin or no Fin.

"Oh" says he"go 'way! You think'cause you been tocollegeyou know better than anybody. You know better than them as has seen itwith their own eyes. You wait till you've been to sea as long as I

haveand you'll know."


We continued sailing along with a fair wind and fine weather until- -

TuesdayNov. 25thwhen at daylight we saw the island of Juan Fernandezdirectly aheadrising like a deep blue cloud out of the sea. We were thenprobably nearly seventy miles from it; and so high and so blue did it appearthat I mistook it for a cloudresting over the islandand looked for theisland under ituntil it gradually turned to a deader and greener colorand Icould mark the inequalities upon its surface. At length we could distinguishtrees and rocks; and by the afternoonthis beautiful island lay fairly beforeusand we directed our course to the only harbor. Arriving at the entrance soonafter sun-downwe found a Chilian man-of-war brigthe only vesselcoming out.She hailed usand an officer on boardwhom we supposed to be an Americanadvised us to run in before nightand said that they were bound to Valparaiso.We ran immediately for the anchoragebutowing to the winds which drew aboutthe mountains and came to us in flaws from every point of the compasswe didnot come to an anchor until nearly midnight. We had a boat ahead all the timethat we were working inand those aboard were continually bracing the yardsabout for every puff that struck usuntil about 12 o'clockwhen we came-to in40 fathoms waterand our anchor struck bottom for the first time since we leftBoston- one hundred and three days. We were then divided into three watchesandthus stood out the remainder of the night.

I was called on deck to stand my watch at about three in the morningand Ishall never forget the peculiar sensation which I experienced on finding myselfonce more surrounded by landfeeling the night breeze coming from off shoreand hearing the frogs and crickets. The mountains seemed almost to hang over usand apparently from the very heart of them there came outat regular intervalsa loud echoing soundwhich affected me as hardly human. We saw no lightsandcould hardly account for the sounduntil the matewho had been there beforetold us that it was the "Alerta" of the Chilian who were soldierswhowere stationed over some convicts confined in caves nearly half way up themountain. At the expiration of my watch I went belowfeeling not a littleanxious for the daythat I might see more nearlyand perhaps tread uponthisromanticI may almost sayclassic island.

When all hands were called it was nearly sunriseand between that time andbreakfastalthough quite busy on board in getting up water-casksetc.I had agood view of the objects about me. The harbor was nearly landlockedand at thehead of it was a landing placeprotected by a small breakwater of stonesuponwhich two large boats were hauled upwith a sentry standing over them. Nearthis was a variety of huts or cottagesnearly an hundred in numberthe best ofthem built of mud and whitewashedbut the greater part only Robinson Crusoelike- of posts and branches of trees. The governor's houseas it is calledwasthe most conspicuousbeing largewith grated windowsplastered wallsandroof of red tiles; yetlike all the restonly of one story. Near it was asmall chapeldistinguished by a cross; and a longlow brown-looking buildingsurrounded by something like a palisadefrom which an old and dingy-lookingChilian flag was flying. Thisof coursewas dignified by the title ofPresidio. A sentinel was stationed at the chapelanother at the governor'shouseand a few soldiers armed with bayonetslooking rather raggedwith shoesout at the toeswere strolling about among the housesor waiting at thelanding place for our boat to come ashore.

The mountains were highbut not so overhanging as they appeared to be bystarlight. They seemed to bear off towards the centre of the islandand weregreen and well woodedwith some largeandI am toldexceedingly fertilevalleyswith mule-tracks leading to different parts of the island.

I cannot here forget how my friend S--- and myself got the laugh of the crewupon us by our eagerness to get on shore. The captain having ordered thequarter-boat to be loweredwe both sprang down into the forecastlefilled ourjacket pockets with tobacco to barter with the people ashoreand when theofficer called for "four hands in the boat" nearly broke our necks inour haste to be first over the sideand had the pleasure of pulling ahead ofthe brig with a tow-line for a half an hourand coming on board again to belaughed at by the crewwho had seen our manoeuvre.

After breakfast the second mate was ordered ashore with five hands to fillthe water-casksand to my joy I was among the number. We pulled ashore with theempty casks; and here again fortune favored mefor the water was too thick andmuddy to be put into the casksand the governor had sent men up to the head ofthe stream to clear it out for uswhich gave us nearly two hours of leisure.This leisure we employed in wandering about among the housesand eating alittle fruit which was offered to us. Ground applesmelonsgrapesstrawberries of an enormous sizeand cherriesabound here. The latter are saidto have been planted by Lord Anson. The soldiers were miserably cladand askedwith some interest whether we had shoes to sell on board. I doubt very much ifthey had the means of buying them. They were very eager to get tobaccoforwhich they gave shellsfruitetc. Knives also were in demandbut we wereforbidden by the governor to let any one have themas he told us that all thepeople thereexcept the soldiers and a few officerswere convicts sent fromValparaisoand that it was necessary to keep all weapons from their hands. Theislandit seemsbelongs to Chiliand had been used by the government as asort of Botany Bay for nearly two years; and the governor- an Englishman who hadentered the Chilian navy- with a priesthalf a dozen task-mastersand a bodyof soldierswere stationed there to keep them in order. This was no easy task;and only a few months before our arrivala few of them had stolen a boat atnightboarded a brig lying in the harborsent the captain and crew ashore intheir boatand gone off to sea. We were informed of thisand loaded our armsand kept strict watch on board through the nightand were careful not to letthe convicts get our knives from us when on shore. The worst part of theconvictsI foundwere locked up under sentry in caves dug into the side of themountainnearly half way upwith mule-tracks leading to themwhence they weretaken by day and set to work under task-masters upon building an aqueductawharfand other public works; while the rest lived in the houses which they putup for themselveshad their families with themand seemed to me to be thelaziest people on the face of the earth. They did nothing but take a paseo intothe woodsa paseo among the housesa the housesa paseo at the landing-placelooking at us and our vesseland too lazy to speak fast; while the others weredriving- or ratherdriven- aboutat a rapid trotin single filewith burdenson their shouldersand followed up by their task-masterswith long rods intheir handsand broad-brimmed straw hats upon their heads. Upon what precisegrounds this great distinction was madeI do not knowand I could not verywell knowfor the governor was the only man who spoke English upon the islandand he was out of my walk.

Having filled our caskswe returned on boardand soon afterthe governordressed in a uniform like that of an American militia officerthe Padrein thedress of the grey friarswith hood and all completeand the Capitanwith bigwhiskers and dirty regimentalscame on board to dine. While at dinnera largeship appeared in the offingand soon afterwards we saw a light whale-boatpulling into the harbor. The ship lay off and onand a boat came alongside ofusand put on board the captaina plain young Quakerdressed all in brown.The ship was the Corteswhalemanof New Bedfordand had put in to see ifthere were any vessels from round the Hornand to hear the latest news fromAmerica. They remained aboard a short time and had a little talk with the crewwhen they left us and pulled off to their shipwhichhaving filled awaywassoon out of sight.

A small boat which came from the shore to take away the governor and suite-as they styled themselves- broughtas a present to the crewa large pail ofmilka few shellsand a block of sandal wood. The milkwhich was the first wehad tasted since leaving Bostonwe soon despatched; a piece of the sandal woodI obtainedand learned that it grew on the hills in the centre of the island. Ihave always regretted that I did not bring away other specimens of the productsof the islandhaving afterwards lost all that I had with me- the piece ofsandal woodand a small flower which I plucked and brought on board in thecrown of my tarpaulinand carefully pressed between the leaves of a book.

About an hour before sun-downhaving stowed our water-caskswe commencedgetting under weighand were not a little while about it; for we were in thirtyfathoms waterand in one of the gusts which came from off shore had let go ourother bow anchor; and as the southerly wind draws round the mountains and comesoff in uncertain flawswe were continually swinging roundand had thus got avery foul hawse. We hove in upon our chainand after stoppering and unshacklingit again and againand hoisting and hauling down sailwe at length tipped ouranchor and stood out to sea. It was bright starlight when we were clear of thebayand the lofty island lay behind usin its still beautyand I gave aparting lookand bid farewellto the most romantic spot of earth that my eyeshad ever seen. I did thenand have ever sincefelt an attachment for thatislandaltogether peculiar. It was partlyno doubtfrom its having been thefirst land that I had seen since leaving homeand still more from theassociations which every one has connected with it in their childhood fromreading Robinson Crusoe. To this I may add the height and romantic outlines ofits mountainsthe beauty and freshness of its verdureand the extremefertility of its soiland its solitary position in the midst of the wideexpanse of the South Pacificas all concurring to give it its peculiar charm.

When thoughts of this place have occurred to me at different timesI haveendeavored to recall more particulars with regard to it. It is situated in about33 deg. 30' S.and is distant a little more than three hundred miles fromValparaisoon the coast of Chiliwhich is in the same latitude. It is aboutfifteen miles in length and five in breadth. The harbor in which we anchored(called by Lord AnsonCumberland bay) is the only one in the island; two smallhights of land on each side of the main bay (sometimes dignified by the name ofbays) being little more than landing-places for boats. The best anchorage is atthe western side of the baywhere we lay at about three cables' lengths fromthe shorein a little more than thirty fathoms water. This harbor is open tothe N. N. E.and in fact nearly from N. to E.but the only dangerous windsbeing the south-weston which side are the highest mountainsit is consideredvery safe. The most remarkable thing perhaps about it is the fish with which itabounds. Two of our crewwho remained on boardcaught in a few minutes enoughto last us for several daysand one of the menwho was a Marblehead mansaidthat he never saw or heard of such an abundance. There were codbreamssilverfishand other kinds whose names thev did not knowor which I haveforgotten.

There is an abundance of the best of water upon the islandsmall streamsrunning through every valleyand leaping down from the sides of the hills. Onestream of considerable size flows through the centre of the lawn upon which thehouses are builtand furnishes an easy and abundant supply to the inhabitants.Thisby means of a short wooden aqueductwas brought quite down to our boats.The convicts had also built something in the way of a breakwaterand were tobuild a landing-place for boats and goodsafter which the Chilian governmentintended to lay port charges.

Of the wood I can only saythat it appeared to be abundant; the island inthe month of Novemberwhen we were therebeing in all the freshness and beautyof springappeared covered with trees. These were chiefly aromaticand thelargest was the myrtle. The soil is very loose and richand wherever it isbroken upthere spring up presently radishesturnipsground applesand othergarden fruits. Goatswe were toldwere not abundantand we saw nonethoughit was said we might if we had gone into the interior. We saw a few bullockswinding about in the narrow tracks upon the sides of the mountainsand thesettlement was completely overrun with dogs of every nationkindredanddegree. Hens and chickens were also abundantand seemed to be taken good careof by the women. The men appeared to be the laziest people upon the face of theearth; and indeedas far as my observation goesthere are no people to whomthe newly invented Yankee word of "loafer" is more applicable than tothe Spanish Americans. These men stood about doing nothingwith their cloakslittle better in texture than an Indian's blanketbut of rich colorsthrownover their shoulders with an air which it is said that a Spanish beggar canalways give to his rags; and with great politeness and courtesy in theiraddressthough with holes in their shoes and without a sou in their pockets.The only interruption to the monotony of their day seemed to be when a gust ofwind drew round between the mountains and blew off the boughs which they hadplaced for roofs to their housesand gave them a few minutes' occupation inrunning about after them. One of these gusts occurred while we were ashoreandafforded us no little amusement at seeing the men look roundand if they foundthat their roofs had stoodconclude that they might stand toowhile those whosaw theirs blown offafter uttering a few Spanish oathsgathered their cloaksover their shouldersand started off after them. Howeverthey were not gonelongbut soon returned to their habitual occupation of doing nothing.

It is perhaps needless to say that we saw nothing of the interior; but allwho have seen itgive very glowing accounts of it. Our captain went with thegovernor and a few servants upon mules over the mountainsand upon theirreturnI heard the governor request him to stop at the island on his passagehomeand offer him a handsome sum to bring a few deer with him from Californiafor he said that there were none upon the islandand he was very desirous ofhaving it stocked.

A steadythough light south-westerly wind carried us well off from theislandand when I came on deck for the middle watch I could just distinguish itfrom its hiding a few low stars in the southern horizonthough my unpractisedeye would hardly have known it for land. At the close of the watch a fewtrade-wind clouds which had arisenthough we were hardly yet in their latitudeshut it out from our viewand the next day-

ThursdayNov. 27thupon coming on deck in the morningwe were again uponthe wide Pacificand saw no more land until we arrived upon the western coastof the great continent of America.


As we saw neither land nor sail from the time of leaving Juan Fernandez untilour arrival in Californianothing of interest occurred except our own doings onboard. We caught the south-east tradesand ran before them for nearly threeweekswithout so much as altering a sail or bracing a yard. The captain tookadvantage of this fine weather to get the vessel in order for coming upon thecoast. The carpenter was employed in fitting up a part of the steerage into atrade-room; for our cargowe now learnedwas not to be landedbut to be soldby retail from on board; and this trade-room was built for the samples and thelighter goods to be kept inand as a place for the general business. In themean time we were employed in working upon the rigging. Everything was set uptautthe lower rigging rattled downor rather rattled up(according to themodern fashion) an abundance of spun-yarn and seizing-stuff madeand finallythe whole standing riggingfore and aftwas tarred down. This was my firstessay at this latter businessand I had enough of it; for nearly all of it cameupon my friend S--- and myself. The men were needed at the other workand M---the other young man who came out with uswas laid up with the rheumatism in hisfeetand the boy Sam was rather too young and small for the business; and asthe winds were light and regularhe was kept during most of the daytime at thehelm; so that nearly all the tarring came upon us. We put on short duck frocksand taking a small bucket of tar and a bunch of oakum in our handswent aloftone at the main royal-masthead and the other at the foreand began tarringdown. This is an important operationand is usually done about once in sixmonths in vessels upon a long voyage. It was done in our vessel several timesafterwardsbut by the whole crew at onceand finished off in a day; but atthis timeas most of it came upon two of usand we were new at the businessit took us several days. In this operation they always begin at the mast-headand work downtarring the shroudsback-staysstanding parts of the liftsthetiesrunnersetc.and go out to the yard-armsand come intarringas theycomethe lifts and footropes. Tarring the stays is more difficultand is doneby an operation which the sailors call "riding down." A long piece ofrope- topgallant-studding-sail halyardsor something of the kind- is taken upto the masthead from which the stay leadsand rove through a block for agirt-lineoras the sailors usually call ita gant-line; with the end of thisa bowline is taken round the stayinto which the man gets with his bucket oftar and a bunch of oakumand the other end being fast on deckwith some one totend ithe is lowered down graduallyand tars the stay carefully as he goes.There he "swings aloft 'twixt heaven and earth" and if the ropeslipsbreaksor is let goor if the bowline slipshe falls overboard orbreaks his neck. Thishoweveris a thing which never enters into a sailor'scalculation. He only thinks of leaving no holydays(places not tarred) for incase he shouldhe would have to go over the whole again; or of dropping no tarupon the deckfor then there would be a soft word in his ear from the mate. Inthis manner I tarred down all the headstaysbut found the rigging about thejib-boomsmartingaleand spritsail yardupon which I was afterwards putthehardest. Here you have to hang on with your eyelids and tar with your hands.

This dirty work could not last foreverand on Saturday night we finished itscraped all the spots from the deck and railsandwhat was of more importanceto uscleaned ourselves thoroughlyrolled up our tarry frocks and trowsers andlaid them away for the next occasionand put on our clean duck clothesand hada good comfortable sailor's Saturday night. The next day was pleasantandindeed we had but one unpleasant Sunday during the whole voyageand that wasoff Cape Hornwhere we could expect nothing better. On Monday we commencedpaintingand getting the vessel ready for port. This worktoois done by thecrewand every sailor who has been on long voyages is a little of a painterinaddition to his other accomplishments. We painted herboth inside and outfromthe truck to the water's edge. The outside is painted by lowering stages overthe side by ropesand on those we satwith our brushes and paint-pots by usand our feet half the time in the water. This must be doneof courseon asmooth day when the vessel does not roll much. I remember very well being overthe side painting in this wayone fine afternoonour vessel going quietlyalong at the rate of four or five knotsand a pilot-fishthe sure precursor ofa sharkswimming alongside of us. The captain was leaning over the railwatching himand we went quietly on with our work. In the midst of ourpaintingon- -

FridayDec. 19thwe crossed the equator for the second time. I had thefeeling which all have whenfor the first timethey find themselves livingunder an entire change of seasons; ascrossing the line under a burning sun inthe midst of Decemberandas I afterwards wasbeating about among ice andsnow on the Fourth of July. -

ThursdayDec. 25th. This day was Christmasbut it brought us no holiday.The only change was that we had a "plum duff" for dinnerand the crewquarrelled with the steward because he did not give us our usual allowance ofmolasses to eat with it. He thought the plums would be a substitute for themolassesbut we were not to be cheated out of our rights in this way.

Such are the trifles which produce quarrels on shipboard. In factwe hadbeen too long from port. We were getting tired of one anotherand were in anirritable stateboth forward and aft. Our fresh provisions wereof coursegoneand the captain had stopped our riceso that we had nothing but salt beefand salt pork throughout the weekwith the exception of a very small duff onSunday. This added to the discontent; and a thousand little thingsdaily andalmost hourly occurringwhich no one who has not himself been on a long andtedious voyage can conceive of or properly appreciate- little wars and rumors ofwars- reports of things said in the cabin- misunderstanding of words andlooks- apparent abuses- brought us into a state in which everything seemed togo wrong. Every encroachment upon the time allowed for restappearedunnecessary. Every shifting of the studding-sails was only to "haze"*002 the crew.

In the midst of this state of thingsmy messmate S--- and myself petitionedthe captain for leave to shift our berths from the steeragewhere we hadpreviously livedinto the forecastle. Thisto our delightwas grantedand weturned in to bunk and mess with the crew forward. We now began to feel likesailorswhich we never fully did when we were in the steerage. While therehowever useful and active you may beyou are but a mongrel- a sort ofafterguard and "ship's cousin." You are immediately under the eye ofthe officerscannot dancesingplaysmokemake a noiseor growl(i.e.complain) or take any other sailor's pleasure; and you live with the stewardwho is usually a go-between; and the crew never feel as though you were one ofthem. But if you live in the forecastleyou are "as independent as awood-sawyer's clerk" (nautice) and are a sailor. You hear sailors' talklearn their waystheir

peculiarities of feeling as well as speaking and acting; and moreover pick upa great deal of curious and useful information in seamanshipship's customsforeign countriesetc.from their long yarns and equally long disputes. No mancan be a sailoror know what sailors areunless he has lived the forecastlewith them- turned in and out with themeaten of their dish and drank of theircup. After I had been a week therenothing would have tempted me to go back tomy old berthand never afterwardseven in the worst of weatherwhen in aclose and leaking forecastle off Cape Horndid I for a moment wish myself inthe steerage. Another thing which you learn better in the forecastle than youcan anywhere elseis to make and mend clothesand this is indispensable tosailors. A large part of their watches below they spend at this workand here Ilearned that art which stood me in so good stead afterwards.

But to return to the state of the crew. Upon our coming into the forecastlethere was some difficulty about the uniting of the allowances of breadby whichwe thought we were to lose a few pounds. This set us into a ferment. The captainwould not condescend to explainand we went aft in a bodywith a Swedetheoldest and best sailor of the crewfor spokesman. The recollection of the scenethat followed always brings up a smileespecially the quarter-deck dignity andeloquence of the captain. He was walking the weather side of the quarter-deckand seeing us coming aftstopped short in his walkand with a voice and lookintended to annihilate uscalled out"Wellwhat the d--l do you wantnow?" Whereupon we stated our grievances as respectfully as we couldbuthe broke in upon ussaying that we were getting fat and lazydidn't haveenough to doand that made us find fault. This provoked usand we began togive word for word. This would never answer. He clenched his fiststamped andsworeand sent us all forwardsayingwith oaths enough interspersed to sendthe words home- "Away with you! go forward every one of you! I'll hazeyou! I'll work you up! You don't have enough to do! If you a'n't careful I'llmake a hell of the ship!.... You've mistaken your man! I'm F--- T---all theway from 'down east.' I've been through the millgroundand boltedand comeout a regular-built down-east johnny-cakegood when it's hotbut when it'scoldsour and indigestible;- and you'll find me so! The latter part of thisharangue I remember wellfor it made a strong impressionand the"downeast johnny-cake" became a by-word for the rest of the voyage. Somuch for our petition for the redress of grievances. The matter was however setrightfor the mateafter allowing the captain due time to cool offexplainedit to himand at night we were all called aft to hear another harangueinwhichof coursethe whole blame of the misunderstanding was thrown upon us. Weventured to hint that he would not give us time to explain; but it wouldn't do.We were driven back discomfited. Thus the affair blew overbut the irritationcaused by it remained; and we never had peace or a good understanding again solong as the captain and crew remained together.

We continued sailing along in the beautiful temperate climate of the Pacific.The Pacific well deserves its namefor except in the southern partat CapeHornand in the western partsnear the China and Indian oceansit has fewstormsand is never either extremely hot or cold. Between the tropics there isa slight hazinesslike a thin gauzedrawn over the sunwhichwithoutobstructing or obscuring the lighttempers the heat which comes down withperpendicular fierceness in the Atlantic and Indian tropics. We sailed well tothe westward to have the full advantage of the northeast tradesand when we hadreached the latitude of Point Conceptionwhere it is usual to make the landwewere several hundred miles to the westward of it. We immediately changed ourcourse due eastand sailed in that direction for a number of days. At length webegan to heave-to after darkfor fear of making the land at night on a coastwhere there are no light-houses and but indifferent chartsand at daybreak onthe morning of -

TuesdayJan. 13th1835we made the land at Point Conceptionlat. 34 deg.32' N.long. 120 deg. 06' W. The port of Santa Barbarato which we were boundlying about fifty miles to the southward of this pointwe continued sailingdown the coast during the day and following nightand on the next morning-

Jan. 14th1835we came to anchor in the spacious bay of Santa Barbaraafter a voyage of one hundred and fifty days from Boston.


California extends along nearly the whole of the western coast of Mexicobetween the gulf of California in the south and the bay of Sir Francis Drake onthe northor between the 22d and 38th degrees of north latitude. It issubdivided into two provinces- Lower or Old Californialying between the gulfand the 32d degree of latitudeor near it; (the division line runningIbelievebetween the bay of Todos Santos and the port of San Diego;) and New orUpper Californiathe southernmost port of which is San Diegoin lat. 32 deg.39'and the northernmostSan Franciscosituated in the large bay discoveredby Sir Francis Drakein lat. 37 deg. 58'and called after him by the Englishthough the Mexicans call it Yerba Buena. Upper California has the seat of itsgovernment at Montereywhere is also the custom-housethe only one on thecoastand at which every vessel intending to trade on the coast must enter itscargo before it can commence its traffic. We were to trade upon this coastexclusivelyand therefore expected to go to Monterey at first; but thecaptain's orders from home were to put in at Santa Barbarawhich is the centralport of the coastand wait there for the agent who lives thereand transactsall the business for the firm to which our vessel belonged.

The bayoras it was commonly calledthe canal of Santa Barbarais verylargebeing formed by the main land on one side(between Point Conception onthe north and Point St. Buena Ventura on the south) which here bends in like acrescentand three large islands opposite to it and at the distance of twentymiles. This is just sufficient to give it the name of a baywhile at the sametime it is so large and so much exposed to the south-east and north-west windsthat it is little better than an open roadstead; and the whole swell of thePacific ocean rolls in here before a south-easterand breaks with so heavy asurf in the shallow watersthat it is highly dangerous to lie near in to theshore during the south-easter seasonthat isbetween the months of Novemberand April.

This wind (the south-easter) is the bane of the coast of California. Betweenthe months of November and April(including a part of each) which is the rainyseason in this latitudeyou are never safe from itand accordingly in theports which are open to itvessels are obligedduring these monthsto lie atanchor at a distance of three miles from the shorewith slip-ropes on theircablesready to slip and go to sea at a moment's warning. The only ports whichare safe from this wind are San Francisco and Monterey in the northand SanDiego in the south.

As it was January when we arrivedand the middle of the southeaster seasonwe accordingly came to anchor at the distance of three miles from the shoreineleven fathoms waterand bent a slip-rope and buoys to our cablescast off theyard-arm gaskets from the sailsand stopped them all with rope-yarns. After wehad done thisthe boat went ashore with the captainand returned with ordersto the mate to send a boat ashore for him at sundown. I did not go in the firstboatand was glad to find that there was another going before night; for afterso long a voyage as ours had beena few hours is long to pass in sight and outof reach of land. We spent the day on board in the usual avocations; but as thiswas the first time we had been without the captainwe felt a little morefreedomand looked about us to see what sort of a country we had got intoandwere to spend a year or two of our lives in.

In the first placeit was a beautiful dayand so warm that we had on strawhatsduck trowsersand all the summer gear; and as this was mid-winter itspoke well for the climate; and we afterwards found that the thermometer neverfell to the freezing point throughout the winterand that there was very littledifference between the seasonsexcept that during a long period of rainy andsouth-easterly weatherthick clothes were not uncomfortable.

The large bay lay about usnearly smoothas there was hardly a breath ofwind stirringthough the boat's crew who went ashore told us that the longground swell broke into a heavy surf on the beach. There was only one vessel inthe port- a longsharp brig of about 300 tonswith raking masts and verysquare yardsand English colors at her peak. We afterwards learned that she wasbuilt at Guayaquiland named the Ayacuchoafter the place where the battle wasfought that gave Peru her independenceand was now owned by a Scotchman namedWilsonwho commanded herand was engaged in the trade between CallaotheSandwich Islandsand California. She was a fast saileras we frequentlyafterwards perceivedand had a crew of Sandwich Islanders on board. Beside thisvessel there was no object to break the surface of the bay. Two points ran outas the horns of the crescentone of which- the one to the westward- was low andsandyand is that to which vessels are obliged to give a wide berth whenrunning out for a southeaster; the other is highboldand well woodedandwewere toldhas a mission upon itcalled St. Buenaventurafrom which the pointis named. In the middle of this crescentdirectly opposite the anchoringgroundlie the mission and town of Santa Barbaraon a lowflat plainbutlittle above the level of the seacovered with grassthough entirely withouttreesand surrounded on three sides by an amphitheatre of mountainswhichslant off to the distance of fifteen or twenty miles. The mission stands alittle back of the townand is a large buildingor rather collection ofbuildingsin the center of which is a high towerwith a belfry of five bells;and the wholebeing plasteredmakes quite a show at a distanceand is themark by which vessels come to anchor. The town lies a little nearer to thebeach- about half a mile from it- and is composed of one-story houses built ofbrown clay- some of them plastered- with red tiles on the roofs. I should judgethat there were about an hundred of them; and in the midst of them stands thePresidioor fortbuilt of the same materialsand apparently but littlestronger. The town is certainly finely situatedwith a bay in frontand anamphitheatre of hills behind. The only thing which diminishes its beauty isthat the hills have no large trees upon themthey having been all burnt by agreat fire which swept them off about a dozen years beforeand they had not yetgrown up again. The fire was described to me by an inhabitantas having been avery terrible and magnificent sight. The air of the whole valley was so heatedthat the people were obliged to leave the town and take up their quarters forseveral days upon the beach.

Just before sundown the mate ordered a boat's crew ashoreand I went as oneof the number. We passed under the stern of the English brigand had a longpull ashore. I shall never forget the impression which our first landing on thebeach of California made upon me. The sun had just gone down; it was gettingdusky; the damp night wind was beginning to blowand the heavy swell of thePacific was setting inand breaking in loud and high "combers" uponthe beach. We lay on our oars in the swelljust outside of the surfwaitingfor a good chance to run inwhen a boatwhich had put off from the Ayacuchojust after uscame alongside of uswith a crew of dusky Sandwich Islanderstalking and hallooing in their outlandish tongue. They knew that we were novicesin this kind of boatingand waited to see us go in. The second matehoweverwho steered our boatdetermined to have the advantage of their experienceandwould not go in first. Findingat lengthhow matters stoodthey gave a shoutand taking advantage of a great comber which came swelling inrearing its headand lifting up the stern of our boat nearly perpendicularand again dropping itin the troughthey gave three or four long and strong pullsand went in on topof the great wavethrowing their oars overboardand as far from the boat asthey could throw themand jumping out the instant that the boat touched thebeachand then seizing hold of her and running her up high and dry upon thesand. We sawat oncehow it was to be doneand also the necessity of keepingthe boat "stern on" to the sea; for the instant the sea should strikeupon her broad-side or quartershe would be driven up broad-side onandcapsized. We pulled strongly inand as soon as we felt that the sea had gothold of us and was carrying us in with the speed of a racehorsewe threw theoars as far from the boat as we couldand took hold of the gunwaleready tospring out and seize her when she struckthe officer using his utmost strengthto keep her stern on. We were shot up upon the beach like an arrow from a bowand seizing the boatran her up high and dryand soon picked up our oarsandstood by herready for the captain to come down.

Finding that the captain did not come immediatelywe put our oars in theboatand leaving one to watch itwalked about the beach to see what we couldof the place. The beach is nearly a mile in length between the two pointsandof smooth sand. We had taken the only good landing-placewhich is in themiddle; it being more stony toward the ends. It is about twenty yards in widthfrom high-water mark to a slight bank at which the soil beginsand so hard thatit is a favorite place for running horses. It was growing darkso that we couldjust distinguish the dim outlines of the two vessels in the offing; and thegreat seas were rolling inin regular linesgrowing larger and larger as theyapproached the shoreand hanging over the beach upon which they were to breakwhen their tops would curl over and turn white with foamandbeginning at oneextreme of the linebreak rapidly to the otheras a long cardhouse falls whenthe children knock down the cards at one end. The Sandwich Islandersin themean timehad turned their boat roundand ran her down into the waterandwere loading her with hides and tallow. As this was the work in which we weresoon to be engagedwe looked on with some curiosity. They ran the boat into thewater so far that every large sea might float herand two of themwith theirtrowsers rolled upstood by the bowsone on each sidekeeping her in herright position. This was hard work; for beside the force they had to use uponthe boatthe large seas nearly took them off their legs. The others wererunning from the boat to the bankupon whichout of the reach of the waterwas a pile of dry bullocks' hidesdoubled lengthwise in the middleand nearlyas stiff as boards. These they took upon their headsone or two at a timeandcarried down to the boatwhere one of their numberstowed them away. They wereobliged to carry them on their headsto keep them out of the waterand weobserved that they had on thick woolen caps. "Look hereBilland see whatyou're coming to!" said one of our men to another who stood by the boat."WellD---" said the second mate to me"this does not lookmuch like Cambridge collegedoes it? This is what I call 'head work.'" Totell the truth it did not look very encouraging.

After they had got through with the hidesthey laid hold of the bags oftallow(the bags are made of hideand are about the size of a common mealbag) and lifting each upon the shoulders of two menone at each endwalkedoff with them to the boatand prepared to go aboard. Heretoowas somethingfor us to learn. The man who steeredshipped his oar and stood up in the sternand those that pulled the after oars sat upon their bencheswith their oarsshippedready to strike out as soon as she was afloat. The two men at the bowskept their places; and whenat lengtha large sea came in and floated herseized hold of the gunwalesand ran out with her till they were up to theirarmpitsand then tumbled over the gunwale into the bowsdripping with water.The men at the oars struck outbut it wouldn't do; the sea swept back and leftthem nearly high and dry. The two fellows jumped out again; and the next timethey succeeded betterandwith the help of a deal of outlandish hallooing andbawlinggot her well off. We watched them till they were out of the breakersand saw them steering for their vesselwhich was now hidden in the darkness.

The sand of the beach began to be cold to our bare feet; the frogs set uptheir croaking in the marshesand one solitary owlfrom the end of the distantpointgave out his melancholy notemellowed by the distanceand we began tothink that it was high time for "the old man" as the captain isgenerally calledto come down. In a few minutes we heard something comingtowards us. It was a man on horseback. He came up on the full gallopreined upnear usaddressed a few words to usand receiving no answerwheeled round andgalloped off again. He was nearly as dark as an Indianwith a large Spanishhatblanket cloak or serapaand leather legginswith a long knife stuck inthem. "This is the seventh city that ever I was inand no Christian oneneither" said Bill Brown. "Stand by!" said Tom"youhaven't seen the worst of it yet." In the midst of this conversation thecaptain appeared; and we winded the boat roundshoved her downand prepared togo off. The captainwho had been on the coast before and "knew theropes" took the steering oarand we went off in the same way as the otherboat. Ibeing the youngesthad the pleasure of standing at the bowandgetting wet through. We went off wellthough the seas were high. Some of themlifted us upand sliding from under usseemed to let us drop through the airlike a flat plank upon the body of the water. In a few minutes we were in thelowregular swelland pulled for a lightwhichas we came upwe found hadbeen run up to our trysail gaff.

Coming aboardwe hoisted up all the boatsand diving down into theforecastlechanged our wet clothesand got our supper. After supper thesailors lighted their pipes(cigarsthose of us who had them) and we had totell all we had seen ashore. Then followed conjectures about the people ashorethe length of the voyagecarrying hidesetc.etc.until eight bellswhenall hands were called aftand the "anchor watch" set. We were tostand two in a watchand as the nights were pretty longtwo hours were to makea watch. The second mate was to keep the deck until eight o'clockand all handswere to be called at daybreakand the word was passed to keep a brightlook-outand to call the mate if it should come on to blow from the south-east.We had also orders to strike the bells every half hour through the nightas atsea. My watchmate was Johnthe Swedish sailorand we stood from twelve to twohe walking the larboard sideand I the starboard. At daylight all hands werecalledand we went through the usual process of washing downswabbingetc.and got breakfast at eight o'clock. In the course of the forenoona boat wentaboard of the Ayacucho and brought off a quarter of beefwhich made us a freshbite for dinner. This we were glad enough to haveand the mate told us that weshould live upon fresh beef while we were on the coastas it was cheaper herethan the salt. While at dinnerthe cook called"Sail ho!" and comingon deckwe saw two sails coming round the point. One was a large ship undertop-gallant sailsand the other a small hermaphrodite brig. They both backedtheir top sails and sent boats aboard of us. The ship's colors had puzzled usand we found that she was from Genoawith an assorted cargoand was trading onthe coast. She filled away againand stood out; being bound up the coast to SanFrancisco. The crew of the brig's boat were Sandwich Islandersbut one of themwho spoke a little Englishtold us that she was the LoriotteCaptain NyefromOahuand was engaged in this trade. She was a lump of a thing- what the sailorscall a butter-box. This vesselas well as the Ayacuchoand others which weafterwards saw engaged in the same tradehave English or Americans forofficersand two or three before the mast to do the work upon the riggingandto rely upon for seamanshipwhile the rest of the crew are Sandwich Islanderswho are activeand very useful in boating.

The three captains went ashore after dinnerand came off again at night.When in porteverything is attended to by the chief mate; the captainunlesshe is also supercargohas little to doand is usually ashore much of his time.This we thought would be pleasanter for usas the mate was a good-natured manand not very strict. So it was for a timebut we were worse off in the end; forwherever the captain is a severeenergetic manand the mate is wanting in boththese qualitiesthere will always be trouble. And trouble we had already begunto anticipate. The captain had several times found fault with the mateinpresence of the crew; and hints had been dropped that all was not right betweenthem. When this is the caseand the captain suspects that his chief officer istoo easy and familiar with the crewthen he begins to interfere in all thedutiesand to draw the reins taughterand the crew has to suffer.


This nightafter sundownit looked black at the southward and eastwardandwe were told to keep a bright look-out. Expecting to be called upwe turned inearly. Waking up about midnightI found a man who had just come down from hiswatch striking a light. He said that it was beginning to puff up from thesouth-eastand that the sea was rolling inand he had called the captain; andas he threw himself down on his chest with all his clothes onI knew that heexpected to be called. I felt the vessel pitching at her anchorand the chainsurging and snappingand lay awakeexpecting an instant summons. In a fewminutes it came- three knocks on the scuttleand "All hands ahoy!bear-a-hand up and make sail." We sprang up for our clothesand were abouthalf way dressedwhen the mate called outdown the scuttle"Tumble upheremen! tumble up! before she drags her anchor." We were on deck in aninstant. "Lay aloft and loose the topsails!" shouted the captainassoon as the first man showed himself. Springing into the riggingI saw that theAyacucho's topsails were loosedand heard her crew singing-out at the sheets asthey were hauling them home. This had probably started our captain; as "oldWilson" (the captain of the Ayacucho) had been many years on the coastandknew the signs of the weather. We soon had the topsails loosed; and one handremainingas usualin each topto overhaul the rigging and light the sailoutthe rest of us came down to man the sheets. While sheeting homewe saw theAyacucho standing athwart our hawsesharp upon the windcutting through thehead seas like a knifewith her raking masts and sharp bows running up like thehead of a greyhound. It was a beautiful sight. She was like a bird which hadbeen frightened and had spread her wings in flight. After the topsails had beensheeted homethe head yards braced abackthe fore-top-mast staysail hoistedand the buoys streamedand all ready forwardfor slippingwe went aft andmanned the slip-rope which came through the stern port with a turn round thetimber-heads. "All ready forward?" asked the captain. "Ayeayesir; all ready" answered the mate. "Let go!" "All gonesir;" and the iron cable grated over the windlass and through thehawse-holeand the little vessel's head swinging off from the wind under theforce of her backed head sailsbrought the strain upon the slip-rope. "Letgo aft!" Instantly all was goneand we were under weigh. As soon as shewas well off from the windwe filled away the head yardsbraced all up sharpset the foresail and trysailand left our anchorage well asterngiving thepoint a good berth. "Nye's off too" said the captain to the mate; andlooking astern we could just see the little hermaphrodite brig under sailstanding after us.

It now began to blow fresh; the rain fell fastand it grew very black; butthe captain would not take in sail until we were well clear of the point. Assoon as we left this on our quarterand were standing out to seathe order wasgivenand we sprang aloftdouble reefed each topsailfurled the foresailanddouble reefed the trysailand were soon under easy sail. In these cases ofslipping for south-eastersthere is nothing to be doneafter you have gotclear of the coastbut to lie-to under easy sailand wait for the gale to beoverwhich seldom lasts more than two daysand is often over in twelve hours;but the wind never comes back to the southward until there has a good deal ofrain fallen. "Go below the watch" said the mate; but here was adispute which watch it should bewhich the mate soon however settled by sendinghis watch belowsaying that we should have our turn the next time we got underweigh. We remained on deck till the expiration of the watchthe wind blowingvery fresh and the rain coming down in torrents. When the watch came upwe woreshipand stood on the other tackin towards land. When we came up againwhichwas at four in the morningit was very darkand there was not much windbutit was raining as I thought I had never seen it rain before. We had on oilclothsuits and south-wester capsand had nothing to do but to stand bolt upright andlet it pour down upon us. There are no umbrellasand no sheds to go under atsea.

While we were standing about on deckwe saw the little brig drifting by ushove to under her fore topsoil double reefed; and she glided by like a phantom.Not a word was spokenand we saw no one on deck but the man at the wheel.Toward morning the captain put his head out of the companion-way and told thesecond matewho commanded our watchto look out for a change of windwhichusually followed a calm and heavy rain; and it was well that he did; for in afew minutes it fell dead calmthe vessel lost her steerage-wayand the rainceased. We hauled up the trysail and coursessquared the after yardsandwaited for the changewhich came in a few minuteswith a vengeancefrom thenorthwestthe opposite point of the compass. Owing to our precautionswe werenot taken abackbut ran before the wind with square yards. The captain comingon deckwe braced up a little and stood back for our anchorage. With the changeof wind came a change of weatherand in two hours the wind moderated into thelight steady breezewhich blows down the coast the greater part of the yearandfrom its regularitymight be called a trade-wind. The sun came up brightand we set royalsskysailsand studding-sailsand were under fair way forSanta Barbara. The little Loriotte was astern of usnearly out of sight; but wesaw nothing of the Ayacucho. In a short time she appearedstanding out fromSanta Rosa Islandunder the lee of which she had been hove toall night. Ourcaptain was anxious to get in before herfor it would be a great credit to uson the coastto beat the Ayacuchowhich had been called the best sailer in theNorth Pacificin which she had been known as a trader for six years or more. Wehad an advantage over her in light windsfrom our royals and skysails which wecarried both at the fore and mainand also in our studding-sails; for CaptainWilson carried nothing above top-gallant-sailsand always unbent hisstudding-sails when on the coast. As the wind was light and fairwe held ourownfor some timewhen we were both obliged to brace up and come upon a taughtbowlineafter rounding the point; and here he had us on fair groundand walkedaway from usas you would haul in a line. He afterwards said that we sailedwell enough with the wind freebut that give him a taught bowlineand he wouldbeat usif we had all the canvas of the Royal George.

The Ayacucho got to the anchoring ground about half an hour before usandwas furling her sails when we came up to it. This picking up your cables is avery nice piece of work. It requires some seamanship to do itand come to atyour former mooringswithout letting go another anchor. Captain Wilson wasremarkableamong the sailors on the coastfor his skill in doing this; and ourcaptain never let go a second anchor during all the time that I was with him.Coming a little to the windward of our buoywe clewed up the light sailsbacked our main top-sailand lowered a boatwhich pulled offand made fast aspare hawser to the buoy on the end of the slip-rope. We brought the other endto the capstanand hove in upon it until we came to the slip-ropewhich wetook to the windlassand walked her up to her chainthe captain helping her bybacking and filling the sails. The chain is then passed through the hawse-holeand round the windlassand bittedthe slip-rope taken round outside andbrought into the stern portand she is safe in her old berth. After we had gotthroughthe mate told us that this was a small touch of Californiathe like ofwhich we must expect to have through the winter.

After we had furled the sails and got dinnerwe saw the Loriotte nearingand she had her anchor before night. At sun-down we went ashore againand foundthe Loriotte's boat waiting on the beach. The Sandwich Islanderwho could speakEnglishtold us that he had been up to the town; that our agentMr. R---andsome other passengerswere going to Monterey with usand that we were to sailthe same night. In a few minutes Captain T---with two gentlemen and a ladycame downand we got ready to go off. They had a good deal of baggagewhich weput into the bows of the boatand then two of us took the senora in our armsand waded with her through the waterand put her down safely in the stern. Sheappeared much amused with the transactionand her husband was perfectlysatisfiedthinking any arrangement good which saved his wetting his feet. Ipulled the after oarso that I heard the conversationand learned that one ofthe menwhoas well as I could see in the darknesswas a young-looking manin the European dressand covered up in a large cloakwas the agent of thefirm to which our vessel belonged; and the otherwho was dressed in the Spanishdress of the countrywas a brother of our captainwho had been many years atrader on the coastand had married the lady who was in the boat. She was adelicatedark complexioned young womanand of one of the best families inCalifornia. I also found that we were to sail the same night. As soon as we goton boardthe boats were hoisted upthe sails loosedthe windlass mannedtheslip-ropes and gear cast off; and after about twenty minutes of heaving at thewindlassmaking sailand bracing yardswe were well under weighand goingwith a fair wind up the coast to Monterey. The Loriotte got under weigh at thesame timeand was also bound up to Montereybut as she took a different coursefrom uskeeping the land aboardwhile we kept well out to seawe soon lostsight of her. We had a fair windwhich is something unusual when coming upasthe prevailing wind is the northwhich blows directly down the coast; whencethe northern are called the windwardand the southern the leeward ports.


We got clear of the island before sunrise the next morningand by twelveo'clock were out of the canaland off Point Conceptionthe place where wefirst made the land upon our arrival. This is the largest point on the coastand is uninhabited headlandstretching out into the Pacificand has thereputation of being very windy. Any vessel does well which gets by it without agaleespecially in the winter season. We were going along with studding-sailsset on both sideswhenas we came round the pointwe had to haul our windand take in the lee studding-sails. As the brig came more upon the windshefelt it moreand we doused the sky-sailsbut kept the weather studding-sailson herbracing the yards forward so that the swinging-boom nearly touched thespritsail yard. She now lay over to itthe wind was fresheningand the captainwas evidently "dragging on to her." His brother and Mr. R---lookinga little squallysaid something to himbut he only answered that he knew thevessel and what she would carry. He was evidently showing off his vesselandletting them know how he could carry sail. He stood up to windwardholding onby the backstaysand looking up at the sticksto see how much they would bear;when a puff came which settled the matter. Then it was "haul down"and "clew up" royalsflying-jiband studding-sailsall at once.There was what the sailors call a "mess"- everything let gonothinghauled inand everything flying. The poor Spanish woman came to thecompanion-waylooking as pale as a ghostand nearly frightened to death. Themate and some men forward were trying to haul in the lower studding-sailwhichhad blown over the spritsail yard-arm and round the guys; while thetopmast-studding-sail boomafter buckling up and springing out again like apiece of whalebonebroke off at the boom-iron. I sprang aloft to take in themain top-gallant studding-sailbut before I got into the topthe tack partedand away went the sailswinging forward of the top-gallant-sailand tearingand slatting itself to pieces. The halyards were at this moment let go by therun; and such a piece of work I never had beforein taking in a sail. Aftergreat exertions I got itor the remains of itinto the topand was making itfastwhen the captainlooking upcalled out to me"Lay aloft thereD---and furl that main royal." Leaving the studding-sailI went up tothe cross trees; and here it looked rather squally. The foot of thetop-gallant-mast was working between the cross and trussel treesand theroyal-mast lay over at a fearful angle with the mast belowwhile everything wasworkingand crackingstrained to the utmost.

There's nothing for Jack to do but to obey ordersand I went up upon theyard and there was a worse "mess" if possiblethan I had left below.The braces had been let goand the yard was swinging about like aturnpike--ateand the whole sail having blown over to leewardthe lee leachwas over the yard-armand the skysail was all adrift and flying over my head. Ilooked downbut it in vain to attempt to make myself heardfor every one wasbusy belowand the wind roaredand sails were flapping in every direction.Fortunatelyit was noon and broad daylightand the man at the wheelwho hadhis eyes aloftsoon saw my difficultyand after numberless signs and gesturesgot some one to haul the necessary ropes taught. During this interval I took alook below. Everything was in confusion on deck; the little vessel was tearingthrough the water if she were madthe seas flying over herand the mastsleaning over at an angle of forty-five degrees from the vertical. At the otherroyal-mast-head was S---working away at the sailwhich was blowing from himas fast as he could gather it in. The top-gallant-sail below me was soon clewedupwhich relieved the mastand in a short time I got my sail furledand wentbelow; but I lost overboard a new tarpaulin hatwhich troubled me more thananything else. We worked for about half an hour with might and main; and in anhour from the time the squall struck usfrom having all our flying kitesabroadwe came down to double-reefed top-sails and the storm-sails.

The wind had hauled ahead during the squalland we were standing directly infor the point. Soas soon as we had got all snugwe wore round and stood offagainand had the pleasant prospect of beating up to Montereya distance of anhundred milesagainst a violent head wind. Before night it began to rain; andwe had five days of rainystormy weatherunder close sail all the timeandwere blown several hundred miles off the coast. In the midst of thiswediscovered that our fore topmast was sprung(which no doubt happened in thesquall) and were obliged to send down the fore top-gallant-mast and carry aslittle sail as possible forward. Our four passengers were dreadfully sicksothat we saw little or nothing of them during the five days. On the sixth day itcleared offand the sun came out brightbut the wind and sea were still veryhigh. It was quite like being at sea again: no land for hundreds of milesandthe captain taking the sun every day at noon. Our passengers now made theirappearanceand I had for the first time the opportunity of seeing what amiserable and forlorn creature a sea-sick passenger is. Since I had got over myown sicknessthe third day from BostonI had seen nothing but haleheartymenwith their sea legs onand able to go anywhere(for we had nopassengers;) and I will own there was a pleasant feeling of superiority in beingable to walk the deckand eatand go aboutand comparing one's self with twopoormiserablepale creaturesstaggering and shuffling about decksorholding on and looking up with giddy headsto see us climbing to themast-headsor sitting quietly at work on the ends of the lofty yards. A wellman at sea has little sympathy with one who is seasick; he is too apt to beconscious of a comparison favorable to his own manhood. After a few days we madethe land at Point Pinos(pines) which is the headland at the entrance of thebay of Monterey. As we drew inand ran down the shorewe could distinguishwell the face of the countryand found it better wooded than that to thesouthward of Point Conception. In factas I afterwards discoveredPointConception may be made the dividing line between two different faces of thecountry. As you go to the northward of the pointthe country becomes morewoodedhas a richer appearanceand is better supplied with water. This is thecase with Montereyand still more so with San Francisco; while to the southwardof the pointas at Santa BarbaraSan Pedroand particularly San Diegothereis very little woodand the country has a nakedlevel appearancethough it isstill very fertile.

The bay of Monterey is very wide at the entrancebeing about twenty-fourmiles between the two pointsAno Nuevo at the northand Pinos at the southbut narrows gradually as you approach the townwhich is situated in a bendorlarge coveat the southeastern extremityand about eighteen miles from thepointswhich makes the whole depth of the bay. The shores are extremely wellwooded(the pine abounding upon them) and as it was now the rainy seasoneverything was as green as nature could make it- the grassthe leavesandall; the birds were singing in the woodsand great numbers of wild-fowl wereflying over our heads. Here we could lie safe from the south-easters. We came toanchor within two cable lengths of the shoreand the town lay directly beforeusmaking a very pretty appearance; its houses being plasteredwhich gives amuch better effect than those of Santa Barbarawhich are of a mud-color. Thered tilestooon the roofscontrasted well with the white plastered sides andwith the extreme greenness of the lawn upon which the houses- about an hundredin number- were dotted abouthere and thereirregularly. There are in thisplaceand in every other town which I saw in Californiano streetsor fences(except here and there a small patch was fenced in for a garden) so that thehouses are placed at random upon the greenwhichas they are of one story andof the cottage formgives them a pretty effect when seen from a littledistance.

It was a fine Saturday afternoon when we came to anchorthe sun about anhour highand everything looking pleasantly. The Mexican flag was flying fromthe little square Presidioand the drums and trumpets of the soldierswho wereout on paradesounded over the waterand gave great life to the scene. Everyone was delighted with the appearance of things. We felt as though we had gotinto a Christian (which in the sailor's vocabulary means civilized) country. Thefirst impression which California had made upon us was very disagreeable:- theopen roadstead of Santa Barbara; anchoring three miles from the shore; runningout to sea before every south-easter; landing in a high surf; with a littledarklooking towna mile from the beach; and not a sound to be heardoranything to be seenbut Sandwich Islandershidesand tallow-bags. Add to thisthe gale off Point Conceptionand no one can be at a loss to account for ouragreeable disappointment in Monterey. Beside all thiswe soon learnedwhichwas of no small importance to usthat there was little or no surf hereandthis afternoon the beach was as smooth as a duck-pond.

We landed the agent and passengersand found several persons waiting forthem on the beachamong whom were somewhothough dressed in the costume ofthe countryspoke English; and whowe afterwards learnedwere English andAmericans who had married and settled in the country.

I also connected with our arrival here another circumstance which more nearlyconcerns myself; first act of what the sailors will allow to beseamanship- sending down a royal-yard. I had seen it done once or twice at seaand an old sailorwhose favor I had taken some pains to gainhad taught mecarefully everything which was necessary to be doneand in its proper orderand advised me to take the first opportunity when we were in portand try it. Itold the second matewith whom I had been pretty thick when he was before themastthat I would do itand got him to ask the mate to send me up the firsttime they were struck. Accordingly I was called uponand went uprepeating theoperations over in my mindtaking care to get everything in its orderfor theslightest mistake spoils the whole. FortunatelyI got through without any wordfrom the officerand heard the "well done" of the matewhen the yardreached the deckwith as much satisfaction as I ever felt at Cambridge onseeing a "bene" at the foot of a Latin exercise.


The next day being Sundaywhich is the liberty-day among merchantmenwhenit is usual to let a part of the crew go ashorethe sailors had depended upon aday on landand were already disputing who should ask to gowhenupon beingcalled in the morningwe were turned-to upon the riggingand found that thetopmastwhich had been sprungwas to come downand a new one to go upandtop-gallant and royal-mastsand the rigging to be set up. This was too bad. Ifthere is anything that irritates sailors and makes them feel hardly usedit isbeing deprived of their Sabbath. Not that they would alwaysor indeedgenerallyspend it religiouslybut it is their only day of rest. Thentoothey are often necessarily deprived of it by stormsand unavoidable duties ofall kindsthat to take it from them when lying quietly and safely in portwithout any urgent reasonbears the more hardly. The only reason in this casewasthat the captain had determined to have the custom-house officers on boardon Mondayand wished to have his brig in order. Jack is a slave aboard ship;but still he has many opportunities of thwarting and balking his master. Whenthere is dangeror necessityor when he is well usedno one can work fasterthan he; but the instant he feels that he is kept at work for nothingno slothcould make less headway. He must not refuse his dutyor be in any waydisobedientbut all the work that an officer gets out of himhe may be welcometo. Every man who has been three months at sea knows how to "work Tom Cox'straverse"- "three turns round the long-boatand a pull at thescuttled-butt." This morning everything went in this way."Sogering" was the order of the day. Send a man below to get a blockand he would capsize everything before finding itthen not bring it up till anofficer had called him twiceand take as much time to put things in orderagain. Marline-spikes were not to be found; knives wanted a prodigious deal ofsharpeningandgenerallythree or four were waiting round the grindstone at atime. When a man got to the mast-headhe would come slowly down again to getsomething which he had forgotten; and after the tackles were got upsix menwould pull less than three who pulled "with a will." When the mate wasout of sightnothing was done. It was all uphill work; and at eight o'clockwhen we went to breakfastthings were nearly where they were when we began.

During our short mealthe matter was discussed. One proposed refusing towork; but that was mutinyand of course was rejected at once. I remembertoothat one of the men quoted "Father Taylor" (as they call the seamen'spreacher at Boston) who told them that if they were ordered to work on Sundaythey must not refuse their dutyand the blame would not come upon them. Afterbreakfastit leaked outthrough the officersthat if we would get through ourwork soonwe might have a boat in the afternoon and go fishing. This bait waswell thrownand took with several who were fond of fishing; and all began tofind that as we had one thing to doand were not to be kept at work for thedaythe sooner we did itthe better.

Accordinglythings took a new aspect; and before two o'clock this workwhich was in a fair way to last two dayswas done; and five of us went afishing in the jolly-boatin the direction of Point Pinos; but leave to goashore was refused. Here we saw the Loriottewhich sailed with us from SantaBarbaracoming slowly in with a light sea-breezewhich sets in towardsafternoonhaving been becalmed off the point all the first part of the day. Wetook several fish of various kindsamong which cod and perch aboundedand F---(the ci-devant second mate) who was of our numberbrought up with his hook alarge and beautiful pearl-oyster shell. We afterwards learned that this placewas celebrated for shellsand that a small schooner had made a good voyagebycarrying a cargo of them to the United States.

We returned by sun-downand found the Loriotte at anchorwithin a cable'slength of the Pilgrim. The next day we were "turned-to" earlyandbegan taking off the hatchesoverhauling the cargoand getting everythingready for inspection. At eightthe officers of the customsfive in numbercame on boardand began overhauling the cargomanifestetc.

The Mexican revenue laws are very strictand require the whole cargo to belandedexaminedand taken on board again; but our agentMr. R---hadsucceeded in compounding with them for the two last vesselsand saving thetrouble of taking the cargo ashore. The officers were dressed in the costumewhich we found prevailed through the country. A broad-brimmed hatusually of ablack or dark-brown colorwith a gilt or figured band round the crownandlined inside with silk; a short jacket of silk or figured calico(the Europeanskirted body-coat is never worn;) the shirt open in the neck; rich waistcoatifany; pantaloons widestraightand longusually of velvetvelveteenorbroadcloth; or else short breeches and white stockings. They wear the deer-skinshoewhich is of a dark-brown colorand(being made by Indians) usually agood deal ornamented. They have no suspendersbut always wear a sash round thewaistwhich is generally redand varying in quality with the means of thewearer. Add to this the never-failing cloakand you have the dress of theCalifornian. This last garmentthe cloakis always a mark of the rank andwealth of the owner. The "gente de razon" or aristocracywear cloaksof black or dark blue broadclothwith as much velvet and trimmings as may be;and from this they go down to the blanket of the Indian; the middle classeswearing something like a large table-clothwith a hole in the middle for thehead to go through. This is often as coarse as a blanketbut being beautifullywoven with various colorsis quite showy at a distance. Among the Mexicansthere is no working class; (the Indians being slaves and doing all the hardwork;) and every rich man looks like a grandeeand every poor scamp like abroken-down gentleman. I have often seen a man with a fine figureand courteousmannersdressed in broadcloth and velvetwith a noble horse completely coveredwith trappings; without a real in his pocketand absolutely suffering forsomething to eat.


The next daythe cargo having been entered in due formwe began trading.The trade-room was fitted up in the steerageand furnished out with the lightergoodsand with specimens of the rest of the cargo; and M---a young man whocame out from Boston with usbefore the mastwas taken out of the forecastleand made supercargo's clerk. He was well qualified for the businesshaving beenclerk in a counting-house in Boston. He had been troubled for some time with therheumatismwhich unfitted him for the wet and exposed duty of a sailor on thecoast. For a week or ten days all was life on board. The people came off to lookand to buy- menwomenand children; and we were continually going in theboatscarrying goods and passengers- for they have no boats of their own.Everything must dress itself and come aboard and see the new vesselif it wereonly to buy a paper of pins. The agent and his clerk managed the saleswhile wewere busy in the hold or in the boats. Our cargo was an assorted one; that isit consisted of everything under the sun. We had spirits of all kinds(sold bythe cask) teascoffeesugarsspicesraisinsmolasseshardwarecrockery-waretinwarecutleryclothing of all kindsboots and shoes fromLynncalicoes and cottons from Lowellcrepessilks; also shawlsscarfsnecklacesjewelryand combs for the ladies; furniture; and in facteverythingthat can be imaginedfrom Chinese fire-works to English cart-wheels- of whichwe had a dozen pairs with their iron rims on.

The Californians are an idlethriftless peopleand can make nothing forthemselves. The country abounds in grapesyet they buy bad wines made in Bostonand brought round by usat an immense priceand retail it among themselves ata real (12 1/2 cents) by the small wine-glass. Their hidestoowhich theyvalue at two dollars in moneythey give for something which costs seventy-fivecents in Boston; and buy shoes (like as notmade of their own hidesand whichhave been carried twice around Cape Horn) at three or four dollarsand"chicken-skin" boots at fifteen dollars apiece. Things sellon anaverageat an advance of nearly three hundred per cent upon the Boston prices.This is partly owing to the heavy duties which the governmentin their wisdomwith the intentno doubtof keeping the silver in the countryhas laid uponimports. These dutiesand the enormous expenses of so long a voyagekeep allmerchantsbut those of heavy capitalfrom engaging in the trade. Nearlytwo-thirds of all the articles imported into the country from round Cape Hornfor the last six yearshave been by the single house of BryantSturgis & whom our vessel belongedand who have a permanent agent on the coast.

This kind of business was new to usand we liked it very well for a fewdaysthough we were hard at work every minute from daylight to dark; andsometimes even later.

By being thus continually engaged in transporting passengers with theirgoodsto and frowe gained considerable knowledge of the characterdressandlanguage of the people. The dress of the men was as I have before described it.The women wore gowns of various texture- silkscrapecalicoesetc.- madeafter the European styleexcept that the sleeves were shortleaving the armbareand that they were loose about the waisthaving no corsets. They woreshoes of kidor satin; sashes or belts of bright colors; and almost always anecklace and ear-rings. Bonnets they had none. I only saw one on the coastandthat belonged to the wife of an American sea-captain who had settled in SanDiegoand had imported the chaotic mass of straw and ribbonas a choicepresent to his new wife. They wear their hair (which is almost invariably blackor a very dark brown) long in their neckssometimes looseand sometimes inlong braids; though the married women often do it up on a high comb. Their onlyprotection against the sun and weather is a large mantle which they put overtheir headsdrawing it close round their faceswhen they go out of doorswhich is generally only in pleasant weather. When in the houseor sitting outin front of itwhich they often do in fine weatherthey usually wear a smallscarf or neckerchief of a rich pattern. A bandalsoabout the top of the headwith a crossstaror other ornament in frontis common. Their complexions arevariousdepending- as well as their dress and manner- upon their rank; orinother wordsupon the amount of Spanish blood they can lay claim to. Those whoare of pure Spanish bloodhaving never intermarried with the aborigineshaveclear brunette complexionsand sometimeseven as fair as those of Englishwomen. There are but few of these families in California; being mostly those inofficial stationsor whoon the expiration of their officeshave settled hereupon property which they have acquired; and others who have been banished forstate offences. These form the aristocracy;

intermarryingand keeping up an exclusive system in every respect. They canbe told by their complexionsdressmannerand also by their speech; forcalling themselves Castiliansthey are very ambitious of speaking the pureCastilian languagewhich is spoken in a somewhat corrupted dialect by the lowerclasses. From this upper classthey go down by regular shadesgrowing more andmore dark and muddyuntil you come to the pure Indianwho runs about withnothing upon him but a small piece of clothkept up by a wide leather strapdrawn round his waist. Generally speakingeach person's caste is decided by thequality of the bloodwhich shows itselftoo plainly to be concealedat firstsight. Yet the least drop of Spanish bloodif it be only of quadroon oroctoroonis sufficient to raise them from the rank of slavesand entitle themto a suit of cloathes- bootshatcloakspurslong knifeand all completethough coarse and dirty as may be- and to call themselves Espanolosand tohold propertyif they can get any.

The fondness for dress among the women is excessiveand is often the ruin ofmany of them. A present of a fine mantleor of a necklace or pair of ear-ringsgains the favor of the greater part of them. Nothing is more common than to seea woman living in a house of only two roomsand the ground for a floordressedin spangled satin shoessilk gownhigh comband giltif not goldear-ringsand necklace. If their husbands do not dress them well enoughthey will soonreceive presents from others. They used to spend whole days on board ourvesselsexamining the fine clothes and ornamentsand frequently made purchasesat a rate which would have made a seamstress or waiting-maid in Boston open hereyes.

Next to the love of dressI was most struck with the fineness of the voicesand beauty of the intonations of both sexes. Every common ruffian-lookingfellowwith a slouched hatblanket cloakdirty under-dressand soiledleather legginsappeared to me to be speaking elegant Spanish. It was apleasuresimply to listen to the sound of the languagebefore I could attachany meaning to it. They have a good deal of the Creole drawlbut it is variedwith an occasional extreme rapidity of utterancein which they seem to skipfrom consonant to consonantuntillighting upon a broadopen vowelthey restupon that to restore the balance of sound. The women carry this peculiarity ofspeaking to a much greater extreme than the menwho have more evenness andstateliness of utterance. A common bullock-driveron horsebackdelivering amessageseemed to speak like an ambassador at an audience. In facttheysometimes appeared to me to be a people on whom a curse had fallenand strippedthem of everything but their pridetheir mannersand their voices.

Another thing that surprised me was the quantity of silver that was incirculation. I certainly never saw so much silver at one time in my lifeasduring the week that we were at Monterey. The truth isthey have no creditsystemno banksand no way of investing way of investing money but in cattle.They have no circulating medium but silver and hides- which the sailors call"California bank notes." Everything that they buy they must pay for inone or the other of these things. The hides they bring down dried and doubledin clumsy ox-cartsor upon mules' backsand the money they carry tied up in ahandkerchief;- fiftyeightyor an hundred dollars and half dollars.

I had never studied Spanish while at collegeand could not speak a wordwhen at Juan Fernandez; but during the latter part of the passage outIborrowed a grammar and dictionary from the cabinand by a continual use oftheseand a careful attention to every word that I heard spokenI soon got avocabulary togetherand began talking for myself. As I soon knew more Spanishthan any of the crew(who indeed knew none at all) and had been at college andknew LatinI got the name of a great linguistand was always sent for by thecaptain and officers to get provisionsor to carry letters and messages todifferent parts of the town. I was often sent to get something which I could nottell the name of to save my life; but I liked the businessand accordinglynever pleaded ignorance. Sometimes I managed to jump below and take a look at mydictionary before going ashore; or else I overhauled some English resident on mywayand got the word from him; and thenby signsand the help of my Latin andFrenchcontrived to get along. This was a good exercise for meand no doubttaught me more than I should have learned by months of study and reading; italso gave me opportunities of seeing the customscharactersand domesticarrangements of the people; beside being a great relief from the monotony of aday spent on board ship.

Montereyas far as my observation goesis decidedly the pleasantest andmost civilized-looking place in California. In the centre of it is an opensquaresurrounded by four lines of one-story plastered buildingswith half adozen cannon in the centre; some mountedand others not. This is the"Presidio" or fort. Every town has a presidio in its centre; orratherevery presidio has a town built around it; for the forts were firstbuilt by the Mexican governmentand then the people built near them forprotection. The presidio here was entirely open and unfortified. There wereseveral officers with long titlesand about eighty soldiersbut they werepoorly paidfedclothedand disciplined. The governor-generaloras he iscommonly calledthe "general" lives here; which makes it the seat ofgovernment. He is appointed by the central government at Mexicoand is thechief civil and military officer. In addition to himeach town has acommandantwho is the chief military officerand has charge of the fortandof all transactions with foreigners and foreign vessels; and two or threealcaldes and corregidoreselected by the inhabitantswho are the civilofficers. Courts and jurisprudence they have no knowledge of. Small municipalmatters are regulated by the alcaldes and corregidores; and everything relatingto the general governmentto the militaryand to foreignersby thecommandantsacting under the governor-general. Capital cases are decided byhimupon personal inspectionif he is near; or upon minutes sent by the properofficersif the offender is at a distant place. No Protestant has any civilrightsnor can he hold any propertyorindeedremain more than a few weekson shoreunless he belong to some vessel. Consequentlythe Americans andEnglish who intend to remain here become Catholicsto a man; the current phraseamong them beings- "A man must leave his conscience at Cape Horn."

But to return to Monterey. The houses hereas everywhere else in Californiaare of one storybuilt of clay made into large bricksabout a foot and a halfsquare and three or four inches thickand hardened in the sun. These arecemented together by mortar of the same materialand the whole are of a commondirt-color. The floors are generally of earththe windows grated and withoutglass; and the doorswhich are seldom shutopen directly into the common room;there being no entries. Some of the more wealthy inhabitants have glass to theirwindows and board floors; and in Monterey nearly all the houses are plastered onthe outside. The better housestoohave red tiles upon the roofs. The commonones have two or three rooms which open into each otherand are furnished witha bed or twoa few chairs and tablesa looking-glassa crucifix of somematerial or otherand small daubs of paintings enclosed in glassandrepresenting some miracle or martyrdom. They have no chimneys or fire-places inthe housesthe climate being such as to make a fire unnecessary; and all theircooking is done in a small cook-houseseparated from the house. The IndiansasI have said beforedo all the hard worktwo or three being attached to eachhouse; and the

poorest persons are able to keep oneat leastfor they have only to feedthem and give them a small piece of coarse cloth and a beltfor the males; anda coarse gownwithout shoes or stockingsfor the females.

In Monterey there are a number of English and Americans (English or"Ingles" all are called who speak the English language) who havemarried Californiansbecome united to the Catholic churchand acquiredconsiderable property. Having more industryfrugalityand enterprise than thenativesthey soon get nearly all the trade into their hands. They usually keepshopsin which they retail the goods purchased in larger quantities from ourvesselsand also send a good deal into the interiortaking hides in paywhichthey again barter with our vessels. In every town on the coast there areforeigners engaged in this kind of tradewhile I recollect but two shops keptby natives. The people are generally suspicious of foreignersand they wouldnot be allowed to remainwere it not that they become good Catholicsand bymarrying nativesand bringing up their children as Catholics and Mexicansandnot teaching them the English languagethey quiet suspicionand even becomepopular and leading men. The chief alcaldes in Monterey and Santa Barbara wereboth Yankees by birth.

The men in Monterey appeared to me to be always on horseback. Horses are asabundant here as dogs and chickens were in Juan Fernandez. There are no stablesto keep them inbut they are allowed to run wild and graze wherever theypleasebeing brandedand having long leather ropescalled "lassos"attached to their necks and dragging along behind themby which they can beeasily taken. The men usually catch one in the morningthrow a saddle andbridle upon himand use him for the dayand let him go at nightcatchinganother the next day. When they go on long journeysthey ride one horse downand catch anotherthrow the saddle and bridle upon himand after riding himdowntake a thirdand so on to the end of the journey. There are probably nobetter riders in the world. They get upon a horse when only four or five yearsoldtheir little legs not long enough to come half way over his sides; and mayalmost be said to keep on him until they have grown to him. The stirrups arecovered or boxed up in frontto prevent their catching when riding through thewoods; and the saddles are large and heavystrapped very tight upon the horseand have large pommelsor loggerheadsin frontround which the"lasso" is coiled when not in use. They can hardly go from one houseto another without getting on a horsethere being generally several standingtied to the door-posts of the little cottages. When they wish to show theiractivitythey make no use of their stirrups in mountingbut striking thehorsespring into the saddle as he startsand sticking their long spurs intohimgo off on the full run. Their spurs are cruel thingshaving four or fiverowelseach an inch in lengthdull and rusty. The flanks of the horses areoften sore from themand I have seen men come in from chasing bullocks withtheir horses' hind legs and quarters covered with blood. They frequently giveexhibitions of their horsemanshipin racesbull-baitingsetc.; but as we werenot ashore during any holydaywe saw nothing of it. Monterey is also a greatplace for cock-fightinggambling of all sortsfandangosand every kind ofamusement and knavery. Trappers and hunterswho occasionally arrive here fromover the Rocky mountainswith their valuable skins and fursare oftenentertained with every sort of amusement and dissipationuntil they have wastedtheir time and their moneyand go backstripped of everything.

Nothing but the character of the people prevents Monterey from becoming agreat town. The soil is as rich as man could wish; climate as good as any in theworld; water abundantand situation extremely beautiful. The harbortoois agood onebeing subject only to one bad windthe north; and though theholding-ground is not the bestyet I heard of but one vessel's being drivenashore here. That was a Mexican brigwhich went ashore a few months before ourarrivaland was a total wreckall the crew but one being drowned. Yet this wasfrom the carelessness or ignorance of the captainwho paid out all his smallcable before he let go his other anchor. The ship Lagodaof Bostonwas thereat the timeand rode out the gale in safetywithout dragging at allorfinding it necessary to strike her top-gallant masts.

The only vessel in port with us was the little Loriotte. I frequently went onboard herand became very well acquainted with her Sandwich Island crew. One ofthem could speak a little Englishand from him I learned a good deal aboutthem. They were well formed and activewith black eyesintelligentcountenancesdark-oliveorI should rather saycopper complexions and coarseblack hairbut not woolly like the negroes. They appeared to be talkingcontinually. In the forecastle there was a complete Babel. Their language isextremely gutturaland not pleasant at firstbut improves as you hear it moreand is said to have great capacity. They use a good deal of gesticulationandare exceedingly animatedsaying with their might what their tongues find tosay. They are complete water-dogstherefore very good in boating. It is forthis reason that there are so many of them on the coast of California; theybeing very good hands in the surf. They are also quick and active in theriggingand good hands in warm weather; but those who have been with them roundCape Hornand in high latitudessay that they are useless in cold weather. Intheir dress they are precisely like our sailors. In addition to these Islandersthe vessel had two English sailorswho acted as boatswains over the Islandersand took care of the rigging. One of them I shall always remember as the bestspecimen of the thoroughbred English sailor that I ever saw. He had been to seafrom a boyhaving served a regular apprenticeship of seven yearsas allEnglish sailors are obliged to doand was then about four or five and twenty.He was tall; but you only perceived it when he was standing by the side ofothersfor the great breadth of his shoulders and chest made him appear butlittle above the middle height. His chest was as deep as it was wide; his armlike that of Hercules; and his hand "the fist of a tar- every hair arope-yarn." With all this he had one of the pleasantest smiles I ever saw.His cheeks were of a handsome brown; his teeth brilliantly white; and his hairof a raven blackwaved in loose curls all over his headand fineopenforehead; and his eyes he might have sold to a duchess at the price of diamondsfor their brilliancy. As for their colorthey were like the Irishman's pigwhich would not stay to be countedevery change of position and light seemed togive them a new hue; but their prevailing color was blackor nearly so. Takehim with his well-varnished black tarpaulin stuck upon the back of his head; hislong locks coming down almost into his eyes; his white duck trowsers and shirt;blue jacket; and black kerchieftied loosely round his neck; and he was a finespecimen of manly beauty. On his broad chest he had stamped with India ink"Parting moments;"- a ship ready to sail; a boat on the beach; and agirl and her sailor lover taking their farewell. Underneath were printed theinitials of his own nameand two other lettersstanding for some name which heknew better than I did. This was very well donehaving been executed by a manwho made it his business to print with India inkfor sailorsat Havre. On oneof his broad armshe had the crucifixionand on the other the sign of the"foul anchor."

He was very fond of readingand we lent him most of the books which we hadin the forecastlewhich he read and returned to us the next time we fell inwith him. He had a good deal of informationand his captain said he was aperfect seamanand worth his weight in gold on board a vesselin fair weatherand in foul. His strength must have been greatand he had the sight of avulture. It is strange that one should be so minute in the description of anunknownoutcast sailorwhom one may never see againand whom no one may careto hear about; but so it is. Some people we see under no remarkablecircumstancesbut whomfor some reason or otherwe never forget. He calledhimself Bill Jackson; and I know no one of all my accidental acquaintances towhom I would more gladly give a shake of the hand than to him. Whoever falls inwith him will find a handsomehearty fellowand a good shipmate.

Sunday came again while we were at Montereybut as beforeit brought us noholyday. The people on shore dressed themselves and came off in greater numbersthan everand we were employed all day in boating and breaking out cargosothat we had hardly time to eat. Our cidevant second matewho was determined toget liberty if it was to be haddressed himself in a long coat and black hatand polished his shoesand went aft and asked to go ashore. He could not havedone a more imprudent thing; for he knew that no liberty would be given; andbesidessailorshowever sure they may be of having liberty granted them alwaysgo aft in their working clothesto appear as though they had no reason toexpect anythingand then washdressand shaveafter they get their liberty.But this poor fellow was always getting into hot waterand if there was a wrongway of doing a thingwas sure to hit upon it. We looked to see him go aftknowing pretty well what his reception would be. The captain was walking thequarter-decksmoking his morning cigarand F--- went as far as the break ofthe deckand there waited for him to notice him. The captain took two or threeturnsand then walking directly up to himsurveyed him from head to footandlifting up his forefingersaid a word or twoin a tone too low for us to hearbut which had a magical effect upon poor F---. He walked forwardsprang intothe forecastleand in a moment more made his appearance in his common clothesand went quietly to work againWhat the captain said to himwe never could gethim to tellbut it certainly changed him outwardly and inwardly in a mostsurprising manner.


After a few daysfinding the trade beginning to slackenwe hove our anchorupset our topsailsran the stars and stripes up to the peakfired a gunwhich was returned from the Presidioand left the little town asternrunningout of the bayand bearing down the coast againfor Santa Barbara. As we werenow going to leewardwe had a fair wind and a plenty of it. After doublingPoint Pinoswe bore upset studding-sails alow and aloftand were walking offat the rate of eight or nine knotspromising to traverse in twenty-four hoursthe distance which we were nearly three weeks in traversing on the passage up.We passed Point Conception at a flying ratethe wind blowing so that it wouldhave seemed half a gale to usif we had been going the other way and closehauled. As we drew near the islands off Santa Barbarait died away a little butwe came-to at our old anchoring-ground in less than thirty hours from the timeof leaving Monterey.

Here everything was pretty much as we it- left the large bay without a vesselin it; the surf roaring and rolling in upon the beach; the white mission; thedark town and the hightreeless mountains. Here toowe had our south-eastertacks aboard again- slip-ropesbuoy-ropessails furled with reefs in themand ropeyarns for gaskets. We lay here about a fortnightemployed in landinggoods and taking off hidesoccasionallywhen the surf was not high; but theredid not appear to be one-half the business doing here that there was inMonterey. In factso far as we were concernedthe town might almost as wellhave been in the middle of the Cordilleras. We lay at a distance of three milesfrom the beachand the town was nearly a mile farther; so that we saw little ornothing of it. Occasionally we landed a few goodswhich were taken away byIndians in largeclumsy ox-cartswith the yoke on the ox's neck instead ofunder itand with small solid wheels. A few hides were brought. downwhich wecarried off in the California style. This we had now got pretty well accustomedto; and hardened to also; for it does require a little hardening even to thetoughest.

The hides are always brought down dryor they would not be received. Whenthey are taken from the animalthey have holes cut in the endsand are stakedoutand thus dried in the sun without shrinking. They are then doubled oncelengthwisewith the hair side usually inand sent downupon mules or incartsand piled above highwater mark; and then we take them upon our headsoneat a timeor twoif they are smalland wade out with them and throw them intothe boatwhich as there are no wharveswe are usually kept anchored by a smallkedgeor keelekjust outsideof the surf. We all provided ourselves withthick Scotch capswhich would be soft to the headand at the same time protectit; for we soon found that however it might look or feel at first the"head-work" was the only system for California. For besides that theseasbreaking highoften obliged us to carry the hides soin order to keepthem drywe found thatas they were very large and heavyand nearly as stiffas boardsit was the only way that we could carry them with any convenience toourselves. Some of the crew tried other expedientssaying that they looked toomuch like West India negroes; but they all came to it at last. The great art isin getting them on the head. We had to take them from the groundand as theywere often very heavyand as wide as the arms could stretch and easily taken bythe windwe used to have some trouble with them. I have often been laughed atmyselfand joined in laughing at otherspitching themselves down in the sandtrying to swing a large hide upon their headsor nearly blown over with one ina little gust of wind. The captain made it harder for usby telling us that itwas "California fashion" to carry two on the head at a time; and as heinsisted upon itand we did not wish to be outdone by other vesselswe carriedtwo for the first few months; but after falling in with a few other"hide-droghers" and finding that they carried only one at a time we"knocked off" the extra oneand thus made our duty somewhat easier.

After we had got our heads used to the weightand had learned the trueCalifornia style of tossing a hidewe could carry off two or three hundred in ashort timewithout much trouble; but it was always wet workandif the beachwas stonybad for our feet; for weof coursealways went barefooted on thisdutyas no shoes could stand such constant wetting with salt water. Thentoowe had a long pull of three mileswith a loaded boatwhich often took a coupleof hours.

We had now got well settled down into our harbor dutieswhichas they are agood deal different from those at seait may be well enough to describe. In thefirst placeall hands are called at daylightor rather- especially if the daysare short- before daylightas soon as the first grey of the morning. The cookmakes his fire in the galley; the steward goes about his work in the cabin; andthe crew rig the head pumpand wash down the decks. The chief

mate is always on deckbut takes no active partall the duty coming uponthe second matewho has to roll up his trowsers and paddle about decksbarefootedlike the rest of the crew. The washingswabbingsquilgeeingetc.lastsor is made to lastuntil eight o'clockwhen breakfast is orderedforeand aft. After breakfastfor which half an hour is allowedthe boats arelowered downand made fast asternor out to the swinging boomsby ges-warpsand the crew are turned-to upon their day's work. This is variousand itscharacter depends upon circumstances. There is always more or less of boatingin small boats; and if heavy goods are to be taken ashoreor hides are broughtdown to the beach for usthen all hands are sent ashore with an officer in thelong boat. Then there is always a good deal to be done in the hold: goods to bebroken out; and cargo to be shiftedto make room for hidesor to keep the trimof the vessel. In addition to thisthe usual work upon the rigging must bedone. There is a good deal of the latter kind of work which can only be donewhen the vessel is in port;- and then everything must be kept taught and in goodorder; spun-yarn made; chafing gear repaired; and all the other ordinary work.The great difference between sea and harbor duty is in the division of time.Instead of having a watch on deck and a watch belowas at seaall hands are atwork togetherexcept at meal timesfrom daylight till dark; and at night an"anchor-watch" is keptwhich consists of only two at a time; thewhole crew taking turns. An hour is allowed for dinnerand at darkthe decksare cleared up; the boats hoisted; supper ordered; and at eightthe lights putoutexcept in the binnaclewhere the glass stands; and the anchor-watch isset. Thuswhen at anchorthe crew have more time at night(standing watchonly about two hours) but have no time to themselves in the day; so thatreadingmending clothesetc.has to be put off until Sundaywhich is usuallygiven. Some religious captains give their crews Saturday afternoons to do theirwashing and mending inso that they may have their Sundays free. This is a goodarrangementand does much toward creating the preference sailors usually showfor religious vessels. We were well satisfied if we got Sunday to ourselvesforif any hides came down on that dayas was often the case when they werebrought from a distancewe were obliged to bring them offwhich usually tookhalf a day; and as we now lived on fresh beefand ate one bullock a weektheanimal was almost always brought down on Sundayand we had to go ashorekillitdress itand bring it aboardwhich was another interruption. Thentooour common day's work was protracted and made more fatiguing by hides comingdown late in the afternoonwhich sometimes kept us at work in the surf bystar-lightwith the prospect of pulling on boardand stowing them all awaybefore supper.

But all these little vexations and labors would have been nothing- theywould have been passed by as the common evils of a sea-lifewhich every sailorwho is a manwill go through will go through without complaint- were it notfor the uncertaintyor worse than uncertaintywhich hung over the nature andlength of our voyage. Here we werein a little vesselwith a small crewon ahalf-civilized coastat the ends of the earthand with a prospect of remainingan indefinite periodtwo or three years at the least. When we left Boston wesupposed that it was to be a voyage of eighteen monthsor two yearsat most;but upon arriving on the coastwe learned something more of the tradeandfound that in the scarcity of hideswhich was yearly greater and greateritwould take us a yearat leastto collect our own cargobeside the passage outand home; and that we were also to collect a cargo for a large ship belonging tothe same firmwhich was soon to come on the coastand to which we were to actas tender. We had heard rumors of such a ship to follow uswhich had leaked outfrom the captain and matebut we passed them by as mere "yarns" tillour arrivalwhen they were confirmed by the letters which we brought from theowners to their agent. The ship Californiabelonging to the same firmhad beennearly two years on the coast; had collected a full cargoand was now at SanDiegofrom which port she was expected to sail in a few weeks for Boston; andwe were to collect all the hides we couldand deposit them at San Diegowhenthe new shipwhich would carry forty thousandwas to be filled and sent home;and then we were to begin anewand collect our own cargo. Here was a gloomyprospect before usindeed. The California had been twenty months on the coastand the Lagodaa smaller shipcarrying only thirty-one or thirty-two thousandhad been two years getting her cargo; and we were to collect a cargo of fortythousand beside our ownwhich would be twelve or fifteen thousand; and hideswere said to be growing scarcer. Thentoothis shipwhich had been to us aworse phantom than any flying Dutchmanwas no phantomor ideal thingbut hadbeen reduced to a certainty; so much so that a name was given herand it wassaid that she was to be the Alerta well-known India-manwhich was expected inBoston in a few monthswhen we sailed. There could be no doubtand all lookedblack enough. Hints were thrown out about three years and four years;-the oldersailors said they never should see Boston againbut should lay their bones inCalifornia; and a cloud seemed to hang over the whole voyage. Besideswe werenot provided for so long a voyageand clothesand all sailors' necessarieswere excessively dear- three or four hundred per cent advance upon the Bostonprices. This was bad enough for them; but still worse was it for mewho did notmean to be a sailor for life; having intended only to be gone eighteen months ortwo years. Three or four years would make me a sailor in every respectmind andhabitsas well as body- nolens volens; and would put all my companions so farahead of me that college and a profession would be in vain to think of; and Imade up my mind thatfeel as I mighta sailor I must beand to be master of avesselmust be the height of my ambition.

Beside the length of the voyageand the hard and exposed lifewe were atthe ends of the earth; on a coast almost solitary; in a country where there isneither law nor gospeland where sailors are at their captain's mercytherebeing no American consulor any one to whom a complaint could be made. We lostall interest in the voyage; cared nothing about the cargowhich we were onlycollecting for others; began to patch our clothes; and felt as though we werefixed beyond all hope of change.

In addition toand perhaps partly as a consequence ofthis state of thingsthere was trouble brewing on board the vessel. Our mate (as the first mate isalways calledpar excellence) was a worthy man;- a more honestuprightandkind-hearted man I never saw; but he was too good for the mate of a merchantman.He was not the man to call a sailor a "son of a b--h" and knock himdown with a handspike. He wanted the energy and spirit for such a voyage asoursand for such a captain. Captain T--- was a vigorousenergetic fellow. Assailors say"he hadn't a lazy bone in him." He was made of steel andwhalebone. He was a man to "toe the mark" and to make every one elsestep up to it. During all the time that I was with himI never saw him sit downon deck. He was always active and driving; severe in his disciplineandexpected the same of his officers. The mate not being enough of a driver forhimand being perhaps too easy with the crewhe was dissatisfied with himbecame suspicious that discipline was getting relaxedand began to interfere ineverything. He drew the reins taughter; and asin all quarrels betweenofficersthe sailors side with the one who treats them besthe becamesuspicious of the crew. He saw that everything went wrong- that nothing was done"with a will;" and in his attempt to remedy the difficulty byseverityhe made everything worse. We were in every respect unfortunatelysituated. Captainofficersand crewentirely unfitted for one another; andevery circumstance and event was like a two-edged swordand cut both ways. Thelength of the voyagewhich made us dissatisfiedmade the captainat the sametimefeel the necessity of order and strict discipline; and the nature of thecountrywhich caused us to feel that we had nowhere to go for redressbut wereentirely at the mercy of a hard mastermade the captain feelon the otherhandthat he must depend entirely upon his own resources. Severity createddiscontentand signs of discontent provoked severity. Thentooilltreatmentand dissatisfaction are no "linimenta laborum;" and many a time have Iheard the sailors say that they should not mind the length of the voyageandthe hardshipsif they were only kindly treatedand if they could feel thatsomething was done to make things lighter and easier. We felt as though oursituation was a call upon our superiors to give us occasional relaxationsandto make our yoke easier. But the contrary policy was pursued. We were kept atwork all day when in port; whichtogether with a watch at nightmade us gladto turn-in as soon as we got below. Thus we got no time for readingor- whichwas of more importance to us- for washing and mending our clothes. And thenwhen we were at seasailing from port to portinstead of giving us "watchand watch" as was the custom on board every other vessel on the coastwewere all kept on deck and at workrain or shinemaking spun-yarn and ropeandat other work in good weatherand picking oakumwhen it was too wet foranything else. All hands were called to "come up and see it rain" andkept on deck hour after hour in a drenching rainstanding round the deck so farapart as to prevent our talking with one anotherwith our tarpaulins andoil-cloth jackets onpicking old rope to piecesor laying up gaskets androbands. This was often donetoowhen we were lying in port with two anchorsdownand no necessity for more than one man on deck as a look-out. This is whatis called "hazing" a crewand "working their old iron up."

While lying at Santa Barbarawe encountered another south-easter; andlikethe firstit came on in the night; the great black clouds coming round from thesouthwardcovering the mountainand hanging down over the townappearingalmost to rest upon the roofs of the houses. We made sailslipped our cablecleared the pointand beat aboutfor four daysin the offingunder closesailwith continual rain and high seas and winds. No wonderthought wetheyhave no rain in the other seasonsfor enough seemed to have fallen in thosefour days days to last through a common summer. On the fifth day it cleared upafter a few hoursas is usualof rain coming down like a four hours'shower-bathand we found ourselves drifted nearly ten leagues from theanchorage; and having light head windswe did not return until the sixth day.Having recovered our anchorwe made preparations for getting under weigh to godown to leeward. We had hoped to go directly to San Diegoand thus fall in withthe California before she sailed for Boston; but our orders were to stop at anintermediate port called San Pedroand as we were to lie there a week or twoand the California was to sail in a few dayswe lost the opportunity. Justbefore sailingthe captain took on board a shortred-hairedround-shoulderedvulgar-looking fellowwho had lost one eyeand squinted with the otherandintroducing him as Mr. Russelltold us that he was an officer on board. Thiswas too bad. We had lost overboardon the passageone of the best of ournumberanother had been taken from us and appointed clerkand thus weakenedand reducedinstead of shipping some hands to make our work easierhe had putanother officer over usto watch and drive us. We had now four officersandonly six in the forecastle. This was bringing her too much down by the stern forour comfort. -

Leaving Santa Barbarawe coasted along downthe country appearing level ormoderately unevenandfor the most partsandy and treeless; untildoubling ahighsandy pointwe let go our anchor at a distance of three or three and ahalf miles from shore. It was like a vesselbound to Halifaxcoming to anchoron the Grand Banks; for the shore being lowappeared to be at a greaterdistance than it actually wasand we thought we might as well have staid atSanta Barbaraand sent our boat down for the hides. The land was of a clayeyconsistencyandas far as the eye could reachentirely bare of trees and evenshrubs; and there was no sign of a town- not even a house to be seen. Whatbrought us into such a placewe could not conceive. No sooner had we come toanchorthan the slip-ropeand the other preparations for southeastersweregot ready; and there was reason enough for itfor we lay exposed to every windthat could blowexcept the north-westand that came over a flat country with arange of more than a league of water. As soon as everything was snug on boardthe boat was loweredand we pulled ashoreour new officerwho had beenseveral times in the port beforetaking the place of steersman. As we drew inwe found the tide lowand the rocks and stonescovered with kelp and sea-weedlying bare for the distance of nearly an eighth of a mile. Picking our waybarefooted over thesewe came to what is called the landing-placeathigh-water mark. The soil was as it appeared at firstloose and clayeyandexcept the stalks of the mustard plantthere was no vegetation. Just in frontof the landingand immediately over itwas a small hillwhichfrom its beingnot more than thirty or forty feet highwe had not perceived from ouranchorage. Over this hill we saw three men coming downdressed partly likesailors and partly like Californians; one of them having on a pair of untannedleather trowsers and a red baize shirt. When they came down to uswe found thatthey were Englishmenand they told us that they had belonged to a small Mexicanbrig which had been driven ashore here in a southeasterand now lived in asmall house just over the hill. Going up this hill with themwe sawjustbehind ita smalllow buildingwith one roomcontaining a fire-placecooking apparatusetc.and the rest of it unfinishedand used as a place tostore hides and goods. Thisthey told uswas built by some traders in thePueblo(a town about thirty miles in the interiorto which this was the port)and used by them as a storehouseand also as a lodging place when they camedown to trade with the vessels. These three men were employed by them to keepthe house in orderand to look out for the things stored in it. They said thatthey had been there nearly a year; had nothing to do most of the timelivingupon beefhard breadand frijoles (a peculiar kind of bean very abundant inCalifornia). The nearest housethey told uswas a Ranchoor cattle-farmabout three miles off; and one of them went upat the request of our officerto order a horse to be sent downwith which the agentwho was on boardmightgo up to the Pueblo. From one of themwho was an intelligent English sailorIlearned a good dealin a few minutes' conversationabout the placeits tradeand the news from the southern ports. San Diegohe saidwas about eighty milesto the leeward of San Pedro; that they had heard from thereby a Mexican whocame up on horsebackthat the California had sailed for Bostonand that theLagodawhich had been in San Pedro only a few weeks beforewas taking in hercargo for Boston. The Ayacucho was also thereloading for Callaoand thelittle Loriottewhich had run directly down from Montereywhere we left her.San Diegohe told mewas a smallsnug placehaving very little tradebutdecidedly the best harbor on the coastbeing completely land-lockedand thewater as smooth as a duckpond. This was the depot for all the vessels engaged inthe trade; each one having a large house therebuilt of rough boardsin whichthey stowed their hidesas fast as they collected them in their trips up anddown the coastand when they had procured ; full cargospent a few weekstheretaking it insmoking shipsupplying wood and waterand making otherpreparations for the voyage home. The Lagoda was now about this business. Whenwe should be about itwas more than I could tell; two yearsat leastIthought to myself.

I also learnedto my surprisethat the desolate-looking place we were inwas the best place on the whole coast for hides. It was the only port for adistance of eighty milesand about thirty miles in the interior was a fineplane countryfilled with herds of cattlein the centre of which was thePueblo de les Angelos- the largest town in California- and several of thewealthiest missions; to all of which San Pedro was the sea-port.

Having made our arrangements for a horse to take the agent to the Pueblo thenext daywe picked our way again over the greenslippery rocksand pulledaboard. By the time we reached the vesselwhich was so far off that we couldhardly see herin the increasing darknessthe boats were hoisted upand thecrew at supper. Going down into the forecastleeating our supperand lightingour cigars and pipeswe hadas usualto tell all we had seen or heard ashore.We all agreed that it was the worst place we had seen yetespecially forgetting off hidesand our lying off at so great a distance looked as though itwas bad for south-easters. After a few disputes as to whether we should have tocarry our goods up the hillor notwe talked of San Diegothe probability ofseeing the Lagoda before she sailedetc.etc.

The next day we pulled the agent ashoreand he went up to visit the Puebloand the neighboring missions; and in a few daysas the result of his laborslarge ox-cartsand droves of mulesloaded with hideswere seen coming overthe flat country. We loaded our long-boat with goods of all kindslight andheavyand pulled ashore. After landingand rolling them over the stones uponthe beachwe stoppedwaiting for the carts to come down the hill and takethem; but the captain soon settled the matter by ordering us to carry them allup to the topsaying thatthat was "California fashion." So what theoxen would not dowe were obliged to do. The hill was lowbut steepand theearthbeing clayey and wet with the recent rainswas but bad holding-groundfor our feet. The heavy barrels and casks we rolled up with some difficultygetting behind and putting our shoulders to them; now and then our feetslippingadded to the danger of the casks rolling back upon us. But thegreatest trouble was with the large boxes of sugar. Thesewe had to place uponoarsand lifting them up rest the oars upon our shouldersand creep slowly upthe hill with the gilt of a funeral procession. After an hour or two of hardworkwe got them all upand found the carts standing full of hideswhich wehad to unloadand also to load again with our own goods; the lazy Indianswhocame down with themsquatting down on their hamslooking ondoing nothingand when we asked them to help usonly shaking their headsor drawling out"no quiero."

Having loaded the cartswe started up the Indianswho went offone on eachside of the oxenwith long stickssharpened at the endto punch them with.This is one of the means of saving labor in California;- two Indians to twooxen. Nowthe hides were to be got down; and for this purposewe brought theboat round to a place where the hill was steeperand threw them downlettingthem slide over the slope. Many of them lodgedand we had to let ourselves downand set them agoing again; and in this way got covered with dustand ourclothes torn. After we had got them all downwe were obliged to take them onour headsand walk over the stonesand through the waterto the boat. Thewater and the stones together would wear out a pair of shoes a dayand as shoeswere very scarce and very dearwe were compelled to go barefooted. At nightwewent on boardhaving had the hardest and most disagreeable day's work that wehad yet experienced. For several dayswe were employed in this manneruntil wehad landed forty or fifty tons of goodsand brought on board about two thousandhides; when the trade began to slackenand we were kept at workon boardduring the latter part of the weekeither in the hold or upon the rigging. OnThursday nightthere was a violent blow from the northwardbut as this wasoffshorewe had only to let go our other anchor and hold on. We were called upat night to send down the royal-yards. It was as dark as a pocketand thevessel pitching at her anchors. I went up to the foreand my friend S---tothe mainand we soon had them down "ship-shape and Bristol fashion;"foras we had now got used to our duty alofteverything above the cross-treeswas left to uswho were the youngest of the crewexcept one boy.


For several days the captain seemed very much out of humor. Nothing wentrightor fast enough for him. He quarrelled with the cookand threatened toflog him for throwing wood on deck; and had a dispute with the mate aboutreeving a Spanish burton; the mate saying that he was rightand had been taughthow to do it by a man who was a sailor! Thisthe captain took in dudgeonandthey were at sword's points at once. But his displeasure was chiefly turnedagainst a largeheavy-moulded fellow from the Middle Stateswho was calledSam. This man hesitated in his speechand was rather slow in his motionsbutwas a pretty good sailorand always seemed to do his best; but the captain tooka dislike to himthought he was surlyand lazy; and "if you once give adog a bad name"- as the sailor-phrase is- "he may as well jumpoverboard." The captain found fault with everything this man didand hazedhim for dropping a marline-spike from the main-yardwhere he was at work. Thisof coursewas an accidentbut it was set down against him. The captain was onboard all day Fridayand everything went on hard and disagreeably. "Themore you drive a manthe less he will do" was as true with us as with anyother people. We worked late Friday nightand were turned-to early Saturdaymorning. About ten o'clock the captain ordered our new officerRussellwho bythis time had become thoroughly disliked by all the crewto get the gig readyto take him ashore. Johnthe Swedewas sitting in the boat alongsideandRussell and myself were standing by the main hatchwaywaiting for the captainwho was down in the holdwhere the crew were at workwhen we heard his voiceraised in violent dispute with somebodywhether it was with the mateor one ofthe crewI could not tell; and then came blows and scuffling. I ran to the sideand beckoned to Johnwho came upand we leaned down the hatchway; and thoughwe could see no oneyet we knew that the captain had the advantagefor hisvoice was loud and clear--

"You see your condition! You see your condition! Will you ever give meany more of your jaw?" No answer; and then came wrestling and heavingasthough the man was trying to turn him. "You may as well keep stillfor Ihave got you" said the captain. Then came the question"Will youever give me any more of your jaw?" "I never gave you anysir"said Sam; for it was his voice that we heardthough low and half choked.

"That's not what I ask you. Will you ever be impudent to me again?"

"I never have beensir" said Sam.

"Answer my questionor I'll make a spread eagle of you! I'll flog youby G--d."

"I'm no negro slave" said Sam.

"Then I'll make you one" said the captain; and he came to thehatchwayand sprang on deckthrew off his coatand rolling up his sleevescalled out to the mate- "Seize that man upMr. A---! Seize him up! Make aspread eagle of him! I'll teach you all who is master aboard!"

The crew and officers followed the captain up the hatchwayand afterrepeated orders the mate laid hold of Samwho made no resistanceand carriedhim to the gangway.

"What are you going to flog that man forsir?" said JohntheSwedeto the captain.

Upon hearing thisthe captain turned upon himbut knowing him to be quickand resolutehe ordered the steward to bring the ironsand calling uponRussell to help himwent up to John.

"Let me alone" said John. "I'm willing to be put in irons.You need not use any force;" and putting out his handsthe captain slippedthe irons onand sent him aft to the quarter-deck. Sam by this time was seizedupas it is calledthat isplaced against the shroudswith his wrists madefast to the shroudshis jacket offand his back exposed. The captain stood onthe break of the decka few feet from himand a little raisedso as to have agood swing at himand held in his hand the bight of a thickstrong rope. Theofficers stood roundand the crew grouped together in the waist. All thesepreparations made me feel sick and almost faintangry and excited as I was. Aman- a human beingmade in God's likeness- fastened up and flogged like abeast! A mantoowhom I had lived with and eaten with for monthsand knewalmost as well as a brother. The first and almost uncontrollable impulse wasresistance. But what was to be done? The time for it had gone by. The two bestmen were fastand there were only two beside myselfand a small boy of ten ortwelve years of age. And then there were (beside the captain) three officersstewardagent and clerk. But beside the numberswhat is there for sailors todo? If they resistit is mutiny; and if they succeedand take the vesselitis piracy. If they ever yield againtheir punishment must come; and if they donot yieldthey are pirates for life. If a sailor resist his commanderheresists the lawand piracy or submission are his only alternatives. Bad as itwasit must be borne. It is what a sailor ships for. Swinging the rope over hisheadand bending his body so as to give it full forcethe captain brought itdown upon the poor fellow's back. Oncetwice;- six times. "Will you evergive me any more of your jaw?" The man writhed with painbut said not aword. Three times more. This was too muchand he muttered something which Icould not hear; this brought as many more as the man could stand; when thecaptain ordered him to be cut downand to go forward.

"Now for you" said the captainmaking up to John and taking hisirons off. As soon as he was loosehe ran forward to the forecastle."Bring that man aft" shouted the captain. The second matewho hadbeen a shipmate of John'sstood still in the waistand the mate walked slowlyforward; but our third officeranxious to show his zealsprang forward overthe windlassand laid hold of John; but he soon threw him from him. At thismoment I would have given worlds for the power to help the poor fellow; but itwas all in vain. The captain stood on the quarter-deckbare-headedhis eyesflashing with rageand his face as red as bloodswinging the ropeand callingout to his officers"Drag him aft!- Lay hold of him! I'll sweetenhim!" etc.etc. The mate now went forward and told John quietly to go aft;and heseeing resistance in vainthrew the blackguard third mate from him;said he would go aft of himself; that they should not drag him; and went up tothe gangway and held out his hands; but as soon as the captain began to make himfastthe indignity was too muchand he began to resist; but the mate andRussell holding himhe was soon seized up. When he was made fasthe turned tothe captainwho stood turning up his sleeves and getting ready for the blowand asked him what he was to be flogged for. "Have I ever refused my dutysir? Have you ever known me to hang backor to be insolentor not to know mywork?"

"No" said the captain"it is not that I flog you for; I flogyou for your interference- for asking questions."

"Can't a man ask a question here without being flogged?"

"No" shouted the captain; "nobody shall open his mouth aboardthis vesselbut myself;" and began laying the blows upon his backswinging half round between each blowto give it full effect. As he went onhis passion increasedand he danced about the deckcalling out as he swung therope;- "If you want to know what I flog you forI'll tell you. It'sbecause I like to do it!- because I like to do it!- It suits me! That's what Ido it for!"

The man writhed under the painuntil he could endure it no longerwhen hecalled outwith an exclamation more common among foreigners than withus-"OhJesus Christ! OhJesus Christ!"

"Don't call on Jesus Christ" shouted the captain; "he can'thelp you. Call on Captain T---he's the man! He can help you! Jesus Christcan't help you now!"

At these wordswhich I never shall forgetmy blood ran cold. I could lookon no longer. Disgustedsickand horror-struckI turned away and leaned overthe railand looked down into the water. A few rapid thoughts of my ownsituationand of the prospect of future revengecrossed my mind; but thefalling of the blows and the cries of the man called me back at once. At lengththey ceasedand turning roundI found that the mateat a signal from thecaptain had cut him down. Almost doubled up with painthe man walked slowlyforwardand went down into the forecastle. Every one else stood still at hispostwhile the captainswelling with rage and with the importance of hisachievementwalked the quarter-deckand at each turnas he came forwardcalling out to us- "You see your condition! You see where I've got youalland you know what to expect!"- "You've been mistaken in me- youdidn't know what I was! Now you know what I am!"- "I'll make you toethe markevery soul of youor I'll flog you allfore and aftfrom the boyup!"- "You've got a driver over you! Yesa slave-driver- anegro-driver! I'll see who'll tell me he isn't a negro slave!" With thisand the like matterequally calculated to quiet usand to allay anyapprehensions of future troublehe entertained us for about ten minuteswhenhe went below. Soon afterJohn came aftwith his bare back covered withstripes and wales in every directionand dreadfully swollenand asked thesteward to ask the captain to let him have some salveor balsamto put uponit. "No" said the captainwho heard him from below; "tell himto put his shirt on; that's the best thing for him; and pull me ashore in theboat. Nobody is going to lay-up on board this vessel." He then called toMr. Russell to take those men and two others in the boatand pull him ashore. Iwent for one. The two men could hardly bend their backsand the captain calledto them to "give way" "give way " but finding they didtheir besthe let them alone. The agent was in the stern sheetsbut during thewhole pull- a league or more- not a word was spoken. We landed; the captainagentand officer went up to the houseand left us with the boat. Iand theman with mestaid near the boatwhile John and Sam walked slowly awayand satdown on the rocks. They talked some time togetherbut at length separatedeachsitting alone. I had some fears of John. He was a foreignerand violentlytemperedand under suffering; and he had his knife with himand the captainwas to come down alone to the boat. But nothing happened; and we went quietly onboard. The captain was probably armedand if either of them had lifted a handagainst himthey would have had nothing before them but flightand starvationin the woods of Californiaor capture by the soldiers and Indian blood-houndswhom the offer of twenty dollars would have set upon them.

After the day's work was donewe went down into the forecastleand ate ourplain supper; but not a word was spoken. It was Saturday night; but there was nosong- no "sweethearts and wives." A gloom was over everything. The twomen lay in their berthsgroaning with painand we all turned inbut formyselfnot to sleep. A sound coming now and then from the berths of the two menshowed that they were awakeas awake they must have beenfor they could hardlylie in one posture a moment; the dimswinging lamp of the forecastle shed itslight over the dark hole in which we lived; and many and various reflections andpurposes coursed through my mind. I thought of our situationliving under atyranny; of the character of the country we were in; of the length of thevoyageand of the uncertainty attending our return to America; and thenif weshould returnof the prospect of obtaining justice and satisfaction for thesepoor men; and vowed that if God should ever give me the meansI would dosomething to redress the grievances and relieve the sufferings of that poorclass of beingsof whom I then was one.

The next day was Sunday. We worked as usualwashing decksuntilbreakfast-time. After breakfastwe pulled the captain etc.ashoreand findingsome hides there which had been brought down the night beforehe ordered me tostay ashore and watch themsaying that the boat would come again before night.They left meand I spent a quiet day on the hilleating dinner with the threemen at the little house. Unfortunatelythey had no booksand after talkingwith them and walking aboutI began to grow tired of doing nothing. The littlebrigthe home of so much hardship and sufferinglay in the offingalmost asfar as one could see; and the only other thing which broke the surface of thegreat bay was a smalldesolate-looking islandsteep and conicalof a clayeysoiland without the sign of vegetable life upon it; yet which had a peculiarand melancholy interest to mefor on the top of it were buried the remains ofan Englishmanthe commander of a small merchant brigwho died while lying inthis port. It was always a solemn and interesting spot to me. There it stooddesolateand in the midst of desolation; and there were the remains of one whodied and was buried alone and friendless. Had it been a common burying-placeitwould have been nothing. The single body corresponded well with the solitarycharacter of everything around. It was the only thing in California from which Icould ever extract anything like poetry. Thentoothe man died far from home;without a friend near him; by poisonit was suspectedand no one to inquireinto it; and without proper funeral rites; the mate(as I was told) glad tohave him out of the wayhurrying him up the hill and into the groundwithout aword or a prayer.

I looked anxiously for a boatduring the latter part of the afternoonbutnone came; until toward sundownwhen I saw a speck on the waterand as it drewnearI found it was the gigwith the captain. The hidesthenwere not to gooff. The captain came up the hillwith a manbringing my monkey jacket and ablanket. He looked pretty blackbut inquired whether I had enough to eat; toldme to make a house out of the hidesand keep myself warmas I should have tosleep there among themand to keep good watch over them. I got a moment tospeak to the man who brought my jacket.

"How do things go aboard?" said I.

"Bad enough" said he; "hard work and not a kind wordspoken."

"What" said I"have you been at work all day?"

"Yes! no more Sunday for us. Everything has been moved in the holdfromstem to sternand from the waterways to the keelson."

I went up to the house to supper. We had frijoles(the perpetual food of theCaliforniansbut whichwhen well cookedare the best bean in the world)coffee made of burnt wheatand hard bread. After our mealthe three men satdown by the light of a tallow candlewith a pack of greasy Spanish cardstothe favorite game of "treinta uno" a sort of Spanish"everlasting." I left them and went out to take up my bivouack amongthe hides. It was now dark; the vessel was hidden from sightand except thethree men in the housethere was not a living soul within a league. The coati(a wild animal of a nature and appearance between that of the fox and the wolf)set up their sharpquick barkand two owlsat the end of two distant pointsrunning out into the bayon different sides of the hills where I laykept uptheir alternatedismal notes. I had heard the sound before at nightbut didnot know what it wasuntil one of the menwho came down to look at myquarterstold me it was the owl. Mellowed by the distanceand heard aloneatnightI thought it was the most melancholyboding sound I had ever heard.Through nearly all the night they kept it upanswering one another slowlyatregular intervals. This was relieved by the noisy coatisome of which camequite near to my quartersand were not very pleasant neighbors. The nextmorningbefore sunrisethe long-boat came ashoreand the hides were takenoff.

We lay at San Pedro about a weekengaged in taking off hides and in otherlaborswhich had now become our regular duties. I spent one more day on thehillwatching a quantity of hides and goodsand this time succeeded in findinga part of a volume of Scott's Piratein a corner of the house; but it failed meat a most interesting momentand I betook myself to my acquaintances on shoreand from them learned a good deal about the customs of the countrythe harborsetc. Thisthey told mewas a worse harbor than Santa Barbaraforsouth-easters; the bearing of the headland being a point and a half more towindwardand it being so shallow that the sea broke often as far out as wherewe lay at anchor. The gale from which we slipped at Santa Barbarahad been sobad a one herethat the whole bayfor a league outwas filled with the foamof the breakersand seas actually broke over the Dead Man's island. The Lagodawas lying thereand slipped at the first alarmand in such haste that she wasobliged to leave her launch behind her at anchor. The little boat rode it outfor several hourspitching at her anchorand standing with her stern up almostperpendicularly. The men told me that they watched her till towards nightwhenshe snapped her cable and drove up over the breakershigh and dry upon thebeach.

On board the Pilgrimeverything went on regularlyeach one trying to getalong as smoothly as possible; but the comfort of the voyage was evidently at anend. "That is a long lane which has no turning"- "Every dog musthave his dayand mine will come by-and-by"- and the like proverbswereoccasionally quoted; but no one spoke of any probable end to the voyageor ofBostonor anything of the kind; or if he didit was only to draw out theperpetualsurly reply from his shipmate- "Bostonis it? You may thankyour stars if you ever see that place. You had better have your back sheathedand your head copperedand your feet shodand make out your log for Californiafor life!" or else something of this kind- "Before you get to Bostonthe hides will wear the hair off your headand you'll take up all your wages inclothesand won't have enough left to buy a wig with!"

The flogging was seldom if ever alluded to by usin the forecastle. If anyone was inclined to talk about itthe otherswith a delicacy which I hardlyexpected to find among themalways stopped himor turned the subject. But thebehavior of the two men who were flogged toward one another showed a delicacyand a sense of honorwhich would have been worthy of admiration in the highestwalks of life. Sam knew that the other had suffered solely on his accountandin all his complaintshe said that if he alone had been floggedit would havebeen nothing; but that he never could see that man without thinking what hadbeen the means of bringing that disgrace upon him; and John neverby word ordeedlet anything escape him to remind the other that it was by interfering tosave his shipmatethat he had suffered.

Having got all our spare room filled with hideswe hove up our anchor andmade sail for San Diego. In no operation can the disposition of a crew bediscovered better than in getting under weigh. Where things are "done witha will" every one is like a cat aloft: sails are loosed in an instant;each one lays out his strength on his handspikeand the windlass goes brisklyround with the loud cry of "Yo heave ho! Heave and pawl! Heave heartyho!" But with usat this timeit was all dragging work. No one went aloftbeyond his ordinary gaitand the chain came slowly in over the windlass. Thematebetween the knight-headsexhausted all his official rhetoricin calls of"Heave with a will!"- "Heave heartymen!- heave hearty!"-"Heave and raise the dead!"- "Heaveand away!" etc.etc.;but it would not do. Nobody broke his back or his handspike by his efforts. Andwhen the cat-tackle-fall was strung alongand all hands- cookstewardandall- laid holdto cat the anchorinstead of the lively song of "Cheerilymen!" in which all hands join in the choruswe pulled a longheavysilent pulland- as sailors say a song is as good as ten men- the anchor cameto the cat-head pretty slowly. "Give us 'Cheerily!'" said the mate;but there was no "cheerily" for usand we did without it. The captainwalked the quarterdeckand said not a word. He must have seen the changebutthere was nothing which he could notice officially.

We sailed leisurely down the coast before a light fair windkeeping the landwell aboardand saw two other missionslooking like blocks of white plastershining in the distance; one of whichsituated on the top of a high hillwasSan Juan Capestranounder which vessels sometimes come to anchorin the summerseasonand take off hides. The most distant one was St. Louis Reywhich thethird mate said was only fifteen miles from San Diego. At sunset on the seconddaywe had a large and well wooded headland directly before usbehind whichlay the little harbor of San Diego. We were becalmed off this point all nightbut the next morningwhich was Saturdaythe 14th of Marchhaving a goodbreezewe stood round the pointand hauling our the pointand hauling ourwindbrought the little harborwhich is rather the outlet of a small riverright before us. Every one was anxious to get a view of the new place. A chainof high hillsbeginning at the point(which was on our larboard handcomingin) protected the harbor on the north and westand ran off into the interioras far as the eye could reach. On the other sidesthe land was lowand greenbut without trees. The entrance is so narrow as to admit but one vessel at atimethe current swiftand the channel runs so near to a low stony that theship's sides appeared almost to touch it. There was no town in sightbut on thesmooth sand beachabreastand within a cable's length of which three vesselslay mooredwere four large housesbuilt of rough boardsand looking like thegreat barns in which ice is stored on the borders of the large ponds nearBoston; with piles of hides standing round themand men in red shirts and largestraw hatswalking in and out of the doors. These were the hide-houses. Of thevessels: onea shortclumsylittle hermaphrodite brigwe recognized as ourold acquaintancethe Loriotte; anotherwith sharp bows and raking mastsnewlypainted and tarredand glittering in the morning sunwith the blood-red bannerand cross of St. George at her peakwas the handsome Ayacucho. The third was alarge shipwith top-gallant-masts housedand sails unbentand looking asrusty and worn as two years' "hide-droghing" could make her. This wasthe Lagoda. As we drew nearcarried rapidly along by the currentwe overhauledour chainand dewed up the topsails. "Let go the anchor!" said thecaptain but either there was not chain enough forward of the windlassor theanchor went down foulor we had too much headway onfor it did not bring usup. "Pay out chain!" shouted the captain; and we gave it to her; butit would not do. Before the other anchor could be let gowe drifted downbroadside onand went smash into the Lagoda. Her crew were at breakfast in theforecastleand the cookseeing us comingrushed out of his galleyand calledup the officers and men. -

Fortunately no great harm was done. Her jib-boom ran between our fore andmain mastscarrying away some of our riggingand breaking down the rail. Shelost her martingale. This brought us upand as they paid out chainwe swungclear of themand let go the other anchor; but this had as bad luck as thefirstforbefore any one perceived itwe were drifting on to the Loriotte.The captain now gave out his orders rapidly and fiercelysheeting home thetopsailsand backing and filling the sailsin hope of starting or clearing theanchors; but it was all in vainand he sat down on the railtaking it veryleisurelyand calling out to Captain Nyethat he was coming to pay him avisit. We drifted fairly into the Loriotteher larboard bow into our starboardquartercarrying away a part of our starboard quarter railingand breaking offher larboard bumpkinand one or two stanchions above the deck. We saw ourhandsome sailorJacksonon the forecastlewith the Sandwich Islandersworking away to get us clear. After paying out chainwe swung clearbut ouranchors were no doubt afoul of hers. We manned the windlassand hoveand hoveawaybut to no purpose. Sometimes we got a little upon the cablebut a goodsurge would take it all back again. We now began to drift down toward theAyacuchowhen her boat put off and brought her commanderCaptain Wilsononboard. He was a shortactivewell-built manbetween fifty and sixty years ofage; and being nearly twenty years older than our captainand a thoroughseamanhe did not hesitate to give his adviceand from giving advicehegradually came to taking the command; ordering us when to heave and when topawland backing and filling the topsailssetting and taking in jib andtrysailwhenever he thought best. Our captain gave a few ordersbut as Wilsongenerally countermanded themsayingin an easyfatherly kind of way"Ohno! Captain T---you don't want the jib on her" or "It isn't timeyet to heave!" he soon gave it up. We had no objections to this state ofthingsfor Wilson was a kind old manand had an encouraging and pleasant wayof speaking to uswhich made everything go easily. After two or three hours ofconstant labor at the windlassheaving and "Yo ho!"-ing with all ourmightwe brought up an anchorwith the Loriotte's small bower fast to it.Having cleared this and let it goand cleared our hawsewe soon got our otheranchorwhich had dragged half over the harbor. "Now" said Wilson"I'll find you a good berth;" and

setting both the topsailshe carried us downand brought us to anchorinhandsome styledirectly abreast of the hide-house which we were to use. Havingdone thishe took his leavewhile we furled the sailsand got our breakfastwhich was welcome to usfor we had worked hardand it was nearly twelveo'clock. After breakfastand until nightwe were employed in getting out theboats and mooring ship.

After suppertwo of us took the captain on board the Lagoda. As he camealongsidehe gave his nameand the matein the gangwaycalled out to thecaptain down the companion-way- "Captain T--- has come aboardsir!""Has he brought his brig with him?" said the rough old fellowin atone which made itself heard fore and aft. This mortified our captain a littleand it became a standing joke among us for the rest of the voyage. The captainwent down into the cabinand we walked forward and put our heads down theforecastlewhere we found the men at supper. "Come downshipmates! Comedown!" said theyas soon as they saw us; and we went downand found alargehigh forecastlewell lighted; and a crew of twelve or fourteen meneating out of their kids and pansand drinking their teaand talking andlaughingall as independent and easy as so many "wood-sawyer'sclerks." This looked like comfort and enjoymentcompared with the darklittle forecastleand scantydiscontented crew of the brig. It was Saturdaynight; they had got through with their work for the week; and being snuglymooredhad nothing to do until Mondayagain. After two years' hard servicethey had seen the worstand allof California;- had got their cargo nearlystowedand expected to sail in a week or twofor Boston. We spent an hour ormore with themtalking over California mattersuntil the word was passed-"Pilgrimsaway!" and we went back with our captain. They were ahardybut intelligent crew; a little roughenedand their clothes patched andoldfrom California wear; all able seamenand between the ages of twenty andthirty-five. They inquired about our vesselthe usageetc.and were not alittle surprised at the story of the flogging. They said there were oftendifficulties in vessels on the coastand sometimes knock-downs and fightingsbut they had never heard before of a regular seizing-up and flogging."Spread-eagles" were a new kind of bird in California.

Sundaythey saidwas always given in San Diegoboth at the hide-houses andon board the vesselsa large number usually going up to the townon liberty.We learned a good deal from them about curing and stowing of hidesetc.andthey were anxious to have the latest news (seven months old) from Boston. One oftheir first inquiries was for Father Taylorthe seamen's preacher in Boston.Then followed the usual strain of conversationinquiriesstoriesand jokeswhichone must always hear in a ship's forecastlebut which are perhapsafterallno worsenorindeedmore grossthan that of many well-dressed gentlemenat their clubs.


The next day being Sundayafter washing and clearing decksand gettingbreakfastthe mate came forward with leave for one watch to go ashoreonliberty. We drew lotsand it fell to the larboardwhich I was in. Instantlyall was preparation. Buckets of fresh water(which we were allowed in port)and soapwere put in use; go-ashore jackets and trowsers got out and brushed;pumpsneckerchiefsand hats overhauled; one lending to another; so that amongthe whole each one got a good fit-out. A boat was called to pull the"liberty men" ashoreand we sat down in the stern sheets"asbig as pay passengers" and jumping ashoreset out on our walk for thetownwhich was nearly three miles off.

It is a pity that some other arrangement is not made in merchant vesselswith regard to the liberty-day. When in portthe crews are kept at work all theweekand the only day they are allowed for rest or pleasure is the Sabbath; andunless they go ashore on that daythey cannot go at all. I have heard of areligious captain who gave his crew liberty on Saturdaysafter twelve o'clock.This would be a good planif shipmasters would bring themselves to give theircrews so much time. For young sailors especiallymany of whom have been broughtup with a regard for the sacredness of the daythis strong temptation to breakitis exceedingly injurious. As it isit can hardly be expected that a crewon a long and hard voyagerefuse a few hours of freedom from toil and therestraints of a vesseland an opportunity to tread the ground and see thesights of society and humanitybecause it is on a Sunday. It is too much likeescaping from prisonor being drawn out of a piton the Sabbath day.

I shall never forget the delightful sensation of being in the open airwiththe birds singing around meand escaped from the confinementlaborand strictrule of a vessel- of being once more in my lifethough only for a daymy ownmaster. A sailor's liberty is but for a day; yet while it lasts it is perfect.He is under no one's eyeand can do whateverand go whereverhe pleases. Thisdayfor the first timeI may truly sayin my whole lifeI felt the meaningof a term which I had often heard- the sweets of liberty. My friend S--- waswith meand turning our backs upon the vesselswe walked slowly alongtalkingof the pleasure of being our own mastersof the times pastand when we werefree in the midst of friendsin Americaand of the prospect of our return; andplanning where we would goand what we would dowhen we reached home. It waswonderful how the prospect brightenedand how short and tolerable the voyageappearedwhen viewed in this new light. Things looked differently from whatthey did when we talked them over in the little dark forecastlethe night afterthe flogging at San Pedro. It is not the least of the advantages of allowingsailors occasionally a day of libertythat it gives them a springand makesthem feel cheerful and independentand leads them insensibly to look on thebright side of everything for some time after.

S--- and myself determined to keep as much together as possiblethough weknew that it would not do to cut our shipmates; forknowing our birth andeducationthey were a little suspicious that we would try to put on thegentleman when we got ashoreand would be ashamed of their company; and thiswon't do with Jack. When the voyage is at an endyou may do as you pleasebutso long as you belong to the same vesselyou must be a shipmate to him onshoreor he will not be a shipmate to you on board. Being forewarned of thisbefore I went to seaI took no "long togs" with meand being dressedlike the restin white duck trowsersblue jacket and straw hatwhich wouldprevent my going in better companyand showing no disposition to avoid themIset all suspicion at rest. Our crew fell in with some who belonged to the othervesselsandsailor-likesteered for the first grog-shop. This was a small mudbuildingof only one roomin which were liquorsdry and West India goodsshoesbreadfruitsand everything which is vendible in California. It waskept by a Yankeea one-eyed manwho belonged formerly to Fall Rivercame outto the Pacific in a whale-shipleft her at the Sandwich Islandsand came toCalifornia and set up a "Pulperia." S--- and I followed in ourshipmates' wakeknowing that to refuse to drink with them would be the highestaffrontbut determining to slip away at the first opportunity. It is theuniversal custom with sailors for each onein his turnto treat the wholecalling for a glass all roundand obliging every one who is presenteven thekeeper of the

shopto take a glass with him. When we first came inthere was some disputebetween our crew and the otherswhether the new comers or the old Californiarangers should treat first; but it being settled in favor of the lattereach ofthe crews of the other vessels treated all round in their turnand as therewere a good many present(including some "loafers" who had droppedinknowing what was going onto take advantage of Jack's hospitality) and theliquor was a real (12 1/2 cents) a glassit made somewhat of a hole in theirlockers. It was now our ship's turnand S-- and Ianxious to get awaysteppedup to call for glasses; but we soon found that we must go in order- the oldestfirstfor the old sailors did not choose to be preceded by a couple ofyoungsters; and bon gre mal grewe had to wait our turnwith the twofoldapprehension of being too late for our horsesand of getting cornedfor drinkyou mustevery time; and if you drink with one and not with anotherit isalways taken as an insult.

Having at length gone through our turns and acquitted ourselves of allobligationswe slipped outand went about among the housesendeavoring to gethorses for the dayso that we might ride round and see the country. At first wehad but little successall that we could get out of the lazy fellowsin replyto our questionsbeing the eternal drawling "Quien sabe?" ("whoknows?") which is an answer to all questions. After several effortswe atlength fell in with a little Sandwich Island boywho belonged to Captain Wilsonof the Ayacuchoand was well acquainted in the place; and heknowing where togosoon procured us two horsesready saddled and bridledeach with a lassocoiled over the pommel. These we were to have all daywith the privilege ofriding them down to the beach at nightfor a dollarwhich we had to pay inadvance. Horses are the cheapest thing in California; the very best not beingworth more than ten dollars apieceand very good ones being often sold forthreeand four. In taking a day's rideyou pay for the use of the saddleandfor the labor and trouble of catching the horses. If you bring the saddle backsafethey care but little what becomes of the horse. Mounted on our horseswhich were spirited beastsand whichby the wayin this countryare alwayssteered by pressing the contrary rein against the neckand not by pulling onthe bit- we started off on a fine run over the country. The first place we wentto was the old ruinous presidiowhich stands on a rising ground near thevillagewhich it overlooks. It is built in the form of an open squarelike allthe other presidiosand was in a most ruinous statewith the exception of onesidein which the commandant livedwith his family. There were only two gunsone of which was spikedand the other had no carriage. Twelvehalf clothedand half starved looking fellowscomposed the garrison; and theyit was saidhad not a musket apiece. The small settlement lay directly below the fortcomposed of about forty dark brown looking hutsor housesand two larger onesplasteredwhich belonged to two of the "gente de razon." This town isnot more than half as large as Montereyor Santa Barbaraand has little or nobusiness. From the presidiowe rode off in the direction of the missionwhichwe were told was three miles distant. The country was rather sandyand therewas nothing for miles which could be called a treebut the grass grew green andrankand there were many bushes and thicketsand the soil is said to be good.After a pleasant ride of a couple of mileswe saw the white walls of themissionand fording a small riverwe came directly before it. The mission isbuilt of mudor rather of the unburnt bricks of the countryand plastered.There was something decidedly striking in its appearance: a number of irregularbuildingsconnected with one anotherand disposed in the form of a hollowsquarewith a church at one endrising above the restwith a tower containingfive belfriesin each of which hung a large belland with immense rusty ironcrosses at the tops. Just outside of the buildingsand under the wallsstoodtwenty or thirty small hutsbuilt of straw and of the branches of treesgrouped togetherin which a few Indians livedunder the protection and in theservice of the mission.

Entering a gate-waywe drove into the open squarein which the stillness ofdeath reigned. On one side was the church; on anothera range of high buildingswith grated windows; a third was a range of smaller buildingsor offices; andthe fourth seemed to be little more than a high connecting wall. Not a livingcreature could we see. We rode twice round the squarein the hope of waking upsome one; and in one circuitsaw a tall monkwith shaven headsandalsandthe dress of the Grey Friarspass rapidly through a gallerybut he disappearedwithout noticing us. After two circuitswe stopped our horsesand sawatlasta man show himself in front of one of the small buildings. We rode up tohimand found him dressed in the common dress of the countrywith a silverchain round his necksupporting a large bunch of keys. From thiswe took himto be the steward of the missionand addressing him as "Mayordomo"received a low bow and an invitation to walk into his room. Making our horsesfastwe went in. It was a plain roomcontaining a tablethree or four chairsa small picture or two of some saintor miracleor martyrdomand a few dishesand glasses. "Hay algunas cosa de comer?" said I. "SiSenor!" said he. "Que gusta usted?" Mentioning frijoleswhich Iknew they must have if they had nothing elseand beef and breadand a hint forwineif they had anyhe went off to another buildingacross the courtandreturned in a few momentswith a couple of Indian boysbearing dishes and adecanter of wine. The dishes contained baked meatsfrijoles stewed with peppersand onionsboiled eggsand California flour baked into a kind of macaroni.Thesetogether with the winemade the most sumptuous meal we had eaten sincewe left Boston; andcompared with the fare we had lived upon for seven monthsit was a regal banquet. After despatching our mealwe took out some money andasked him how much we were to pay. He shook his headand crossed himselfsaying that it was charity:- that the Lord gave it to us. Knowing the amount ofthis to be that he did not sell itbut was willing to receive a presentwegave him ten or twelve realswhich he pocketed with admirable nonchalancesaying"Dios se lo pague." Taking leave of himwe rode out to theIndians' huts. The little children were running about among the hutsstarknakedand the men were not much better; but the women had generally coarsegownsof a sort of tow cloth. The men are employedmost of the timeintending the cattle of the missionand in working in the gardenwhich is a verylarge oneincluding several acresand filledit is saidwith the best fruitsof the climate. The language of these peoplewhich is spoken by all the Indiansof Californiais the most brutish and inhuman languagewithout any exceptionthat I ever heardor that could well be conceived of. It is a complete slabber.The words fall off of the ends of their tonguesand a continual slabberingsound is made in the cheeksoutside of the teeth. It cannot have been thelanguage of Montezuma and the independent Mexicans.

Hereamong the hutswe saw the oldest man that I had ever seen; andindeedI never supposed that a person could retain life and exhibit such marksof age. He was sitting out in the sunleaning against the side of a hut; andhis legs and armswhich were barewere of a dark red colorthe skin witheredand shrunk up like burnt leatherand the limbs not larger round than those of aboy of five years. He had a few grey hairswhich were tied together at the back

of his head; and he was so feeble thatwhen we came up to himhe raised hishands slowly to his faceand taking hold of his lids with his fingersliftedthem up to look at us; and being satisfiedlet them drop again. All commandover the lid seemed to have gone. I asked his agebut could get no answer but"Quien sabe?" and they probably did not know the age.

Leaving the missionwe returned to villagegoing nearly all the way on afull run. The California horses have no medium gaitwhich is pleasantbetweenwalking and running; for as there are no streets and paradesthey have no needof the genteel trotand their riders usually keep them at the top of theirspeed until they are tiredand then let them rest themselves by walking. Thefine air of the afternoon; the rapid rate of the animalswho seemed almost tofly over the ground; and the excitement and novelty of the motion to uswho hadbeen so long confined on shipboardwere exhilarating beyond expressionand wefelt willing to ride all day long. Coming into the villagewe found thingslooking very lively. The Indianswho always have a holyday on Sundaywereengaged at playing a kind of running game of ballon a level piece of groundnear the houses. The old ones sat down in a ringlooking onwhile the youngones- menboys and girls- were chasing the balland throwing it with all theirmight. Some of the girls ran like greyhounds. At every accidentor remarkablefeatthe old people set up a deafening screaming and clapping of hands. Severalblue jackets were reeling about among the houseswhich showed that thepulperias had been well patronized. One or two of the sailors had got onhorsebackbut being rather indifferent horsemenand the Spaniards having giventhem vicious horsesthey were soon thrownmuch to the amusement of the people.A half dozen Sandwich Islandersfrom the hide-houses and the two brigswho arebold riderswere dashing about on the full gallophallooing and laughing likeso many wild men.

It was now nearly sundownand S--- and myself went into a house and satquietly down to rest ourselves before going down to the beach. Several peoplewere soon collected to see "los Ingles marineros" and one of them- ayoung woman- took a great fancy to my pocket handkerchiefwhich was a largesilk one that I had before going to seaand a handsomer one than they had beenin the habit of seeing. Of courseI gave it to her; which brought us into highfavor; and we had a present of some pears and other fruitswhich we took downto the beach with us. When we came to leave the housewe found that our horseswhich we left tied at the doorwere both gone. We had paid for them to ridedown to the beachbut they were not to be found. We went to the man of whom wehired thembut he only shrugged his shouldersand to our question"Whereare the horses?" only answered- "Quien sabe?" but as he was veryeasyand made no inquiries for the saddleswe saw that he knew very well wherethey were. After a little troubledetermined not to walk down- a distance ofthree miles- we procured twoat four reds apiecewith an Indian boy to run onbehind and bring them back. Determined to have "the go" out of thehorsesfor our troublewe went down at full speedand were on the beach infifteen minutes. Wishing to make our liberty last as long as possiblewe rodeup and down among the hide-housesamusing ourselves with seeing the menasthey came down(it was now dusk) some on horseback and others on foot. TheSandwich Islanders rode downand were in "high snuff." We inquiredfor our shipmatesand were told that two of them had started on horseback andhad been thrown or had fallen offand were seen heading for the beachbutsteering pretty wildand by the looks of thingswould not be down much beforemidnight.

The Indian boys having arrivedwe gave them our horsesand having seen themsafely offhailed for a boat and went aboard. Thus ended our first liberty-dayon shore. We were well tiredbut had a good timeand were more willing to goback to our old duties. About midnightwe were waked up by our two watchmateswho had come aboard in high dispute. It seems they had started to come down onthe same horsedouble-backed; and each was accusing the other of being thecause of his fall. They soonhoweverturned-in and fell asleepand probablyforgot all about itfor the next morning the dispute was not renewed.


The next sound we heard was "All hands ahoy!" and looking up thescuttlesaw that it was just daylight. Our liberty had now truly taken flightand with it we laid away our pumpsstockingsblue jacketsneckerchiefsandother go-ashore paraphernaliaand putting on old duck trowsersred shirtsandScotch capsbegan taking out and landing our hides. For three days we were hardat workfrom the grey of the morning until starlightwith the exception of ashort time allowed for mealsin this duty. For landing and taking on boardhidesSan Diego is decidedly the best place in California. The harbor is smalland land-locked; there is no surf; the vessels lie within a cable's length ofthe beach; and the beach itself is smoothhard sandwithout rocks or stones.For these reasonsit is used by all the vessels in the tradeas a depot; andindeedit would be impossiblewhen loading with the cured hides for thepassage hometo take them on board at any of the open portswithout gettingthem wet in the surfwhich would spoil them. We took possession of one of thehide-houseswhich belonged to our firmand had been used by the California. Itwas built to hold forty thousand hidesand we had the pleasing prospect offilling it before we could leave the coast; and toward thisour thirty-fivehundredwhich we brought down with uswould do but little. There was not a manon board who did not go a dozen times into the houseand look roundand makesome calculation of the time it would require.

The hidesas they come rough and uncured from the vesselsare piled upoutside of the houseswhence they are taken and carried through a regularprocess of picklingdryingcleaningetc.and stowed away in the housereadyto be put on board. This process is necessary in order that they may keepduring a long voyageand in warm latitudes. For the purpose of curing andtaking care of these hidesan officer and a part of the crew of each vessel areusually left ashore and it was for this businesswe foundthat our new officerhad joined us. As soon as the hides were landedhe took charge of the houseand the captain intended to leave two or three of us with himhiring SandwichIslanders to take our places on board; but he could not get any SandwichIslanders to gothough he offered them fifteen dollars a month; for the reportof the flogging had got among themand he was called "aole maikai"(no good) and that was an end of the business. They werehoweverwilling towork on shoreand four of them were hired and put with Mr. Russell to cure thehides.

After landing our hideswe next sent ashore all our spare spars and rigging;all the stores which we did not want to use in the course of one trip towindward; andin facteverything which we could spareso as to make room forhides: among other thingsthe pig-styand with it "old Bess." Thiswas an old sow that we had brought from Bostonand which lived to get aroundCape Hornwhere all the other pigs died from cold and wet. Report said that shehad been a Canton voyage before. She had been the pet of the cook during thewhole passageand he had fed her with the best of everythingand taught her toknow his voiceand to do a number of strange tricks for his amusement. TomCringle says that no one can fathom a negro's affection for a pig; and I believehe is rightfor it almost broke our poor darky's heart when he heard that Besswas to be taken ashoreand that he was to have the care of her no more duringthe whole voyage. He had depended upon her as a solaceduring the long trips upand down the coast. "Obey ordersif you break owners!" said he."Break hearts" he meant to have said; and lent a hand to get her overthe sidetrying to make it as easy for her as possible. We got a whip up on themain-yardand hooking it to a strap around her bodyswayed away; and giving awink to one anotherran her chock up to the yard. "'Vast there!'vast!" said the mate; "none of your skylarking! Lower away!" Buthe evidently enjoyed the joke. The pig squealed like the "crack ofdoom" and tears stood in the poor darky's eyes; and he muttered somethingabout having no pity on a dumb beast. "Dumb beast!" said Jack;"if she's what you call a dumb beastthen my eyes a'n't mates." Thisproduced a laugh from all but the cook. He was too intent upon seeing her safein the boat. He watched her all the way ashorewhereupon her landingshe wasreceived by a whole troop of her kindwho had been sent ashore from the othervesselsand had multiplied and formed a large commonwealth. From the door ofhis galleythe cook used to watch them in their manoeuvressetting up a shoutand clapping his hands whenever Bess came off victorious in the struggles forpieces of raw hide and half-picked bones which were lying about the beach.During the dayhe saved all the nice thingsand made a bucket of swillandasked us to take it ashore in the gigand looked quite disconcerted when themate told him that he would pitch the 'I overboardand him after itif he sawany of it go into the boats. We told him that he thought more about the pig thanhe did about his wifewho lived down in Robinson's Alley; andindeedhe couldhardly have been more attentivefor he actuallyon several nightsafter darkwhen he thought he would not be seensculled himself ashore in a boat with abucket of nice swilland returned like Leander from crossing the Hellespont.

The next Sunday the other half of our crew went ashore on libertyand leftus on boardto enjoy the first quiet Sunday which we had upon the coast. Herewere no hides to come offand no southeasters to fear. We washed and mended ourclothes in the morningand spent the rest of the day in reading and writing.Several of us wrote letters to send home by the Lagoda. At twelve o'clock theAyacucho dropped her fore topsailwhich was a signal for her sailing. Sheunmoored and warped down into the nightfrom which she got under way. Duringthis operationher crew were a long time heaving at the windlassand Ilistened for nearly an hour to the musical notes of a Sandwich IslandercalledMahannahwho "sang out" for them. Sailorswhen heaving at awindlassin order that they may heave togetheralways have one to sing out;which is done in a peculiarhigh and long-drawn notevarying with the motionof the windlass. This requires a high voicestrong lungsand much practicetobe done well. This fellow had a very peculiarwild sort of notebreakingoccasionally into a falsetto. The sailors thought it was too highand notenough of the boatswain hoarseness about it; but to me it had a great charm. Theharbor was perfectly stilland his voice rang among the hillsas though itcould have been heard for miles. Toward sundowna good breeze having sprung upshe got under weighand with her longsharp head cutting elegantly through thewateron a taught bowlineshe stood directly out of the harborand bore awayto the southward. She was bound to Callaoand thence to the Sandwich Islandsand expected to be on the coast again in eight or ten months.

At the close of the week we were ready to sailbut were delayed a day or twoby the running away of F---the man who had been our second mateand wasturned forward. From the time that he was "broken" he had had a dog'sberth on board the vesseland determined to run away at the first opportunity.Having shipped for an officer when he was not half a seamanhe found littlepity with the crewand was not man enough to hold his ground among them. Thecaptain called him a "soger" *003 and promised to "ride him downas he would the main tack;" and when officers are once determined to"ride a man down" it is a gone case with him. He had had severaldifficulties with the captainand asked leave to go home in the Lagoda; butthis was refused him. One night he was insolent to an officer on the beachandrefused to come aboard in the boat. He was reported to the captain; and as hecame aboard-it being past the proper hours-he was called aftand told that hewas to have a flogging. Immediatelyhe fell down on the deckcallingout-"Don't flog meCaptain T---; don't flog me!" and the captainangry with himand disgusted with his cowardicegave him a few blows over theback with a rope's end and sent him forward. He was not much hurtbut a gooddeal frightenedand made up his mind to run away that very night. This wasmanaged better than anything he ever did in his lifeand seemed really to showsome spirit and forethought. He gave his bedding and mattress to one of theLagoda's crewwho took it aboard his vessel as something which he had boughtand promised to keep it for him. He then unpacked his chestputting all hisvaluable clothes into a large canvas bagand told one of uswho had the watchto call him at midnight. Coming on deckat midnightand finding no officer ondeckand all still afthe lowered his bag into a boatgot softly down intoitcast off the painterand let it drop silently with the tide until he wasout of hearingwhen he sculled ashore. -

The next morningwhen all hands were musteredthere was a great stir tofind F---. Of coursewe would tell nothingand all they could discover wasthat he had left an empty chest behind himand that he went off in a boat; forthey saw it lying up high and dry on the beach. After breakfastthe captainwent up to the townand offered a reward of twenty dollars for him; and for acouple of daysthe soldiersIndiansand all others who had nothing to dowere scouring the country for himon horsebackbut without effect; for he wassafely concealedall the timewithin fifty rods of the hide-houses. As soon ashe had landedhe went directly to the Lagoda's hide-houseand a part of hercrewwho were living there on shorepromised to conceal him and his trapsuntil the Pilgrim should sailand then to intercede with Captain Bradshaw totake him on board the ship. Just behind the hide-housesamong the thickets andunderwoodwas a small cavethe entrance to which was known only to two men onthe beachand which was so well concealed thatthoughwhen I afterwards cameto live on shoreit was shown to me two or three timesI was never able tofind it alone. To this cave he was carried before daybreak in the morningandsupplied with bread and waterand there remained until he saw us under weighand well round the point. -

FridayMarch 27th. The captainhaving given up all hope of finding F---and being unwilling to delay any longergave orders for unmooring the shipandwe made saildropping slowly down with the tide and light wind. We left letterswith Captain Bradshaw to take to Bostonand had the satisfaction of hearing himsay that he should be back again before we left the coast. The windwhich wasvery lightdied away soon after we doubled the pointand we lay becalmed fortwo daysnot moving three miles the whole timeand a part of the second daywere almost within sight of the vessels. On the third dayabout noona coolsea-breeze came rippling and darkening the surface of the waterand by sundownwe were off San Juan'swhich is about forty miles from San Diegoand is calledhalf way to San Pedrowhere we were now bound. Our crew was now considerablyweakened. One man we had lost overboard; another had been taken aft as clerk;and a third had run away; so thatbeside S--- and myselfthere were only threeable seamen and one boy of twelve years of age. With this diminished anddiscontented crewand in a small vesselwe were now to battle the watchthrough a couple of years of hard service; yet there was not one who was notglad that F--- had escaped; forshiftless and good for nothing as he wasnoone could wish to see him dragging on a miserable lifecowed down anddisheartened; and we were all rejoiced to hearupon our return to San Diegoabout two months afterwardsthat he had been immediately taken aboard theLagodaand went home in heron regular seaman's wages.

After a slow passage of five dayswe arrivedon Wednesdaythe first ofAprilat our old anchoring ground at San Pedro. The bay was as desertedandlooked as drearyas beforeand formed no pleasing contrast with the securityand snugness of San Diegoand the activity and interest which the loading andunloading of four vessels gave to that scene. In a few days the hides began tocome slowly downand we got into the old business of rolling goods up the hillpitching hides downand pulling our long league off and on. Nothing of noteoccurred while we were lying hereexcept that an attempt was made to repair thesmall Mexican brig which had been cast away in a south-easterand which now layuphigh and dryover one reef of rocks and two sand-banks. Our carpentersurveyed herand pronounced her capable of refittingand in a few days theowners came down from the Puebloandwaiting for the high spring tideswiththe help of our cableskedgesand crewgot her off and afloatafter severaltrials. The three men at the house on shorewho had formerly been a part of hercrewnow joined herand seemed glad enough at the prospect of getting off thecoast.

On board our own vesselthings went on in the common monotonous way. Theexcitement which immediately followed the flogging scene had passed offbut theeffect of it upon the crewand especially upon the two men themselvesremained. The different manner in which these men were affectedcorrespondingto their different characterswas not a little remarkable. John was a foreignerand high-temperedandthough mortifiedas any one would be at having had theworst of an encounteryet his chief feeling seemed to be anger; and he talkedmuch of satisfaction and revengeif he ever got back to Boston. But with theotherit was very different. He was an Americanand had had some education;and this thing coming upon himseemed completely to break him down. He had afeeling of the degradation that had been inflicted upon himwhich the other manwas incapable of. Before thathe had a good deal of funand amused us oftenwith queer negro stories- (he was from a slave state); but afterwards he seldomsmiled; seemed to lose all life and elasticity; and appeared to have but onewishand that was for the voyage to be at an end. I have often known him todraw a long sigh when he was aloneand he took but little part or interest inJohn's plans of satisfaction and retaliation.

After a stay of about a fortnightduring which we slipped for onesouth-easterand were at sea two dayswe got under weigh for Santa Barbara. Itwas now the middle of Apriland the south-easter season was nearly over; andthe lightregular trade-windswhich blow down the coastbegan to set steadilyinduring the latter part of each day. Against thesewe beat slowly up toSanta Barbara- a distance of about ninety miles- in three days. There we foundlying at anchorthe large Genoese ship which we saw in the same placeon thefirst day of our coming upon the coast. She had been up to San Franciscoorasit is called"chock up to windward" had stopped at Monterey on herway downand was shortly to proceed to San Pedro and San Diegoand thencetaking in her cargoto sail for Valparaiso and Cadiz. She was a largeclumsyshipand with her topmasts stayed forwardand high poop-decklooked like anold woman with a crippled back. It was now the close of Lentand on Good Fridayshe had all her yards a'cock-billwhich is customary among Catholic vessels.Some also have an effigy of Judaswhich the crew amuse themselves withkeel-hauling and hanging by the neck from the yard-arms.


The next Sunday was Easter Sundayand as there had been no liberty at SanPedroit was our turn to go ashore and misspend another Sabbath. Soon afterbreakfasta large boatfilled with men in blue jacketsscarlet capsandvarious colored under-clothesbound ashore on libertyleft the Italian shipand passed under our stern; the men singing beautiful Italian boatsongsall thewayin finefull chorus. Among the songs I recognized the favorite "OPescator dell' onda." It brought back to my mind pianofortesdrawing-roomsyoung ladies singingand a thousand other things which as littlebefitted mein my situationto be thinking upon. Supposing that the whole daywould be too long a time to spend ashoreas there was no place to which wecould take a ridewe remained quietly on board until after dinner. We were thenpulled ashore in the stern of the boatandwith orders to be on the beach atsundownwe took our way for the town. Thereeverything wore the appearance ofa holyday. The people were all dressed in their best; the men riding about onhorseback among the housesand the women sitting on carpets before the doors.Under the piazza of a "pulperia" two men were seateddecked out withknots of ribbons and bouquetsand playing the violin and the Spanish guitar.These are the only instrumentswith the exception of the drums and trumpets atMonterey that I ever heard in California; and I suspect they play upon noothersfor at a great fandango at which I was afterwards presentand wherethey mustered all the music they could findthere were three violins and twoguitarsand no other instrument. As it was now too near the middle of the dayto see any dancing and hearing that a bull was expected down from the countryto be baited in the presidio squarein the course of an hour or two we took astroll among the houses. Inquiring for an American whowe had been toldhadmarried in the placeand kept a shopwe were directed to a longlow buildingat the end of which was a doorwith a sign over itin Spanish. Entering theshopwe found no one in itand the whole had an emptydeserted appearance. Ina few minutes the man made his appearanceand apologized for having nothing toentertain us withsaying that he had had a fandango at his house the nightbeforeand the people had eaten and drunk up everything.

"Oh yes!" said I"Easter holydays!"

"No!" said hewith a singular expression to his face; "I hada little daughter die the other dayand that's the custom of the country."

Here I felt a little strangelynot knowing what to sayor whether to offerconsolation or noand was beginning to retirewhen he opened a side door andtold us to walk in. Here I was no less astonished; for I found a large roomfilled with young girlsfrom three or four years of age up to fifteen andsixteendressed all in whitewith wreaths of flowers on their headsandbouquets in their hands. Following our conductor through all these girlswhowere playing about in high spiritswe came to a tableat the end of the roomcovered with a white clothon which lay a coffinabout three feet longwiththe body of his child. The coffin was lined on the outside with white clothandon the inside with white satinand was strewed with flowers. Through an opendoor we sawin another rooma few elderly people in common dresses; while thebenches and tables thrown up in a cornerand the stained wallsgave evidentsigns of the last night's "high go." Feelinglike Garrickbetweentragedy and comedyan uncertainty of purpose and a little awkwardnessI askedthe man when the funeral would take placeand being told that it would movetoward the mission in about an hourtook my leave.

To pass away the timewe took horses and rode down to the beachand therefound three or four Italian sailorsmountedand riding up and downon thehard sandat a furious rate. We joined themand found it fine sport. The beachgave us a stretch of a mile or moreand the horses flew over the smoothhardsandapparently invigorated and excited by the salt sea-breezeand by thecontinual roar and dashing of the breakers. From the beach we returned to thetownand finding that the funeral procession had movedrode on and overtookitabout half-way to the mission. Here was as peculiar a sight as we had seenbefore in the house; the one looking as much like a funeral procession as theother did like a house of mourning. The little coffin was borne by eight girlswho were continually relieved by othersrunning forward from the procession andtaking their places. Behind it came a straggling company of girlsdressed asbeforein white and flowersand includingI should suppose by their numbersnearly all the girls between five and fifteen in the place. They played along onthe wayfrequently stopping and running all together to talk to some oneor topick up a flowerand then running on again to overtake the coffin. There were afew elderly women in common colors; and a herd of young men and boyssome onfoot and others mountedfollowed themor walked or rode by their sidefrequently interrupting them by jokes and questions. But the most singular thingof all wasthat two men walkedone on each side of the coffincarryingmuskets in the coffinwhich they continually loadedand fired into the air.Whether this was to keep off the evil spirits or notI do not know. It was theonly interpretation that I could put upon it.

As we drew near the missionwe saw the great gate thrown openand the padrestanding on the stepswith a crucifix in hand. The mission is a large anddeserted-looking placethe out-buildings going to ruinand everything givingone the impression of decayed grandeur. A large stone fountain threw out purewaterfrom four mouthsinto a basinbefore the church door; and we were onthe point of riding up to let our horses drinkwhen it occurred to us that itmight be consecratedand we forbore. Just at this momentthe bells set uptheir harshdiscordant clang; and the procession moved into the court. I wasanxious to followand see the ceremonybut the horse of one of my companionshad become frightenedand was tearing off toward the town; and having thrownhis riderand got one of his feet caught in the saddlewhich had slippedwasfast dragging and ripping it to pieces. Knowing that my shipmate could not speaka word of Spanishand fearing that he would get into difficultyI was obligedto leave the ceremony and ride after him. I soon overtook himtrudging alongswearing at the horseand carrying the remains of the saddlewhich he hadpicked up on the road. Going to the owner of the horsewe made a settlementwith himand found him surprisingly liberal. All parts of the saddle werebrought backandbeing capable of repairhe was satisfied with six reals. Wethought it would have been a few dollars. We pointed to the horsewhich was nowhalf way up one of the mountains; but he shook his headsaying"Noimporter" and giving us to understand that he had plenty more.

Having returned to the townwe saw a great crowd collected in the squarebefore the principal pulperiaand riding upfound that all these people- menwomenand children- had been drawn together by a couple of bantam cocks. Thecocks were in full tiltspringing into one anotherand the people were aseagerlaughing and shoutingas though the combatants had been men. There hadbeen a disappointment about the bull; he had broken his bailand taken himselfoffand it was too late to get another; so the people were obliged to put upwith a cock-fight. One of the bantams having been knocked in the headand hadan eye put outhe gave inand two monstrous prize-cocks were brought on. Thesewere the object of the whole affair; the two bantams having been merely servedup as a first courseto collect the people together. Two fellows came into thering holding the cocks in their armsand stroking themand running about onall foursencouraging and setting them on. Bets ran highandlike most othercontestsit remained for some time undecided. They both showed great pluckandfought probably better and longer than their masters would have done. Whetherin the endit was the white or the red that beatI do not recollect; butwhichever it washe strutted off with the true veni-vidi-vici lookleaving theother lying panting on his beam-ends.

This matter having been settledwe heard some talk about"caballos" and "carrera" and seeing the people allstreaming off in one directionwe followedand came upon a level piece ofgroundjust out of the townwhich was used as a race-course. Here the crowdsoon became thick again; the ground was marked off; the judges stationed; andthe horses led up to one end. Two fine-looking old gentlemen- Don Carlos and DonDomingoso called- held the stakesand all was now ready. We waited some timeduring which we could just see the horses twisting round and turninguntilatlengththere was a shout along the linesand on they came- heads stretched outand eyes starting;- working all overboth man and beast. The steeds came by uslike a couple of chainshot- neck and neck; and now we could see nothing buttheir backsand their hind hoofs flying in the air. As fast as the horsespassedthe crowd broke up behind themand ran to the goal. When we got therewe found the horses returning on a slow walkhaving run far beyond the markand heard that the longbony one had come in head and shoulders before theother. The riders were light-built men; had handkerchiefs tied round theirheads; and were barearmed and bare-legged. The horses were noble-looking beastsnot so sleek and combed as our Boston stable-horsesbut with fine limbsandspirited eyes. After this had been settledand fully talked overthe crowdscattered again and flocked back to the town.

Returning to the large pulperiawe found the violin and guitar screaming andtwanging away under the piazzawhere they had been all day. As it was nowsundownthere began to be some dancing. The Italian sailors dancedand one ofour crew exhibited himself in a sort of West India shufflemuch to theamusement of the bystanderswho cried out"Bravo!" "Otravez!" and "Vivan los marineros!" but the dancing did not becomegeneralas the women and the "gente de razon" had not yet made theirappearance. We wished very much to stay and see the style of dancing; butalthough we had had our own way during the dayyet we wereafter allbut'foremast Jacks; and having been ordered to be on the beach by sundowndid notventure to be more than an hour behind the time; so we took our way down. We

found the boat just pulling ashore through the breakerswhich were runninghighthere having been a heavy fog outsidewhichfrom some cause or otheralways brings onor precedes a heavy sea. Liberty-men are privileged from thetime they leave the vessel until they step on board again; so we took our placesin the stern sheetsand were congratulating ourselves upon getting off drywhen a great comber broke fore and aft the boatand wet us through and throughfilling the boat half full of water. Having lost her buoyancy by the weight ofthe watershe dropped heavily into every sea that struck herand by the timewe had pulled out of the surf into deep watershe was but just afloatand wewere up to our knees. By the help of a small bucket and our hatswe bailed heroutgot on boardhoisted the boatseat our supperchanged our clothesgave(as is usual) the whole history of our day's adventures to those who had staidon boardand having taken a night-smoketurned-in. Thus ended our second day'sliberty on shore.

On Monday morningas an offset to our day's sportwe were all set to work"tarring down" the rigging. Some got girt-lines up for riding down thestays and back-staysand others tarred the shroudsliftsetc.laying out onthe yardsand coming down the rigging. We overhauled our bags and took out ourold tarry trowsers and frockswhich we had used when we tarred down beforeandwere all at work in the rigging by sunrise. After breakfastwe had thesatisfaction of seeing the Italian ship's boat go ashorefilled with mengailydressedas on the day beforeand singing their barcarollas. The Easterholydays are kept up on shore during three days; and being a Catholic vesselthe crew had the advantage of them. For two successive dayswhile perched up inthe riggingcovered with tar and engaged in our disagreeable workwe saw thesefellows going ashore in the morningand coming off again at nightin highspirits. So much for being Protestants. There's no danger of Catholicism'sspreading in New England; Yankees can't afford the time to be Catholics.American shipmasters get nearly three weeks more labor out of their crewsinthe course of a yearthan the masters of vessels from Catholic countries.Yankees don't keep Christmasand shipmasters at sea never know whenThanksgiving comesso Jack has no festival at all.

About noona man aloft called out "Sail ho!" and looking roundwesaw the head sails of a vessel coming round the point. As she drew roundsheshowed the broadside of a full-rigged brigwith the Yankee ensign at her peak.We ran up our stars and stripesandknowing that there was no American brig onthe coast but ourselvesexpected to have news from home. She rounded-to and letgo her anchorbut the dark faces on her yardswhen they furled the sailsandthe Babel on decksoon made known that she was from the Islands. Immediatelyafterwardsa boat's crew came aboardbringing her skipperand from them welearned that she was from Oahuand was engaged in the same trade with theAyacuchoLoriotteetc.between the coastthe Sandwich Islandsand theleeward coast of Peru and Chili. Her captain and officers were Americansandalso a part of her crew; the rest were Islanders. She was called the Catalinaandlike all the others vessels in that tradeexcept the Ayacuchoher papersand colors were from Uncle Sam. Theyof coursebrought us no newsand we weredoubly disappointedfor we had thoughtat firstit might be the ship which wewere expecting from Boston.

After lying here about a fortnightand collecting all the hides the placeaffordedwe set sail again for San Pedro. There we found the brig which we hadassisted in getting off lying at anchorwith a mixed crew of AmericansEnglishSandwich IslandersSpaniardsand Spanish Indians; andthough muchsmaller than weyet she had three times the number of men; and she needed themfor her officers were Californians. No vessels in the world go so poorly mannedas American and English; and none do so well. A Yankee brig of that size wouldhave had a crew of four menand would have worked round and round her. TheItalian ship had a crew of thirty men; nearly three times as many as the Alertwhich was afterwards on the coastand was of the same size; yet the Alert wouldget under weigh and come-to in half the timeand get two anchorswhile theywere all talking at once- jabbering like a parcel of "Yahoos" andrunning about decks to find their cat-block.

There was only one point in which they had the advantage over usand thatwas in lightening their labors in the boats by their songs. The Americans are atime and money saving peoplebut have not yetas a nationlearned that musicmay be "turned to account." We pulled the long distances to and fromthe shorewith our loaded boatswithout a word spokenand with discontentedlookswhile they not only lightened the labor of rowingbut actually made itpleasant and cheerfulby their music. So true is itthat-- -

"For the tired slavesong lifts the languid oar

And bids it aptly fallwith chime

That beautifies the fairest shore

And mitigates the harshest clime." -

We lay about a week in San Pedroand got under weigh for San Diegointending to stop at San Juanas the south-easter season was nearly overandthere was little or no danger.

This being the spring seasonSan Pedroas well as all the other open portsupon the coastwas filled with whalesthat had come in to make their annualvisit upon soundings. For the first few days that we were here and at SantaBarbarawe watched them with great interest- calling out "there sheblows!" every time we saw the spout of one breaking the surface of thewater; but they soon became so common that we took little notice of them. Theyoften "broke" very near us; and one thickfoggy nightduring a deadcalmwhile I was standing anchor-watchone of them rose so nearthat hestruck our cableand made all surge again. He did not seem to like theencounter much himselffor he sheered offand spouted at a good distance. Weonce came very near running one down in the gigand should probably have beenknocked to pieces and blown sky-high. We had been on board the little Spanishbrigand were returningstretching out well at our oarsthe little boat goinglike a swallow; our backs were forward(as is always the case in pulling) andthe captainwho was steeringwas not looking aheadwhenall at onceweheard the spout of a whale directly ahead. "Back water! back waterforyour lives!" shouted the captain; and we backed our blades in the water andbrought the boat to in a smother of foam. Turning our headswe saw a greatroughhump-backed whaleslowly crossing our fore footwithin three or fouryards of the boat's stem. Had we not backed water just as we didwe shouldinevitably have gone smash upon himstriking him with our stem just aboutamidships. He took no notice of usbut passed slowly onand dived a few yardsbeyond usthrowing his tail high in the air. He was so near that we had aperfect view of him and as may be supposedhad no desire to see him nearer. Hewas a disgusting creature; with a skin roughhairyand of an iron-grey color.This kind differs much from the spermin color and skinand is said to befiercer. We saw a few sperm whales; but most of the whales that come upon thecoast are fin-backshump -backsand right whaleswhich are more difficult totakeand are said not to give oil enough to pay for the trouble. For thisreason whale-ships do not come upon the coast after them. Our captaintogetherwith Captain Nye of the Loriottewho had been in a whale-shipthought ofmaking an attempt upon one of them with two boats' crewsbut as we had only twoharpoons and no proper linesthey gave it up.

During the months of MarchApriland Maythese whales appear in greatnumbers in the open ports of Santa BarbaraSan Pedroetc.and hover off thecoastwhile a few find their way into the close harbors of San Diego andMonterey. They are all off again before midsummerand make their appearance onthe "off-shore ground." We saw some fine "schools" of spermwhaleswhich are easily distinguished by their spoutblowing awaya few milesto windwardon our passage to San Juan.

Coasting along on the quiet shore of the Pacificwe came to anchorintwenty fathoms' wateralmost out at seaas it wereand directly abreast of asteep hill which overhung the waterand was twice as high as ourroyal-mast-head. We had heard much of this placefrom the Lagoda's crewwhosaid it was the worst place in California. The shore is rockyand directlyexposed to the south-eastso so that vessels are obliged to slip and run fortheir lives on the first sign of a gale; and late as it was in the seasonwegot up our slip-rope and gearthough we meant to stay only twenty-four hours.We pulled the agent ashoreand were ordered to wait for himwhile he took acircuitous way round the hill to the missionwhich was hidden behind it. Wewere glad of the opportunity to examine this singular placeand hauling theboat up and making her well fasttook different directions up and down thebeachto explore it.

San Juan is the only romantic spot in California. The country here forseveral miles is high table-landrunning boldly to the shoreand breaking offin a steep hillat the foot of which the waters of the Pacific are constantlydashing. For several miles the water washes the very base of the hillor breaksupon ledges and fragments of rocks which run out into the sea. Just where welanded was a small coveor "bight" which gave usat high tideafew square feet of sand-beach between the sea and the bottom of the hill. Thiswas the only landing-place. Directly before usrose the perpendicular height offour or five hundred feet. How we were to get hides downor goods upupon thetable-land on which the mission was situatedwas more than we could tell. Theagent had taken a long circuitand yet had frequently to jump over breaksandclimb up steep placesin the ascent. No animal but a man or monkey could get upit. Howeverthat was not our look-out; and knowing that the agent would be gonean hour or morewe strolled aboutpicking up shellsand following the seawhere it tumbled inroaring and spoutingamong the crevices of the greatrocks. What a sightthought Imust this be in a south-easter! The rocks wereas large as those of Nahant or Newportbutto my eyemore grand and broken.Besidethere was a grandeur in everything aroundwhich gave almost a solemnityto the scene: a silence and solitariness which affected everything! Not a humanbeing but ourselves for miles; and no sound heard but the pulsations of thegreat Pacific! and the great steep hill rising like a walland cutting us offfrom all the worldbut the "world of waters!" I separated myself fromthe rest and sat down on a rockjust where the sea ran in and formed a finespouting horn. Compared with the plaindull sand-beach of the rest of thecoastthis grandeur was as refreshing as a great rock in a weary land. It wasalmost the first time that I had been positively alone- free from the sense thathuman beings were at my elbowif not talking with me- since I had left home. Mybetter nature returned strong upon me. Everything was in accordance with mystate of feelingand I experienced a glow of pleasure at finding that what ofpoetry and romance I ever had in mehad not been entirely deadened by thelaborious and frittering life I had led. Nearly an hour did I sitalmost lostin the luxury of this entire new scene of the play in which I had been so longactingwhen I was aroused by the distant shouts of my companionsand saw thatthey were collecting togetheras the agent had made his appearanceon his wayback to our boat.

We pulled aboardand found the long-boat hoisted outand nearly laden withgoods; and after dinnerwe all went on shore in the quarter-boatwith thelong-boat in tow. As we drew inwe found an ox-cart and a couple of menstanding directly on the brow of the hill; and having landedthe captain tookhis way round the hillordering me and one other to follow him. We followedpicking our way outand jumping and scrambling upwalking over briers andprickly pearsuntil we came to the top. Here the country stretched out formiles as far as the eye could reachon a leveltable surface; and the onlyhabitation in sight was the small white mission of San Juan Capistranowith afew Indian huts about itstanding in a small hollowabout a mile from where wewere. Reaching the brow of the hill where the cart stoodwe found several pilesof hidesand Indians sitting round them. One or two other carts were comingslowly on from the missionand the captain told us to begin and throw the hidesdown. Thisthenwas the way they were to be got down: thrown downone at atimea distance of four hundred feet! This was doing the business on a greatscale. Standing on the edge of the hill and looking down the perpendicularheightthe sailors-

--That walk upon the beach

Appeared like mice; and our tall anchoring bark

Diminished to her cock; her cock a buoy

Almost too small for sight." -

Down this height we pitched the hidesthrowing them as far out into the airas we could; and as they were all largestiffand doubledlike the cover of abookthe wind took themand they swayed and eddied aboutplunging and risingin the airlike a kite when it has broken its string. As it was now low tidethere was no danger of their falling into the waterand as fast as they came togroundthe men below picked them upand taking them on their headswalked offwith them to the boat. It was really a picturesque sight: the great height; thescaling of the hides; and the continual walking to and fro of the menwholooked like miteson the beach! This was the romance of hide-droghing!

Some of the hides lodged in cavities which were under the bank and out of oursightbeing directly under us; but by sending others down in the samedirectionwe succeeded in dislodging them. Had they remained therethe captainsaid he should have sent on board for a couple of pairs of long halyardsandgot some one to have gone down for them. It was said that one of the crew of anEnglish brig went down in the same waya few years before. We looked overandthought it would not be a welcome taskespecially for a few paltry hides; butno one knows what he can do until he is called upon; forsix months afterwardsI went down the same place by a pair of top-gallant studding-sail halyardstosave a half a dozen hides which had lodged there.

Having thrown them all downwe took our way back againand found the boatloaded and ready to start. We pulled off; took the hides all aboard; hoisted inthe boats; hove up our anchor; made sail; and before sundownwere on our way toSan Diego. -

FridayMay 8th1835. Arrived at San Diego. Here we found the little harbordeserted. The LagodaAyacuchoLoriotteand allhad left the coastand wewere nearly alone. All the hide-houses on the beachbut ourswere shut upandthe Sandwich Islandersa dozen or twenty in numberwho had worked for theother vessels and been paid off when they sailedwere living on the beachkeeping up a grand carnival. A Russian discovery-ship which had been in thisport a few years beforehad built a large oven for baking breadand went awayleaving it standing. Thisthe Sandwich Islanders took possession ofand hadkeptever sinceundisturbed. It was big enough to hold six or eight men- thatisit was as large as a ship's forecastle; had a door at the sideand avent-hole at top. They covered it with Oahu matsfor a carpet; stopped up theventhole in bad weatherand made it their head-quarters. It was now inhabitedby as many as a dozen or twenty menwho lived there in complete idleness-drinkingplaying cardsand carousing in every way. They bought a bullock oncea weekwhich kept them in meatand one of them went up to the town every dayto get fruitliquorand provisions. Besides thisthey had bought a cask ofship-breadand a barrel of flour from the Lagodabefore she sailed. There theylivedhaving a grand timeand caring for nobody. Captain T--- was anxious toget three or four of them to come on board the Pilgrimas we were so muchdiminished in numbers; and went up to the oven and spent an hour or two tryingto negotiate with them. One of them- a finely builtactivestrong andintelligent fellow- who was a sort of king among themacted as spokesman. Hewas called Mannini- or ratherout of compliment to his known importance andinfluenceMr. Mannini- and was known all over California. Through himthecaptain offered them fifteen dollars a monthand one month's pay in advance;but it was like throwing pearls before swineor rathercarrying coals toNewcastle. So long as they had moneythey would not work for fifty dollars amonthand when their money was gonethey would work for ten.

"What do you do hereMr. Mannini?" *004 said the captain.

"Ohwe play cardsget drunksmoke- do anything we're a mind to."

"Don't you want to come aboard and work?"

"Aole! aole make make makou i ka hana. Nowgot plenty money; no goodwork. Mamulemoney pau- all gone. Ah! very goodwork!- maikaihana hananui!"

"But you'll spend all your money in this way" said the captain.

"Aye! me know that. By-'em-by money pau- all gone; then Kanaka workplenty."

This was a hopeless caseand the captain left themto wait patiently untiltheir money was gone.

We discharged our hides and tallowand in about a week were ready to setsail again for the windward. We unmooredand got everything readywhen thecaptain made another attempt upon the oven. This time he had more regard to the"mollia tempora fandi" and succeeded very well. He got Mr. Mannini inhis interestand as the shot was getting low in the lockerprevailed upon himand three others to come on board with their chests and baggageand sent ahasty summons to me and the boy to come ashore with our thingsand join thegang at the hide-house. This was unexpected to me; but anything in the way ofvariety I liked; so we got readyand were pulled ashore. I stood on the beachwhile the brig got under weighand watched her until she rounded the pointandthen went up to the hide-house to take up my quarters for a few months.


Here was a change in my life as complete as it had been sudden. In thetwinkling of an eyeI was transformed from a sailor into a"beach-comber" and a hide-curer; yet the novelty and the comparativeindependence of the life were not unpleasant. Our hide-house was a largebuildingmade of rough boardsand intended to hold forty thousand hides. Inone corner of ita small room was parted offin which four berths were madewhere we were to livewith mother earth for our floor. It contained a tableasmall locker for potsspoonsplatesetc.and a small hole cut to let in thelight. Here we put our cheststhrew our bedding into the berthsand took upour quarters. Over our head was another small roomin which Mr. Russell livedwho had charge of the hide-house; the same man who was for a time an officer ofthe Pilgrim. There he lived in solitary grandeur; eating and sleeping alone(and these were his principal occupations) and communing with his own dignity.The boy was to act as cook; while myselfa giant of a Frenchman named Nicholasand four Sandwich Islanderswere to cure the hides. Samthe Frenchmanandmyselflived together in the roomand the four Sandwich Islanders worked andate with usbut generally slept at the oven. My new messmateNicholaswas themost immense man that I had ever seen in my life. He came on the coast in avessel which was afterwards wreckedand now let himself out to the differenthouses to cure hides. He was considerably over six feetand of a frame so largethat he might have been shown for a curiosity. But the most remarkable thingabout him was his feet. They were so large that he could not find a pair ofshoes in California to fit himand was obliged to send to Oahu for a pair; andwhen he got themhe was compelled to wear them down at the heel. He told meoncehimselfthat he was wrecked in an American brig on the Goodwin Sandsandwas sent up to Londonto the charge of the American consulwithout clothing tohis back or shoes to his feetand was obliged to go about London streets in hisstocking feet three or four daysin the month of Januaryuntil the consulcould have a pair of shoes made for him. His strength was in proportion to hissizeand his ignorance to his strength- "strong as an oxand ignorant asstrong." He neither knew how to read nor write. He had been to sea from aboyand had seen all kinds of serviceand been in every kind of vessel:merchantmenmen-of-warprivateersand slavers; and from what I could gatherfrom his accounts of himselfand from what he once told mein confidenceafter we had become better acquaintedhe had even been in worse business thanslave-trading. He was once tried for his life in CharlestonSouth Carolinaandthough acquittedyet he was so frightened that he never would show himself inthe United States again; and I could not persuade him that he could never betried a second time for the same offence. He said he had got safe off from thebreakersand was too good a sailor to risk his timbers again.

Though I knew what his life had beenyet I never had the slightest fear ofhim. We always got along very well togetherandthough so much stronger andlarger than Ihe showed a respect for my educationand for what he had heardof my situation before coming to sea. "I'll be good friends with you"he used to say"for by-and-by you'll come out here captainand thenyou'll haze me well!" By holding well togetherwe kept the officer in goodorderfor he was evidently afraid of Nicholasand never ordered usexceptwhen employed upon the hides. My other companionsthe Sandwich Islandersdeserve particular notice.

A considerable trade has been carried on for several years between Californiaand the Sandwich Islandsand most of the vessels are manned with Islanders;whoas theyfor the most partsign no articlesleave whenever they chooseand let themselves out to cure hides at San Diegoand to supply the places ofthe men of the American vessels while on the coast. In this wayquite a colonyof them had become settled at San Diegoas their headquarters. Some of thesehad recently gone off in the Ayacucho and Loriotteand the Pilgrim had takenMr. Mannini and three othersso that there were not more than twenty left. Ofthesefour were on pay at the Ayacucho's housefour more working with usandthe rest were living at the oven in a quiet way; for their money was nearlygoneand they must make it last until some other vessel came down to employthem.

During the four months that I lived hereI got well acquainted with all ofthemand took the greatest pains to become familiar with their languagehabitsand characters. Their languageI could only learnorallyfor they hadnot any books among themthough many of them had been taught to read and writeby the missionaries at home. They spoke a little Englishand by a sort ofcompromisea mixed language was used on the beachwhich could be understood byall. The long name of Sandwich Islanders is droppedand they are called by thewhitesall over the Pacific ocean"Kanakas" from a word in theirown language which they apply to themselvesand to all South Sea Islandersindistinction from whiteswhom they call "Haole." This name"Kanaka" they answer toboth collectively and individually. Theirproper namesin their own languagebeing difficult to pronounce and rememberthey are called by any names which the captains or crews may choose to givethem. Some are called after the vessel they are in; others by common namesasJackTomBill; and some have fancy namesas Ban-yanFore-topRope-yarnPelicanetc.etc. Of the four who worked at our house one was named "Mr.Bingham" after the missionary at Oahu; anotherHopeafter a vessel thathe had been in; a thirdTom Davisthe name of his first captain; and thefourthPelicanfrom his fancied resemblance to that bird. Then there wasLagoda-JackCalifornia-Billetc.etc. But by whatever names they might becalledthey were the most interestingintelligentand kindhearted people thatI ever fell in with. I felt a positive attachment for almost all of them; andmany of them I haveto this timea feeling forwhich would lead me to go agreat way for the mere pleasure of seeing themand which will always make mefeel a strong interest in the mere name of a Sandwich Islander.

Tom Davis knew how to readwriteand cipher in common arithmetic; had beento the United Statesand spoke English quite well. His education was as good asthat of three-quarters of the Yankees in Californiaand his manners andprinciples a good deal betterand he was so quick of apprehension that he mighthave been taught navigationand the elements of many of the scienceswith themost perfect ease. Old "Mr. Bingham" spoke very little English- almostnoneand neither knew how to read nor write; but he was the besthearted oldfellow in the world. He must have been over fifty years of ageand had two ofhis front teeth knocked outwhich was done by his parents as a sign of grief atthe death of Kamehamehathe great king of the Sandwich Islands. We used to tellhim that he ate Captain Cookand lost his teeth in that way. That was the onlything that ever made him angry. He would always be quite excited at that; andsay- "Aole!" (no.) "Me no eat Captain Cook! Me pikinini- small-so high- no more! My father see Captain Cook! Me- no!" None of them likedto have anything said about Captain Cookfor the sailors all believe that hewas eatenand thatthey cannot endure to be taunted with.- "New ZealandKanaka eat white man;- Sandwich Island Kanaka- no. Sandwich Island Kanaka ualike pu na haole- all 'e same a' you!"

Mr. Bingham was a sort of patriarch among themand was always treated withgreat respectthough he had not the education and energy which gave Mr. Manninihis power over them. I have spent hours in talking with this old fellow aboutKamehamehathe Charlemagne of the Sandwich Islands; his son and successor RihoRihowho died in Englandand was brought to Oahu in the frigate BlondeCaptain Lord Byronand whose funeral he remembered perfectly; and also aboutthe customs of his country in his boyhoodand the changes which had been madeby the missionaries. He never would allow that human beings had been eatenthere; andindeedit always seemed like an insult to tell so affectionateintelligentand civilized a class of menthat such barbarities had beenpractised in their own country within the recollection of many of them.Certainlythe history of no people on the globe can show anything like so rapidan advance. I would have trusted my life and my fortune in the hands of any oneof these people; and certainly had I wished for a favor or act of sacrificeIwould have gone to them allin turnbefore I should have applied to one of myown countrymen on the coastand should have expected to have seen it donebefore my own countrymen had got half through counting the cost. Their costumesand manner of treating one anothershow a simpleprimitive generositywhichis truly delightful; and which is often a reproach to our own people. Whateverone hasthey all have. Moneyfoodclothesthey share with one another; evento the last piece of tobacco to put in their pipes. I once heard old Mr. Binghamsaywith the highest indignationa Yankee trader who was trying to persuadehim to keep his money to himself- "No! We no all same a' you!- Suppose onegot moneyall got money. You;- suppose one got money- lock him up in chest.- Nogood!"- "Kanaka all 'e same a' one!" This principle they carry sofarthat none of them will eat anything in the sight of others without offeringit all round. I have seen one of them break a biscuitwhich had been given himinto five partsat a time when I knew he was on a very short allowanceasthere was but little to eat on the beach.

My favorite among all of themand one who was liked by both officers andmenand by whomever he had anything to do withwas Hope. He was anintelligentkind-hearted little fellowand I never saw him angrythough Iknew him for more than a yearand have seen him imposed upon by white peopleand abused by insolent officers of vessels. He was always civiland alwaysreadyand never forgot a benefit. I once took care of him when he was ingetting medicines from the ship's chestswhen no captain or officer would doanything for himand he never forgot it. Every Kanaka has one particularfriendwhom he considers himself bound to do everything forand with whom hehas a sort of contracts- an alliance offensive and defensive- and for whom hewill often make the greatest sacrifices. This friend they call aikane; and forsuch did Hope adopt me. I do not believe I could have wanted anything which hehadthat he would not have given me. In return for thisI was always hisfriend among the Americansand used to teach him letters and numbers; for heleft home before he had learned how to read. He was very curious about Boston(as they call the United States); asking many questions about the housesthepeopleetc.and always wished to have the pictures in books explained to him.They were all astonishingly quick in catching at explanationsand many thingswhich I had thought it utterly impossible to make them understandthey oftenseized in an instantand asked questions which showed that they knew enough tomake them wish to go farther. The pictures of steamboats and railroad carsinthe columns of some newspapers which I hadgave me great difficulty to explain.The grading of the roadthe railsthe construction of the carriagestheycould easily understandbut the motion produced by steam was a little toorefined for them. I attempted to show it to them once by an experiment upon thecook's coppersbut failed; probably as much from my own ignorance as from theirwant of apprehension; andI have no doubtleft them with about as clear ideaof the principle as I had myself. This difficultyof courseexisted in thesame force with the steamboats and all I could do was to give them some accountof the resultsin the shape of speed; forfailing in the reasonI had to fallback upon the fact. In my account of the speed I was supported by Tomwho hadbeen to Nantucketand seen a little steamboat which ran over to New Bedford.

A map of the worldwhich I once showed themkept their attention for hours;those who knew how to read pointing out the places and referring to me for thedistances. I remember being much amused with a question which Hope asked me.Pointing to the large irregular place which is always left blank round thepolesto denote that it is undiscoveredhe looked up and asked-"Pau?" (Done? ended?)

The system of naming the streets and numbering the housesthey easilyunderstoodand the utility of it. They had a great desire to see Americabutwere afraid of doubling Cape Hornfor they suffer much in cold weatherand hadheard dreadful accounts of the Capefrom those of their number who had beenround it.

They smoke a great dealthough not much at a time; using pipes with largebowlsand very short stemsor no stems at all. Thesethey lightand puttingthem to their mouthstake a long draughtgetting their mouths as full as theycan holdand their cheeks distendedand then let it slowly out through theirmouths and nostrils. The pipe is then passed to otherswho drawin the samemannerone pipe-full serving for half a dozen. They never take shortcontinuous draughtslike Europeansbut one of these "Oahu puffs" asthe sailors call themserves for an hour or twountil some one else lights hispipeand it is passed round in the same manner. Each Kanaka on the beach had apineflintsteeltindera hand of tobaccoand a jack-knifewhich he alwayscarried about with him.

That which strikes a stranger most peculiarly is their style of singing. Theyrun onin a lowgutturalmonotonous sort of chanttheir lips and tonguesseeming hardly to moveand the sounds modulated solely in the throat. There isvery little tune to itand the wordsso far as I could learnare extempore.They sing about persons and things which are around themand adopt this methodwhen they do not wish to be understood by any but themselves; and it is veryeffectualfor with the most careful attention I never could detect a word thatI knew. I have often heard Mr. Manniniwho was the most noted improvisatoreamong themsing for an hour togetherwhen at work in the midst of Americansand Englishmen; andby the occasional shouts and laughter of the Kanakaswhowere at a distanceit was evident that he was singing about the different menthat he was at work with. They have great powers of ridiculeand are excellentmimics; many of them discovering and imitating the peculiarities of our ownpeoplebefore we had seen them ourselves.

These were the people with whom I was to spend a few months; and whowiththe exception of the officerNicholas the Frenchmanand the boymade thewhole population of the beach. I oughtperhapsto except the dogsfor theywere an important part of our settlement. Some of the first vessels brought dogsout with themwhofor conveniencewere left ashoreand there multiplieduntil they came to be a great people. While I was on the beachthe averagenumber was about fortyand probably an equalor greater number are drownedorkilled in some other wayevery year. They are very useful in guarding thebeachthe Indians being afraid to come down at night; for it was impossible forany one to get within half a mile of the hide-houses without a general alarm.The father of the colonyold Sachemso called from the ship in which he wasbrought outdied while I was therefull of yearsand was honorably buried.Hogsand a few chickenswere the rest of the animal tribeand formedlikethe dogsa common companythough they were an known and markedand usuallyfed at the houses to which they belonged.

I had been but a few hours on the beachand the Pilgrim was hardly out ofsightwhen the cry of "Sail ho!" was raisedand a smallhermaphrodite brig rounded the pointbore up into the harborand came toanchor. It was the Mexican brig Faziowhich we had left at San Pedroand whichhad come down to land her tallowtry it all overand make new bagsand thentake it inand leave the coast. They moored shiperected their try-works onshoreput up a small tentin which they all livedand commenced operations.They made an addition to our societyand we spent many evenings in their tentwhereamid the Babel of EnglishSpanishFrenchIndianand Kanakawe foundsome words that we could understand in common.

The morning after my landingI began the duties of hide-curing. In order tounderstand theseit will be necessary to give the whole history of a hidefromthe time it is taken from a bullock until it is put on board the vessel to becarried to Boston. When the hide is taken from the bullockholes are cut rounditnear the edgeby which it is staked out to dry. In this manner it drieswithout shrinking. After they are thus dried in the sunthey are received bythe vesselsand brought down to the depot at San Diego. The vessels land themand leave them in large piles near the houses.

Then begins the hide-curer's duty. The first thing is to put them in soak.This is done by carrying them down at low tideand making them fastin smallpilesby ropesand letting the tide come up and cover them. Every day we putin soak twenty-five for each manwhichwith usmade an hundred and fifty.There they lie forty-eight hourswhen they are taken outand rolled upinwheelbarrowsand thrown into the vats. These vats contain brinemade verystrong; being sea-waterwith great quantities of salt thrown in. This picklesthe hidesand in this they lie forty-eight hours; the use of the sea-waterinto which they are first putbeing merely to soften and clean them. From thesevatsthey are takenand lie on a platform twenty-four hoursand then arespread upon the groundand carefully stretched and staked outso that they maydry smooth. After they were stakedand while yet wet and softwe used to goupon them with our knivesand carefully cut off all the bad parts:- the piecesof meat and fatwhich would corrupt and infect the whole if stowed away in avessel for many monthsthe large flippersthe earsand all other parts whichwould prevent close stowage. This was the most difficult part of our duty: as itrequired much skill to take everything necessary off and not to cut or injurethe hide. It was also a long processas six of us had to clean an hundred andfiftymost of which required a great deal to be done to themas the Spaniardsare very careless in skinning their cattle. Thentooas we cleaned them whilethey were staked outwe were obliged to kneel down upon themwhich alwaysgives beginners the back-ache. The first dayI was so slow and awkward that Icleaned only eight; at the end of a few days I doubled my number; and in afortnight or three weekscould keep up with the othersand clean myproportion- twenty-five.

This cleaning must be got through with before noon; for by that time they gettoo dry. After the sun has been upon them a few hoursthey are carefully goneover with scrapersto get off all the grease which the sun brings out. Thisbeing donethe stakes are pulled upand the hides carefully doubledwith thehair side outand left to dry. About the middle of the afternoon they areturned upon the other sideand at sundown piled up and covered over. The nextday they are spread out and opened againand at nightif fully dryare thrownupon a longhorizontal polefive at a timeand beat with flails. This takesall the dust from them. Thenbeing saltedscrapedcleaneddriedand beatenthey are stowed away in the house. Here ends their historyexcept that they aretaken out again when the vessel is ready to go homebeatenstowed away onboardcarried to Bostontannedmade into shoes and other articles for whichleather is used; and many of themvery probablyin the endbrought back againto California the shape of shoesand worn out in pursuit of other bullocksorin the curing of other hides.

By putting an hundred and fifty in soak every daywe had the same number ateach stage of curingon each day; so that we hadeverydaythe same work to doupon the same number: an hundred and fifty to put in soak; an hundred and fiftyto wash out and put in the vat; the same number to haul from the vat and put onthe platform to drain; the same number to spread and stake out and clean; andthe same number to beat and stow away in the house. I ought to except Sunday;forby a prescription which no captain or agent has yet ventured to break inuponSunday has been a day of leisure on the beach for years. On Saturdaynightthe hidesin every stage of progressare carefully covered upand notuncovered until Monday morning. On Sundays we had absolutely no work to dounless it was to kill a bullockwhich was sent down for our use about once aweekand sometimes came on Sunday. Another good arrangement wasthat we hadjust so much work to doand when that was throughthe time was our own.Knowing thiswe worked hardand needed no driving. We "turned out"every morning at the first signs of daylightand allowing a short timeabouteight o'clockfor breakfastgenerally got through our labor between one andtwo o'clockwhen we dinedand had the rest of the time to ourselves; untiljust before sundownwhen we beat the dry hides and put them in the houseandcovered over all the others. By this means we had about three hours to ourselvesevery afternoon; and at sundown we had our supperand our work was done for theday. There was no watch to standand no topsails to reef. The evenings wegenerally spent at one another's housesand I often went up and spent an houror so at the oven; which was called the "Kanaka Hotel" and the"Oahu Coffee-house." Immediately after dinner we usually took a shortsiesta to make up for our early risingand spent the rest of the afternoonaccording to our own fancies. I generally readwroteand made or mendedclothes; for necessitythe mother of inventionhad taught me these two latterarts. The Kanakas went up to the ovenand spent the time in sleepingtalkingand smoking; and my messmateNicholaswho neither knew how to read or writepassed away the time by a long siestatwo or three smokes with his pipeand apaseo to the other houses. This leisure time is never interfered withfor thecaptains know that the men earn it by working hard and fastand that if theyinterfered with itthe men could easily make their twenty-five hides apiecelast through the day. We were pretty independenttoofor the master of thehouse- "capitan de la casa"- had nothing to say to usexcept when wewere at work on the hidesand although we could not go up to the town withouthis permissionthis was seldom or never refused.

The great weight of the wet hideswhich we were obliged to roll about inwheelbarrows; the continual stooping upon those which were pegged out to becleaned; and the smell of the vatsinto which we were often obliged to getknee-deepto press down the hides; all made the work disagreeable andfatiguing;- but we soon got hardened to itand the comparative independence ofour life reconciled us to it; for there was nobody to haze us and find fault;and when we got throughwe had only to wash and change our clothesand ourtime was our own. There washoweverone exception to the time's being our own;which wasthat on two afternoons of every week we were obliged to go off andget woodfor the cook to use in the galley. Wood is very scarce in the vicinityof San Diego; there being no trees of any sizefor miles. In the towntheinhabitants burn the small wood which grows in thicketsand for which they sendout Indiansin large numbersevery few days. Fortunatelythe climate is sofine that they had no need of a fire in their housesand only use it forcooking. With us the getting of wood was a great trouble; for all that in thevicinity of the houses had been cut downand we were obliged to go off a mileor twoand to carry it some distance on our backsas we could not get thehand-cart up the hills and over the uneven places. Two afternoons in the weekgenerally Monday and Thursdayas soon as we had got through dinnerwe startedoff for the busheach of us furnished with a hatchet and a long piece of ropeand dragging the hand-cart behind usand followed by the whole colony of dogswho were always ready for the bushand were half mad whenever they saw ourpreparations. We went with the hand-cart as far as we could conveniently dragitand leaving it in an openconspicuous placeseparated ourselves; eachtaking his own courseand looking about for some good place to begin upon.Frequentlywe had to go nearly a mile from the hand-cart before we could findany fit place. Having lighted upon a good thicketthe next thing was to clearaway the under-brushand have fair play at the trees. These trees are seldommore than five or six feet highand the highest that I ever saw in theseexpeditions could not have been more than twelve; so thatlopping off thebranches and clearing away the underwoodwe had a good deal of cutting to dofor a very little wood. Having cut enough for a "back-load" the nextthing was to make it well fast with the ropeand heaving the bundle upon ourbacksand taking the hatchet in handto walk offup hill and down daletothe handcart. Two good back-loads apiece filled the hand-cart; and that was eachone's proportion. When each had brought down his second loadwe filled thehand-cartand took our way again slowly backand unloadingcovering the hidesfor the nightand getting our supperfinished the day's work.

These wooding excursions had always a mixture of something rather pleasant inthem. Roaming about in the woods with hatchet in handlike a backwoodsmanfollowed by a troop of dogs; starting up of birdssnakeshares and foxesandexamining the various kinds of treesflowersand birds' nestswas at leastachange from the monotonous drag and pull on shipboard. Frequentlytoowe hadsome amusement and adventure. The coatiof which I have before spoken- a sortof mixture of the fox and wolf breeds- fierce little animalswith bushy tailsand large headsand a quicksharp barkabound hereas in all other parts ofCalifornia. Thesethe dogs were very watchful forand whenever they saw themstarted off in full run after them. We had many fine chases; yetalthough ourdogs ran finelythe rascals generally escaped. They are a match for the dog-one to one- but as the dogs generally went in squadsthere was seldom a fairfight. A smaller dogbelonging to usonce attacked a coatisingleand got agood deal worstedand might perhaps have been killed had we not come to hisassistance. We hadhoweverone dog which gave them a good deal of troubleandmany hard runs. He was a finetall fellowand united strength and agilitybetter than any dog that I have ever seen. He was born at the Islandshisfather being an English mastiffand his mother a greyhound. He had the highheadlong legsnarrow bodyand springing gait of the latterand the heavyjawthick jowlsand strong fore-quarters of the mastiff. When he was broughtto San Diegoan English sailor said that he lookedabout the face preciselylike the Duke of Wellingtonwhom he had once seen at the Tower; andindeedthere was something about him which resembled the portraits of the Duke. Fromthis time he was christened "Welly" and became the favorite and bullyof the beach. He always led the dogs by several yards in the chaseand hadkilled two coati at different times in single combats. We often had fine sportwith these fellows. A quicksharp bark from a coatiand in an instant everydog was at the height of his speed. A few moments made up for an unfair startand gave each dog his relative place. Wellyat the headseemed almost to skimover the bushes; and after him came FannyFeliciansChildersand the otherfleet ones- the spaniels and terriers; and then behindfollowed the heavycorps- bulldogsetc.for we had every breed. Pursuit by us was in vainand inabout half an hour a few of them would come panting and straggling back.

Beside the coatithe dogs sometimes made prizes of rabbits and hareswhichare very plentiful hereand great numbers of which we often shot for ourdinners. There was another animal that I was not so much disposed to findamusement fromand that was the rattlesnake. These are very abundant hereespecially during the spring of the year. The latter part of the time that I wason shoreI did not meet with so manybut for the first two months we seldomwent into "the bush" without one of our number starting some of them.The first that I ever sawI remember perfectly well. I had left my companionsand was beginning to clear away a fine clump of treeswhen just in the midst ofthe thicketnot more than eight yards from meone of these fellows set up hishiss. It is a sharpcontinuous soundand resembles very much the letting offof the steam from the small pipe of a steamboatexcept that it is on a smallerscale. I knewby the sound of an axethat one of my companions was nearandcalled out to himto let him know what I had fallen upon. He took it verylightlyand as he seemed inclined to laugh at me for being afraidI determinedto keep my place. I knew that so long as I could hear the rattleI was safefor these snakes never make a noise when they are in motion. AccordinglyI keptat my workand the noise which I made with cutting and breaking the trees kepthim in alarm; so that I had the rattle to show me his whereabouts. Once or twicethe noise stopped for a short timewhich gave me a little uneasinessandretreating a few steps. I threw something into the bushat which he would sethis rattle agoing; and finding that he had not moved from his first placeI waseasy again. In this way I continued at my work until I had cut a full loadnever suffering him to be quiet for a moment. Having cut my loadI strapped ittogetherand got everything ready for starting. I felt that I could now callthe others without the imputation of being afraid; and went in search of them.In a few minutes we were all collectedand began an attack upon the bush. Thebig Frenchmanwho was the one that I had called to at firstI found as littleinclined to approach the snake as I had been. The dogstooseemed afraid ofthe rattleand kept up a barking at a safe distance; but the Kanakas showed nofearand getting long stickswent into the bushand keeping a brightlook-outstood within a few feet of him. One or two blows struck near himanda few stones thrownstarted himand we lost his trackand had the pleasantconsciousness that he might be directly under our feet. By throwing stones andchips in different directionswe made him spring his rattle againand begananother attack. This time we drove him into the clear groundand saw himgliding offwith head and tail erectwhen a stonewell aimedknocked himover the bankdown a declivity of fifteen or twenty feetand stretched him athis length. Having made sure of himby a few more stoneswe went downand oneof the Kanakas cut off his rattle. These rattles vary in number it is saidaccording to the age of the snake; though the Indians think they indicate thenumber of creatures they have killed. We always preserved them as trophiesandat the end of the summer had quite a number. None of our people were ever bittenby thembut one of our dogs died of a biteand another was supposed to havebeen bittenbut recovered. We had no remedy for the bitethough it was saidthat the Indians of the country hadand the Kanakas professed to have an herbwhich would cure itbut it was fortunately never brought to the test.

Hares and rabbitsas I said beforewere abundantandduring the wintermonthsthe waters are covered with wild ducks and geese. Crowstoowere verynumerousand frequently alighted in great numbers upon our hidespicking atthe pieces of dried meat and fat. Bears and wolves are numerous in the upperpartsand in the interior(andindeeda man was killed by a bear within afew miles of San Pedrowhile we were there) but there were none in ourimmediate neighborhood. The only other animals were horses. Over a dozen ofthese were owned by different people on the beachand were allowed to run looseamong the hillswith a long lasso attached to themand pick up feed whereverthey could find it. We were sure of seeing them once a dayfor there was nowater among the hillsand they were obliged to come down to the well which hadbeen dug upon the beach. These horses were bought atfrom twoto six and eightdollars apieceand were held very much as common property. We generally keptone fast to one of the houses every dayso that we could mount him and catchany of the others. Some of them were really fine animalsand gave us many goodruns up to the Presidio and over the country.


After we had been a few weeks on shoreand had begun to feel broken into theregularity of our lifeits monotony was interrupted by the arrival of twovessels from the windward. We were sitting at dinner in our little roomwhen weheard the cry of "Sail ho!" Thiswe had learneddid not alwayssignify a vessel but was raised whenever a woman was seen coming down from thetown; or a squawor an ox-cartor anything unusualhove in sight upon theroad; so we took no notice of it. But it soon became so loud and general fromall parts of the beachthat we were led to go to the door; and theresureenoughwere two sails coming round the pointand leaning over from the strongnorth-west windwhich blows down the coast every afternoon. The headmost was ashipand the othera brig. Everybody was alive on the beachand all manner ofconjectures were abroad. Some said it was the Pilgrimwith the Boston shipwhich we were expecting; but we soon saw that the brig was not the Pilgrimandthe ship with her stump top-gallant masts and rusty sidescould not be a dandyBoston Indiaman. As they drew nearerwe soon discovered the high poop andtop-gallant forecastleand other marks of the Italian ship Rosaand the brigproved to be the Catalinawhich we saw at Santa Barbarajust arrived fromValparaiso. They came to anchormoored shipand commenced discharging hidesand tallow. The Rosa had purchased the house occupied by the Lagodaand theCatalina took the other spare one between ours and the Ayacucho'sso thatnoweach one was occupiedand the beachfor several dayswas all alive. TheCatalina had several Kanakas on boardwho were immediately besieged by theothersand carried up to the ovenwhere they had a long pow-wowand a smoke.Two Frenchmenwho belonged to the Rosa's crewcame inevery eveningto seeNicholas; and from them we learned that the Pilgrim was at San Pedroand wasthe only other vessel now on the coast. Several of the Italians slept on shoreat their hide-house; and thereand at the tent in which the Fazio's crew livedwe had some very good singing almost every evening. The Italians sang a varietyof songs- barcarollasprovincial airsetc.; in several of which I recognizedparts of our favorite operas and sentimental songs. They often joined in a songtaking all the different parts; which produced a fine effectas many of themhad good voicesand all seemed to sing with spirit and feeling. One young manin particularhad a falsetto as clear as a clarionet.

The greater part of the crews of the vessel's came ashore every eveningandwe passed the time in going about from one house to anotherand listening toall manner of languages. The Spanish was the common ground upon which we allmet; for every one knew more or less of that. We had nowout of forty or fiftyrepresentatives from almost every nation under the sun: two EnglishmenthreeYankeestwo Scotchmentwo Welshmenone Irishmanthree Frenchmen (two of whomwere Normansand the third from Gascony) one Dutchmanone Austriantwo orthree Spaniards(from old Spain) half a dozen Spanish-Americans andhalf-breedstwo native Indians from Chili and the Island of Chiloeone Negroone Mulattoabout twenty Italiansfrom all parts of Italyas many moreSandwich Islandersone Otaheitanand one Kanaka from the Marquesas Islands.

The night before the vessels were ready to sailall the Europeans united andhad an entertainment at the Rosa's hide-houseand we had songs of every nationand tongue. A German gave us "Och! mein lieber Augustin!" the threeFrenchmen roared through the Marseilles Hymn; the English and Scotchmen gave us"Rule Britannia" and "Who'll be King but Charlie?" theItalians and Spaniards screamed through some national affairsfor which I wasnone the wiser; and we three Yankees made an attempt at the "Star-spangledBanner." After these national tributes had been paidthe Austrian gave usa very pretty little love-songand the Frenchmen sang a spirited thing called"Sentinelle! O prenez garde a vous!" and then followed the melangewhich might have been expected. When I left themthe aguardiente and annisouwas pretty well in their headsand they were all singing and talking at onceand their peculiar national oaths were getting as plenty as pronouns.

The next daythe two vessels got under weigh for the windwardand left usin quiet possession of the beach. Our numbers were somewhat enlarged by theopening of the new housesand the society of the beach a little changed. Incharge of the Catalina's housewas an old Scotchmanwholike most of hiscountrymenhad a pretty good educationandlike many of themwas ratherpragmaticalmanicaland had a ludicrously solemn conceit. He employed his timein taking care of his pigschickensturkeysdogsetc.and in smoking hislong pipe. Everything was as neat as a pin in the houseand he was as regularin his hours as a chronometerbut as he kept very much by himselfwas not agreat addition to our society. He hardly spent a cent all the time he was on thebeachand the others said he was no shipmate. He had been a petty officer onboard the British frigate DublinCapt. Lord James Townshendand had greatideas of his own importance. The man in charge of the Rosa's house was anAustrian by birthbut spokereadand wrote four languages with ease andcorrectness. German was his native tonguebut being born near the borders ofItalyand having sailed out of Genoathe Italian was almost as familiar to himas his own language. He was six years on board of an English man-of-warwherehe learned to speak our language with easeand also to read and write it. Hehad been several years in Spanish vesselsand had acquired that language sowellthat he could read any books in it. He was between forty and fifty yearsof ageand was a singular mixture of the man-of-war's-man and Puritan. Hetalked a great deal about propriety and steadinessand gave good advice to theyoungsters and Kanakasbut seldom went up to the townwithout coming down"three sheets in the wind." One holydayhe and old Robert (theScotchman from the Catalina) went up to the townand got so cozytalking overold stories and giving one another good advicethat they came downdouble-backedon a horseand both rolled off into the sand as soon as thehorse stopped. This put an end to their pretensionsand they never heard thelast of it from the rest of the men. On the night of the entertainment at theRosa's houseI saw old Schmidt(that was the Austrian's name) standing up by ahogsheadholding on by both handsand calling out to himself- "Hold onSchmidt! hold onmy good fellowor you'll be on your back!" Stillhe wasan intelligentgood-natured old fellowand had a chest-full of bookswhich hewillingly lent me to read. In the same house with him was a Frenchman and anEnglishman; the latter a regular-built "man-of-war Jack;" a thoroughseaman; a heartygenerous fellow; andat the same timea drunkendissolutedog. He made it a point to get drunk once a fortnight(when he always managedto sleep on the roadand have his money stolen from him) and to battle theFrenchman once a week. Thesewith a Chilianand a half a dozen Kanakasformedthe addition to our company.

In about six weeks from the time when the Pilgrim sailedwe had got all thehides which she left us cured and stowed away; and having cleared up the groundand emptied the vatsand set everything in orderhad nothing more to do untilshe should come down againbut to supply ourselves with wood. Instead of goingtwice a week for this purposewe determined to give one whole week to gettingwoodand then we should have enough to last us half through the summer.Accordinglywe started off every morningafter an early breakfastwith ourhatchets in handand cut wood until the sun was over the point- which was ouronly mark of timeas there was not a watch on the beach- and then came back todinnerand after dinnerstarted off again with our hand-cart and ropesandcarted and "backed" it downuntil sunset. Thiswe kept up for aweekuntil we had collected several cords-enough to last us for six or eightweeks- when we "knocked off" altogethermuch to my joy; forthough Iliked straying in the woodsand cuttingvery wellyet the backing the woodfor so great a distanceover an uneven countrywaswithout exceptionthehardest work I had ever done. I usually had to kneel down and contrive to heavethe loadwhich was well strapped togetherupon my backand then rise up andstart off with it up the hills and down the valessometimes through thickets-the rough points sticking into the skinand tearing the clothesso thatatthe end of the weekI had hardly a whole shirt to my back.

We were now through all our workand had nothing more to do until thePilgrim should come down again. We had nearly got through our provisions tooaswell as our work; for our officer had been very wasteful of themand the teafloursugarand molasseswere all gone. We suspected him of sending them upto the town; and he always treated the squaws with molasseswhen they came downto the beach. Finding wheat-coffee and dry bread rather poor livingwe dubbedtogetherand I went up to the town on horseback with a great salt-bag behindthe saddleand a few reals in my pocketand brought back the bag fun ofonionspearsbeanswater-melonsand other fruits; for the young woman whotended the gardenfinding that I belonged to the American shipand that wewere short of provisionsput in a double portion. With these we lived likefighting-cocks for a week or twoand hadbesideswhat the sailors call"a blow-out on sleep;" not turning out in the morning until breakfastwas ready. I employed several days in overhauling my chestand mending up allmy old clothesuntil I had got everything in order- patch upon patchlike asand-barge's mainsail. Then I took hold of Bowditch's Navigatorwhich I hadalways with me. I had been through the greater part of itand now wentcarefully through itfrom beginning to end working out most of the examples.That doneand there being no signs of the PilgrimI made a descent upon oldSchmidtand borrowed and read all the books there were upon the beach. Such adearth was there of these latter articlesthat anythingeven a little child'sstory-bookor the half of a shipping calendarappeared like a treasure. Iactually read a jest-book throughfrom beginning to endin one dayas Ishould a noveland enjoyed it very much. At lastwhen I thought that therewere no more to be gotI foundat the bottom of old Schmidt's chest"Mandevillea Romanceby Godwinin five volumes." This I had neverreadbut Godwin's name was enoughand after the wretched trash I had devouredanything bearing the name of a distinguished intellectual manwas a prizeindeed. I bore it offand for two days I was up early and latereading withall my mightand actually drinking in delight. It is no extravagance to saythat it was like a spring in a desert land.

From the sublime to the ridiculous-so with mefrom Mandeville tohide-curingwas but a step; for -

WednesdayJuly 18thbrought us the brig Pilgrim from the windward. As shecame inwe found that she was a good deal altered in her appearance. Her shorttop-gallant masts were up; her bowlines all unrove (except to the courses); thequarter boom-irons off her lower yards; her jack-cross-trees sent down; severalblocks got rid of; running-rigging rove in new places; and numberless otherchanges of the same character. Thentoothere was a new voice giving ordersand a new face on the quarter-deck- a shortdark complexioned manin a greenjacket and a high leather cap. These changesof courseset the whole beach onthe qui-viveand we were all waiting for the boat to come ashorethat we mighthave things explained. At lengthafter the sails were furied and the anchorcarried out the boat pulled ashoreand the news soon flew that the expectedship had arrived at Santa Barbaraand that Captain T--- had taken command ofherand her captainFauconhad taken the Pilgrimand was the green-jacketedman on the quarterdeck. The boat put directly off againwithout giving us timeto ask any more questionsand we were obliged to wait till nightwhen we tooka little skiffthat lay on the beachand paddled off. When I stepped aboardthe second mate called me aftand gave me a large bundledirected to meandmarked "Ship Alert." This was what I had longed foryet I refrainedfrom opening it until I went ashore. Diving down into the forecastleI foundthe same old crewand was really glad to see them again. Numerous inquiriespassed as to the new shipthe latest news from Bostonetc.etc. S--- hadreceived letters from homeand nothing remarkable had happened. The Alert wasagreed on all hands to be a fine shipand a large one: "Larger than theRosa"- "Big enough to carry off all the hides in California"-"Rail as high as a man's head"- "A crack ship"- "Aregular dandy" etc.ect. Captain T--- took command of herand she wentdirectly up to Monterey; from thence she was to go to San Franciscoandprobably would not be in San Diego under two or three months. Some of thePilgrim's crew found old ship-mates aboard of herand spent an hour or two inher forecastlethe evening before she sailed. They said her decks were as whiteas snow- holystoned every morininglike a man-of-war's; everything on board"shipshape and Bristol fashion;" a fine crewthree matesa sailmakerand carpenterand all complete. "They've got a man for mate of that shipand not a bloody sheep about decks!"- "A mate that knows his dutyandmakes everybody do theirsand won't be imposed upon either by captain orcrew." After collecting all the information we could get on this pointweasked something about their new captain. He had hardly been on board long enoughfor them to know much about himbut he had taken hold strongas soon as hetook command;- sending down the top-gallant mastsand unreeving half theriggingthe very first day.

Having got all the news we couldwe pulled ashore; and as soon as we reachedthe houseIas might be supposedproceeded directly to opening my bundleandfound a reasonable supply of duckflannel shirtsshoesetc.andwhat wasstill more valuablea packet of eleven letters. These I sat up nearly all thenight to readand put them carefully awayto be read and re-read again andagain at my leisure. Then came a half a dozen newspapersthe last of which gavenotice of Thanksgivingand of the clearance of "ship AlertEdward H.Fauconmasterfor Callao and Californiaby BryantSturgis & Co." Noone has ever been on distant voyagesand after a long absence received anewspaper from homewho cannot understand the delight that they give one. Iread every part of them- the houses to let; things lost or stolen; auctionsalesand all. Nothing carries you so entirely to a placeand makes you feelso perfectly at homeas a newspaper. The very name of "Boston DailyAdvertiser" sounded hospitably upon the ear."

The Pilgrim discharged her hideswhich set us at work againand in a fewdays we were in the old routine of dry hides- wet hides- cleaning- beatingetc.Captain Faucon came quietly up to meas I was at workwith my knifecuttingthe meat from a dirty hideasked me how I liked Californiaand repeated-"Tityretu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi." Very aproposthoughtIandat the same timeserves to show that you understand Latin. Howeverakind word from a captain is a thing not to be slighted; so I answered himcivillyand made the most of it. -

SaturdayJuly 11th. The Pilgrim set sail for the windwardand left us to goon in our old way. Having laid in such a supply of woodand the days being nowlongand invariably pleasantwe had a good deal of time to ourselves. All theduck I received from homeI soon made up into trowsers and frocksanddisplayedevery Sundaya complete suit of my own makefrom head to foothaving formed the remnants of the duck into a cap. Readingmendingsleepingwith occasional excursions into the bushwith the dogsin search of coatiharesand rabbitsor to encounter a rattlesnakeand now and then a visit tothe Presidiofilled up our spare time after hide-curing was over for the day.Another amusementwhich we sometimes indulged inwas "burning thewater" for craw-fish. For this purposewe procured a pair of grainswitha long staff like a harpoonand making torches with tarred rope twisted round along pine sticktook the only boat on the beacha small skiffand with atorch-bearer in the bowa steersman in the sternand one man on each side withthe grainswent offon dark nightsto burn the water. This is fine sport.Keeping within a few rods of the shorewhere the water is not more than threeor four feet deepwith a clear sandy bottomthe torches light everything up sothat one could almost have seen a pin among the grains of sand. The craw-fishare an easy preyand we used soon to get a load of them. The other fish weremore difficult to catchyet we frequently speared a number of themof variouskinds and sizes. The Pilgrim brought us down a supply of fish-hookswhich wehad never had beforeon the beachand for several days we went down to thePointand caught a quantity of cod and mackerel. On one of these expeditionswe saw a battle between two Sandwich Islanders and a shark. "Johnny"had been playing about our boat for some timedriving away the fishandshowing his teeth at our baitwhen we missed himand in a few moments heard agreat shouting between two Kanakas who were fishing on the rock opposite to us:"E hana hana make i ka ia nui!" "E pii mai Aikane!" etc.etc.; and saw them pulling away on a stout lineand "Johnny Shark"floundering at the other end. The line soon broke; but the Kanakas would not lethim off so easilyand sprang directly into the water after him. Now came thetug of war. Before we could get into deep waterone of them seized him by thetailand ran up with him upon the beach; but Johnny twisted roundturning hishead under his bodyandshowing his teeth in the vicinity of the Kanaka'shandmade him let go and spring out of the way. The shark now turned tail andmade the best of his wayby flapping and flounderingtoward deep water; buthere againbefore he was fairly offthe other Kanaka seized him by the tailand made a spring towards the beachhis companion at the same time paying awayupon him with stones and a large stick. As soonhoweveras the shark couldturnhe was obliged to let go his hold; but the instant he made toward deepwaterthey were both behind himwatching their chance to seize him. In thisway the battle went on for some timethe sharkin a ragesplashing andtwisting aboutand the Kanakasin high excitementyelling at the top of theirvoices; but the shark at last got offcarrying away a hook and lineand not afew severe bruises.


We kept up a constant connection with the Presidioand by the close of thesummer I had added much to my made vocabularybesides having made theacquaintance of nearly everybody in the placeand acquired some knowledge ofthe character and habits of the peopleas well as of the institutions underwhich they live.

California was first discovered in 1536by Cortes and was subsequentlyvisited by numerous other adventurers as well as commissioned voyagers of theSpanish crown. It was found to be inhabited by numerous tribes of Indiansandto be in many parts extremely fertile; to whichof coursewas added rumors ofgold minespearl fisheryetc. No sooner was the importance of the countryknownthan the Jesuits obtained leave to establish themselves in ittoChristianize and enlighten the Indians. They established missions in variousparts of the country toward the close of the seventeenth centuryand collectedthe natives about thembaptizing them into the churchand teaching them thearts of civilized life. To protect the Jesuits in their missionsand at thesame time to support the power of the crown over the civilized Indianstwoforts were erected and garrisonedone at San Diegoand the other at Monterey.These were called Presidiosand divided the command of the whole countrybetween them. Presidios have since been established at Santa Barbara and SanFrancisco; thus dividing the country into four large districtseach with itspresidioand governed by the commandant. The soldiersfor the most partmarried civilized Indians; and thusin the vicinity of each presidiosprungupgraduallysmall towns. In the course of timevessels began to come intothe ports to trade with the missionsand received hides in return; and thusbegan the great trade of California. Nearly all the cattle in the countrybelonged to the missionsand they employed their Indianswho becamein facttheir slavesin tending their vast herds. In the year 1793when Vancouvervisited San Diegothe mission had obtained great wealth and powerand areaccused of having depreciated the country with the sovereignthat they might beallowed to retain their possessions. On the expulsion of the Jesuits from theSpanish dominionsthe missions passed into the hands of the Franciscansthoughwithout any essential change in their management. Ever since the independence ofMexicothe missions have been going down; untilat lasta law was passedstripping them of all their possessionsand confining the priests to theirspiritual duties; and at the same time declaring all the Indians free andindependent Rancheros. The change in the condition of the Indians wasas may besupposedonly nominal: they are virtually slavesas much as they ever were.But in the missionsthe change was complete. The priests have now no powerexcept in their religious characterand the great possessions of the missionsare given over to be preyed upon by the harpies of the civil powerwho are sentthere in the capacity of administradoresto settle up the concerns; and whousually endin a few yearsby making themselves fortunesand leaving theirstewardships worse than they found them. The dynasty of the priests was muchmore acceptable to the people of the countryand indeedto every one concernedwith the countryby trade or otherwisethan that of the administradores. Thepriests were attached perpetually to one missionand felt the necessity ofkeeping up its credit. Accordinglytheir debts were regularly paidand thepeople werein the mainwell treatedand attached to those who had spenttheir whole lives among them. But the administradores are strangers sent fromMexicohaving no interest in the country; not identified in any way with theirchargeandfor the most partmen of desperate fortunes- broken downpoliticians and soldiers- whose only object is to retrieve their condition in asshort a time as possible. The change had been made but a few years before ourarrival upon the coastyetin that short timethe trade was much diminishedcredit impairedand the venerable missions going rapidly to decay. The externalarrangements remain the same. There are four presidioshaving under theirprotection the various missionsand puebloswhich are towns formed by thecivil powerand containing no mission or presidio. The most northerly presidiois San Francisco; the next Monterey; the next Santa Barbaraincluding themission of the sameSt. Louis Obispoand St. Buenaventurawhich is the finestmission in the whole countryhaving very fertile soil and rich vineyards. Thelastand most southerlyis San Diegoincluding the mission of the sameSanJuan Capestranothe Pueblo de los Angelosthe largest town in Californiawiththe neighboring mission of San Gabriel. The priests in spiritual matters aresubject to the Archbishop of Mexicoand in temporal matters to thegovernor-generalwho is the great civil and military head of the country.

The government of the country is an arbitrary democracy; having no commonlawand no judiciary. Their only laws are made and unmade at the caprice of thelegislatureand are as variable as the legislature itself. They pass throughthe form of sending representatives to the congress at Mexicobut as it takesseveral months to go and returnand there is very little communication betweenthe capital and this distant provincea member usually stays thereaspermanent memberknowing very well that there will be revolutions at homebefore he can write and receive an answer; if another member should be senthehas only to challenge himand decide the contested election in that way.

Revolutions are matters of constant occurrence in California. They are got upby men who are at the foot of the ladder and in desperate circumstancesjust asa new political party is started by such men in our own country. The onlyobjectof courseis the loaves and fishes; and instead of caucusingparagraphinglibellingfeastingpromisingand lyingas with usthey takemuskets and bayonetsand seizing upon the presidio and custom-housedivide thespoilsand declare a new dynasty. As for justicethey know no law but will andfear. A Yankeewho had been naturalizedand become a Catholicand had marriedin the countrywas sitting in his house at the Pueblo de los Angeloswith hiswife and childrenwhen a Spaniardwith whom he had had a difficultyenteredthe houseand stabbed him to the heart before them all. The murderer was seizedby some Yankees who had settled thereand kept in confinement until a statementof the whole affair could be sent to the governor-general. He refused to doanything about itand the countrymen of the murdered manseeing no prospect ofjustice being administeredmade known that if nothing was donethey should trythe man themselves. It chanced thatat this timethere was a company of fortytrappers and hunters from Kentuckywith their rifleswho had made theirhead-quarters at the Pueblo; and thesetogether with the Americans andEnglishmen in the placewho were between twenty and thirty in numbertookpossession of the townand waiting a reasonable timeproceeded to try the manaccording to the forms in their own country. A judge and jury were appointedand he was triedconvictedsentenced to be shotand carried out before thetownwith his eyes blindfolded. The names of all the men were then put into ahat and each one pledging himself to perform his dutytwelve names were drawnoutand the men took their stations with their riflesandfiring at the wordlaid him dead. He was decently buriedand the place was restored quietly to theproper authorities. A generalwith titles enough for an hidalgowas at SanGabrieland issued a proclamation as long as the fore-top-bowlinethreateningdestruction to the rebelsbut never stirred from his fort; for forty Kentuckyhunterswith their rifleswere a match for a whole regiment of hungrydrawlinglazy half-breeds. This affair happened while we were at San Pedro(the port of the Pueblo) and we had all the particulars directly from those whowere on the spot. A few months afterwardsanother manwhom we had often seenin San Diegomurdered a man and his wife on the high road between the Puebloand San Louis Reyand the foreigners not feeling themselves called upon to actin this casethe parties being all nativesnothing was done about it; and Ifrequently afterwards saw the murderer in San Diegowhere he was living withhis wife and family.

When a crime has been committed by Indiansjusticeor rather vengeanceisnot so tardy. One Sunday afternoonwhile I was at San Diegoan Indian wassitting on his horsewhen anotherwith whom he had had some difficultycameup to himdrew a long knifeand plunged it directly into the horse's heart.The Indian sprang from his falling horsedrew out the knifeand plunged itinto the other Indian's breastover his shoulderand laid him dead. The poorfellow was seized at onceclapped into the calabozoand kept there until ananswer could be received from Monterey. A few weeks afterwardsI saw the poorwretchsitting on the bare groundin front of the calabozowith his feetchained to a stakeand handcuffs about his wrists. I knew there was very littlehope for him. Although the deed was done in hot bloodthe horse on which he wassitting being his ownand a great favoriteyet he was an Indianand that wasenough. In about a week after I saw himI heard that he had been shot. Thesefew instances will serve to give one a notion of the distribution of justice inCalifornia.

In their domestic relationsthese people are no better than in their public.The men are thriftlessproudand extravagantand very much given to gaming;and the women have but little educationand a good deal of beautyand theirmoralityof courseis none of the best; yet the instances of infidelity aremuch less frequent than one would at first suppose. In factone vice is setover against another; and thussomething like a balance is obtained. The womenhave but little virtuebut then the jealousy of their husbands is extremeandtheir revenge deadly and almost certain. A few inches of cold steel has been thepunishment of many an unwary manwho has been guiltyperhapsof nothing morethan indiscretion of manner. The difficulties of the attempt are numerousandthe consequences of discovery fatal. With the unmarried womentoogreatwatchfulness is used. The main object of the parents is to marry their daughterswelland to thisthe slightest slip would be fatal. The sharp eyes of a duenaand the cold steel of a father or brotherare a protection which the charactersof most of them- men and women- render by no means useless; for the very men whowould lay down their lives to avenge the dishonor of their own familywouldrisk the same lives to complete the dishonor of another.

Of the poor Indiansvery little care is taken. The priestsindeedat themissionsare said to keep them very strictlyand some rules are usually madeby the alcaldes to punish their misconduct; but it all amounts to but little.Indeedto show the entire want of any sense of morality or domestic duty amongthemI have frequently known an Indian to bring his wifeto whom he waslawfully married in the churchdown to the beachand carry her back againdividing with her the money which she had got from the sailors. If any of thegirls were discovered by the alcalde to be open evil-liversthey were whippedand kept at work sweeping the square of the presidioand carrying mud andbricks for the buildings; yet a few reals would generally buy them off.Intemperancetoois a common vice among the Indians. The Spaniardson thecontraryare very abstemiousand I do not remember ever having seen a Spaniardintoxicated.

Such are the people who inhabit a country embracing four or five hundredmiles of sea-coastwith several good harbors; with fine forests in the north;the waters filled with fishand the plains covered with thousands of herds ofcattle; blessed with a climatethan which there can be no better in the world;free from all manner of diseaseswhether epidemic or endemic; and with a soilin which corn yields from seventy to eighty fold. In the hands of anenterprising peoplewhat a country this might be! we are ready to say. Yet howlong would a people remain soin such a country? The Americans (as those fromthe United States are called) and Englishmenwho are fast filling up theprincipal townsand getting the trade into their handsare indeed moreindustrious and effective than the Spaniards; yet their children are brought upSpaniardsin every respectand if the "California fever" (laziness)spares the first generationit always attacks the second.


SaturdayJuly 18th. This daysailed the Mexican hermaphrodite brigFaziofor San Blas and Mazatlan. This was the brig which was driven ashore at SanPedro in a southeasterand had been lying at San Diego to repair and take inher cargo. The owner of her had had a good deal of difficulty with thegovernment about the dutiesetc.and her sailing had been delayed for severalweeks; but everything having been arrangedshe got under weigh with a lightbreezeand was floating out of the harborwhen two horsemen came dashing downto the beachat full speedand tried to find a boat to put off after her; butthere being none on the beachthey offered a handful of silver to any Kanakawho would swim off and take a letter on board. One of the Kanakasa fineactivewell-made young fellowinstantly threw off everything but his ducktrowsersand putting the letter into his hatswam offafter the vessel.Fortunatelythe wind was very light and the vessel was going slowlyso thatalthough she was nearly a mile off when he startedhe gained on her rapidly. Hewent through the water leaving a wake like a small steamboat. I certainly neversaw such swimming before. They saw him coming from the deckbut did notheave-to suspecting the nature of his errand; yetthe wind continuing lightheswam alongside and got on boardand delivered his letter. The captain read thelettertold the Kanaka there was no answerand giving him a glass of brandyleft him to jump overboard and find the best of his way to the shore. The Kanakaswam in for the nearest point of landandin about an hourmade hisappearance at the hide-house. He did not seem at all fatiguedhad made three orfour dollarsgot a glass of brandyand was in fine spirits. The brig kept onher courseand the government officerswho had come down to forbid hersailingwent backeach with something like a flea in his earhaving dependedupon extorting a little more money from the owner.

It was now nearly three months since the Alert arrived at Santa Barbaraandwe began to expect her daily. About a half a mile behind the hide-housewas ahigh hill; and every afternoonas soon as we had done our worksome one of uswalked up to see if there were any sail in sightcoming down before the regulartradeswhich blow every afternoon. Each dayafter the latter part of Julywewent up the hilland came back disappointed. I was anxious for her arrivalforI had been told by letter that the owners in Bostonat the request of myfriendshad written to Captain T--- to take me on board the Alertin case shereturned to the United States before the Pilgrim; and Iof coursewished toknow whether the order had been receivedand what was the destination of theship. One year more or less might be of small consequence to othersbut it waseverything to me. It was now just a year since we sailed from Bostonand at theshortestno vessel could expect to get away under eight or nine monthswhichwould make our absence two years in all. This would be pretty longbut wouldnot be fatal. It would not necessarily be decisive of my future life. But oneyear more would settle the matter. I should be a sailor for life; and although Ihad made up my mind to it before I had my letters from homeand wasas Ithoughtquite satisfied; yetas soon as an opportunity was held out to me ofreturningand the prospect of another kind of life was opened to memy anxietyto returnandat leastto have the chance of deciding upon my course formyselfwas beyond measure. Beside thatI wished to be "equal to eitherfortune" and to qualify myself for an officer's berthand a hide-housewas no place to learn seamanship in. I had become experienced in hide-curingand everything went on smoothlyand I had many opportunities of becomingacquainted with the peopleand much leisure for reading and studyingnavigation; yet practical seamanship could only be got on board ship; thereforeI determined to ask to be taken on board the ship when she arrived. By the firstof Augustwe finished curing all our hidesstored them awaycleaned out ourvats(in which latter work we spent two daysup to our knees in mud and thesediments of six months' hide-curingin a stench which would drive a donkeyfrom his breakfast) and got in readiness for the arrival of the shipand hadanother leisure interval of three or four weeks; which I spentas usualinreadingwritingstudyingmaking and mending my clothesand getting mywardrobe in complete readinessin case I should go on board the ship; and infishingranging the woods with the dogsand in occasional visits to thepresidio and mission. A good deal of my time was spent in taking care of alittle puppywhich I had selected from thirty-sixthat were born within threedays of one anotherat our house. He was a finepromising pupwith four whitepawsand all the rest of his body of a dark brown. I built a little kennel forhimand kept him fastened thereaway from the other dogsfeeding anddisciplining him myself. In a few weeksI got him in complete subjectionandhe grew finelywas very much attached to meand bid fair to be one of theleading dogs on the beach. I called him Bravoand the only thing I regretted atthe thought of leaving the beachwas parting with him. -

Day after daywe went up the hillbut no ship was to be seenand we beganto form all sorts of conjectures as to her whereabouts; and the theme of everyevening's conversation at the different housesand in our afternoon's paseoupon the beachwas the ship- where she could be- had she been to SanFrancisco?- how many hides she would bringetc.etc. -

TuesdayAugust 25th. This morningthe officer in charge of our house wentoff beyond the point a fishingin a small canoewith two Kanakas; and we weresitting quietly in our room at the hidehousewhenjust before noonwe heard acomplete yell of "Sail ho!" breaking out from all parts of the beachat once- from the Kanakas' oven to the Rosa's house. In an instantevery onewas out of his house; and there was a finetall shipwith royals and skysailssetbending over before the strong afternoon breezeand coming round thepoint. Her yards were braced sharp up; every sail was setand drew well; theYankee ensign was flying from her mizen-peak; and having the tide in her favorshe came up like a race-horse. It was nearly six months since a new vessel hadentered San Diegoand of courseevery one was on the qui-vive. She certainlymade a fine appearance. Her light sails were taken inas she passed the lowsandy tongue of landand clewing up her head sailsshe rounded handsomely tounder her mizen topsailand let go the anchor at about a cable's length fromthe shore. In a few minutesthe topsail yards were mannedand all three of thetopsails furled at once. From the fore top-gallant yardthe men slid down thestay to furl the jiband from the mizen top-gallant yardby the stayinto themaintopand thence to the yard; and the men on the topsail yards came down thelifts to the yard-arms of the courses. The sails were furled with great carethe bunts triced up by jiggersand the jibs stowed in cloth. The royal yardswere then strucktackles got upon the yard-arms and the staythe long-boathoisted outa large anchor carried asternand the ship moored. Then thecaptain's gig was lowered away from the quarterand a boat's crew of fine ladsbetween the ages of fourteen and eighteenpulled the captain ashore. The gigwas a light whale-boathandsomely paintedand fitted up with the stern sheets. We immediately attacked the boat's crewand got very thickwith them in a few minutes. We had much to ask about Bostontheir passage outetc.and they were very curious to know about the life we were leading upon thebeach. One of them offered to exchange with me; which was just what I wanted;and we had only to get the permission of the captain.

After dinnerthe crew began discharging their hidesandas we had nothingto do at the hide-houseswe were ordered aboard to help them. I had now myfirst opportunity of seeing the ship which I hoped was to be my home for thenext year. She looked as well on board as she did from without. Her decks werewide and roomy(there being no poopor house on deckwhich disfigures theafter part of most of our vessels) flushfore and aftand as white as snowwhich the crew told us was from constant use of holystones. There was no foolishgilding and gingerbread workto take the eye of landsmen and passengersbuteverything was "ship-shape and Bristol fashion." There was no rustnodirtno rigging hanging slackno fag ends of ropes and "Irishpendants" aloftand the yards were squared "to a t" by lifts andbraces.

The mate was a fineheartynoisy fellowwith a voice like a lionandalways wide awake. He was "a manevery inch of him" as the sailorssaid; and though "a bit of a horse" and "a hard customer"yet he was generally liked by the crew. There was also a second and third matea carpentersailmakerstewardcooketc.and twelve

including boysbefore the mast. She hadon boardseven thousand hideswhich she had collected at the windwardand also horns and tallow. All these webegan dischargingfrom both gangways at onceinto the two boatsthe secondmate having charge of the launchand the third mate of the pinnace. For severaldayswe were employed in this wayuntil all the hides were taken outwhen thecrew began taking in ballastand we returned to our old workhide-curing. -

SaturdayAug. 29th. Arrivedbrig Catalinafrom the windward. -

Sunday30th. This was the first Sunday that the crew had been in San Diegoand of course they were all for going up to see the town. The Indians came downearlywith horses to let for the dayand all the crewwho could obtainlibertywent off to the Presidio and missionand did not return until night. Ihad seen enough of San Diegoand went on board and spent the day with some ofthe crewwhom I found quietly at work in the forecastlemending and washingtheir clothesand reading and writing. They told me that the ship stopped atCallao in the passage outand there lay three weeks. She had a passage oflittle over eighty days from Boston to Callaowhich is one of the shortest onrecord. Therethey left the Brandywine frigateand other smaller Americanships of warand the English frigate Blondeand a French seventy-four. FromCallao they came directly to Californiaand had visited every port on thecoastincluding San Francisco. The forecastle in which they lived was largetolerably well lighted by bulls-eyesandbeing kept perfectly cleanhad quitea comfortable appearance; at leastit was far better than the littleblackdirty hole in which I had lived so many months on board the Pilgrim. By theregulations of the shipthe forecastle was cleaned out every morningand thecrewbeing very neatkept it clean by some regulations of their ownsuch ashaving a large spitbox always under the steps and between the bitsand obligingevery man to hang up his wet clothesetc. In addition to thisit washolystoned every Saturday morning. In the after part of the ship was a handsomecabina dining-roomand a trade-roomfitted out with shelves and furnishedwith all sorts of goods. Between these and the forecastle was the"betweendecks" as high as the gun deck of a frigate; being six feetand a halfunder the beams. These between-decks were holystoned regularlyandkept in the most perfect order; the carpenter's bench and tools being in onepartthe sailmaker's in anotherand boat-swain's lockerwith the spareriggingin a third. A part of the crew slept herein hammocks swung fore andaft from the beamsand triced up every morning. The sides of the between-deckswere clapboardedthe knees and stanchions of ironand the latter made tounship. The crew said she was as tight as a drumand a fine sea boather onlyfault beingthat of most fast ships- that she was wetforward. When she wasgoingas she sometimes wouldeight or nine knots on a windthere would not bea dry spot forward of the gangway. The men told great stories of her sailingand had great confidence in her as a "lucky ship." She was seven yearsoldand had always been in the Canton tradeand never had met with an accidentof any consequenceand had never made a passage that was not shorter than theaverage. The third matea young man of about eighteen years of agenephew ofone of the ownershad been in the ship from a small boyand "believed inthe ship;" and the chief mate thought more of her than he would of a wifeand family.

The ship lay about a week longer in portwhenhaving discharged her cargoand taken in ballastshe prepared to get under weigh. I now made my applicationto the captain to go on board. He told me that I could go home in the ship whenshe sailed (which I knew before); andfinding that I wished to be on boardwhile she was on the coastsaid he had no objectionif I could find one of myown age to exchange with mefor the time. ThisI easily accomplishedfor theywere glad to change the scene by a few months on shoreandmoreoverescapethe winter and the southeasters; and I went on board the next daywith my chestand hammockand found myself once more afloat.


TuesdaySept. 8th. This was my first day's duty on board the ship; andthough a sailor's life is a sailor's life wherever it may beyet I foundeverything very different here from the customs of the brig Pilgrim. After allhands were calledat daybreakthree minutes and a half were allowed for everyman to dress and come on deckand if any were longer than thatthey were sureto be overhauled by the matewho was always on deckand making himself heardall over the ship. The head-pump was then riggedand the decks washed down bythe second and third mates; the chief mate walking the quarter-deck and keepinga general supervisionbut not deigning to touch a bucket or a brush. Inside andoutfore and aftupper deck and between deckssteerage and forecastlerailbulwarksand water-wayswere washedscrubbed and scraped with brooms andcanvasand the decks were wet and sanded all overand then holystoned. Theholystone is a largesoft stonesmooth on the bottomwith long ropes attachedto each endby which the crew keep it sliding fore and aftover the wetsanded decks. Smaller hand-stoneswhich the sailors call"prayer-books" are used to scrub in among the crevices and narrowplaceswhere the large holystone will not go. An hour or twowe were kept atthis workwhen the head-pump was mannedand all the sand washed off the decksand sides. Then came swabs and squilgees; and after the decks were dryeach onewent to his particular morning job. There were five boats belonging to theship- launchpinnacejolly-boatlarboard quarter-boatand gig- each ofwhich had a coxswainwho had charge of itand was answerable for the order andcleanness of it. The rest of the cleaning was divided among the crew; one havingthe brass and composition work about the capstan; another the bellwhich was ofbrassand kept as bright as a gilt button; a thirdthe harness-cask; anotherthe man-rope stanchions; othersthe steps of the forecastle and hatchwayswhich were hauled up and holystoned. Each of these jobs must be finished beforebreakfast; andin the meantimethe rest of the crew filled the scuttle-buttand the cook scraped his kids (wooden tubs out of which the sailors eat) andpolished the hoopsand placed them before the galleyto await inspection. Whenthe decks were drythe lord paramount made his appearance on the quarter-deckand took a few turnswhen eight bells were struckand all hands went tobreakfast. Half an hour was allowed for breakfastwhen all hands were calledagain; the kidspotsbread-bagsetc.stowed away; andthis morningpreparations were made for getting under weigh. We paid out on the chain bywhich we swung; hove in on the other; catted the anchor; and hove short on thefirst. This work was done in shorter time than was usual on board the brig; forthough everything was more than twice as large and heavythe cat-block being asmuch as a man could liftand the chain as large as three of the Pilgrim'syetthere was a plenty of room to move about inmore discipline and systemmoremenand more good will. Every one seemed ambitious to do his best: officers andmen knew their dutyand all went well. As soon as she was hove shortthe mateon the forecastlegave the order to loose the sailsandin an instanteveryone sprung into the riggingup the shroudsand out on the yardsscrambling byone another;- the first up the best fellow- cast off the yard-arm gaskets andbunt gasketsand one man remained on each yardholding the bunt jigger with aturn round the tyeall ready to let gowhile the rest laid down to man thesheets and halyards. The mate then hailed the yards- "All readyforward?"- "All ready the cross-jack yards?" etc.etc.and"Ayeayesir!" being returned from eachthe word was given to letgo; and in the twinkling of an eyethe shipwhich had shown nothing but herbare yardswas covered with her loose canvasfrom the royal-mast-heads to thedecks. Every one then laid downexcept one man in each topto overhaul theriggingand the topsails were hoisted and sheeted home; all three yards goingto the mast-head at oncethe larboard watch hoisting the forethe starboardwatch the mainand five light hands(of whom I was one) picked from the twowatchesthe mizen. The yards were then trimmedthe anchor weighedthecat-block hooked onthe fall stretched outmanned by "all hands and thecook" and the anchor brought to the head with "cheerily men!" infull chorus. The ship being now under weighthe light sails were setone afteranotherand she was under full sailbefore she had passed the sandy point. Thefore royalwhich fell to my lot(being in the mate's watch) was more thantwice as large as that of the Pilgrimandthough I could handle the brig'seasilyI found my hands fullwith thisespecially as there were no jacks tothe ship; everything being for neatnessand nothing left for Jack to hold onbybut his eyelids.

As soon as we were beyond the pointand all sail outthe order was given"Go below the watch!" and the crew said thatever since they had beenon the coastthey had had "watch and watch" while going from port toport; andin facteverything showed thatthough strict discipline was keptand the utmost was required of every manin the way of his dutyyeton thewholethere was very good usage on board. Each one knew that he must be a manand show himself smart when at his dutyyet every one was satisfied with theusage; and a contented crewagreeing with one anotherand finding no faultwas a contrast indeed with the smallhard-useddissatisfiedgrumblingdesponding crew of the Pilgrim.

It being the turn of our watch to go belowthe men went to workmendingtheir clothesand doing other little things for themselves; and Ihaving gotmy wardrobe in complete order at San Diegohad nothing to do but to read. Iaccordingly overhauled the chests of the crewbut found nothing that suited meexactlyuntil one of the men said he had a book which "told all about agreat highwayman" at the bottom of his chestand producing itI foundto my surprise and joythat it was nothing else than Bulwer's Paul Clifford.ThisI seized immediatelyand going to my hammocklay thereswinging andreadinguntil the watch was out. The between-decks were clearthe hatchwaysopenand a cool breeze blowing through themthe ship under easy wayandeverything comfortable. I had just got well into the storywhen eight bellswere struckand we were all ordered to dinner. After dinner came our watch ondeck for four hoursandat four o'clockI went below again. turned into myhammockand read until the dog watch. As no lights were allowed after eighto'clockthere was no reading in the night watch. Having light winds and calmswe were three days on the passageand each watch belowduring the daytimeIspent in the same manneruntil I had finished my book. I shall never forget theenjoyment I derived from it. To come across anything with the slightest claimsto literary meritwas so unusualthat this was a perfect feast to me. Thebrilliancy of the bookthe succession of capital hitslively andcharacteristic sketcheskept me in a constant state of pleasing sensations. Itwas far too good for a sailor. I could not expect such fine times to last long.

While on deckthe regular work of the ship went on. The sailmaker andcarpenter worked between decksand the crew had their work to do upon theriggingdrawing yarnsmaking usual in merchantmen. Thenight watches were much more pleasant than on board the Pilgrim. Theretherewere so few in a watchthatone being at the wheeland another on thelook-outthere was no one left to talk with; but herewe had seven in a watchso that we had long yarnsin abundance. After two or three night watchesIbecame quite well acquainted with all the larboard watch. The sailmaker was thehead man of the watchand was generally considered most experienced seaman onboard. He was a thoroughbred old man-of-war's-manhad been to sea twenty-twoyearsin all kinds of vessels- men-of-warprivateersslaversandmerchantmen;- everything except whalerswhich a thorough sailor despisesandwill always steer clear ofif he can. He hadof coursebeen in all parts ofthe worldand was remarkable for drawing a long bow. His yarns frequentlystretched through a watchand kept all hands awake. They were always amusingfrom their improbabilityandindeedhe never expected to be believedbutspun them merely for amusement; and as he had some humor and a good supply ofman-of-war slang and sailor's salt phraseshe always made fun. Next to him inage and experienceandof coursein standing in the watchwas anEnglish-mannamed Harrisof whom I shall have more to say hereafter. Thencame two or three Americanswho had been the common run of European and SouthAmerican voyagesand one who had been in a "spouter" andof coursehad all the whaling stories to himself. Last of allwas a broad-backedthick-headed boy from Cape Codwho had been in mackerel schoonersand wasmaking his first voyage in a square-rigged vessel. He was born in Hinghamandof course was called "Bucketmaker." The other watch was composed ofabout the same number. A tallfine-looking Frenchmanwith coal-black whiskersand curly haira first-rate seamanand named John(one name is enough for asailor) was the head man of the watch. Then came two Americans (one of whom hadbeen a dissipated young man of property and familyand was reduced to ducktrowsers and monthly wages) a Germanan English ladnamed Benwho belongedon the mizen topsail yard with meand was a good sailor for his yearsand twoBoston boys just from the public schools. The carpenter sometimes mustered inthe starboard watchand was an old sea-doga Swede by birthand accounted thebest helmsman in the ship. This was our ship's companybeside cook and stewardwho were blacksthree matesand the captain. -

The second day outthe wind drew aheadand we had to beat up the coast; sothatin tacking shipI could see the regulations of the vessel. Instead ofgoing wherever was most convenientand running from place to placewhereverwork was to be doneeach man had his station. A regular tacking and wearingbill was made out. The chief mate commanded on the forecastleand had charge ofthe head sails and the forward part of the ship. Two of the best men in theship- the sailmaker from our watchand Johnthe Frenchmanfrom the otherworked the forecastle. The third mate commanded in the waistandwith thecarpenter and one manworked the main tack and bowlines; the cookex-officiothe fore sheetand the steward the main. The second mate had charge of theafter yardsand let go the lee fore and main braces. I was stationed at theweather cross-jack braces; three other light hands at the lee; one boy at thespanker-sheet and guy; a man and a boy at the main topsailtop-gallantroyalbraces; and all the rest of the crew- men and boys- tailled on to the mainbrace. Every one here knew his stationmust be there when all hands were calledto put the ship aboutand was answerable for every rope committed to him. Eachman's rope must be let go and hauled in at the orderproperly made fastandneatly coiled away when the ship was about. As soon as all hands are at theirstationsthe captainwho stands on the weather side of the quarter-deckmakesa sign to the man at the wheel to put it downand calls out "Helm's alee'!" "Helm's a lee'!" answers the mate on the forecastleandthe head sheets are let go. "Raise tacks and sheets!" says thecaptain; "tacks and sheets!" is passed forwardand the fore tack andmain sheet are let go. The next thing is to haul taught for a swing. The weathercross-jack braces and the lee main braces are each belayed together upon twopinsand ready to be let go; and the opposite braces hauled taught. "Maintopsail haul!" shouts the captain; the braces are let go; and if he hastaken his time wellthe yards swing round like a top; but if he is too lateortoo soonit is like drawing teeth. The after yards are then braced up andbelayedthe main sheet hauled aftthe spanker eased over to leewardand themen from the braces stand by the head yards. "Let go and haul!" saysthe captain; the second mate lets go the weather fore bracesand the men haulin to leeward. The mateon the forecastlelooks out for the head yards."Wellthe fore topsail yard!" "Top-gallant yard's well!""Royal yard too much! Haul into windward! So! well that!" "Wellall!" Then the starboard watch board the main tackand the larboard watchlay forward and board the fore tack and haul down the jib sheetclapping atackle upon itif it blows very fresh. The after yards are then trimmedthecaptain generally looking out for them himself. "Well the cross-jackyard!" "Small pull the main top-gallant yard!" "Wellthat!" "Well the mizen top-gallant yard!" "Cross-jack yardsall well!" "Well all aft!" "Haul taught to windward!"Everything being now trimmed and in ordereach man coils up the rigging at hisown stationand the order is given- "Go below the watch!"

During the last twenty-four hours of the passagewe beat off and on thelandmaking a tack about once in four hoursso that I had a sufficientopportunity to observe the working of the ship; and certainlyit took no moremen to brace about this ship's lower yardswhich were more than fifty feetsquarethan it did those of the Pilgrimwhich were not much more than half thesize; so much depends upon the manner in which the braces runand the state ofthe blocks; and Captain Wilsonof the Ayacuchowho was afterwards a passengerwith usupon a trip to windwardsaid he had no doubt that our ship worked twomen lighter than his brig. -

FridaySept. 11th. This morningat four o'clockwent belowSan Pedropoint being about two leagues aheadand the ship going on under studding-sails.In about an hour we were waked up by the hauling of the chain about decksandin a few minutes "All hands ahoy!" was called; and we were all atworkhauling in and making up the studding-sailsoverhauling the chainforwardand getting the anchors ready. "The Pilgrim is there atanchor" said some oneas we were running about decks; and taking amoment's look over the railI saw my old frienddeeply ladenlying at anchorinside of the kelp. In coming to anchoras well as in tackingeach one had hisstation and duty. The light sails were clewed up and furledthe courses hauledup and the jibs down; then came the topsails in the buntlinesand the anchorlet go. As soon as she was well at anchorall hands lay aloft to furl thetopsails; and thisI soon foundwas a great matter on board this ship; forevery sailor knows that a vessel is judged ofa good dealby the furl of hersails. The third matea sailmakerand the larboard watch went upon the foretopsail yard; the second matecarpenterand the starboard watch upon the main;and myself and the English ladand the two Boston boysand the young Cape-Codmanfurled the mizen topsail. This sail belonged to us altogetherto reef andto furland not a man was allowed to come upon our yard. The mate took us underhis special carefrequently making us furl the sail overthree or four timesuntil we got the bunt up to a perfect coneand the whole sail without awrinkle. As soon as each sail was hauled up and the bunt madethe jigger wasbent on to the slack of the buntlinesand the bunt traced upon deck. The matethen took his place between the knightheads to "twig" the foreon thewindlass to twig the mainand at the foot of the mainmastfor the mizen; andif anything was wrong- too much bunt on one sideclews too taught or tooslackor any sail abaft the yard- the whole must be dropped again. When allwas rightthe bunts were triced well upthe yard-arm gaskets passedso as notto leave a wrinkle forward of the yard- short gaskets with turns close together.

From the moment of letting go the anchorwhen the captain ceases his care ofthingsthe chief mate is the great man. With a voice like a young lionhe washallooing and bawlingin all directionsmaking everything flyandat thesame timedoing everything well. He was quite a contrast to the worthyquietunobtrusive mate of the Pilgrim; not so estimable a manperhapsbut a farbetter mate of a vessel; and the entire change in Captain T---'s conductsincehe took command of the shipwas owingno doubtin a great measureto thisfact. If the chief officer wants forcediscipline slackenseverything gets outof jointthe captain interferes continually; that makes a difficulty betweenthemwhich encourages the crewand the whole ends in a three-sided quarrel.But Mr. Brown (the mate of the Alert) wanted no help from anybody; tookeverything into his own hands; and was more likely to encroach upon theauthority of the masterthan to need any spurring. Captain T--- gave hisdirections to the mate in privateandexcept in coming to anchorgettingunder weightackingreefing topsailsand other "all-hands-work"seldom appeared in person. This is the proper state of thingsand while thislastsand there is a good understanding afteverything will go on well.

Having furled all the sailsthe royal yards were next to be sent down. TheEnglish lad and myself sent down the mainwhich was larger than the Pilgrim'smain top-gallant yard; two more light handsthe fore; and one boythe mizen.This orderwe always kept while on the coast; sending them up and down everytime we came in and went out of port. They were all tripped and loweredtogetherthe main on the starboard sideand the fore and mizento port. Nosooner was she all snugthan tackles were got up on the yards and staysandthe long-boat and pinnace hove out. The swinging booms were then guyed outandthe boats made fast by geswarpsand everything in harbor style. Afterbreakfastthe hatches were taken offand all got ready to receive hides fromthe Pilgrim. All dayboats were passing and repassinguntil we had taken herhides from herand left her in ballast trim. These hides made but little showin our holdthough they had loaded the Pilgrim down to the water's edge. Thischanging of the hides settled the question of the destination of the twovesselswhich had been one of some speculation to us. We were to remain in theleeward portswhile the Pilgrim was to sailthe next morningfor SanFrancisco. After we had knocked off workand cleared up decks for the nightmyfriend S--- came on boardand spent an hour with me in our berth between decks.The Pilgrim's crew envied me my place on board the shipand seemed to thinkthat I had got a little to windward of them; especially in the matter of goinghome first. S--- was determined to go home on the Alertby begging or buying;if Captain T--- would not let him come on other termshe would purchase anexchange with some one of the crew. The prospect of another year after the Alertshould sailwas rather "too much of the monkey." About seven o'clockthe mate came down into the steeragein fine trim for funroused the boys outof the berthturned up the carpenter with his fiddlesent the steward withlights to put in the between-decksand set all hands to dancing. Thebetween-decks were high enough to allow of jumping; and being clearand whitefrom holystoningmade a fine dancing-hall. Some of the Pilgrim's crew were inthe forecastleand we all turned-to and had a regular sailor's shuffletilleight bells. The Cape-Cod boy could dance the true fisherman's jigbarefootedknocking with his heelsand slapping the decks with his bare feetin time withthe music. This was a favorite amusement of the mate'swho always stood at thesteerage doorlooking onand if the boys would not dancehe hazed them roundwith a rope's endmuch to the amusement of the men.

The next morningaccording to the orders of the agentthe Pilgrim set sailfor the windwardto be gone three or four months. She got under weigh with verylittle fussand came so near us as to throw a letter on boardCaptain Fauconstanding at the tiller himselfand steering her as he would a mackerel smack.When Captain T--- was in command of the Pilgrimthere was as much preparationand ceremony as there would be in getting a seventy-four under weigh. CaptainFaucon was a sailorevery inch of him; he knew what a ship wasand was as muchat home in oneas a cobbler in his stall. I wanted no better proof of this thanthe opinion of the ship's crewfor they had been six months under his commandand knew what he was; and if sailors allow their captain to be a good seamanyou may be sure he is onefor that is a thing they are not always ready to say.

After the Pilgrim left uswe lay three weeks at San Pedrofrom the 11th ofSeptember until the 2nd of Octoberengaged in the usual port duties of landingcargotaking off hidesetc.etc. These duties were much easierand went onmuch more agreeablythan on board the Pilgrim. "The morethemerrier" is the sailor's maxim; and a boat's crew of a dozen could takeoff all the hides brought down in a daywithout much troubleby division oflabor; and on shoreas well as on boarda good willand no discontent orgrumblingmake everything go well. The officertoowho usually went with usthe third matewas a fine young fellowand made no unnecessary trouble; sothat we generally had quite a sociable timeand were glad to be relieved fromthe restraint of the ship. While hereI often thought of the miserablegloomyweeks we had spent in this dull placein the brig; discontent and hard usage onboardand four hands to do all the work on shore. Give me a big ship. There ismore roommore handsbetter outfitbetter regulationmore lifeand morecompany. Another thing was better arranged here: we had a regular gig's crew. Alight whale-boathandsomely paintedand fitted out with stern seatsyoketiller-ropesetc.hung on the starboard quarterand was used as the gig. Theyoungest lad in the shipa Boston boy about thirteen years oldwas coxswain ofthis boatand had the entire charge of herto keep her cleanand have her inreadiness to go and come at any hour. Four light handsof about the same sizeand ageof whom I was oneformed the crew. Each had his oar and seat numberedand we were obliged to be in our placeshave our oars scraped whiteourtholepins inand the fenders over the side. The bow-man had charge of theboat-hook and painterand the coxswain of the rudderyokeand stern-sheets.Our duty was to carry the captain and agent aboutand passengers off and on;which last was no trifling dutyas the people on shore have no boatsand everypurchaserfrom the boy who buys his pair of shoesto the trader who buys hiscasks and baleswere to be taken off and onin our boat. Some dayswhenpeople were coming and going fastwe were in the boatpulling off and onallday longwith hardly time for our meals; makingas we lay nearly three milesfrom shorefrom forty to fifty miles rowing in a day. Stillwe thought it thebest berth in the ship; for when the gig was employedwe had nothing to do withthe cargoexcept small bundles which the passengers carried with themand nohides to carrybesides the opportunity of seeing everybodymakingacquaintanceshearing the newsetc. Unless the captain or agent were in theboatwe had no officer with usand often had fine times with the passengerswho were always willing to talk and joke with us. Frequentlytoowe wereobliged to wait several hours on shore; when we would haul the boat up on thebeachand leaving one to watch hergo up to the nearest houseor spend thetime in strolling about the beachpicking up shellsor playing hopscotchandother gameson the hard sand. The rest of the crew never left the shipexceptfor bringing heavy goods and taking off hides; and though we were always in thewaterthe surf hardly leaving us a dry thread from morning till nightyet wewere youngand the climate was goodand we thought it much better than thequiethum-drum drag and pull on board ship. We made the acquaintance of nearlyhalf of California; forbesides carrying everybody in our boat- menwomenand children- all the messageslettersand light packages went by usandbeing known by our dresswe found a ready reception everywhere.

At San Pedrowe had none of this amusementforthere being but one housein the placeweof coursehad but little company. All the variety that I hadwas ridingonce a weekto the nearest ranchoto order a bullock down for theship.

The brig Catalina came in from San Diegoand being bound up to windwardweboth got under weigh at the same timefor a trial of speed up to Santa Barbaraa distance of about eighty miles. We hove up and got under sail about eleveno'clock at nightwith a light land-breezewhich died away toward morningleaving us becalmed only a few miles from our anchoring-place. The Catalinabeing a small vesselof less than half our sizeput out sweeps and got a boataheadand pulled out to seaduring the nightso that she had the sea-breezeearlier and stronger than we didand we had the mortification of seeing herstanding up the coastwith a fine breezethe sea all ruffled about herwhilewe were becalmedin-shore. When the sea-breeze died awayshe was nearly out ofsight; andtoward the latter part of the afternoonthe regular north-west windset in freshwe braced sharp upon ittook a pull at every sheettackandhalyardand stood after herin fine styleour ship being very good upon ataughtened bowline. We had nearly five hours of fine sailingbeating up towindwardby long stretches in and off shoreand evidently gaining upon theCatalina at every tack. When this breeze left uswe were so near as to countthe painted ports on her side. Fortunatelythe wind died away when we were onour inward tackand she on her outwardso we were in-shoreand caught theland-breeze firstwhich came off upon our quarterabout the middle of thefirst watch. All hands were turned-upand we set all sailto the skysails andthe royal studding-sails; and with thesewe glided quietly through the waterleaving the Catalinawhich could not spread so much canvas as wegraduallyasternandby daylightwere off St. Buenaventuraand our antagonist nearlyout of sight. The sea-breezehoweverfavored her againwhile we were becalmedunder the headlandand laboring slowly alongshe was abreast of us by noon.Thus we continuedaheadasternand abreast of one anotheralternately; nowfar out at seaand againclose in under the shore. On the third morningwecame into the great bay of Santa Barbaratwo hours behind the brigand thuslost the bet; thoughif the race had been to the pointwe should have beatenher by five or six hours. Thishoweversettled the relative sailing of thevesselsfor it was admitted that although shebeing small and lightcouldgain upon us in very light windsyet whenever there was breeze enough to set usagoingwe walked away from her like hauling in a line; and in beating towindwardwhich is the best trial of a vesselwe had much the advantage of her.-

SundayOct. 4th. This was the day of our arrival; and somehow or otherourcaptain always managed not only to sailbut to come into porton a Sunday. Themain reason for sailing on the Sabbath is notas many people supposebecauseSunday is thought a lucky daybut because it is a leisure day. During the sixdaysthe crew are employed upon the cargo and other ship's worksand theSabbathbeing their only day of restwhatever additional work can be throwninto Sundayis so much gain to the owners. This is the reason of our coasterspacketsetc.sailing on the Sabbath. They get six good days' work out of thecrewand then throw all the labor of sailing into the Sabbath. Thus it was withusnearly all the time we were on the coastand many of our Sabbaths were lostentirely to us. The Catholics on shore have no trading and make no journeys onSundaybut the American has no national religionand likes to show hisindependence of priestcraft by doing as he chooses on the Lord's day.

Santa Barbara looked very much as it did when I left it five months before:the long sand beachwith the heavy rollersbreaking upon it in a continualroarand the little townimbedded on the plaingirt by its amphitheatre ofmountains. Day after daythe sun shone clear and bright upon the wide bay andthe red roofs of the houses; everything being as still as deaththe peoplereally hardly seeming to earn their sun-light. Daylight actually seemed thrownaway upon them. We had a few visitorsand collected about a hundred hidesandevery nightat sundownthe gig was sent ashoreto wait for the captainwhospent his evenings in the town. We always took our monkey-jackets with usandflint and steeland made a fire on the beach with the driftwood and the busheswe pulled from the neighboring thicketsand lay down by iton the sand.Sometimes we would stray up to the townif the captain was likely to stay lateand pass the time at some of the housesin which we were almost always wellreceived by the inhabitants. Sometimes earlier and sometimes laterthe captaincame down; whenafter a good drenching in the surfwe went aboardchanged ourclothesand turned in for the night- yet not for all the nightfor there wasthe anchor watch to stand.

This leads me to speak of my watchmate for nine months- andtaking him allin allthe most remarkable man I have ever seen- Tom Harris. An houreverynightwhile lying in portHarris and myself had the deck to ourselvesandwalking fore and aftnight after nightfor monthsI learned his wholecharacter and historyand more about foreign nationsthe habits of differentpeopleand especially the secrets of sailors' lives and hardshipsand also ofpractical seamanship(in which he was abundantly capable of instructing me)than I could ever have learned elsewhere. But the most remarkable thing abouthimwas the power of his mind. His memory was perfect; seeming to form aregular chainreaching from his earliest childhood up to the time I knew himwithout one link wanting. His power of calculationtoowas remarkable. Icalled myself pretty quick at figuresand had been through a course ofmathematical studies; butworking by my headI was unable to keep within sightof this manwho had never been beyond his arithmetic: so rapid was hiscalculation. He carried in his head not only a log-book of the whole voyageinwhich everything was complete and accurateand from which no one ever thoughtof appealingbut also an accurate registry of all the cargo; knowingpreciselywhere each thing wasand how many hides we took in at every port.

One nighthe made a rough calculation of the number of hides that could bestowed in the lower holdbetween the fore and main maststaking the depth ofhold and breadth of beam(for he always knew the dimension of every part of theshipbefore he had been a month on board) and the average area and thicknessof a hide; he came surprisingly near the numberas it afterwards turned out.The mate frequently came to him to know the capacity of different parts of thevesselso he could tell the sailmaker very nearly the amount of canvas he wouldwant for each sail in the ship; for he knew the hoist of every mastand spreadof every sailon the head and footin feet and inches. When we were at seahekept a running accountin his headof the ship's way- the number of knots andthe courses; and if the courses did not vary much during the twenty-four hoursby taking the whole progressand allowing so many eighths southing or northingto so many easting or westing; he would make up his reckoning just before thecaptain took the sun at noonand often came wonderfully near the mark.Calculation of all kinds was his delight. He hadin his chestseveral volumesgiving accounts of inventions in mechanicswhich he read with great pleasureand made himself master of. I doubt if he ever forgot anything that he read. Theonly thing in the way of poetry that he ever read was Falconer's Shipwreckwhich he was delighted withand whole pages of which he could repeat. He knewthe name of every sailor that had ever been his shipmateand alsoof everyvesselcaptainand officerand the principal dates of each voyage; and asailor whom he afterwards fell in withwho had been in a ship with Harrisnearly twelve years beforewas very much surprised at having Harris tell himthings about himself which he had entirely forgotten. His factswhether datesor eventsno one thought of disputing; and his opinionsfew of the sailorsdared to oppose; forright or wronghe always had the best of the argumentwith them. His reasoning powers were remarkable. I have had harder workmaintaining an argument with him in a watcheven when I knew myself to berightand he was only doubtingthan I ever had before; not from his obstinacybut from his acuteness. Give him only a little knowledge of his subjectandcertainly among all the young men of my acquaintance and standing at collegethere was not one whom I had not rather meetthan this man. I never answered aquestion from himor advanced an opinion to himwithout thinking more thanonce. With an iron memoryhe seemed to have your whole past conversation atcommandand if you said a thing now which ill agreed with something said monthsbeforehe was sure to have you on the hip. In factI always feltwhen withhimthat I was with no common man. I had a positive respect for his powers ofmindand felt often that if half the pains had been spent upon his educationwhich are thrown awayyearlyin our collegeshe would have been a man ofgreat weight in society. Like most self-taught menhe over-estimated the valueof an education; and thisI often told himthough I profited by it myself; forhe always treated me with respectand often unnecessarily gave way to mefroman over-estimate of my knowledge. For the intellectual capacities of all therest of the crewcaptain and allhe had the most sovereign contempt. He was afar better sailorand probably a better navigatorthan the captainand hadmore brains than all the after part of the ship put together. The sailors said"Tom's got a head as long as the bowsprit" and if any one got into anargument with himthey would call out- "AhJack! you'd better drop thatas you would a hot potatofor Tom will turn you inside out before you knowit."

I recollect his posing me once on the subject of the Corn Laws. I was calledto stand my watchandcoming on deckfound him there before me; and we beganas usualto walk fore and aftin the waist. He talked about the Corn Laws;asked me my opinion about themwhich I gave him; and my reasons; my small stockof which I set forth to the best advantagesupposing his knowledge on thesubject must be less than mineifindeedhe had any at all. When I had gotthroughhe took the liberty of differing from meandto my surprisebroughtarguments and facts connected with the subject which were new to meto which Iwas entirely unable to reply. I confessed that I knew almost nothing of thesubjectand expressed my surprise at the extent of his information. He saidthata number of years beforewhile at a boarding-house in Liverpoolhe hadfallen in with a pamphlet on the subjectandas it contained calculationshadread it very carefullyand had ever since wished to find some one who could addto his stock of knowledge on the question. Although it was many years since hehad seen the bookand it was a subject with which he had no previousacquaintanceyet he had the chain of reasoningfounded upon principles ofpolitical economyperfect in his memory; and his factsso far as I couldjudgewere correct; at leasthe stated them with great precision. Theprinciples of the steam enginetoohe was very familiar withhaving beenseveral months on board of a steamboatand made himself master of its secrets.He knew every lunar star in both hemispheresand was a perfect master of hisquadrant and sextant. Such was the manwhoat fortywas still a dog beforethe mastat twelve dollars a month. The reason of this was to be found in hiswhole past lifeas I had itat different timesfrom himself.

He was an Englishmanby birtha native of Ilfracombin Devonshire. Hisfather was skipper of a small coasterfrom Bristoland dyingleft himwhenquite youngto the care of his motherby whose exertions he received acommon-school educationpassing his winters at school and his summers in thecoasting tradeuntil his seventeenth yearwhen he left home to go upon foreignvoyages. Of his motherhe often spoke with the greatest respectand said thatshe was a strong-minded womanand had the best system of education he had everknown; a system which had made respectable men of his three brothersand failedonly in himfrom his own indomitable obstinacy. One thing he often mentionedin which he said his mother differed from all other mothers that he had everseen disciplining their children; that wasthat when he was out of humor andrefused to eatinstead of putting his plate awayas most mothers wouldandsaying that his hunger would bring him to itin timeshe would stand over himand oblige him to eat it- every mouthful of it. It was no fault of hers that hewas what I saw him; and so great was his sense of gratitude for her effortsthough unsuccessfulthat he determinedat the close of the voyageto embarkfor home with all the wages he should getto spend with and for his motherifperchance he should find her alive.

After leaving homehe had spent nearly twenty yearssailing upon all sortsof voyagesgenerally out of the ports of New York and Boston. Twenty years ofvice! Every sin that a sailor knowshe had gone to the bottom of. Several timeshe had been hauled up in the hospitalsand as oftenthe great strength of hisconstitution had brought him out again in health. Several timestoofrom hisknown capacityhe had been promoted to the office of chief mateand as oftenhis conduct when in portespecially his drunkennesswhich neither fear norambition could induce him to abandonput him back into the forecastle. Onenightwhen giving me an account of his lifeand lamenting the years of manhoodhe had thrown awayhe said that therein the forecastleat the foot of thesteps- a chest of old clothes- was the result of twenty-two years of hard laborand exposure- worked like a horseand treated like a dog. As he grew olderhebegan to feel the necessity of some provision for his later yearsand camegradually to the conviction that rum had been his worst enemy. One nightinHavanaa young shipmate of his was brought aboard drunkwith a dangerous gashin his headand his money and new clothes stripped from him. Harris had seenand been in hundreds of such scenes as thesebut in his then state of minditfixed his determinationand he resolved never to taste another drop of strongdrinkof any kind. He signed no pledgeand made no vowbut relied on his ownstrength of purpose. The first thing with him was a reasonand then aresolutionand the thing was done. The date of his resolution he knewofcourseto the very hour. It was three years before I knew himand during allthat timenothing stronger than cider or coffee had passed his lips. Thesailors never thought of enticing Tom to take a glassany more than they wouldof talking to the ship's compass. He was now a temperate man for lifeandcapable of filling any berth in a shipand many a high station there is onshore which is held by a meaner man.

He understood the management of a ship upon scientific principlesand couldgive the reason for hauling every rope; and a long experienceadded to carefulobservation at the timeand a perfect memorygave him a knowledge of theexpedients and resorts in times of hazardwhich was remarkableand for which Ibecame much indebted to himas he took the greatest pleasure in opening hisstores of information to mein return for what I was able to do for him.Stories of tyranny and hardship which had driven men to piracy;- of theincredible ignorance of masters and matesand of horrid brutality to the sickdeadand dying; as well as of the secret knavery and impositions practised uponseamen by connivance of the ownerslandlordsand officers; all these he hadand I could not but believe them; for men who had known him for fifteen yearshad never taken him even in an exaggerationandas I have saidhis statementswere never disputed. I rememberamong other thingshis speaking of a captainwhom I had known by reportwho never handed a thing to a sailorbut put it ondeck and kicked it to him; and of anotherwho was of the best connections inBostonwho absolutely murdered a lad from Boston that went out with him beforethe mast to Sumatraby keeping him hard at work while ill of the coast feverand obliging him to sleep in the close steerage. (The same captain has sincedied of the same fever on the same coast.)

In facttaking together all that I learned from him of seamanshipof thehistory of sailors' livesof practical wisdomand of human nature under newcircumstances- a great history from which many are shut out- I would not partwith the hours I spent in the watch with that man for any given hours of my lifepassed in study and social intercourse.


SundayOct. 11th. Set sail this morning for the leeward; passed within sightof San Pedroandto our great joydid not come to anchorbut kept directlyon to San Diegowhere we arrived and moored ship on. -

ThursdayOct. 15th. Found here the Italian ship La Rosafrom the windwardwhich reported the brig Pilgrim at San Franciscoall well. Everything was asquiet here as usual. We discharged our hideshornsand tallowand were readyto sail again on the following Sunday. I went ashore to my old quartersandfound the gang at the hide-house going on in the even tenor of their wayandspent an hour or twoafter darkat the oventaking a whiff with my old Kanakafriendswho really seemed glad to see me againand saluted me as the Aikane ofthe Kanakas. I was grieved to find that my poor dog Bravo was dead. He hadsickened and died suddenlythe very day after I sailed in the Alert.

Sunday was againas usualour sailing dayand we got under weigh with astiff breezewhich reminded us that it was the latter part of the autumnandtime to expect south-easters once more. We beat up against a strong head windunder reefed top-sailsas far as San Juanwhere we came to anchor nearly threemiles from the shorewith slip-ropes on our cablesin the old south-easterstyle of last winter. On the passage upwe had an old sea captain on boardwhohad married and settled in Californiaand had not been on salt water for morethan fifteen years. He was astonished at the changes and improvements that hadbeen made in shipsand still more at the manner in which we carried sail; forhe was really a little frightened; and said that while we had top-gallant sailsonhe should have been under reefed topsails. The working of the shipand herprogress to windwardseemed to delight himfor he said she went to windward asthough she were kedging. -

TuesdayOct. 20th. Having got everything readywe set the agent ashorewhowent up to the mission to hasten down the hides for the next morning. This nightwe had the strictest orders to look out for south-easters; and the longlowclouds seemed rather threatening. But the night passed over without any troubleand early the next morningwe hove out the long-boat and pinnacelowered awaythe quarter-boatsand went ashore to bring off our hides. Here we were againin this romantic spot; a perpendicular hilltwice the height of the ship'smast-headwith a single circuitous path to the topand long sand beach at itsbasewith the swell of the whole Pacific breaking high upon itand our hidesranged in piles on the overhanging summit. The captain sent mewho was the onlyone of the crew that had ever been there beforeto the topto count the hidesand pitch them down. There I stood againas six months beforethrowing off thehidesand watching thempitching and scalingto the bottomwhile the mendwarfed by the distancewere walking to and fro on the beachcarrying thehidesas they picked them upto the distant boatsupon the tops of theirheads. Two or three boat-loads were sent offuntilat lastall were throwndownand the boats nearly loaded again; when we were delayed by a dozen ortwenty hides which had lodged in the recesses of the hilland which we couldnot reach by any missilesas the general line of the side was exactlyperpendicularand these places were caved inand could not be seen or reachedfrom the top. As hides are worth in Boston twelve and a half cents a poundandthe captain's commission was two per centhe determined not to give them up;and sent on board for a pair of top-gallant studding-sail halyardsandrequested some one of the crew to go to the topand come down by the halyards.The older sailors said the boyswho were light and activeought to gowhilethe boys thought that strength and experience were necessary. Seeing thedilemmaand feeling myself to be near the medium of these requisitesI offeredmy servicesand went upwith one man to tend the ropeand prepared for thedescent.

We found a stake fastened strongly into the groundand apparently capable ofholding my weightto which we made one end of the halyards well fastandtaking the coilthrew it over the brink. The endwe sawjust reached to alanding-placefrom which the descent to the beach was easy. Having nothing onbut shirttrowsersand hatthe common sea-rig of warm weatherI had nostripping to doand began my descentby taking hold of the rope in each handand slipping downsometimes with hands and feet round the ropeand sometimesbreasting off with one hand and foot against the precipiceand holding on tothe rope with the other. In this way I descended until I came to a place whichshelved inand in which the hides were lodged. Keeping hold of the rope withone handI scrambled inand by the other hand and feet succeeded in dislodgingall the hidesand continued on my way. Just below this placethe precipiceprojected againand going over the projectionI could see nothing below me butthe sea and the rocks upon which it brokeand a few gulls flying in mid-air. Igot down in safetypretty well covered with dirt; and for my pains was told"What a d--d fool you were to risk your life for a half a dozenhidest"

While we were carrying the hides to the boatI perceivedwhat I had beentoo busy to observe beforethat heavy black clouds were rolling up fromseawarda strong swell heaving inand every sign of a south-easter. Thecaptain hurried everything. The hides were pitched into the boats; andwithsome difficultyand by wading nearly up to our armpitswe got the boatsthrough the surfand began pulling aboard. Our gig's crew towed the pinnaceastern of the gigand the launch was towed by six men in the jolly-boat. Theship was lying three miles offpitching at her anchorand the farther wepulledthe heavier grew the swell. Our boat stood nearly up and down severaltimes; the pinnace parted her tow-lineand we expected every moment to see thelaunch swamped. We at length got alongsideour boats half full of water; andnow came the greatest difficulty of all- unloading the boatsin a heavy seawhich pitched them about so that it was almost impossible to stand in them;raising them sometimes even with the railand again dropping them below thebends. With great difficultywe got all the hides aboard and stowed underhatchesthe yard and stay tackles hooked onand the launch and pinnacehoistedcheckedand griped. The quarter-boats were then hoisted upand webegan heaving in on the chain. Getting the anchor was no easy work in such aseabut as we were not coming back to this portthe captain determined not toslip. The ship's head pitched into the seaand the water rushed through thehawse-holesand the chain surged so as almost to unship the barrel of thewindlass. "Hove shortsir!" said the mate. "Ayeaye!Weather-bit your chain and loose the topsails! Make sail on hermen- with awill!" A few moments served to loose the topsailswhich were furled withreefsto sheet them homeand hoist them up. "Bear a hand!" was theorder of the day; and every one saw the necessity of itfor the gale wasalready upon us. The ship broke out her own anchorwhich we catted and fishedafter a fashionand stood off from the lee-shore against a heavy head seaunder reefed topsailsfore-topmast staysail and spanker. The fore course wasgiven to herwhich helped her a little; but as she hardly held her own againstthe sea which was settling her leeward- "Board the main tack!" shoutedthe captain; when the tack was carried forward and taken to the windlassandall hands called to the handspikes. The great sail bellied out horizontally asthough it would lift up the main stay; the blocks rattled and flew about; butthe force of machinery was too much for her. "Heave ho! Heave and pawl! Yoheaveheartyho!" andin time with the songby the force of twentystrong armsthe windlass came slowly roundpawl after pawland the weatherclew of the sail was brought down to the waterways. The starboard watch hauledaft the sheetand the ship tore through the water like a mad horsequiveringand shaking at every jointand dashing from its head the foamwhich flew offat every blowyards and yards to leeward. A half hour of such sailing servedour turnwhen the clews of the sail were hauled upthe sail furledand theshipeased of her presswent more quietly on her way. Soon afterthe foresailwas reefedand we mizen-top men were sent up to take another reef in the mizentopsail. This was the first time I had taken a weather earingand I felt not alittle proud to sitastride of the weather yard-armpass the earingand singout "Haul out to leeward!" From this time until we got to Bostonthemate never suffered any one but our own gang to go upon the mizen topsail yardeither for reefing or furlingand the young English lad and myself generallytook the earings between us.

Having cleared the point and got well out to seawe squared away the yardsmade more sailand stood onnearly before the windfor San Pedro. It blewstrongwith some rainnearly all nightbut fell calm toward morningand thegale having gone overwe came-to- -

ThursdayOct. 22dat San Pedroin the old south-easter bertha leaguefrom shorewith a slip-rope on the cablereefs in the topsailsand rope-yarnsfor gaskets. Here we lay ten dayswith the usual boatinghide-carryingrolling of cargo up the steep hillwalking barefooted over stonesand gettingdrenched in salt water.

The third day after our arrivalthe Rosa came in from San Juanwhere shewent the day after the south-easter. Her crew said it was as smooth as amill-pondafter the galeand she took off nearly a thousand hideswhich hadbeen brought down for usand which we lost in consequence of the south-easter.This mortified us; not only that an Italian ship should have got to windward ofus in the tradebut because every thousand hides went toward completing theforty thousand which we were to collect before we could say good-by toCalifornia.

While lying herewe shipped one new handan Englishmanof about two orthree and twentywho was quite an acquisitionas he proved to be a goodsailorcould sing tolerablyandwhat was of more importance to mehad a goodeducationand a somewhat remarkable history. He called himself George P. Marsh;professed to have been at sea from a small boyand to have served his time inthe smuggling trade between Germany and the coasts of France and England. Thushe accounted for his knowledge of the French languagewhich he spoke and readas well as he did English; but his cutter education would not account for hisEnglishwhich was far too good to have been learned in a smuggler; for he wrotean uncommonly handsome handspoke with great correctnessand frequentlywhenin private talk with mequoted from booksand showed a knowledge of thecustoms of societyand particularly of the formalities of the various Englishcourts of lawand of Parliamentwhich surprised me. Stillhe would give noother account of himself than that he was educated in a smuggler. A man whom weafterwards fell in withwho had been a shipmate of George's a few years beforesaid that he heard at the boarding-house from which they shippedthat Georgehad been at college(probably a naval oneas he knew no Latin or Greek) wherehe learned French and mathematics. He was by no means the man by nature thatHarris was. Harris had made everything of his mind and character in spite ofobstacles; while this man had evidently been born in a different rankandeducated early in life accordinglybut had been a vagabondand done nothingfor himself since. What had been given to him by otherswas all that made himto differ from those about him; while Harris had made himself what he was.Neither had George the characterstrength of mindacutenessor memory ofHarris; yet there was about him the remains of a pretty good educationwhichenabled him to talk perhaps beyond his brainsand a high spirit and sense ofhonorwhich years of a dog's life had not broken. After he had been a littlewhile on boardwe learned from him his remarkable historyfor the last twoyearswhich we afterwards heard confirmed in such a manneras put the truth ofit beyond a doubt.

He sailed from New York in the year 1833if I mistake notbefore the mastin the brig Lascarfor Canton. She was sold in the East Indiesand he shippedat Manillain a small schoonerbound on a trading voyage among the Ladrone andPelew Islands. On one of the latter islandstheir schooner was wrecked on areefand they were attacked by the nativesandafter a desperate resistancein which all their number except the captainGeorgeand a boywere killed ordrownedthey surrenderedand were carried boundin a canoeto a neighboringisland. In about a month after thisan opportunity occurred by which one oftheir number might get away. I have forgotten the circumstancesbut only onecould goand they yielded to the captainupon his promising to send them aidif he escaped. He was successful in his attempt; got on board an Americanvesselwent back to Manillaand thence to Americawithout making any effortfor their rescueor indeedas George afterwards discoveredwithout evenmentioning their case to any one in Manilla. The boy that was with George diedand he being aloneand there being no chance for his escapethe natives soontreated him with kindnessand even with attention. They painted himtattooedhis body(for he would never consent to be marked in the face or hands) gavehim two or three wives; andin factmade quite a pet of him. In this wayhelived for thirteen monthsin a fine climatewith a plenty to eathalf nakedand nothing to do. He soonhoweverbecame tiredand went round the islandondifferent pretencesto look out for a sail. One dayhe was out fishing in asmall canoe with another manwhen he saw a large sail to the windwardabout aleague and a half offpassing abreast of the island and standing westward. Withsome difficultyhe persuaded the islander to go off with him to the shippromising to return with a good supply of rum and tobacco. These articleswhichthe islanders had got a taste of from American traderswere too strong atemptation for the fellowand he consented. They paddled off in the track ofthe shipand lay-to until she came down to them. George stepped on board theshipnearly nakedpainted from head to footand in no way distinguishablefrom his companion until he began to speak. Upon thisthe people on board werenot a little astonished; andhaving learned his storythe captain had himwashed and clothedand sending away the poor astonished native with a knife ortwo and some tobacco and calicotook George with him on the voyage. This wasthe ship Cabotof New YorkCaptain Low. She was bound to Manillafrom acrossthe Pacificand George did seaman's duty in her until her arrival in Manillawhen he left herand shipped in a brig bound to the Sandwich Islands. FromOahuhe camein the British brig Clementineto Montereyas second officerwherehaving some difficulty with the captainhe left herand coming down thecoastjoined us at San Pedro. Nearly six months after thisamong some paperswe received by an arrival from Bostonwe found a letter from Captain Lowofthe Cabotpublished immediately upon his arrival at New Yorkand giving allthe particulars just as we had them from George. The letter was published forthe information of the friends of Georgeand Captain Low addedthat he lefthim at Manilla to go to Oahuand he had heard nothing of him since.

George had an interesting journal of his adventures in the Pelew Islandswhich he had written out at lengthin a handsome handand in correct English.CHAPTER XXV: RUMORS OF WAR--A SPOUTER--SLIPPING FOR A SOUTH-EASTER-- A GALE -

SundayNovember 1st. Sailed this day(Sunday again) for Santa Barbarawhere we arrived on the 5th. Coming round St. Buenaventuraand nearing theanchoragewe saw two vessels in porta large full-riggedand a smallhermaphrodite brig. The formerthe crew said must be the Pilgrim; but I hadbeen too long in the Pilgrim to be mistaken in herand I was right in differingfrom them; forupon nearer approachher longlow shearsharp bowsandraking maststold quite another story. "Man-of war brig" said someof them; "Baltimore clipper" said others; the Ayacuchothought I;and soon the broad folds of the beautiful banner of St. George- white fieldwith blood-red border and cross;- were displayed from her peak. A few minutesput it beyond a doubtand we were lying by the side of the Ayacuchowhich hadsailed from San Diego about nine months beforewhile we were lying there in thePilgrim. She had since been to ValparaisoCallaoand the Sandwich Islandsandhad just come upon the coast. Her boat came on boardbringing Captain Wilson;and in half an hour the news was all over the ship that there was a war betweenthe United States and France. Exaggerated accounts reached the forecastle.Battles had been foughta large French fleet was in the Pacificetc.etc.;and one of the boat's crew of the Ayacucho said that when they left Callaoalarge French frigate and the American frigate Brandywinewhich were lyingtherewere going outside to have a battleand that the English frigate Blondewas to be umpireand see fair play. Here was important news for us. Aloneonan unprotected coastwithout an American man-of-war within some thousands ofmilesand the prospect of a voyage home through the whole length of the Pacificand Atlantic oceans! A French prison seemed a much more probable place ofdestination than the good port of Boston. Howeverwe were too salt to believeevery yarn that comes into the forecastleand waited to hear the truth of thematter from higher authority. By means of a supercargo's clerkI got theaccount of the matterwhich wasthat the governments had difficulty about thepayment of a debt; that war had been threatened and prepared forbut notactually declaredalthough it was pretty generally anticipated. This was notquite so badyet was no small cause of anxiety. But we cared very little aboutthe matter ourselves. "Happy go lucky" with Jack! We did not believethat a French prison would be much worse than "hide-droghing" on thecoast of California; and no one who has not been on a longdull voyageshut upin one shipcan conceive of the effect of monotony upon one's thoughts andwishes. The prospect of a change is like a green spot in a desertand theremotest probability of great events and exciting scenes gives a feeling ofdelightand sets life in motionso as to give a pleasurewhich any one not inthe same state would be entirely unable to account for. In facta more jovialnight we had not passed in the forecastle for months. Every one seemed inunaccountably high spirits. An undefined anticipation of radical changesof newscenesand great doingsseemed to have possessed every oneand the commondrudgery of the vessel appeared contemptible. Here was a new vein opened; agrand theme of conversationand a topic for all sorts of discussions. Nationalfeeling was wrought up. Jokes were cracked upon the only Frenchman in the shipand comparisons made between "old horse" and "soup meagre"etc.etc.

We remained in uncertainty as to this war for more than two monthswhen anarrival from the Sandwich Islands brought us the news of an amicable arrangementof the difficulties.

The other vessel which we found in port was the hermaphrodite brig Avonfromthe Sandwich Islands. She was fitted up in handsome style; fired a gun and ranher ensign up and down at sunrise and sunset; had a band of four or five piecesof music on boardand appeared rather like a pleasure yacht than a trader; yetin connection with the LoriotteClementineBolivarConvoyand other smallvesselsbelonging to sundry Americans at Oahushe carried on a great trade-legal and illegal- in otter skinssilksteasspecieetc.

The second day after our arrivala full-rigged brig came round the pointfrom the northwardsailed leisurely through the bayand stood off again forthe south-eastin the direction of the large island of Catalina. The next daythe Avon got under weighand stood in the same directionbound for San Pedro.This might do for marines and Californiansbut we knew the ropes too well. Thebrig was never again seen on the coastand the Avon arrived at San Pedro inabout a weekwith a full cargo of Canton and American goods.

This was one of the means of escaping the heavy duties the Mexicans lay uponall imports. A vessel comes on the coastenters a moderate cargo at Montereywhich is the only custom-houseand commences trading. In a month or morehaving sold a large part of her cargoshe stretches over to Catalinaor otherof the large uninhabited islands which lie off the coastin a trip from port toportand supplies herself with choice goods from a vessel from Oahuwhich hasbeen lying off and on the islandswaiting for her. Two days after the sailingof the Avonthe Loriotte came in from the leewardand without doubt had also asnatch at the brig's cargo. -

TuesdayNov. 10th. Going ashoreas usualin the gigjust before sundownto bring off the captainwe foundupon taking in the captain and pulling offagainthat our shipwhich lay the farthest outhad run up her ensign. Thismeant "Sail ho!" of coursebut as we were within the point we couldsee nothing. "Give wayboys! Give way! Lay out on your oarsand longstroke!" said the captain; and stretching to the whole length of our armsbending back againso that our backs touched the thwartswe sent her throughthe water like a rocket. A few minutes of such pulling opened the islandsoneafter anotherin range of the pointand gave us a view of the Canalwhere wasa shipunder top-gallant sailsstanding inwith a light breezefor theanchorage. Putting the boat's head in the direction of the shipthe captaintold us to lay out again; and we needed no spurringfor the prospect ofboarding a new shipperhaps from homehearing the news and having something totell of when we got backwas excitement enough for usand we gave way with awill. Captain Nyeof the Loriottewho had been an old whalemanwas in thestern-sheetsand fell mightily into the spirit of it. "Bend your backs andbreak your oars!" said he. "Lay me onCaptain Bunker!""There she flukes!" and other exclamationspeculiar to whalemen. Inthe meantimeit fell flat calmand being within a couple of miles of the shipwe expected to board her in a few momentswhen a sudden breeze sprung updeadahead for the shipand she braced up and stood off toward the islandssharp onthe larboard tackmaking good way through the water. Thisof coursebroughtus upand we had only to "ease larboard oars; pull round starboard!"and go aboard the Alertwith something very like a flea in the ear. There was alight land-breeze all nightand the ship did not come to anchor until the nextmorning. As soon as her anchor was downwe went aboardand found her to be thewhaleshipWilmington and Liverpool Packetof New Bedfordlast from the"off-shore ground" with nineteen hundred barrels of oil. A"spouter" we knew her to be as soon as we saw herby her cranes andboatsand by her stump top-gallant mastsand a certain slovenly look to thesailsriggingspars and hull; and when we got on boardwe found everything tocorrespond-spouter fashion. She had a false deckwhich was rough and oilyandcut up in every direction by the chimes of oil casks; her rigging was slack andturning white; no paint on the spars or blocks; clumsy seizings and strapswithout coversand homeward-bound splices in every direction. Her crewtoowere not in much better order. Her captain was a slab-sidedshamble-leggedQuakerin a suit of brownwith a broad-brimmed hatand sneaking about deckslike a sheepwith his head down; and the men looked more like fishermen andfarmers than they did like sailors.

Though it was by no means cold weather(we having on only our red shirts andduck trowsers) they all had on woollen trowsers- not blue and ship-shape- butof all colors- browndrabgreyayeand greenwith suspenders over theirshouldersand pockets to put their hands in. Thisadded to guernsey frocksstriped comforters about the neckthick cowhide bootswoollen capsand astrongoily smelland a decidedly green lookwill complete the description.Eight or ten were on the fore-topsail yardand as many more in the mainfurling the topsailswhile eight or ten were hanging about the forecastledoing nothing. This was a strange sight for a vessel coming to anchor; so wewent up to themto see what was the matter. One of thema stouthearty-looking fellowheld out his leg and said he had the scurvy; another hadcut his hand; and others had got nearly wellbut said that there were plentyaloft to furl the sailsso they were sogering on the forecastle. There was onlyone "splicer" on boarda fine-looking old tarwho was in the bunt ofthe fore-topsail. He was probably the only sailor in the shipbefore the mast.The matesof courseand the boat-steerersand also two or three of the crewhad been to sea beforebut only whaling voyages; and the greater part of thecrew were raw handsjust from the bushas green as cabbagesand had not yetgot the hay-seed out of their heads. The mizen topsail hung in the bunt-linesuntil everything was furled forward. Thus a crew of thirty men were half an hourin doing what would have been done in the Alert with eighteen hands to go aloftin fifteen or twenty minutes.

We found they had been at sea six or eight monthsand had no news to tellus; so we left themand promised to get liberty to come on board in theeveningfor some curiositiesetc. Accordinglyas soon as we were knocked offin the evening and had got supperwe obtained leavetook a boatand wentaboard and spent an hour or two. They gave us pieces of whaleboneand the teethand other parts of curious sea animalsand we exchanged books with them- apractice very common among ships in foreign portsby which you get rid of thebooks you have read and re-readand a supply of new ones in their steadandJack is not very nice as to their comparative value. -

ThursdayNov. 12th. This day was quite cool in the early partand therewere black clouds about; but as it was often so in the morningnothing wasapprehendedand all the captains went ashore togetherto spend the day.Towards noonthe clouds hung heavily over the mountainscoming half way downthe hills that encircle the town of Santa Barbaraand a heavy swell rolled infrom the south-east. The mate immediately ordered the gig's crew awayand atthe same timewe saw boats pulling ashore from the other vessels. Here was agrand chance for a rowing matchand every one did his best. We passed the boatsof the Ayacucho and Loriottebut could gain nothing uponand indeedhardlyhold our own withthe longsix-oared boat of the whale-ship. They reached thebreakers before us; but here we had the advantage of themfornot being usedto the surfthey were obliged to wait to see us beach our boatjust asin thesame placenearly a year beforewein the Pilgrimwere glad to be taught bya boat's crew of Kanakas.

We had hardly got the boats beachedand their heads outbefore our oldfriendBill Jacksonthe handsome English sailorwho steered the Loriotte'sboatcalled out that the brig was adrift; andsure enoughshe was draggingher anchorsand drifting down into the bight of the bay. Without waiting forthe captain(for there was no one on board but the mate and steward) he sprunginto the boatcalled the Kanakas togetherand tried to put off. But theKanakasthough capital water-dogswere frightened by their vessel's beingadriftand by the emergency of the caseand seemed to lose their faculties.Twicetheir boat filledand came broadside upon the beach. Jackson swore atthem for a parcel of savagesand promised to flog every one of them. This madethe matter no better; when we came forwardtold the Kanakas to take their seatsin the boatandgoing two on each sidewalked out with her till it was up toour shouldersand gave them a shovewhengiving way with their oarsthey gother safely into the longregular swell. In the mean timeboats had put offfrom our ships and the whalerand coming all on board the brig togethertheylet go the other anchorpaid out chainbraced the yards to the windandbrought the vessel up.

In a few minutesthe captains came hurrying downon the run; and there wasno time to be lostfor the gale promised to be a severe oneand the surf wasbreaking upon the beachthree deephigher and higher every instant. TheAyacucho's boatpulled by four Kanakasput off firstand as they had norudder or steering oarwould probably never have got offhad we not waded outwith themas far as the surf would permit. The next that made the attempt wasthe whale-boatfor webeing the most experienced "beach-combers"needed no helpand staid till the last. Whalemen make the best boats' crews inthe world for a long pullbut this landing was new to themand notwithstandingthe examples they had hadthey slued round and were hove up- boatoarsandmen- altogetherhigh and dry upon the sand. The second timethey filledandhad to turn their boat overand set her off again. We could be of no help tothemfor they were so many as to be in one another's waywithout the additionof our numbers. The third timethey got offthough not without shipping a seawhich drenched them alland half filled their boatkeeping them balinguntilthey reached their ship. We now got ready to go offputting the boat's headout; English Ben and Iwho were the largeststanding on each side of the bowsto keep her "head on" to the seatwo more shipping and manning thetwo after oarsand the captain taking the steering oar. Two or three Spaniardswho stood upon the beach looking at uswrapped their cloaks about themshooktheir headsand muttered "Caramba!" They had no taste for suchdoings; in factthe hydrophobia is a national maladyand shows itself in theirpersons as well as their actions.

Watching for a "smooth chance" we determined to show the otherboats the way it should be done; andas soon as ours floatedran out with herkeeping her head onwith all our strengthand the help of the captain's oarand the two after oarsmen giving way regularly and stronglyuntil our feet wereoff the groundwe tumbled into the bowskeeping perfectly stillfrom fear ofhindering the others. For some time it was doubtful how it would go. The boatstood nearly up and down in the waterand the searolling from under herlether fall upon the water with a force which seemed almost to stave her bottom in.By quietly sliding two oars forwardalong the thwartswithout impeding therowerswe shipped two bow oarsand thusby the help of four oars and thecaptain's strong armwe got safely offthough we shipped several seaswhichleft us half full of water. We pulled alongside of the Loriotteput her skipperon

boardand found her making preparations for slippingand then pulled aboardour own ship. Here Mr. Brownalways "on hand" had got everythingreadyso that we had only to hook on the gig and hoist it upwhen the orderwas given to loose the sails. While we were on the yardswe saw the Loriotteunder weighand before our yards were mast-headedthe Ayacucho had spread herwingsandwith yards braced sharp upwas standing athwart our hawse. There isno prettier sight in the world than a full-riggedclipper-built brigsailingsharp on the wind. In a momentour slip-rope was gonethe head-yards filledawayand we were off. Next came the whaler; and in a half an hour from the timewhen four vessels were lying quietly at anchorwithout a rag outor a sign ofmotionthe bay was desertedand four white clouds were standing off to sea.Being sure of clearing the pointwe stood off with our yards a little bracedinwhile the Ayacucho went off with a taught bowlinewhich brought her towindward of us. During all this dayand the greater part of the nightwe hadthe usual south-easter entertainmenta gale of windvariegated and finallytopped off with a drenching rain of three or four hours. At daybreakthe cloudsthinned off and rolled awayand the sun came up clear. The windinstead ofcoming out from the northwardas is usualblew steadily and freshly from theanchoring-ground. This was bad for usforbeing "flying light" withlittle more than ballast trimwe were in no condition for showing off on ataught bowlineand had depended upon a fair windwith whichby the help ofour light sails and studding-sailswe meant to have been the first at theanchoring-ground; but the Ayacucho was a good league to windward of usand wasstanding inin fine style. The whalerhoweverwas as far to leeward of usand the Loriotte was nearly out of sightamong the islandsup the Canal. Byhauling every brace and bowlineand clapping watch-tackles upon all the sheetsand halyardswe managed to hold our ownand drop the leeward vessels a littlein every tack. When we reached the anchoring-groundthe Ayacucho had got heranchorfurled her sailssquared her yardsand was lying as quietly as ifnothing had happened for the last twenty-four hours.

We had our usual good luck in getting our anchor without letting go anotherand were all snugwith our boats at the boom-endsin half an hour. In abouttwo hours morethe whaler came inand made a clumsy piece of work in gettingher anchorbeing obliged to let go her best bowerand finallyto get out akedge and a hawser. They were heave-ho-ingstopping and unstoppingpawlingcattingand fishingfor three hours; and the sails hung from the yards all theafternoonand were not furled until sundown. The Loriotte came in just afterdarkand let go her anchormaking no attempt to pick up the other until thenext day.

This affair led to a great dispute as to the sailing of our ship and theAyacucho. Bets were made between the captainsand the crews took it up in theirown way; but as she was bound to leeward and we to windwardand merchantcaptains cannot deviatea trial never took place; and perhaps it was well forus that it did notfor the Ayacucho had been eight years in the Pacificinevery part of it- ValparaisoSandwich IslandsCantonCaliforniaand allandwas called the fastest merchantman that traded in the Pacificunless it was thebrig John Gilpinand perhaps the ship Ann McKim of Baltimore. -

SaturdayNov. 14th. This day we got under weighwith the agent and severalSpaniards of noteas passengersbound up to Monterey. We went ashore in thegig to bring them off with their baggageand found them waiting on the beachand a little afraid about going offas the surf was running very high. This wasnuts to us; for we liked to have a Spaniard wet with salt water; and then theagent was very much disliked by the crewone and all; and we hopedas therewas no officer in the boatto have a chance to duck them; for we knew that theywere such "marines" that they would not know whether it was our faultor not. Accordinglywe kept the boat so far from shore as to oblige them to wettheir feet in getting into her; and then waited for a good high comberandletting the head slue a little roundsent the whole force of the sea into thestern-sheetsdrenching them from head to feet. The Spaniards sprang out of theboatsworeand shook themselves and protested against trying it again; and itwas with the greatest difficulty that the agent could prevail upon them to makeanother attempt. The next time we took careand went off easily enoughandpulled aboard. The crew came to the side to hoist in their baggageand we gavethem the winkand they heartily enjoyed the half-drowned looks of the company.

Everything being now readyand the passengers aboardwe ran up the ensignand broad pennant(for there was no man-of-warand we were the largest vesselon the coast) and the other vessels ran up their ensigns. Having hove shortcast off the gasketsand made the bunt of each sail fast by the jiggerwith aman on each yard; at the wordthe whole canvas of the ship was loosedand withthe greatest rapidity possibleeverything was sheeted home and hoisted uptheanchor tripped and catheadedand the ship under headway. We were determined toshow the "spouter" how things could be done in a smart shipwith agood crewthough not more than half their number. The royal yards were allcrossed at onceand royals and skysails setandas we had the wind freethebooms were run outand every one was aloftactive as catslaying out on theyards and boomsreeving the studding-sail gear; and sail after sail the captainpiled upon heruntil she was covered with canvasher sails looking like agreat white cloud resting upon a black speck. Before we doubled the pointwewere going at a dashing rateand leaving the shipping far astern. We had a finebreeze to take us through the Canalas they call this bay of forty miles longby ten wide. The breeze died away at nightand we were becalmed all day onSundayabout half way between Santa Barbara and Point Conception. Sunday nightwe had a lightfair windwhich set us up again; and having a fine sea-breezeon the first part of Mondaywe had the prospect of passingwithout anytroublePoint Conception- the Cape Horn of Californiawhere it begins to blowthe first of Januaryand blows all the year round. Toward the latter part ofthe afternoonhoweverthe regular northwest windas usualset inwhichbrought in our studding-sailsand gave us the chance of beating round thePointwhich we were now just abreast ofand which stretched off into thePacifichighrocky and barrenforming the central point of the coast forhundreds of miles north and south. A cap-full of wind will be a bag-full hereand before night our royals were furledand the ship was laboring hard underher top-gallant sails. At eight bells our watch went belowleaving her with asmuch sail as she could stagger underthe water flying over the forecastle atevery plunge. It was evidently blowing harderbut then there was not a cloud inthe skyand the sun had gone down bright.

We had been below but a short timebefore we had the usual premonitions of acoming gale: seas washing over the whole forward part of the vesseland herbows beating against them with a force and sound like the driving of piles. Thewatchtooseemed very busy trampling about decksand singing out at theropes. A sailor can always tellby the soundwhat sail is coming inandin ashort timewe heard the top-gallant sails come inone top-gallant sails comeinone after anotherand then the flying jib. This seemed to ease her a gooddealand we were fast going off to the land of Nodwhen- bangbangbang- onthe scuttleand "All handsreef topsailsahoy!" started us out ofour berths; andit not being very cold weatherwe had nothing extra to put onand were soon on deck. I shall never forget the fineness of the sight. It was aclearand rather a chilly night; the stars were twinkling with an intensebrightnessand as far as the eye could reachthere was not a cloud to be seen.The horizon met the sea in a defined line. A painter could not have painted soclear a sky. There was not a speck upon it. Yet it was blowing great guns fromthe north-west. When you can see a cloud to windwardyou feel that there is aplace for the wind to come from; but here it seemed to come from nowhere. Noperson could have toldfrom the heavensby their eyesight alonethat it wasnot a summer's night. One reef after anotherwe took in the topsailsthesailsand before we could get them hoisted upwe heard a sound like a shortquick rattling of thunderand the jib was blown to atoms out of the bolt-rope.We got the topsails setand the fragments of the jib stowed awayand thefore-topmast staysail set in its placewhen the great mainsail gaped openandthe sail ripped from head to foot. "Lay up on that main-yard and furl thesailbefore it blows to tatters!" shouted the captain; and in a momentwewere upgathering the remains of it upon the yard. We got it wrappedround theyardand passed gaskets over it as snugly as possibleand were just on deckagainwhenwith another loud rentwhich was heard throughout the shipthefore-topsailwhich had been double-reefedsplit in twoathwartshipsjustbelow the reef-bandfrom earing to earing. Here again it was down yardhaulout reef-tacklesand lay out upon the yard for reefing. By hauling thereef-tackles chock-a-blockwe took the strain from the other earingsandpassing the close-reef earingand knotting the points carefullywe succeededin setting the sailclose-reefed.

We had but just got the rigging coiled upand were waiting to hear "gobelow the watch!" when the main royal worked loose from the gasketsandblew directly out to leewardflappingand shaking the mast like a wand. Herewas a job for somebody. The royal must come in or be cut adriftor the mastwould be snapped short off. All the light hands in the starboard watch were sentupone after anotherbut they could do nothing with it. At lengthJohnthetall Frenchmanthe head of the starboard watch(and a better sailor neverstepped upon a deck) sprang aloftandby the help of his long arms and legssucceededafter a hard struggle- the sail blowing over the yard-arm toleewardand the skysail blowing directly over his head'- in smothering itandfrapping it with long pieces of sinnet. He came very near being blown or shakenfrom the yardseveral timesbut he was a true sailorevery finger afish-hook. Having made the sail snughe prepared to send the yard downwhichwas a long and difficult job; forfrequentlyhe was obliged to stop and holdon with all his mightfor several minutesthe ship pitching so as to make itimpossible to do anything else at that height. The yard at length came downsafeand after itthe fore and mizen royal-yards were sent down. All handswere then sent aloftand for an hour or two we were hard at workmaking thebooms well fast; unreeving the studding-sail and royal and skysail gear; gettingrolling-ropes on the yards; setting up the weather breast-backstays; and makingother preparations for a storm. It was a fine night for a gale; just cool andbracing enough for quick workwithout being coldand as bright as day. It wassport to have a gale in such weather as this. Yet it blew like a hurricane. Thewind seemed to come with a spitean edge to itwhich threatened to scrape usoff the yards. The mere force of the wind was greater than I had ever seen itbefore; but darknesscoldand wet are the worst parts of a storm to a sailor.

Having got on deck againwe looked round to see what time of night it wasand whose watch. In a few minutes the man at the wheel struck four bellsand wefound that the other watch was outand our own half out. Accordinglythestarboard watch went belowand left the ship to us for a couple of hoursyetwith orders to stand by for a call.

Hardly had they got belowbefore away went the fore-topmast staysailblownto ribbons. This was a small sailwhich we could manage in the watchso thatwe were not obliged to call up the other watch. We laid out upon the bowspritwhere we were under water half the timeand took in the fragments of the sailand as she must have some head sail on herprepared to bend another staysail.We got the new one outinto the nettings; seized on the tacksheetsandhalyardsand the hanks; manned the halyardscut adrift the trapping linesandhoisted away; but before it was half way up the stayit was blown all topieces. When we belayed the halyardsthere was nothing left but the bolt-rope.Now large eyes began to show themselves in the foresailand knowing that itmust soon gothe mate ordered us upon the yard to furl it. Being unwilling tocall up the watch who had been on deck all nighthe roused out the carpentersailmakercookstewardand other idlersandwith their helpwe manned theforeyardand after nearly half an hour's strugglemastered the sailand gotit well furled round the yard. The force of the wind had never been greater thanat this moment. In going up the riggingit seemed absolutely to pin us down tothe shrouds; and on the yardthere was no such thing as turning a face towindward. Yet here was no driving sleetand darknessand wetand coldas offCape Horn; and instead of a stiff oil-cloth suitsouth-wester capsand thickbootswe had on hatsround jacketsduck trowserslight shoesand everythinglight and easy. All these things make a great difference to a sailor. When wegot on deckthe man at the wheel struck eight bells(four o'clock in themorning) and "All starbowlinesahoy!" brought the other watch up.But there was no going below for us. The gale was now at its height"blowing like scissors and thumb-screws;" the captain was on deck; theshipwhich was lightrolling and pitching as though she would shake the longsticks out of her; and the sail gaping open and splittingin every direction.The mizen topsailwhich was a comparatively new sailand close-reefedsplitfrom head to footin the bunt; the fore-topsail wentin one rentfrom clew toearingand was blowing to tatters; one of the chain bobstays parted; thespritsail-yard sprung in the slings; the martingale had slued away off toleeward; andowing to the long dry weatherthe lee rigging hung in largebightsat every lurch. One of the main top-gallant shrouds had parted; andtocrown allthe galley had got adriftand gone over to leewardand the anchoron the lee bow had worked looseand was thumping the side. Here was work enoughfor all hands for half a day. Our gang laid on the mizen topsail yardand aftermore than half an hour's hard workfurled the sailthough it bellied out overour headsand againby a slant of the wind blew in under the yardwith afearful jerkand almost threw us off from the foot-ropes.

Double gaskets were passed round the yardsrolling tackles and other gearbowsed taughtand everything made as secure as could be. Coming downwe foundthe rest of the crew just coming down the fore rigginghaving furled thetattered topsailorratherswathed it round the yardwhich looked like abroken limbbandaged. There was no sail now on the ship but the spanker and theclose-reefed main topsailwhich still held good. But this was too much aftersail; and order was given to furl the spanker. The brails were hauled upandall the light hands in the starboard watch sent out on the gaff to pass thegaskets; but they could do nothing with it. The second mate swore at them for aparcel of "sogers" and sent up a couple of the best men; but theycould do no betterand the gaff was lowered down. All hands were now employedin setting up the lee riggingfishing the spritsail-yardlashing the galleyand getting tackles upon the martingaleto bowse it to windward. Being in thelarboard watchmy duty was forwardto assist in setting up the martingale.Three of us were out on the martingale guys and back-ropes for more than half anhourcarrying outhooking and unhooking the tacklesseveral times buried inthe seasuntil the mate ordered us infrom fear of our being washed off. Theanchors were then to be taken up on the railwhich kept all hands on theforecastle for an hourthough every now and then the seas broke over itwashing the rigging off to leewardfilling the lee scuppers breast highandwashing chock aft to the taffrail.

Having got everything secure againwe were promising ourselves somebreakfastfor it was now nearly nine o'clock in the forenoonwhen the maintopsail showed evident signs of giving way. Some sail must be kept on the shipand the captain ordered the fore and main spencer gaffs to be lowered downandthe two spencers (which were storm sailsbran newsmalland made of thestrongest canvas) to be got up and bent; leaving the main topsail to blow awaywith a blessing on itif it would only last until we could set the spencers.These we bent on very carefullywith strong robands and seizingsand makingtackles fast to the clewsbowsed them down to the water-ways. By this time themain topsail was among the things that have beenand we went aloft to stow awaythe remnant of the last sail of all those which were on the ship twenty-fourhours before. The spencers were now the only whole sails on the shipandbeingstrong and smalland near the deckpresenting but little surface to the windabove the railpromised to hold out well. Hove-to under theseand eased byhaving no sail above the topsthe ship rose and felland drifted off toleeward like a line-of-battle ship.

It was now eleven o'clockand the watch was sent below to get breakfastandat eight bells (noon)as everything was snugalthough the gale had not in theleast abatedthe watch was setand the other watch and idlers sent below. Forthree days and three nightsthe gale continued with unabated furyand withsingular regularity. There was no lullsand very little variation in itsfierceness. Our shipbeing lightrolled so as almost to send the fore yard-armunder waterand drifted off bodilyto leeward. All this time there was not acloud to be seen in the skyday or night;- nonot so large as a man's hand.Every morning the sun rose cloudless from the seaand set again at nightinthe seain a flood of light. The starstoocame out of the blueone afteranothernight after nightunobscuredand twinkled as clear as on a stillfrosty night at homeuntil the day came upon them. All this timethe sea wasrolling in immense surgeswhite with foamas far as the eye could reachonevery sidefor we were now leagues and leagues from shore.

The between-decks being emptyseveral of us slept there in hammockswhichare the best things in the world to sleep in during a storm; it not being trueof themas it is of another kind of bed"when the wind blowsthe cradlewill rock;" for it is the ship that rockswhile they always hangvertically from the beams. During these seventy-two hours we had nothing to dobut to turn in and outfour hours on deckand four beloweatsleepand keepwatch. The watches were only varied by taking the helm in turnand now andthenby one of the sailswhich were furledblowing out of the gasketsandgetting adriftwhich sent us up on the yards; and by getting tackles ondifferent parts of the riggingwhich were slack. Oncethe wheel-rope partedwhich might have been fatal to ushad not the chief mate sprung instantly witha relieving tackle to windwardand kept the tiller uptill a new one could berove. On the morning of the twentiethat daybreakthe gale had evidently doneits worstand had somewhat abated; so much sothat all hands were called tobend new sailsalthough it was still blowing as hard as two common gales. Oneat a timeand with great difficulty and laborthe old sails were unbent andsent down by the bunt-linesand three new topsailsmade for the homewardpassage round Cape Hornand which had never been bentwere got up from thesailroomand under the care of the sailmakerwere fitted for bendingand sentup by the halyards into the topsandwith stops and frapping lineswere bentto the yardsclose-reefedsheeted homeand hoisted. These were done one at atimeand with the greatest care and difficulty. Two spare courses were then gotup and bent in the same manner and furledand a storm-jibwith the bonnet offbent and furied to the boom. It was twelve o'clock before we got through; andfive hours of more exhausting labor I never experienced; and no one of thatship's crewI will venture to saywill ever desire again to unbend and bendfive large sailsin the teeth of a tremendous north-wester. Towards nightafew clouds appeared in the horizonand as the gale moderatedthe usualappearance of driving clouds relieved the face of the sky. The fifth day afterthe commencement of the stormwe shook a reef out of each topsailand set thereefed foresailjib and spanker; but it was not until after eight days ofreefed topsails that we had a whole sail on the ship; and then it was quite soonenoughfor the captain was anxious to make up for leewaythe gale having blownus half the distance to the Sandwich Islands.

Inch by inchas fast as the gale would permitwe made sail on the shipforthe wind still continued aheadand we had many days' sailing to get back to thelongitude we were in when the storm took us. For eight days more we beat towindward under a stiff top-gallant breezewhen the wind shifted and becamevariable. A light south-easterto which we could carry a reefed topmaststudding-saildid wonders for our dead reckoning. -

FridayDecember 4thafter a passage of twenty dayswe arrived at the mouthof the bay of San Francisco.


Our place of destination had been Montereybut as we were to the northwardof it when the wind hauled a-headwe made a fair wind for San Francisco. Thislarge baywhich lies in latitude 37 deg. 58'was discovered by Sir FrancisDrakeand by him represented to be (as indeed it is) a magnificent baycontaining several good harborsgreat depth of waterand surrounded by afertile and finely wooded country. About thirty miles from the mouth of the bayand on the south-east sideis a high pointupon which the presidio is built.Behind thisis the harbor in which trading vessels anchorand near itthemission of San Franciscoand a newly begun settlementmostly of YankeeCalifornianscalled Yerba Buenawhich promises well. Hereat anchorand theonly vesselwas a brig under Russian colorsfrom Asitkain Russian Americawhich had come down to winterand to take in a supply of tallow and graingreat quantities of which latter article are raised in the missions at the headof the bay. The second day after our arrivalwe went on board the brigitbeing Sundayas a matter of curiosity; and there was enough there to gratifyit. Though no larger than the Pilgrimshe had five or six officersand a crewof between twenty and thirty; and such a stupid and greasy-looking setIcertainly never saw before. Although it was quite comfortable weatherand wehad nothing on but straw hatsshirtsand duck trowsersand were barefootedthey hadevery man of themdoublesoled bootscoming up to the kneesand wellgreased; thick woolen trowsersfrockswaistcoatspea-jacketswoolen capsand everything in true Nova Zembla rig; and in the warmest days they made nochange. The clothing of one of these men would weigh nearly as much as that ofhalf our crew. They had brutish faceslooked like the antipodes of sailorsandapparently dealt in nothing but grease. They lived upon grease; eat itdrankitslept in the midst of itand their clothes were covered with it. To aRussiangrease is the greatest luxury. They looked with greedy eyes upon thetallow-bags as they were taken into the vesselandno doubtwould have eatenone up wholehad not the officer kept watch over it. The grease seemed actuallycoming through their poresand out in their hairand on their faces. It seemsas if it were this saturation which makes them stand cold and rain so well. Ifthey were to go into a warm climatethey would all die of the scurvy.

The vessel was no better than the crew. Everything was in the oldest and mostinconvenient fashion possible; running trusses on the yardsand large hawsercablescoiled all over the decksand served and parcelled in all directions.The topmaststop-gallant masts and studding-sail booms were nearly black forwant of scrapingand the decks would have turned the stomach of aman-of-war's-man. The galley was down in the forecastle; and there the crewlivedin the midst of the steam and grease of the cookingin a place as hot asan ovenand as dirty as a piggy. Five minutes in the forecastle was enough forusand we were glad to get into the open air. We made some trade with thembuying Indian curiositiesof which they had a great number; such as bead-workfeathers of birdsfur moccasinsetc. I purchased a large robemade of theskins of some animalsdried and sewed nicely togetherand covered all over onthe outside with thick downy featherstaken from the breasts of various birdsand arranged with their different colorsso as to make a brilliant show.

A few days after our arrivalthe rainy season set inandfor three weeksit rained almost every hourwithout cessation. This was bad for our tradeforthe collecting of hides is managed differently in this port from what it is inany other on the coast. The mission of San Francisco near the anchoragehas notrade at allbut those of San JoseSanta Claraand otherssituated on largecreeks or rivers which run into the bayand distant between fifteen and fortymiles from the anchoragedo a greater business in hides than any in California.Large boatsmanned by Indiansand capable of carrying nearly a thousand hidesapieceare attached to the missionsand sent down to the vessels with hidesto bring away goods in return. Some of the crews of the vessels are obliged togo and come in the boatsto look out for the hides and goods. These arefavorite expeditions with the sailorsin fine weather; but now to be gone threeor four daysin open boatsin constant rainwithout any shelterand withcold foodwas hard service. Two of our men went up to Santa Clara in one ofthese boatsand were gone three daysduring all which time they had a constantrainand did not sleep a winkbut passed three long nightswalking fore andaft the boatin the open air. When they got on boardthey were completelyexhaustedand took a watch below of twelve hours. All the hidestoothat camedown in the boatswere soaked with waterand unfit to put belowso that wewere obliged to trice them up to dryin the intervals of sunshine or winduponall parts of the vessel. We got up tricing-lines from the jib-boom-end to eacharm of the fore yardand thence to the main and cross-jack yard-arms. Betweenthe topstooand the mast-headsfrom the fore to the main swiftersandthence to the mizen riggingand in all directions athwartshipstricing-lineswere runand strung with hides. The head stays and guysand thespritsail-yardwere linedandhaving still morewe got out the swingingboomsand strung them and the forward and after guyswith hides. The railfore and aftthe windlasscapstanthe sides of the shipand every vacantplace on deckwere covered with wet hideson the least sign of an interval fordrying. Our ship was nothing but a mass of hidesfrom the cat-harpins to thewater's edgeand from the jib-boom-end to the taffrail.

One coldrainy eveningabout eight o'clockI received orders to get readyto start for San Jose at four the next morningin one of these Indian boatswith four days' provisions. I got my oil-cloth clothessouth-westerand thickboots all readyand turned into my hammock earlydetermined to get some sleepin advanceas the boat was to be alongside before daybreak. I slept on till allhands were called in the morning; forfortunately for methe Indiansintentionallyor from mistaking their ordershad gone off alone in the nightand were far out of sight. Thus I escaped three or four days of veryuncomfortable service.

Four of our mena few days afterwardswent up in one of the quarter-boatsto Santa Clarato carry the agentand remained out all night in a drenchingrainin the small boatwhere there was not room for them to turn round; theagent having gone up to the mission and left the men to their fatemaking noprovision for their accommodationand not even sending them anything to eat.After thisthey had to pull thirty milesand when they got on boardwere sostiff that they could not come up the gangway ladder. This filled up the measureof the agent's unpopularityand never after this could he get anything done byany of the crew; and many a delay and vexationand many a good ducking in thesurfdid he get to pay up old scoresor "square the yards with the bloodyquill-driver."

Having collected nearly all the hides that were to be procuredwe began ourpreparations for taking in a supply of wood and waterfor both of whichSanFrancisco is the best place on the coast. A small islandsituated about twoleagues from the anchoragecalled by us "Wood Island" and by theSpaniards "Isle de Los Angelos" was covered with trees to the water'sedge; and to thistwo of our crewwho were Kennebec menand could handle anaxe like a playthingwere sent every morning to cut woodwith two boys to pileit up for them. In about a weekthey had cut enough to last us a yearand thethird matewith myself and three otherswere sent over in a largeschooner-riggedopen launchwhich we had hired of the missionto take in thewoodand bring it to the ship. We left the ship about noonbutowing to astrong head windand a tidewhich here runs four or five knotsdid not getinto the harborformed by two points of the islandwhere the boats lieuntilsundown. No sooner had we come-tothan a strong south-easterwhich had beenthreatening us all dayset inwith heavy rain and a chilly atmosphere. We werein rather a bad situation: an open boata heavy rainand a long night; for inwinterin this latitudeit was dark nearly fifteen hours. Taking a small skiffwhich we had brought with uswe went ashorebut found no shelterforeverything was open to the rainand collecting a little woodwhich we found bylifting up the leaves and brushand a few muscleswe put aboard againandmade the best preparations in our power for passing the night. We unbent themainsailand formed an awning with it over the after part of the boatmade abed of wet logs of woodandwith our jackets onlay downabout six o'clockto sleep. Finding the rain running down upon usand our jackets getting wetthroughand the roughknotty-logsrather indifferent coucheswe turned out;and taking an iron pan which we brought with uswe wiped it out dryput somestones around itcut the wet bark from some sticksand striking a lightmadea small fire in the pan. Keeping some sticks nearto dryand covering thewhole over with a roof of boardswe kept up a small fireby which we cookedour musclesand eat themrather for an occupation than from hunger. Stillitwas not ten o'clockand the night was long before uswhen one of the partyproduced an old pack of Spanish cards from his monkey-jacket pocketwhich wehailed as a great windfall; and keeping a dimflickering light by our fagotswe played game after gameone or two o'clockwhenbecoming really tiredwewent to our logs againone sitting up at a timein turnto keep watch overthe fire. Toward morningthe rain ceasedand the air became sensibly colderso that we found sleep impossibleand sat upwatching for daybreak. No soonerwas it light than we went ashoreand began our preparations for loading ourvessel. We were not mistaken in the coldness of the weatherfor a white frostwas on the grounda thing we had never seen before in Californiaand one ortwo little puddles of fresh water were skimmed over with a thin coat of ice. Inthis state of the weather and before sunrisein the grey of the morningwe hadto wade offnearly up to our hips in waterto load the skiff with the wood byarmsfull. The third mate remained on board the launchtwo more men staid in theskiffto load and manage itand all the water-workas usualfell upon thetwo youngest of us; and there we werewith frost on the groundwading forwardand backfrom the beach to the boatwith armsfull of woodbarefootedand ourtrowsers rolled up. When the skiff went off with her loadwe could only keepour feet from freezing by racing up and down the beach on the hard sandas fastas we could go. We were all day at this workand towards sundownhaving loadedthe vessel as deep as she would bearwe hove up our anchorand made sailbeating out the bay. No sooner had we got into the large baythan we found astrong tide setting us out to seawarda thick fog which prevented our seeingthe shipand a breeze too light to set us against the tide; for we were as deepas a sand-barge. By the utmost exertionswe saved ourselves from being carriedout to seaand were glad to reach the leewardmost point of the islandwhere wecame-toand prepared to pass another nightmore uncomfortable than the firstfor we were loaded up to the gunwaleand had only a choice among logs andsticks for a resting-place. The next morningwe made sail at slack waterwitha fair windand got on board by eleven o'clockwhen all hands were turned-toto unload and stow away the woodwhich took till night.

Having now taken in all our woodthe next morning a waterparty was orderedoff with all the casks. From this we escapedhaving had a pretty good siegewith the wooding. The water-party were gone three daysduring which time theynarrowly escaped being carried out to seaand passed one day on an islandwhere one of them shot a deergreat numbers of which overrun the islands andhills of San Francisco Bay.

While not offon these wood and water partiesor up the rivers to themissionswe had very easy times on board the ship. We were mooredstem andsternwithin a cable's length of the shoresafe from south-eastersand withvery little boating to do; and as it rained nearly all the timeawnings wereput over the hatchwaysand all hands sent down between deckswhere we were atworkday after daypicking oakumuntil we got enough to caulk the ship alloverand to last the whole voyage. Then we made a whole suit of gaskets for thevoyage homea pair of wheel-ropes from strips of green hidegreat quantitiesof spun-yarnand everything else that could be made between decks. It being nowmid-winter and in high latitudethe nights were very longso that we were notturned-to until seven in the morningand were obliged to knock off at five inthe eveningwhen we got supper; which gave us nearly three hours before eightbellsat which time the watch was set.

As we had now been about a year on the coastit was time to think of thevoyage home; and knowing that the last two or three months of our stay would bevery busy onesand that we should never have so good an opportunity to work forourselves as the presentwe all employed our evenings in making clothes for thepassage homeand more especially for Cape Horn. As soon as supper was over andthe kids cleared awayand each one had taken his smokewe seated ourselves onour chests round the lampwhich swung from a beamand each one went to work inhis own waysome making hatsothers trowsersothers jacketsetc.etc.; andno one was idle. The boys who could not sew well enough to make their ownclotheslaid up grass into sinnet for the menwho sewed for them in return.Several of us clubbed together and bought a large piece of twilled cottonwhichwe made into trowsers and jacketsand giving them several coats of linseed oillaid them by for Cape Horn. I also sewed and covered a tarpaulin hatthick andstrong enough to sit down uponand made myself a complete suit of flannelunder-clothingfor bad weather. Those who had no south-wester capsmade themand several of the crew made themselves tarpaulin jackets and trowserslined onthe inside with flannel. Industry was the order of the dayand every one didsomething for himself; for we knew that as the season advancedand we wentfurther southwe should have no evenings to work in. -

FridayDecember 25th. This day was Christmas; and as it rained all day longand there were no hides to take inand nothing especial to dothe captain gaveus a holiday(the first we had had since leaving Boston) and plum duff fordinner. The Russian brigfollowing the Old Stylehad celebrated theirChristmas eleven days before; when they had a grand blow-out and (as our mensaid) drankin the forecastlea barrel of ginate up a bag of tallowandmade a soup of the skin. -

SundayDecember 27th. We had now finished all our business at this portandit being Sundaywe unmoored ship and got under weighfiring a salute to theRussian brigand another to the Presidiowhich were both answered. Thecommandant of the PresidioDon Gaudaloupe Villegoa young manand the mostpopularamong the Americans and Englishof any man in Californiawas on boardwhen we got under weigh. He spoke English very welland was suspected of beingfavorably inclined to foreigners.

We sailed down this magnificent bay with a light windthe tidewhich wasrunning outcarrying us at the rate of four or five knots. It was a fine day;the first of entire sunshine we had had for more than a month. We passeddirectly under the high cliff on which the Presidio is builtand stood into themiddle of the bayfrom whence we could see small baysmaking up into theinterioron every side; large and beautifully-wooded islands; and the mouths ofseveral small rivers. If California ever becomes a prosperous countrythis baywill be the centre of its prosperity. The abundance of wood and watertheextreme fertility of its shoresthe excellence of its climatewhich is as nearto being perfect as any in the worldand its facilities for navigationaffording the best anchoring-grounds in the whole western coast of Americaallfit it for a place of great importance; andindeedit has attracted muchattentionfor the settlement of "Yerba Buena" where we lay atanchormade chiefly by Americans and Englishand which bids fair to become themost important trading place on the coastat this time began to supply tradersRussian shipsand whalerswith their stores of wheat and frijoles.

The tide leaving uswe came to anchor near the mouth of the bayunder ahigh and beautifully sloping hillupon which herds of hundreds and hundreds ofred deerand the stagwith his high branching antlerswere bounding aboutlooking at us for a momentand then starting offaffrighted at the noiseswhich we made for the purpose of seeing the variety of their beautiful attitudesand motions.

At midnightthe tide having turnedwe hove up our anchor and stood out ofthe baywith a fine starry heaven above us- the first we had seen for weeksand weeks. Before the light northerly windswhich blow here with the regularityof tradeswe worked slowly alongand made Point Ano Neuvothe northerly pointof the Bay of Montereyon Monday afternoon. We spokegoing inthe brig Dianaof the Sandwich Islandsfrom the North-west Coastlast from Asitka. She wasoff the point at the same time with usbut did not get in to theanchoring-ground until an hour or two after us. It was ten o'clock on Tuesdaymorning when we came to anchor. The town looked just as it did when I saw itlastwhich was eleven months beforein the brig Pilgrim. The pretty lawn onwhich it standsas green as sun and rain could make it; the pine wood on thesouth; the small river on the north side; the houseswith their white plasteredsides and red-tiled roofsdotted about on the green; the lowwhite presidiowith its soiledflyingand the discordant din of drums and trumpets for thenoon parade; all brought up the scene we had witnessed here with so muchpleasure nearly a year beforewhen coming from a long voyageand ourunprepossessing reception at Santa Barbara. It seemed almost like coming to ahome.


The only other vessel in port was the Russian government barkfrom Asitkamounting eight guns(four of which we found to be Quakers) and having on boardthe ex-governorwho was going in her to Mazatlanand thence overland to VeraCruz. He offered to take lettersand deliver them to the American consul atVera Cruzwhence they could be easily forwarded to the United States. Weaccordingly made up a packet of lettersalmost every one writingand datingthem "January 1st1836." The governor was true to his promiseandthey all reached Boston before the middle of March; the shortest communicationever yet made across the country.

The brig Pilgrim had been lying in Monterey through the latter part ofNovemberaccording to orderswaiting for us. Day after dayCaptain Fauconwent up to the hill to look out for usand at lastgave us upthinking wemust have gone down in the gale which we experienced off Point Conceptionandwhich had blown with great fury over the whole coastdriving ashore severalvessels in the snuggest ports. An English brigwhich had put into SanFranciscolost both her anchors; the Rosa was driven upon a mud bank in SanDiego; and the Pilgrimwith great difficultyrode out the gale in Montereywith three anchors ahead. She sailed early in December for San Diego andintermedios.

As we were to be here over Sundayand Monterey was the best place to goashore on the whole coastand we had had no liberty-day for nearly threemonthsevery one was for going ashore. On Sunday morningas soon as the deckswere washedand we had got breakfastthose who had obtained liberty began toclean themselvesas it is calledto go ashore. A bucket of fresh water apiecea cake of soapa large coarse toweland we went to work scrubbing one anotheron the forecastle. Having gone through thisthe next thing was to get into thehead- one on each side- with a bucket apieceand duck one anotherby drawingup water and heaving over each otherwhile we were stripped to a pair oftrowsers. Then came the rigging-up. The usual outfit of pumpswhite stockingsloose white duck trowsersblue jacketsclean checked shirtsblack kerchiefshats well varnishedwith a fathom of black ribbon over the left eyea silkhandkerchief flying from the outside jacket pocketand four or five dollarstied up in the back of the neckerchiefand we were "all right." Oneof the quarter-boats pulled us ashoreand we steamed up to the town. I tried tofind the churchin order to see the worshipbut was told that there was noserviceexcept a mass early in the morning; so we went about the townvisitingthe Americans and Englishand the natives whom we had know when we were herebefore. Toward noon we procured horsesand rode out to the Carmel missionwhich is about a league from the townwhere from the townwhere we gotsomething in the way of a dinner- beefeggsfrijolestortillasand somemiddling wine- from the mayordomowhoof courserefused to make any chargeas it was the Lord's giftyet received our presentas a gratuitywith a lowbowa touch of the hatand "Dios se lo pague!"

After this repastwe had a fine runscouring the whole country on our fleethorsesand came into town soon after sundown. Here we found our companions whohad refused to go to ride with usthinking that a sailor has no more businesswith a horse than a fish has with a balloon. They were mooredstem and sternin a grog-shopmaking a great noisewith a crowd of Indians and hungryhalf-breeds about themand with a fair prospect of being stripped and dirkedor left to pass the night in the calabozo. With a great deal of troublewemanaged to get them down to the boatsthough not without many angry looks andinterferences from the Spaniardswho had marked them out for their prey. TheDiana's crews- a set of worthless outcastswho had been picked up at theislands from the refuse of whale-ships- were all as drunk as beastsand had aset-toon the beachwith their captainwho was in no better state thanthemselves. They swore they would not go aboardand went back to the townwerestripped and beatenand lodged in the calabozountil the next daywhen thecaptain bought them out. Our forecastleas usual after a liberty-daywas ascene of tumult all night longfrom the drunken ones. They had just got tosleep toward morningwhen they were turned up with the restand kept at workall day in the watercarrying hidestheir heads aching so that they couldhardly stand. This is sailor's pleasure.

Nothing worthy of remark happened while we were hereexcept a littleboxing-match on board our own shipwhich gave us something to talk about. Abroad-backedbig-headed Cape Cod boyabout sixteen years oldhad been playingthe bullyfor the whole voyageover a slenderdelicate-looking boyfrom oneof the Boston schoolsand over whom he had much the advantagein strengthageand experience in the ship's dutyfor this was the first time the Bostonboy had been on salt water. The latterhoweverhad "picked up hiscrumbs" was learning his dutyand getting strength and confidence daily;and began to assert his rights against his oppressor. Stillthe other was hismasterandby his superior strengthalways tackled with him and threw himdown. One afternoonbefore we were turned-tothese boys got into a violentsquabble in the between-deckswhen George (the Boston boy) said he would fightNatif he could have fair play. The chief mate heard the noisedove down thehatchwayhauled them both up on deckand told them to shake hands and have nomore trouble for the voyageor else they should fight till one gave in forbeaten. Finding neither willing to make an offer for reconciliationhe calledall hands up(for the captain was ashoreand he could do as he chose aboard)ranged the crew in the waistmarked a line on the deckbrought the two boys upto itmaking them "toe the mark;" then made the bight of a rope fastto a belaying pinand stretched it across the deckbringing it just abovetheir waists. "No striking below the rope!" And there they stoodoneon each side of itface to faceand went at it like two game-cocks. The CapeCod boyNatput in his double-fistersstarting the bloodand bringing theblack and blue spots all over the face and arms of the otherwhom we expectedto see give in every moment: but the more he was hurtthe better he fought.Time after time he was knocked nearly downbut up he came again and faced themarkas bold as a lionagain to take the heavy blowswhich sounded so as tomake one's heart turn with pity for him. At length he came up to the mark forthe last timehis shirt torn from his bodyhis face covered with blood andbruisesand his eyes flashing fireand swore he would stand there until one orthe other was killedand set-to like a young fury. "Hurrah in thebow!" said the mencheering him on. "Well crowed!" "Neversay diewhile there's a shot in the locker!" Nat tried to close with himknowing his advantagebut the mate stopped thatsaying there should be fairplayand no fingering. Nat then came up to the markbut looked white about themouthand his blows were not given with half the spirit of his first. He wasevidently cowed. He had always been his masterand had nothing to gainandeverything to lose; while the other fought for honor and freedomunder a senseof wrong. It would not do. It was soon over. Nat gave in; not so much beatenascowed and mortified; and never afterwards tried to act the bully on board. Wetook George forwardwashed him in the deck-tubcomplimented his pluckandfrom this time he became somebody on boardhaving fought himself into notice.Mr. Brown's plan had a good effectfor there was no more quarrelling among theboys for the rest of the voyage. -

WednesdayJanuary 6th. Set sail from Montereywith a number of Spaniards aspassengersand shaped our course for Santa Barbara. The Diana went out of thebay in company with usbut parted from us off Point Pinosbeing bound to theSandwich Islands. We had a smacking breeze for several hoursand went along ata great rateuntil nightwhen it died awayas usualand the land-breeze setinwhich brought us upon a taught bowline. Among our passengers was a young manwho was the best representation of a decayed gentleman I had ever seen. Hereminded me much of some of the characters in Gil Blas. He was of thearistocracy of the countryhis family being of pure Spanish bloodand once ofgreat importance in Mexico. His father had been governor of the provinceandhaving amassed a large propertysettled at San Diegowhere he built a largehouse with a court-yard in frontkept a great retinue of Indiansand set upfor the grandee of that part of the country. His son was sent to Mexicowherehe received the best educationand went into the first society of the capital.Misfortuneextravaganceand the want of fundsor any manner of gettinginterest on moneysoon eat the estate upand Don Juan Bandini returned fromMexico accomplishedpoorand proudand without any office or occupationtolead the life of most young men of the better families- dissolute andextravagant when the means are at hand; ambitious at heartand impotent in act;often pinched for bread; keeping up an appearance of stylewhen their povertyis known to each half-naked Indian boy in the streetand they stand in dread ofevery small trader and shopkeeper in the place. He had a slight and elegantfiguremoved gracefullydanced and waltzed beautifullyspoke the best ofCastilianwith a pleasant and refined voice and accentand hadthroughoutthe bearing of a man of high birth and figure. Yet here he waswith his passagegiven him(as I afterwards learned) for he had not the means of paying for itand living upon the charity of our agent. He was polite to every onespoke tothe sailorsand gave four reals- I dare say the last he had in his pocket-tothe stewardwho waited upon him. I could not but feel a pity for himespecially when I saw him by the side of his fellow-passenger and townsmanafatcoarsevulgarpretending fellow of a Yankee traderwho had made money inSan Diegoand was eating out the very vitals of the Bandinisfattening upontheir extravagancegrinding them in their poverty; having mortgages on theirlandsforestalling their cattleand already making an inroad upon theirjewelswhich were their last hope.

Don Juan had with him a retainerwho was as much like many of the charactersin Gil Blas as his master. He called himself a private secretarythough therewas no writing for him to doand he lived in the steerage with the carpenterand sailmaker. He was certainly a character; could read and write extremelywell; spoke good Spanish; had been all over Spanish Americaand lived in everypossible situationand served in every conceivable capacitythough generallyin that of confidential servant to some man of figure. I cultivated this man'sacquaintanceand during the five weeks that he was with us- for he remained onboard until we arrived at San Diego- I gained a greater knowledge of the stateof political parties in Mexicoand the habits and affairs of the differentclasses of societythan I could have learned from almost any one else. He tookgreat pains in correcting my Spanishand supplying me with colloquial phrasesand common terms and exclamations in speaking. He lent me a file of latenewspapers from the city of Mexicowhich were full of triumphal receptions ofSanta Anawho had just returned from Tampico after a victoryand with thepreparations for his expedition against the Texans. "Viva Santa Ana!"was the by-word everywhereand it had even reached Californiathough therewere still many hereamong whom was Don Juan Bandiniwho were opposed to hisgovernmentand intriguing to bring in Bustamente. Santa Anathey saidwas forbreaking down the missions; oras they termed it- "Santa Ana no quierereligion." Yet I had no doubt that the office of administrador of San Diegowould reconcile Don Juan to any dynastyand any state of the church. In thesepaperstooI found scraps of American and English news; but which were sounconnectedand I was so ignorant of everything preceding them for eighteenmonths pastthat they only awakened a curiosity which they could not satisfy.One article spoke of Taney as Justicia Mayor de los Estados Unidos(what hadbecome of Marshall? was he deador banished?) and another made knownby newsreceived from Vera Cruzthat "El Vizconde Melbourne" had returned tothe office of "primer ministro" in place of Sir Roberto Peel. (SirRobert Peel had been ministerthen? and where were Earl Grey and the Duke ofWellington?) Here were the outlines of a grand parliamentary overturnthefilling up of which I could imagine at my leisure.

The second morning after leaving Montereywe were off Point Conception. Itwas a brightsunny dayand the windthough strongwas fair; and everythingwas in striking contrast with our experience in the same place two monthsbeforewhen we were drifting off from a northwester under a fore and mainspencer. "Sail ho!" cried a man who was rigging out a top-gallantstuddingsail boom.- "Where away?"- "Weather beamsir!" andin a few minutes a full-rigged brig was seen standing out from under PointConception. The studding-sail halyards were let goand the yards boom-endedthe after yards braced abackand we waited her coming down. She rounded tobacked her main topsailand showed her decks full of menfour guns on a sidehammock nettingsand everything man-of-war fashionexcept that there was noboatswain's whistleand no uniforms on the quarter-deck. A shortsquare-builtmanin a rough grey jacketwith a speaking-trumpet in handstood in theweather hammock nettings. "Ship ahoy!"- "Hallo!"- "Whatship is thatpray?"- "Alert."- "Where are you frompray?" etc.etc. She proved to be the brig Convoyfrom the SandwichIslandsengaged in otter huntingamong the islands which lie along the coast.Her armament was from her being an illegal trader. The otter are very numerousamong these islandsand being of great valuethe government require a heavysum for a license to hunt themand lay a high duty upon every one shot orcarried out of the country. This vessel had no licenseand paid no dutybesides being engaged in smuggling goods on board other vessels trading on thecoastand belonging to the same owners in Oahu. Our captain told him to lookout for the Mexicansbut he said they had not an armed vessel of his size inthe whole Pacific. This was without doubt the same vessel that showed herselfoff Santa Barbara a few months before. These vessels frequently remain on thecoast for yearswithout making portexcept at the islands for wood and waterand an occasional visit to Oahu for a new outfit. -

SundayJanuary 10th. Arrived at Santa Barbaraand on the followingWednesdayslipped our cable and went to seaon account of a south-easter.Returned to our anchorage the next day. We were the only vessel in the port. ThePilgrim had passed through the Canal and hove-to off the townnearly six weeksbeforeon her passage down from Montereyand was now at the leeward. She heardhere of our safe arrival at San Francisco.

Great preparations were making on shore for the marriage of our agentwhowas to marry Donna Anneta De G--- De N---y C---youngest daughter of DonAntonio N---the grandee of the placeand the head of the first family inCalifornia. Our steward was ashore three daysmaking pastry and cakeand someof the best of our stores were sent off with him. On the day appointed for theweddingwe took the captain ashore in the gigand had orders to come for himat nightwith leave to go up to the house and see the fandango. Returning onboardwe found preparations making for a salute. Our guns were loaded and runoutmen appointed to eachcartridges served outmatches lightedand all theflags ready to be run up. I took my place at the starboard after gunand we allwaited for the signal from on shore. At ten o'clock the bride went up with hersister to the confessionaldressed in deep black. Nearly an hour intervenedwhen the great doors of the mission church openedthe bells rang out a louddiscordant pealthe private signal for us was run up by the captain ashorethebridedressed in complete whitecame out of the church with the bridegroomfollowed by a long procession. Just as she stepped from the church doora smallwhite cloud issued from the bows of our shipwhich was full in sightthe loudreport echoed among the surrounding hills and over the bayand instantly theship was dressed in flags and pennants from stem to stern. Twenty-three gunsfollowed in regular successionwith an interval of fifteen seconds between eachwhen the cloud cleared awayand the ship lay dressed in her colorsall day. Atsun-downanother salute of the same number of guns was firedand all the flagsrun down. This we thought was pretty well- a gun every fifteen seconds- for amerchantman with only four guns and a dozen or twenty men.

After supperthe gig's crew were calledand we rowed ashoredressed in ouruniformbeached the boatand went up to the fandango. The bride's father'shouse was the principal one in the placewith a large court in frontuponwhich a tent was builtcapable of containing several hundred people. As we drewnearwe heard the accustomed sound of violins and guitarsand saw a greatmotion of the people within. Going inwe found nearly all the people of thetown- menwomenand children- collected and crowded togetherleaving barelyroom for the dancers; for on these occasions no invitations are givenbut everyone is expected to comethough there is always a private entertainment withinthe house for particular friends. The old women sat down in rowsclapping theirhands to the musicand applauding the young ones. The music was livelyandamong the tuneswe recognized several of our popular airswhich wewithoutdoubthave taken from the Spanish. In the dancingI was much disappointed. Thewomen stood uprightwith their hands down by their sidestheir eyes fixed uponthe ground before themand slided about without any perceptible means ofmotion; for their feet were invisiblethe hem of their dresses forming aperfect circle about themreaching to the ground. They looked as grave asthough they were going through some religious ceremonytheir faces as littleexcited as their limbs; and on the wholeinstead of the spiritedfascinatingSpanish dances which I had expectedI found the Californian fandangoon thepart of the women at leasta lifeless affair. The men did better. They dancedwith grace and spiritmoving in circles round their nearly stationary partnersand showing their figures to great advantage.

A great deal was said about our friend Don Juan Bandiniand when he didappearwhich was toward the close of the eveninghe certainly gave us the mostgraceful dancing that I had ever seen. He was dressed in white pantaloons neatlymadea short jacket of dark silkgaily figuredwhite stockings and thinmorocco slippers upon his very small feet. His slight and graceful figure waswell calculated for dancingand he moved about with the grace and daintiness ofa young fawn. An occasional touch of the toe to the groundseemed all that wasnecessary to give him a long interval of motion in the air. At the same time hewas not fantastic or flourishingbut appeared to be rather repressing a strongtendency to motion. He was loudly applaudedand danced frequently toward theclose of the evening. After the supperthe waltzing beganwhich was confinedto a very few of the "gente de razon" and was considered a highaccomplishmentand a mark of aristocracy. HeretooDon Juan figured greatlywaltzing with the sister of the bride(Donna Angustiaa handsome woman and ageneral favorite) in a variety of beautifulbutto meoffensive figureswhich lasted as much as half an hourno one else taking the floor. They wererepeatedly and loudly applaudedthe old men and women jumping out of theirseats in admirationand the young people waving their hats and handkerchiefs.Indeed among people of the character of these Mexicansthe waltz seemed to meto have found its right place. The great amusement of the evenings- which Isuppose was owing to its being carnival- was the breaking of eggs filled withcologneor other essencesupon the heads of the company. One end of the egg isbroken and the inside taken outthen it is partly filled with cologneand thewhole sealed up. The women bring a great number of these secretly about themand the amusement is to break one upon the head of a gentleman when his back isturned. He is bound in gallantry to find out the lady and return the complimentthough it must not be done if the person sees you. A tallstately Donwithimmense grey whiskersand a look of great importancewas standing before mewhen I felt a light hand on my shoulderand turning roundsaw Donna Angustia(whom we all knewas she had been up to Montereyand down againin theAlert) with her finger upon her lipmotioning me gently aside. I stepped backa littlewhen she went up behind the Donand with one hand knocked off hishuge sombreroand at the same instantwith the

otherbroke the egg upon his headand springing behind mewas out of sightin a moment. The Don turned slowly roundthe colognerunning down his faceand over his clothes and a loud laugh breaking out from every quarter. He lookedround in vainfor some timeuntil the direction of so many laughing eyesshowed him the fair offender. She was his nieceand a great favorite with himso old Don Domingo had to join in the laugh. A great many such tricks wereplayedand many a war of sharp manoeuvering was carried on between couples ofthe younger peopleand at every successful exploit a general laugh was raised.

Another singular custom I was for some time at a loss about. A pretty younggirl was dancingnamedafter what would appear to us the sacrilegious customof the country- Espiritu Santowhen a young man went behind her and placed hishat directly upon her headletting it fall down over her eyesand sprang backamong the crowd. She danced for some time with the hat onwhen she threw itoffwhich called forth a general shout; and the young man was obliged to go outupon the floor and pick it up. Some of the ladiesupon whose heads hats hadbeen placedthrew them off at onceand a few kept them on throughout thedanceand took them off at the endand held them out in their handswhen theowner stepped outbowedand took it from them. I soon began to suspect themeaning of the thingand was afterwards told that it was a complimentand anoffer to become the lady's gallant for the rest of the eveningand to wait uponher home. If the hat was thrown offthe offer was refusedand the gentlemanwas obliged to pick up his hat amid a general laugh. Much amusement was causedsometimes by gentlemen putting hats on the ladies' headswithout permittingthem to see whom it was done by. This obliged them to throw them offor keepthem on at a ventureand when they came to discover the ownerthe laugh wasoften turned upon them.

The captain sent for us about ten o'clockand we went aboard in highspiritshaving enjoyed the new scene muchand were of great importance amongthe crewfrom having so much to telland from the prospect of going everynight until it was over; for these fandangos generally last three days. The nextdaytwo of us were sent up to the townand took care to come back by way ofCapitan Noriego's and take a look into the booth. The musicians were stillthereupon their platformscraping and twanging awayand a few peopleapparently of the lower classeswere dancing. The dancing is kept upatintervalsthroughout the daybut the crowdthe spiritand the elitecome inat night. The next nightwhich was the lastwe went ashore in the same manneruntil we got almost tired of the monotonous twang of the instrumentsthedrawling sounds which the women kept upas an accompanimentand the slappingof the hands in time with the musicin place of castanets. We found ourselvesas great objects of attention as any persons or anything at the place. Oursailor dresses- and we took great pains to have them neat and shipshape- weremuch admiredand we were invitedfrom every quarterto give them an Americansailor's dance; but after the ridiculous figure some of our countrymen cutindancing after the Spaniardswe thought it best to leave it to theirimaginations. Our agentwith a tightblackswallow-tailed coatjust importedfrom Bostona high stiff cravatlooking as if he had been pinned and skeweredwith only his feet and hands left freetook the floor just after Bandini; andwe thought they had had enough of Yankee grace.

The last night they kept it up in great styleand were getting into ahigh-gowhen the captain called us off to go aboardforit being south-easterseasonhe was afraid to remain on shore long; and it was well he did notforthat very nightwe slipped our cablesas a crowner to our fun ashoreandstood off before a south-easterwhich lasted twelve hoursand returned to ouranchorage the next day.


MondayFeb. 1st. After having been in port twenty-one dayswe sailed forSan Pedrowhere we arrived on the following dayhaving gone "allfluking" with the weather clew of the mainsail hauled upthe yards bracedin a littleand the lower studding-sails just drawing; the wind hardly shiftinga point during the passage. Here we found the Ayacucho and the Pilgrimwhichlast we had not seen since the 11th of September- nearly five months; and Ireally felt something like an affection for the old brig which had been my firsthomeand in which I had spent nearly a yearand got the first rough and tumbleof a sea life. Shetoowas associatedin my mind with Bostonthe wharf fromwhich we sailedanchorage in the streamleave-takingand all such matterswhich were now to me like small links connecting me with another worldwhich Ihad once been inand whichplease GodI might yet see again. I went on boardthe first nightafter supper; found the old cook in the galleyplaying uponthe fife which I had given himas a parting present; had a hearty shake of thehand from him; and dove down into the forecastlewhere were my old shipmatesthe same as everglad to see me; for they had nearly given us up as lostespecially when they did not find us in Santa Barbara. They had been at SanDiego lasthad been lying at San Pedro nearly a monthand had received threethousand hides from the pueblo. These were taken from her the next daywhichfilled us upand we both got under weigh on the 4thshe bound up to SanFrancisco againand we to San Diegowhere we arrived on the 6th.

We were always glad to see San Diego; it being the depotand a snug littleplaceand seeming quite like homeespecially to mewho had spent a summerthere. There was no vessel in portthe Rosa having sailed for Valparaiso andCadizand the Catalina for Callaonearly a month before. We discharged ourhidesand in four days were ready to sail again for the windward; andto ourgreat joy- for the last time! Over thirty thousand hides had been alreadycollectedcuredand stowed away in the housewhichtogether with what weshould collectand the Pilgrim would bring down from San Franciscowould makeout her cargo. The thought that we were actually going up for the last timeandthat the next time we went round San Diego point it would be "homewardbound" brought things so near a closethat we felt as though we were justtherethough it must still be the greater part of a year before we could seeBoston.

I spent one eveningas had been my customat the oven with the SandwichIslanders; but it was far from being the usual noisylaughing time. It has beensaidthat the greatest curse to each of the South Sea islandswas the firstman who discovered it; and every one who knows anything of the history of ourcommerce in those partsknows how much truth there is in this; and that thewhite menwith their viceshave brought in diseases before unknown to theislandersand which are now sweeping off the native population of the SandwichIslandsat the rate of one fortieth of the entire population annually. Theyseem to be a doomed people. The curse of a people calling themselves Christianseems to follow them everywhere; and even herein this obscure placelay twoyoung islanderswhom I had left strongactive young menin the vigor ofhealthwasting away under a diseasewhich they would never have known but fortheir intercourse with Christianized Mexico and people from Christian America.One of them was not so ill; and was moving aboutsmoking his pipeand talkingand trying to keep up his spirits; but the otherwho was my friendand Aikane-Hopewas the most dreadful object I had ever seen in my life: his eyes sunkenand deadhis cheeks fallen in against his teethhis hands looking like claws;a dreadful coughwhich seemed to rack his whole shattered systema hollowwhispering voiceand an entire inability to move himself. There he layupon amaton the groundwhich was the only floor of the ovenwith no medicinenocomfortsand no one to care foror help himbut a few Kanakaswho werewilling enoughbut could do nothing. The sight of him made me sickand faint.Poor fellow! During the four months that I lived upon the beachwe werecontinually togetherboth in workand in our excursions in the woodsand uponthe water. I really felt a strong affection for himand preferred him to any ofmy own countrymen there; and I believe there was nothing which he would not havedone for me. When I came into the oven he looked at meheld out his handandsaidin a low voicebut with a delightful smile"AlohaAikane! Alohanui!" I comforted him as well as I couldand promised to ask the captainto help him from the medicine-chestand told him I had no doubt the captainwould do what he could for himas he had worked in our employ for severalyearsboth on shore and aboard our vessels on the coast. I went aboard andturned into my hammockbut I could not sleep.

Thinkingfrom my educationthat I must have some knowledge of medicinetheKanakas had insisted upon my examining him carefully; and it was not a sight tobe forgotten. One of our crewan old man-of-war's manof twenty years'standingwho had seen sin and suffering in every shapeand whom I afterwardstook to see Hopesaid it was dreadfully worse than anything he had ever seenor even dreamed of. He was horror-struckas his countenance showed; yet he hadbeen among the worst cases in our naval hospitals. I could not get the thoughtof the poor fellow out of my head all night; his horrible sufferingand hisapparently inevitablehorrible end.

The next day I told the captain of Hope's stateand asked him if he would beso kind as to go and see him.

"What? a d----d Kanaka?"

"Yessir" said I; "but he has worked four years for ourvesselsand has been in the employ of our ownersboth on shore andaboard."

"Oh! he be d----d!" said the captainand walked off.

This same man died afterwards of a fever on the deadly coast of Sumatra; andGod grant he had better care taken of him in his sufferingsthan he ever gaveto any one else! Finding nothing was to be got from the captainI consulted anold shipmatewho had much experience in these mattersand got from him arecipewhich he always kept by him. With this I went to the mateand told himthe case. Mr. Brown had been entrusted with the general care of themedicine-chestand although a driving fellowand a taught hand in a watchhehad good feelingsand was always inclined to be kind to the sick. He said thatHope was not strictly one of the crewbut as he was in our employ when takensickhe should have the medicines; and he got them and gave them to mewithleave to go ashore at night. Nothing could exceed the delight of the Kanakaswhen I came bringing the medicines. All their terms of affection and gratitudewere spent upon meand in a sense wasted(for I could not understand half ofthem) yet they made all known by their manner. Poor Hope was so much revived atthe bare thought of anything's being done for himthat he was already strongerand better. I knew he must die as he wasand he could but die under themedicinesand any chance was worth running. An ovenexposed to every wind andchange of weatheris no place to take calomel; but nothing else would doandstrong remedies must be usedor he was gone. The applicationsinternal andexternalwere powerfuland I gave him strict directions to keep warm andshelteredtelling him it was his only chance for life. Twiceafter thisIvisited himhaving only time to run upwhile waiting in the boat. He promisedto take his medicines regularly until we returnedand insisted upon it that hewas doing better.

We got under weigh on the 10thbound up to San Pedroand had three days ofcalm and head windsmaking but little progress. On the fourthwe took a stiffsouth-easterwhich obliged us to reef our topsails. While on the yardwe saw asail on the weather bowand in about half an hourpassed the Ayacuchounderdoublereefed topsailsbeating down to San Diego. Arrived at San Pedro on thefourth dayand came-to in the old placea league from shorewith no othervessel in portand the prospect of three weeksor moreof dull liferollinggoods up a slippery hillcarrying hides on our heads over sharp stonesandperhapsslipping for a south-easter.

There was but one man in the only house hereand him I shall always rememberas a good specimen of a California ranger. He had been a tailor in Philadelphiaand getting intemperate and in debthe joined a trapping party and went to theColumbia riverand thence down to Montereywhere he spent everythingleft hispartyand came to the Pueblo de los Angelosto work at his trade. Here he wentdead to leeward among the pulperiasgambling roomsetc.and came down to SanPedroto be moral by being out of temptation. He had been in the house severalweeksworking hard at his tradeupon orders which he had brought with himandtalked much of his resolutionand opened his heart to us about his past life.After we had been here some timehe started off one morningin fine spiritswell dressedto carry the clothes which he had been making to the puebloandsaying he would bring back his money and some fresh orders the next day. Thenext day cameand a week passedand nearly a fortnightwhenone daygoingashorewe saw a tall manwho looked like our friend the tailorgetting out ofthe back of an Indian's cartwhich had just come down from the pueblo. He stoodfor the housebut we bore up after him; when finding that we were overhaulinghimhe hove-to and spoke us. Such a sight I never saw before. Barefootedwithan old pair of trowsers tied round his waist by a piece of green hidea soiledcotton shirtand a torn Indian hat; "cleaned out" to the last realand completely "used up." He confessed the whole matter; acknowledgedthat he was on his back; and now he had a prospect of a fit of the horrors for aweekand of being worse than useless for months. This is a specimen of the lifeof half of the Americans and English who are adrift over the whole ofCalifornia. One of the same stamp was Russellwho was master of the hide-houseat San Diegowhile I was thereand afterwards turned away for his misconduct.He spent his own money and nearly all the stores among the half-bloods upon thebeachand being turned awaywent up to the Presidiowhere he lived the lifeof a desperate "loafer" until some rascally deed sent him off"between two days" with men on horsebackdogsand Indians in fullcry after himamong the hills. One nighthe burst into our room at thehide-housebreathlesspale as a ghostcovered with mudand torn by thornsand briersnearly nakedand begged for a crust of breadsaying he had neithereaten nor slept for three days. Here was the great Mr. Russellwho a monthbefore was "Don Tomas" Capitan de la playa" "Maestro de lacasa" etc.etc.begging food and shelter of Kanakas and sailors. Hestaid with us till he gave himself upand was dragged off to the calabozo.

Anotherand a more amusing specimenwas one whom we saw at San Francisco.He had been a lad on board the ship Californiain one of her first voyagesandran away and commenced Rancherogamblingstealing horsesetc. He worked alongup to San Franciscoand was living on a rancho near therewhile we were inport. One morningwhen we went ashore in the boatwe found him at thelanding-placedressed in California style- a wide hatfaded velveteentrowsersand a blanket cloak thrown over his shoulders- and wishing to go offin the boatsaying he was going to pasear with our captain a little. We hadmany doubts of the reception he would meet with; but he seemed to think himselfcompany for any one. We took him aboardlanded him at the gangwayand wentabout our workkeeping an eye upon the quarter-deckwhere the captain waswalking. The lad went up to him with the most complete assuranceand raisinghis hatwished him a good afternoon. Captain T--- turned roundlooked at himfrom head to footand saying coolly"Hallo! who the h--- are you?"kept on his walk. This was a rebuff not to be mistakenand the joke passedabout among the crew by winks and signsat different parts of the ship. Findinghimself disappointed at headquartershe edged along forward to the matewhowas overseeing some work on the forecastleand tried to begin a yarn; but itwould not do. The mate had seen the reception he had met with aftand wouldhave no cast-off company. The second mate was aloftand the third mate andmyself were painting the quarter-boatwhich hung by the davitsso he betookhimself to us; but we looked at one anotherand the officer was too busy to saya word. From ushe went to one and another of the crewbut the joke had gotbefore himand he found everybody busy and silent. Looking over the rail a fewmoments afterwardwe saw him at the galley-door talking to the cook. This was agreat comedownfrom the highest seat in the synagogue to a seat in the galleywith the black cook. At night toowhen supper was calledhe stood in the waistfor some timehoping to be asked down with the officersbut they went belowone after anotherand left him. His next chance was with the carpenter andsail-makerand he lounged round the after hatchway until the last had gonedown. We had now had fun enough out of himand taking pity on himoffered hima pot of teaand a cut at the kidwith the restin the forecastle. He washungryand it was growing darkand he began to see that there was no use inplaying the caballero any longerand came down into the forecastleput intothe "grub" in sailor's stylethrew off all his airsand enjoyed thejoke as much as any one; for a man must take a joke among sailors. He gave usthe whole account of his adventures in the country- roguery and all- and wasvery entertaining. He was a smartunprincipled fellowwas at the bottom ofmost of the rascally doings of the countryand gave us a great deal ofinteresting information in the ways of the world we were in. -

SaturdayFeb. 13th. Were called up at midnight to slip for a violentnorth-easterfor this rascally hole of San Pedro is unsafe in every wind but asouth-westerwhich is seldom known to blow more than once in a half century. Wewent off with a flowing sheetand hove-to under the lee of Catalina islandwhere we lay three daysand then returned to our anchorage. -

TuesdayFeb. 23d. This afternoona signal was made from the shoreand wewent off in the gigand found the agent's clerkwho had been up to the pueblowaiting at the landing-placewith a package under his armcovered with brownpaperand tied carefully with twine. No sooner had we shoved off than he toldus there was good news from Santa Barbara. "What's that?" said one ofthe crew; "has the bloody agent slipped off the hooks? Has the old bundleof bones got him at last?"- "No; better than that. The California hasarrived." Letterspapersnewsandperhaps- friendson board! Ourhearts were all up in our mouthsand we pulled away like good fellows; for theprecious packet could not be opened except by the captain. As we pulled underthe sternthe clerk held up the packageand called out to the matewho wasleaning over the taffrailthat the California had arrived.

"Hurrah!" said the mateso as to be heard fore and aft;"California comeand news from Boston!"

Instantly there was a confusion on board which no one could account for whohas not been in the same situation. All discipline seemed for a moment relaxed.

"What's thatMr. Brown?" said the cookputting his head out ofthe galley- "California come?"

"Ayeaye! you angel of darknessand there's a letter for you fromBullknop 'treetnumber two-two-five- green door and brass knocker!"

The packet was sent down into the cabinand every one waited to hear of theresult. As nothing came upthe officers began to feel that they were actingrather a child's partand turned the crew to again and the same strictdiscipline was restoredwhich prohibits speech between man and manwhile atwork on deck; so thatwhen the steward came forward with letters for the creweach man took his letterscarried them below to his chestand came up againimmediately; and not a letter was read until we had cleared up decks for thenight.

An overstrained sense of manliness is the characteristic of seafaring menorratherof life on board ship. This often gives an appearance of want offeelingand even of cruelty. From thisif a man comes within an ace ofbreaking his neck and escapesit is made a joke of; and no notice must be takenof a bruise or cut; and any expression of pityor any show of attentionwouldlook sisterlyand unbecoming a man who has to face the rough and tumble of sucha life. From thistoothe sick are neglected at seaand whatever may beashorea sick man finds little sympathy or attentionforward or aft. A mantoocan have nothing peculiar or sacred on board ship; for all the nicerfeelings they take pride in disregardingboth in themselves and others. Athin-skinned man could not live an hour on ship-board. One would be torn rawunless he had the hide of an ox. A moment of natural feeling for home andfriendsand then the frigid routine of sea-life returned. Jokes were made uponthose who showed any interest in the expected newsand everything near and dearwas made common stock for rude jokes and unfeeling coarsenessto which noexception could be taken by any one.

Suppertoomust be eaten before the letters were read; and whenat lastthey were brought outthey all got round any one who had a letterand expectedto have it read aloudand have it all in common. If any one went by himself toreadit was- "Fair playthere; and no skulking!" I took mine andwent into the sailmaker's berthwhere I could read it without interruption. Itwas dated Augustjust a year from the time I had sailed from home; and everyone was welland no great change had taken place. Thusfor one yearmy mindwas set at ease yet it was already six months from the date of the letterandwhat another year would bring to passwho could tell? Every one away from homethinks that some great thing must have happenedwhile to those at home thereseems to be a continued monotony and lack of incident.

As much as my feelings were taken up by my own intelligence from homeIcould not but be amused by a scene in the steerage. The carpenter had beenmarried just before leaving Bostonand during the voyage had talked much abouthis wifeand had to bear and forbearas every manknown to be marriedmustaboard ship; yet the

certainty of hearing from his wife by the first shipseemed to keep up hisspirits. The California camethe packet was brought on board; no one was inhigher spirits than he; but when the letters came forwardthere was none forhim. The captain looked againbut there was no mistake. Poor "Chips"could eat no supper. He was completely down in the mouth. "Sails" (thesailmaker) tried to comfort himand told him he was a bloody fool to give uphis grub for any woman's daughterand reminded him that he had told him a dozentimes that he'd never see or hear from his wife again.

"Ah!" said "Chips" "you don't know what it is tohave a wifeand"--

"Don't I?" said Sails; and then camefor the hundredth timethestory of his coming ashore at New Yorkfrom the Constellation frigateafter acruise of four years round the Horn- being paid off with over five hundreddollars- marryingand taking a couple of rooms in a four-story houses-furnishing the rooms(with a particular account of the furnitureincluding adozen flag-bottomed chairswhich he always dilated uponwhenever the subjectof furniture was alluded to)- going off to sea againleaving his wifehalf-paylike a fool- coming home and finding her "offlike Bob's horsewith nobody to pay the reckoning;" furniture gone- flag-bottomed chairsand all;- and with ithis "long togs" the half-payhis beaver hatwhite linen shirtsand everything else. His wife he never sawor heard offrom that day to thisand never wished to. Then followed a sweeping assertionnot much to the credit of the sexif truethough he has Pope to back him."ComeChipscheer up like a manand take some hot manand take some hotgrub! Don't be made a fool of by anything in petticoats! As for your wifeyou'll never see her again; she was 'up keeleg and off' before you were outsideof Cape Cod. You hove your money away like a fool; but every man must learnoncejust as I did; so you'd better square the yards with herand make thebest of it."

This was the best consolation "Sails" had to offerbut it did notseem to be just the thing the carpenter wanted; forduring several dayshe wasvery much dejectedand bore with difficulty the jokes of the sailorsand withstill more difficulty their attempts at advice and consolationof most of whichthe sailmaker's was a good specimen. -

ThursdayFeb. 25th. Set sail for Santa Barbarawhere we arrived on Sundaythe 28th. We just missed of seeing the Californiafor she had sailed three daysbeforebound to Montereyto enter her cargo and procure her licenseandthence to San Franciscoetc. Captain Arthur left files of Boston papers forCaptain T---whichafter they had been read and talked over in the cabinIprocured from my friend the third mate. One file was of all the BostonTranscripts for the month of August1835and the rest were about a dozen DailyAdvertisers and Couriersof different dates. After allthere is nothing in astrange land like a newspaper from home. Even a letterin many respectsisnothingin comparison with it. It carries you back to the spotbetter thananything else. It is almost equal to clairvoyance. The names of the streetswith the things advertisedare almost as good as seeing the signs; and whilereading "Boy lost!" one can almost hear the bell and well-known voiceof "Old Wilson" crying the boy as "strayedstolenormislaid!" Then there was the Commencement at Cambridgeand the fullaccount of the exercises at the graduating of my own class. A list of all thosefamiliar names(beginning as usual with Abbotand ending with W.) whichas Iread them overone by onebrought up their faces and characters as I had knownthem in the various scenes of college life. Then I imagined them upon the stagespeaking their orationsdissertationscolloquiesetc.with the gestures andtones of eachand tried to fancy the manner in which each would handle hissubject* * * * *handsomeshowyand superficial; * * * *with his strongheadclear braincool self-possession; * * * modestsensitiveandunderrated; * * * * *the mouth-piece of the debating clubsnoisyvaporousand democratic; and so following. Then I could see them receiving their A.Bs.from the dignifiedfeudal-looking Presidentwith his "auctoritate mihicommissa" and walking off the stage with their diplomas in their hands;while upon the very same daytheir classmate was walking up and down Californiabeach with a hide upon his head.

Every watch belowfor a weekI pored over these papersuntil I was surethere could be nothing in them that had escaped my attentionand was ashamed tokeep them any longer. -

SaturdayMarch 5th. This was an important day in our almanacfor it was onthis day that we were first assured that our voyage was really drawing to aclose. The captain gave orders to have the ship ready for getting under weigh;and observed that there was a good breeze to take us down to San Pedro. Then wewere not going up to windward. Thus much was certainand was soon knownforeand aft; and when we went in the gig to take him offhe shook hands with thepeople on the beachand said that he never expected to see Santa Barbara again.This settled the matterand sent a thrill of pleasure through the heart ofevery one in the boat. We pulled off with a willsaying to ourselves (I canspeak for myself at least)- "Good-bySanta Barbara!- This is the last pullhere- No more duckings in your breakersand slipping from your cursedsouth-easters!" The news was soon known aboardand put life intoeverything when we were getting under weigh. Each one was taking his last lookat the missionthe townthe breakers on the beachand swearing that no moneywould make him ship to see them again; and when all hands tallied on to thecat-fallthe chorus of "Time for us to go!" was raised for the firsttimeand joined inwith full swingby everybody. One would have thought wewere on our voyage homeso near did it seem to usthough there were yet threemonths for us on the coast.

We left here the young EnglishmanGeorge Marshof whom I have beforespokenwho was wrecked upon the Pelew Islands. He left us to take the berth ofsecond mate on board the Ayacuchowhich was lying in port. He was wellqualified for thisand his education would enable him to rise to any situationon board ship. I felt really sorry to part from him. There was something abouthim which excited my curiosity; for I could notfor a momentdoubt that he waswell bornandin early lifewell bred. There was the latent gentleman abouthimand the sense of honorand no little of the prideof a young man of goodfamily. The situation was offered him only a few hours before we sailed; andthough he must give up returning to Americayet I have no doubt that the changefrom a dog's berth to an officer'swas too agreeable to his feelings to bedeclined. We pulled him on board the Ayacuchoand when he left the boat he gaveeach of its crew a piece of moneyexcept myselfand shook hands with menodding his headas much as to say- "We understand one another." andsprang on board. Had I knownan hour soonerthat he was to leave usI wouldhave made an effort to get from him the true history of his early life. He knewthat I had no faith in the story which he told the crewand perhapsin themoment of parting from meprobably foreverhe would have given me the trueaccount. Whether I shall ever meet him againor whether his manuscriptnarrative of his adventures in the Pelew Islandswhich would be creditable tohim and interesting to the worldwill ever see the lightI cannot tell. His isone of those cases which are more numerous than those supposewho have neverlived anywhere but in their own homesand never walked but in one line fromtheir cradles to their graves. We must come down from our heightsand leave ourstraight pathsfor the byways and low places of lifeif we would learn truthsby strong contrasts; and in hovelsin forecastlesand among our own outcastsin foreign landssee what has been wrought upon our fellow-creatures byaccidenthardshipor vice.

Two days brought us to San Pedro. and two days more (to our no small joy)gave us our last view of that placewhich was universally called the hell ofCaliforniaand seemed designedin every wayfor the wear and tear of sailors.Not even the last view could bring out one feeling of regret. No thanksthoughtIas we left the sandy shores in the distancefor the hours I have walked overyour stonesbarefootedwith hides on my head;- for the burdens I have carriedup your steepmuddy hill;- for the duckings in your surf; and for the long daysand longer nights passed on your desolate hillwatching piles of hideshearingthe sharp bark of your eternal coatiand the dismal hooting of your owls.

As I bade good-by to each successive placeI felt as though one link afteranother were struck from the chain of my servitude. Having kept close in shorefor the land-breezewe passed the mission of San Juan Capestrano the samenightand saw distinctlyby the bright moonlightthe hill which I had gonedown by a pair of halyards in search of a few paltry hides. "Forsan et haecolim" thought Iand took my last look of that place too. And on the nextmorning we were under the high point of San Diego. The flood tide took usswiftly inand we came-toopposite our hide-houseand prepared to geteverything in trim for a long stay. This was our last port. Here we were todischarge everything from the shipclean her outsmoke hertake in our hideswoodwateretcand set sail for Boston. While all this was doingwe were tobe still in one placeand the port was a safe oneand there was no fear ofsouth-easters. Accordinglyhaving picked out a good berthin the streamwitha good smooth beach oppositefor a landing" Place and within two cables'length of our hide-housewe moored shipunbent all the sailssent down thetop-gallant yards and all the studding-sail boomsand housed the top-gallantmasts. The boats were then hove outand all the sailsspare sparsthe storesthe rigging not roveandin facteverything which was not in daily usesentashoreand stowed away in the house. Then went all our hides and hornsand weleft hardly anything in the ship but her ballastand this we made preparationto heave outthe next day. At nightafter we had knocked offand were sittinground in the forecastlesmoking and talking and taking sailor's pleasurewecongratulated ourselves upon being in that situation in which we had wishedourselves every time we had come into San Diego. "If we were only here forthe last time" we had often said"with our top-gallant masts housedand our sails unbent!"- and now we had our wish. Six weeksor two monthsof the hardest work we had yet seenwas before usand then- "Good-by toCalifornia!"


We turned-in earlyknowing that we might expect an early call; and sureenoughbefore the stars had quite faded"All hands ahoy!" and wewere turned-toheaving out ballast. A regulation of the port forbids anyballast to be thrown overboard; accordinglyour long-boat was lined inside withrough boards and brought alongside the gangwaybut where one tub-full went intothe boattwenty went overboard. This is done by every vesselfor the ballastcan make but little difference in the channeland it saves more than a week oflaborwhich would be spent in loading the boatsrowing them to the pointandunloading them. When any people from the Presidio were on boardthe boat washauled up and ballast thrown in; but when the coast was clearshe was droppedastern againand the ballast fell overboard. This is one of those petty fraudswhich every vessel practises in ports of inferior foreign nationsand which arelost sight ofamong the countless deeds of greater weight which are hardly lesscommon. Fortunately a sailornot being a free agent in work aboard shipis notaccountable; yet the fact of being constantly employedwithout thoughtin suchthingsbegets an indifference to the rights of others.

Fridayand a part of Saturdaywe were engaged in this workuntil we hadthrown out all but what we wanted under our cargo on the passage home; whenasthe next day was Sundayand a good day for smoking shipwe cleared everythingout of the cabin and forecastlemade a slow fire of charcoalbirch barkbrimstoneand other matterson the ballast in the bottom of the holdcalkedup the hatches and every open seamand pasted over the cracks of the windowsand the slides of the scuttlesand companionway. Wherever smoke was seen comingoutwe calked and pastedandso far as we couldmade the ship smoke tight.The captain and officers slept under the awning which was spread over thequarter-deck; and we stowed ourselves away under an old studding-sailwhich wedrew over one side of the forecastle. The next dayfrom fear that somethingmight happenorders were given for no one to leave the shipandas the deckswere lumbered up with everythingwe could not wash them downso we had nothingto doall day long. Unfortunatelyour books were where we could not get atthemand we were turning about for something to dowhen one man recollected abook he had left in the galley. He went after itand it proved to be Woodstock.This was a great windfalland as all could not read it at onceIbeing thescholar of the companywas appointed reader. I got a knot of six or eight aboutmeand no one could have had a more attentive audience. Some laughed at the"scholars" and went over the other side of the forecastleto workand spin their yarns; but I carried the dayand had the cream of the crew formy hearers. Many of the reflectionsand the political partsI omittedbut allthe narrative they were delighted with; especially the descriptions of thePuritansand the sermons and harangues of the Round-head soldiers. Thegallantry of CharlesDr. Radcliffe's plotsthe knavery of "trustyTompkins"- in factevery part seemed to chain their attention. Manythings whichwhile I was readingI had a misgiving aboutthinking them abovetheir capacityI was surprised to find them enter into completely.

I read nearly all dayuntil sundown; whenas soon as supper was overas Ihad nearly finishedthey got a light from the galley; and by skipping what wasless interestingI carried them through to the marriage of Everardand therestoration of Charles the Secondbefore eight o'clock.

The next morningwe took the battens from the hatchesand opened the ship.A few stifled rats were found; and what bugscockroachesfleasand otherverminthere might have been on boardmust have unrove their life-lines beforethe hatches were opened. The ship being now readywe covered the bottom of thehold overfore and aftwith dried brush for dunnageand having levelledeverything awaywe were ready to take in our cargo. All the hides that had beencollected since the California left the coast(a little more than two years)amounting to about forty thousandwere cureddriedand stowed away in thehousewaiting for our good ship to take them to Boston.

Now began the operation of taking in our cargowhich kept us hard at workfrom the grey of the morning till star-lightfor six weekswith the exceptionof Sundaysand of just time to swallow our meals. To carry the work on quickera division of labor was made. Two men threw the hides down from the piles in thehousetwo more picked them up and put them on a long horizontal poleraised afew feet from the groundwhere they were beatenby two morewith flailssomewhat like those used in threshing wheat. When beatenthey were taken fromthis pole by two moreand placed upon a platform of boards; and ten or a dozenmenwith their trowsers rolled upwere constantly goingback and forthfromthe platform to the boatwhich was kept off where she would just floatwiththe hides upon their heads. The throwing the hides upon the pole was the mostdifficult workand required a sleight of hand which was only to be got by longpractice. As I was known for a hide-curerthis post was assigned to meand Icontinued at it for six or eight daystossingin that timefrom eight to tenthousand hidesuntil my wrists became so lame that I gave in; and wastransferred to the gang that was employed in filling the boatswhere I remainedfor the rest of the time. As we were obliged to carry the hides on our headsfrom fear of their getting wetwe each had a piece of sheepskin sewed into theinside of our hatswith the wool next to our headsand thus were able to bearthe weightday after daywhich would otherwise have soon worn off our hairand borne hard upon our skulls. Upon the wholeours was the best berth; forthough the water was nipping coldearly in the morning and late at nightandbeing so continually wet was rather an exposureyet we got rid of the constantdust and dirt from the beating of the hidesand being all of us young andheartydid not mind the exposure. The older men of the crewwhom it would havebeen dangerous to have kept in the waterremained on board with the matetostow the hides awayas fast as they were brought off by the boats.

We continued at work in this manner until the lower hold was filled to withinfour feet of the beamswhen all hands were called aboard to commence steeving.As this is a peculiar operationit will require a minute description.

Before stowing the hidesas I have saidthe ballast is levelled offjustabove the keelsonand then loose dunnage placed upon iton which the hidesrest. The greatest care is used in stowingto make the ship hold as many hidesas possible. It is no mean artand a man skilled in it is an importantcharacter in California. Many a dispute have I heard raging high betweenprofessed "beach-combers" as to whether the hides should be stowed"shingling" or back-to-backand flipper-to-flipper;" upon whichpoint there was an entire and bitter division of sentiment among the savans. Weadopted each method at different periods of the stowingand parties ran high inthe forecastlesome siding with "old Bill" in favor of the formerand others scouting himand relying upon "English Bob" of theAyacuchowho had been eight years in Californiaand was willing to risk hislife and limb for the latter method. At length a compromise was effectedand amiddle courseof shifting the ends and backs at every laywas adoptedwhichworked welland whichthough they held it inferior to their owneach partygranted was better than that of the other.

Having filled the ship upin this wayto within four feet of her beamstheprocess of steeving commencedby which an hundred hides are got into a placewhere one could not be forced by handand which presses the hides to theutmostsometimes starting the beams of the shipresembling in its effects thejack-screws which are used in stowing cotton. Each morning we went ashoreandbeat and brought off as many hides as we could steeve in the course of the dayandafter breakfastwent down into the holdwhere we remained at work untilnight. The whole length of the holdfrom stem to sternwas floored off leveland we began with raising a pile in the after parthard against the bulkhead ofthe runand filling it up to the beamscrowding in as many as we could by handand pushing in with oars; when a large "book" was made of fromtwenty-five to fifty hidesdoubled at the backsand put into one anotherlikethe leaves of a book. An opening was then made between two hides in the pileand the back of the outside hide of the book inserted. Two longheavy sparscalled steevesmade of the strongest woodand sharpened off like a wedge atone endwere placed with their wedge ends into the inside of the hide which wasthe centre of the bookand to the other end of eachstraps were fittedintowhich large tackles were hookedcomposed each of two huge purchase blocksonehooked to the strap on the end of the steeveand the other into a dogfastenedinto one of the beamsas far aft as it could be got. When this was arrangedand the ways greased upon which the book was to slidethe falls of the tackleswere stretched forwardand all hands tallied onand bowsed away until the bookwas well entered; when these tackles were nipperedstraps and toggles clappedupon the fallsand two more luff tackles hooked onwith dogsin the samemanner; and thusby luff upon luffthe power was multiplieduntil into a pilein which one hide more could not be crowded by handan hundred or an hundredand fifty were often driven in by this complication of purchases. When the lastluff was hooked onall hands were called to the rope- cookstewardand all-and ranging ourselves at the fallsone behind the othersitting down on thehideswith our heads just even with the beamswe set taught upon the tacklesand striking up a songand all lying back at the choruswe bowsed the tackleshomeand drove the large books chock in out of sight.

The sailor's songs for capstans and falls are of a peculiar kindhaving achorus at the end of each line. The burden is usually sungby one aloneandat the chorusall hands join in- and the louder the noisethe better. Withusthe chorus seemed almost to raise the decks of the shipand might be heardat a great distanceashore. A song is as necessary to sailors as the drum andfife to a soldier. They can't pull in timeor pull with a willwithout it.Many a timewhen a thing goes heavywith one fellow yo-ho-inga lively songlike "Heaveto the girls!" "Nancy oh!" "JackCrosstree" etc.has put life and strength into every arm. We often founda great difference in the effect of the different songs in driving in the hides.Two or three songs would be triedone after the otherwith no effect;- not aninch could be got upon the tackles- when a new songstruck upseemed to hitthe humor of the momentand drove the tackles "two blocks" at once."Heave round hearty!" "Heave round hearty!" "Captaingone ashore!" and the likemight do for common pullsbut in an emergencywhen we wanted a heavy"raise-the-dead" pullwhich should start thebeams of the shipthere was nothing like "Time for us to go!""Round the corner" or "Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"

This was the most lively part of our work. A little boating and beach work inthe morning; then twenty or thirty men down in a close holdwhere we wereobliged to sit down and slide aboutpassing hidesand rowsing about the greatsteevestacklesand dogssinging out at the fallsand seeing the shipfilling up every day. The work was as hard as it could well be. There was not amoment's cessation from Monday morning till Saturday nightwhen we weregenerally beaten outand glad to have a full night's resta wash and shift ofclothesand a quiet Sunday. During all this times- which would have startledDr. Graham- we lived upon almost nothing but fresh beef; fried beefsteaksthreetimes a day- morningnoonand night. At morning and night we had a quart oftea to each man; and an allowance of about a pound of hard bread a day; but ourchief article of food was the beef. A messconsisting of six menhad a largewooden kid piled up with beefsteakscut thickand fried in fatwith thegrease poured over them. Round this we satattacking it with our jack-knivesand teethand with the appetite of young lionsand sent back an empty kid tothe galley. This was done three times a day. How many pounds each man ate in adayI will not attempt to compute. A whole bullock (we ate liver and all)lasted us but four days. Such devouring of fleshI will venture to saywasseldom known before. What one man ate in a dayover a hearty man's allowancewould make a Russian's heart leap into his mouth. Indeedduring all the time wewere upon the coastour principal food was fresh beefand every man hadperfect health; but this was a time of especial devouring; and what we shouldhave done without meatI cannot tell. Once or twicewhen our bullocks failedand we were obliged to make a meal upon dry bread and waterit seemed likefeeding upon shavings. Light and dryfeeling unsatisfiedandat the sametimefullwe were glad to see four quarters of a bullockjust killedswinging from the fore-top. Whatever theories may be started by sedentary mencertainly no men could have gone through more hard work and exposure for sixteenmonths in more perfect healthand without ailings and failingsthan our ship'screwlet them have lived upon Hygela's own baking and dressing. -

FridayApril 15th. Arrivedbrig Pilgrimfrom the windward. It was a sadsight for her crew to see us getting ready to go off the coastwhile theywhohad been longer on the coast than the Alertwere condemned to another year'shard service. I spent an evening on boardand found them making the best of thematterand determined to rough it out as they might; but my friend S--- wasdetermined to go home in the shipif money or interest could bring it to pass.After considerable negotiating and workinghe succeeded in persuading myEnglish friendTom Harris- my companion in the anchor watch- for thirtydollarssome clothesand an intimation from Captain Faucon that he met shouldwant a second mate before the voyage was upto take his place in the brig assoon as she was ready to go up to windward.

The first opportunity I could get to speak to Captain FauconI asked him tostep up to the oven and look at Hopewhom he knew wellhaving had him on boardhis vessel. He went to see himbut said that he had so little medicineandexpected to be so long on the coastthat he could do nothing for himbut thatCaptain Arthur would take care of him when he came down in the Californiawhichwould be in a week or more. I had been to see Hope the first night after we gotinto San Diego this last timeand had frequently since spent the early part ofa night in the oven. I hardly expectedwhen I left him to go to windwardtofind him alive upon my return. He was certainly as low as he could well be whenI left himand what would be the effect of the medicines that I gave him. Ihardly then dared to conjecture. Yet I knew that he must die without them. I wasnot a little rejoicedthereforeand relievedupon our returnto see himdecidedly better. The medicines were strongand took hold and gave a check tothe disorder which was destroying him; andmore than thatthey had begun thework of exterminating it. I shall never forget the gratitude that he expressed.All the Kanakas attributed his escape solely to my knowledgeand would not bepersuaded that I had not all the secrets of the physical system open to me andunder my control. My medicineshoweverwere goneand no more could be gotfrom the shipso that his life was left to hang upon the arrival of theCalifornia. -

SundayApril24th. We had now been nearly seven weeks in San Diegoand hadtaken in the greater part of our cargoand were looking outevery dayfor thearrival of the Californiawhich had our agent on board; whenthis afternoonsome Kanakaswho had been over the hill for rabbits and to fight rattlesnakescame running down the pathsinging outsinging out"Kail ho!" withall their might. Mr. H.our third matewas ashoreand asking themparticularly about the size of the sailetc.and learning that it was"Moku- Nui Moku" hailed our shipand said that the California was onthe other side of the point. Instantlyall hands were turned upthe bow gunsrun out and loadedthe ensign and broad pennant setthe yards squared by liftsand bracesand everything got ready to make a good appearance. The instant sheshowed her nose round the pointwe began our salute. She came in undertop-gallant sailsclawed up and furled her sails in good orderand came-towithin good swinging distance of us. It being Sundayand nothing to doallhands were on the forecastlecriticising the new-comer. She was a goodsubstantial shipnot quite so long as the Alertand wall-sided andkettle-bottomedafter the latest fashion of south-shore cotton and sugarwagons; strongtooand tightand a good average sailorbut with nopretensions to beautyand nothing in the style of a "crack ship."Upon the wholewe were perfectly satisfied that the Alert might hold up herhead with a ship twice as smart as she.

At nightsome of us got a boat and went on boardand found a largeroomyforecastle(for she was squarer forward than the Alert) and a crew of a dozenor fifteen men and boyssitting around on their chestssmoking and talkingand ready to give a welcome to any of our ship's company. It was just sevenmonths since they left Bostonwhich seemed but yesterday to us. Accordinglywehad much to askfor though we had seen the newspapers that she broughtyetthese were the very men who had been in Boston and seen everything with theirown eyes. One of the green-hands was a Boston boyfrom one of the publicschoolsandof courseknew many things which we wished to ask aboutand oninquiring the names of our two Boston boysfound that they had been schoolmatesof his. Our men had hundreds of questions to ask about Ann streettheboarding-housesthe ships in portthe rate of wagesand other matters.

Among her crew were two English man-of-war's-menso thatof coursewe soonhad music. They sang in the true sailor's styleand the rest of the crewwhichwas a remarkably musical onejoined in the choruses. They had many of thelatest sailor songswhich had not yet got about among our merchantmenandwhich they were very choice of. They began soon after we came on boardand keptit up until after two bellswhen the second mate came forward and called"the Alerts away!" Battle-songsdrinking-songsboat-songslove-songsand everything elsethey seemed to have a complete assortment ofand I was glad to find that "All in the Downs" "Poor TomBowline" "The Bay of Biscay" "Listye Landsmen!" andall those classical songs of the seastill held their places. In addition tothesethey had picked up at the theatres and other places a few songs of alittle more genteel castwhich they were very proud of; and I shall neverforget hearing an old saltwho had broken his voice by hard drinking on shoreand bellowing from the mast-head in a hundred north-westerswith all manner ofungovernable trills and quavers- in the high notesbreaking into a roughfalsetto- and in the low onesgrowling along like the dying away of theboatswain's "all hands ahoy!" down the hatch-waysinging"Ohnowe never mention him." - "Perhapslike mehe struggles with

Each feeling of regret;

But if he's loved as I have loved

He never can forget!" -

The last linebeing the conclusionhe roared out at the top of his voicebreaking each word up into half a dozen syllables. This was very popularandJack was called upon every night to give them his "sentimental song."No one called for it more loudly than Ifor the complete absurdity of theexecutionand the sailors' perfect satisfaction in itwere ludicrous beyondmeasure.

The next daythe California commenced unloading her cargo; and her boats'crewsin coming and goingsang their boat-songskeeping time with their oars.This they did all day long for several daysuntil their hides were alldischargedwhen a gang of them were sent on board the Alertto help us steeveour hides. This was a windfall for usfor they had a set of new songs for thecapstan and falland ours had got nearly worn out by six weeks' constant use. Ihave no doubt that this timely reinforcement of songs hastened our work severaldays.

Our cargo was now nearly all taken in; and my old friendthe Pilgrimhavingcompleted her dischargeunmooredto set sail the next morning on another longtrip to windward. I was just thinking of her hard lotand congratulating myselfupon my escape from herwhen I received a summons into the cabin. I went aftand there foundseated round the cabin tablemy own captainCaptain Faucon ofthe Pilgrimand Mr. R---the agent. Captain T---turned to me and askedabruptly--

"D---do you want to go home in the ship?"

"Certainlysir" said I; "I expect to go home in theship."

"Then" said he"you must get some one to go in your place onboard the Pilgrim."

I was so completely "taken aback" by this sudden intimationthatfor a moment I could make no reply. I knew that it would be hopeless to attemptto prevail upon any of the ship's crew to take twelve months more upon theCalifornia in the brig. I knewtoothat Captain T--- had received orders tobring me home in the Alertand he had told mewhen I was at the hide-housethat I was to go home in her; and even if this had not been soit was cruel togive me no notice of the step they were going to takeuntil a few hours beforethe brig would sail. As soon as I had got my wits about meI put on a boldfrontand told him plainly that I had a letter in my chest informing me that hehad been written toby the owners in Bostonto bring me home in the shipandmoreoverthat he had told me that I was to go in the ship.

To have this told himand to be opposed in such a mannerwas more than mylord paramount had been used to.

He turned fiercely upon meand tried to look me downand face me out of mystatement; but finding that that wouldn't doand that I was entering upon mydefence in such a way as would show to the other two that he was in the wrong-he changed his groundand pointed to the shipping papers of the Pilgrimfromwhich my name had never been erasedand said that there was my name- that Ibelonged to her- that he had an absolute discretionary power;- andin shortthat I must be on board the Pilgrim by the next morning with my chest andhammockor have some one ready to go in my placeand that he would not hearanother word from me. No court or star chamber could proceed more summarily witha poor devilthan this trio was about to do with me; condemning me to apunishment worse than a Botany Bay exileand to a fate which would alter thewhole current of my future life; for two years more in California would havemade me a sailor for the rest of my days. I felt all thisand saw the necessityof being determined. I repeated what I had saidand insisted upon my right toreturn in the ship. -

I "raised my armand tauld my crack

Before them a'." -

But it would have all availed me nothinghad I been "some poorbody" before this absolutedomineering tribunal. But they saw that Iwould not gounless "vi et armis" and they knew that I had friendsand interest enough at home to make them suffer for any injustice they might dome. It was probably this that turned the matter; for the captain changed histone entirelyand asked me ifin case any one went in my placeI would givehim the same sum that S--- gave Harris to exchange with him. I told him that ifany one was sent on board the brigI should pity himand be willing to helphim to thator almost any amount; but would not speak of it as an exchange.

"Very well" said he. "Go forward about your businessandsend English Ben here to me!"

I went forward with a light heartbut feeling as angryand as much contemptas I could well contain between my teeth. English Ben was sent aftand in a fewmoments came forwardlooking as though he had received his sentence to be hung.The captain had told him to get his things ready to go on board the brig thenext morning; and that I would give him thirty dollars and a suit of clothes.The hands had "knocked off" for dinnerand were standing about theforecastlewhen Ben came forward and told his story. I could see plainly thatit made a great excitementand thatunless I explained the matter to themthefeeling would be turned against me. Ben was a poor English boya stranger inBostonand without friends or money; and being an activewilling ladand agood sailor for his yearswas a general favorite. "Ohyes!" said thecrew"the captain has let you offbecause you are a gentleman's sonandhave got friendsand know the owners; and taken Benbecause he is poorandhas got nobody to say a word for him!" I knew that this was too true to beansweredbut I excused myself from any blameand told them that I had a rightto go homeat all events. This pacified them a littlebut Jack had got anotion that a poor lad was to be imposed uponand did not distinguish veryclearly; and though I knew that I was in no faultandin facthad barelyescaped the grossest injusticeyet I felt that my berth was getting to be adisagreeable one. The notion that I was not "one of them" whichby aparticipation in all their labor and hardshipsand having no favor shown mehad been laid asleepwas beginning to revive. But far stronger than any feelingfor myselfwas the pity I felt for the poor lad. He had depended upon goinghome in the ship; and from Bostonwas going immediately to Liverpoolto seehis friends. Beside thishaving begun the voyage with very few clotheshe hadtaken up the greater part of his wages in the slop-chestand it was every day alosing concern to him; andlike all the rest of the crewhe had a heartyhatred of Californiaand the prospect of eighteen months or two years more ofhide-droghing seemed completely to break down his spirit. I had determined notto go myselfhappen what wouldand I knew that the captain would not dare toattempt to force me. I knewtoothat the two captains had agreed together toget some oneand that unless I could prevail upon somebody to go voluntarilythere would be no help for Ben. From this considerationthough I had said thatI would have nothing to do with an exchangeI did my best to get some one to govoluntarily. I offered to give an order upon the owners in Boston for sixmonths' wagesand also all the clothesbooksand other matterswhich Ishould not want upon the voyage home. When this offer was published in the shipand the case of poor Ben was set forth in strong colorsseveralwho would nothave dreamed of going themselveswere busy in talking it up to otherswhothey thoughtmight be tempted to accept it; andat lengthone fellowaharum-scarum ladwhom we called Harry Bluffand who did not care what countryor ship he was inif he had clothes enough and money enough- partly from pityfor Benand partly from the thought he should have "cruising money"for the rest of his stay- came forwardand offered to go and "sling hishammock in the bloody hooker." Lest his purpose should coolI signed anorder for the sum upon the owners in Bostongave him all the clothes I couldspareand sent him aft to the captainto let him know what had been done. Theskipper accepted the exchangeand wasdoubtlessglad to have it pass off soeasily. At the same time he cashed the orderwhich was endorsed to him*005and the next morningthe lad went aboard the brigapparently in good spiritshaving shaken hands with each of us and wished us a pleasant passage homejingling the money in his pocketsand calling out"Never say diewhilethere's a shot in the locker." The same boat carried off Harrismy oldwatchmatewho had previously made an exchange with my friend S---.

I was sorry to part with Harris. Nearly two hundred hours (as we hadcalculated it) had we walked the ship's deck togetherat anchor watchwhen allhands were belowand talked over and over every subject which came within theken of either of us. He gave me a strong gripe with his hand; and I told himifhe came to Boston againnot to fail to find me outand let me see an oldwatchmate. The same boat brought on board S---my friendwho had begun thevoyage with me from Bostonandlike mewas going back to his family and tothe society which we had been born and brought up in. We congratulated oneanother upon finding what we had long talked over and wished forthus broughtabout; and none on board the ship were more glad than ourselves to see the oldbrig standing round the pointunder full sail. As she passed abreast of usweall collected in the waistand gave her three loudhearty cheerswaving ourhats in the air. Her crew sprang into the rigging and chainsanswered us withthree as loudto which weafter the nautical customgave one in return. Itook my last look of their familiar faces as they got over the railand saw theold black cook put his head out of the galleyand wave his cap over his head.The crew flew aloft to loose the top-gallant sails and royals; the two captainswaved their hands to one another; andin ten minuteswe saw the last inch ofher white canvasas she rounded the point.

Relieved as I was to see her well off(and I felt like one who had justsprung from an iron trap which was closing upon him) I had yet a feeling ofregret at taking the last look at the old craft in which I had spent a yearandthe first yearof my sailor's life- which had been my first home in the newworld into which I had entered- and with which I had associated so many things-my first leaving homemy first crossing the equatorCape HornJuan Fernandezdeath at seaand other thingsserious and common. Yetwith all thisand thefeeling I had for my old shipmatescondemned to another term of Californialifethe thought that we were done with itand that one week more would see uson our way to Bostonwas a cure for everything. -

FridayMay 6thcompleted the taking of our cargoand was a memorable dayin our calendar. The time when we were to take in our last hidewe had lookedforward tofor sixteen monthsas the first bright spot. When the last hide wasstowed awayand the hatches calked downthe tarpaulins battened on to themthe longboat hoisted in and securedand the decks swept down for the night-the chief mate sprang upon the top of the long-boatcalled all hands into thewaistand giving us a signal by swinging his cap over his head- we gave threelongloud cheerswhich came from the bottom of our heartsand made the hillsand valleys ring again. In a momentwe heard threein answerfrom theCalifornia's crewwho had seen us taking in our long-boatand- "the crythey heard- its meaning knew."

The last weekwe had been occupied in taking in a supply of wood and waterfor the passage homeand bringing on board the spare sparssailsetc. I wassent off with a party of Indians to fill the water-casksat a springaboutthree miles from the shippingand near the townand was absent three daysliving at the townand spending the daytime in filling the casks andtransporting them on ox-carts to the landing-placewhence they were taken onboard by the crew with boats. This being all done withwe gave one day tobending our sails; and at nightevery sailfrom the courses to the skysailswas bentand every studding-sail ready for setting.

Before our sailingan unsuccessful attempt was made by one of the crew ofthe California to effect an exchange with one of our number. It was a ladbetween fifteen and sixteen years of agewho went by the name of the"reefer" having been a midshipman in East India Company's ship. Hissingular character and story had excited our interest ever since the ship cameinto the port. He was a delicateslender little fellowwith a beautiful pearlycomplexionregular featuresforehead as white as marbleblack hairedcurlingbeautifullyroundedtaperingdelicate fingerssmall feetsoft voicegentlemannersandin factevery sign of having been well born and bred. At the sametime there was something in his expression which showed a slight deficiency ofintellect. How great the deficiency wasor what it resulted from; whether hewas born so; whether it was the result of disease or accident; or whetherassome saidit was brought on by his distress of mindduring the voyageIcannot say. From his own account of himselfand from many circumstances whichwere known in connection with his storyhe must have been the son of a man ofwealth. His mother was an Italian woman. He was probably a natural sonfor inscarcely any other way could the incidents of his early life be accounted for.He said that his parents did not live togetherand he seemed to have been illtreated by his father. Though he had been delicately brought upand indulged inevery way(and he had then with him trinkets which had been given him at home)yet his education had been sadly neglected; and when only twelve years oldhewas sent as midshipman in the Company's service. His own story wasthat heafterwards ran away from homeupon a difficulty which he had with his father.and went to Liverpoolwhence he sailed in the ship RialtoCaptain HolmesforBoston. Captain Holmes endeavored to get him a passage backbut there being novessel to sail for some timethe boy left himand went to board at a commonsailor's boarding-housein Ann streetwhere he supported himself for a fewweeks by selling some of his valuables. At lengthaccording to his own accountbeing desirous of returning homehe went to a shipping-officewhere theshipping articles of the California were open. Upon asking where the ship wasgoinghe was told by the shipping-master that she was bound to California. Notknowing where that washe told him that he wanted to go to Europeand asked ifCalifornia was in Europe. The shippingmaster answered him in a way which the boydid not understandand advised him to ship. The boy signed the articlesreceived his advancelaid out a little of it in clothesand spent the restand was ready to go on boardwhenupon the morning of sailinghe heard thatthe ship was bound upon the North-west Coaston a two or three years' voyageand was

not going to Europe. Frightened at this prospecthe slipped away when thecrew was going aboardwandered up into another part of the townand spent allthe forenoon in straying about the commonand the neighboring streets. Havingno moneyand all his clothes and other things being in the cheston boardandbeing a strangerhe became tired and hungryand ventured down toward theshippingto see if the vessel had sailed. He was just turning the corner of astreetwhen the shippingmasterwho had been in search of himpopped upon himseized himand carried him on board. He cried and struggledand said he didnot wish to go in the shipbut the topsails were at the mast-headthe fastsjust ready to be cast offand everything in the hurry and confusion ofdepartureso that he was hardly noticed; and the few who did inquire about thematter were told that it was merely a boy who had spent his advance and tried torun away. Had the owners of the vessel known anything of the matterthey wouldhave interfered at once; but they either knew nothing of itor heardlike therestthat it was only an unruly boy who was sick of his bargain. As soon as theboy found himself actually at seaand upon a voyage of two or three years inlengthhis spirits failed him; he refused to workand became so miserablethat Captain Arthur took him into the cabinwhere he assisted the stewardandoccasionally pulled and hauled about decks. He was in this capacity when we sawhim; and though it was much better for him than the life in the forecastleandthe hard workwatchingand exposurewhich his delicate frame could not haveborneyetto be joined with a black fellow in waiting upon a man whom heprobably looked upon as but littlein point of education and mannersabove oneof his father's servantswas almost too much for his spirit to bear. Had heentered upon his situation of his own free willhe could have endured it; butto have been deceivedandin addition to thatforced into itwasintolerable. He made every effort to go home in our shipbut his captainrefused to part with him except in the way of exchangeand that he could noteffect. If this account of the whole matterwhich we had from the boyandwhich was confirmed by all the crewbe correctI cannot understand why CaptainArthur should have refused to let him goespecially being a captain who had thenamenot only with that crewbut with all whom he had ever commandedof anunusually kind-hearted man. The truth isthe unlimited power which merchantcaptains haveupon long voyages on strange coaststakes away a sense ofresponsibilityand too ofteneven in men otherwise well-disposedsubstitutesa disregard for the rights and feelings of others. The lad was sent on shore tojoin the gang at the hide-house; from whenceI was afterwards rejoiced to hearhe effected his escapeand went down to Callao in a small Spanish schooner; andfrom Callaohe probably returned to England.

Soon after the arrival of the CaliforniaI spoke to Captain Arthur aboutHope; and as he had known him on the voyage beforeand was very fond of himheimmediately went to see himgave him proper medicinesandunder such carehebegan rapidly to recover. The Saturday night before our sailingI spent an hourin the ovenand took leave of my Kanaka friends; andreallythis was the onlything connected with leaving California which was in any way unpleasant. I feltan interest and affection for many of these simpletrue-hearted mensuch as Inever felt before but for a near relation. Hope shook me by the handsaid heshould soon be well againand ready to work for me when I came upon the coastnext voyageas officer of the ship; and told me not to forgetwhen I becamecaptainhow to be kind to the sick. Old "Mr. Bingham" and "KingMannini" went down to the boat with meshook me heartily by the handwished us a good voyageand went back to the ovenchanting one of their deepmonotonous songsthe burden of which I gathered to be about us and our voyage.-

SundayMay 8th. This promised to be our last day in California. Our fortythousand hidesthirty thousand hornsbesides several barrels of otter andbeaver skinswere all stowed belowand the hatches calked down. All our sparespars were taken on board and lashed; our water-casks secured; and our livestockconsisting of four bullocksa dozen sheepa dozen or more pigsandthree or four dozen of poultrywere all stowed away in their differentquarters: the bullocks in the long-boatthe sheep in a pen on the fore-hatchand the pigs in a sty under the bows of the long-boatand the poultry in theirproper coop; and the jolly-boat was full of hay for the sheep and bullocks. Ourunusually large cargotogether with the stores for a five months' voyagebrought the ship channels down into the water. In addition to thisshe had beensteeved so thoroughlyand was so bound by the compression of her cargoforcedinto her by so powerful machinerythat she was like a man in a straight-jacketand would be but a dull saileruntil she had worked herself loose.

The California had finished discharging her cargoand was to get under weighat the same time with us. Having washed down decks and got our breakfastthetwo vessels lay side by sidein complete readiness for seaour ensigns hangingfrom the peaksand our tall spars reflected from the glassy surface of theriverwhichsince sunrisehad been unbroken by a ripple. At lengtha fewwhiffs came across the waterandby eleven o'clockthe regular north-westwind set steadily in. There was no need of calling all handsfor we had allbeen hanging about the forecastle the whole forenoonand were ready for a startupon the first sign of a breeze. All eyes were aft upon the captainwho waswalking the deckwithevery now and thena look to windward. He made a signto the matewho came forwardtook his stationdeliberately between theknight-headscast a glance aloftand called out"All handslay aloftand loose the sails!" We were half in the rigging before the order cameand never since we left Boston were the gaskets off the yardsand the riggingoverhauledin a shorter time. "All ready forwardsir!"- "Allready the main!"- "Cross-jack yards all readysir!"- "Laydownall hands but one on each yard!" The yard-arm and bunt gaskets werecast off; and each sail hung by the jiggerwith one man standing by the tie tolet it go. At the same moment that we sprang alofta dozen hands sprang intothe rigging of the Californiaand in an instant were all over her yards; andher sailstoowere ready to be dropped at the word. In the mean time our bowgun had been loaded and run outand its discharge was to be the signal fordropping sails. A cloud of smoke came out of our bows; the echoes of the gunrattled our farewell among the hills of California; and the two ships werecoveredfrom head to footwith their white canvas. For a few minutesall wasuproar and apparent confusion: men flying about like monkeys in the rigging;ropes and blocks flying; orders given and answeredand the confused noises ofmen singing out at the ropes. The top-sails came to the mast-heads with"Cheerilymen!" andin a few minutesevery sail was set; for thewind was light. The head sails were backedthe windlass came round "slip-slap" to the cry of the sailors;- "Hove shortsir" said themate;- "Up with him!"- "Ayeayesir."- A few hearty andlong heavesand the anchor showed its head. "Hook cat!"- The fall wasstretched along the decks; all hands laid hold;- "Hurrahfor the lasttime" said the mate; and the anchor came to the cat-head to the tune of"Time for us to go" with a loud chorus. Everything was done quickasthough it were for the last time. The head yards were filled awayand our shipbegan to move through the water on her homeward-bound course. The California hadgot under weigh at the same moment; and we sailed down the narrow bay abreastand were just off the mouthand finding ourselves gradually shooting ahead ofherwere on the point of giving her three parting cheerswhensuddenlywefound ourselves stopped shortand the California ranging fast ahead of us. Abar stretches across the mouth of the harborwith water enough to float commonvesselsbutbeing low in the waterand having kept well to leewardas wewere bound to the southwardwe had stuck fastwhile the Californiabeinglighthad floated over.

We kept all sail onin the hope of forcing overbut failing in thiswehove abackand lay waiting for the tidewhich was on the floodto take usback into the channel. This was somewhat of a damper to usand the captainlooked not a little mortified and vexed. "This is the same place where theRosa got ashore" observed the redheaded second matemost mal-a-propos. Amalediction on the Rosaand him toowas all the answer he gotand he slunkoff to leeward. In a few minutesthe force of the wind and the rising of thetide backed us into the streamand we were on our way to our oldanchoring-placethe tide setting swiftly upand the ship barely manageableinthe light breeze. We came-toin our old berthopposite the hide-housewhoseinmates were not a little surprised to see us return. We felt as though we weretied to California; and some of the crew swore that they never should get clearof the bloody coast.

In about half an hourwhich was near high waterthe order was given to manthe windlassand again the anchor was catted; but not a word was said about thelast time. The California had come back on finding that we had returnedand washove-towaiting for usoff the point. This time we passed the bar safelyandwere soon up with the Californiawho filled awayand kept us company. Sheseemed desirous of a trial of speedand our captain accepted the challengealthough we were loaded down to the bolts of our chain platesas deep as asand-bargeand bound so taught with our cargo that we were no more fit for arace than a man in fetters;- while our antagonist was in her best trim. Beingclear of the pointthe breeze became stiffand the royal masts bent under oursailsbut we would not take them in until we saw three boys spring aloft intothe rigging of the California; when they were all furled at oncebut withorders to stay aloft at the top-gallant mastheadsand loose them again at theword. It was my duty to furl the fore royal; and while standing by to loose itagainI had a fine view of the scene. From where I stoodthe two vesselsseemed nothing but spars and sailswhile their narrow decksfar belowslanting over by the force of the wind aloftappeared hardly capable ofsupporting the great fabrics raised upon them. The California was to windward ofusand had every advantage; yetwhile the breeze was stiffwe held our own.As soon as it began to slackenshe ranged a little aheadand the order wasgiven to loose the royals. In an instant the gaskets were off and the buntdropped. "Sheet home the fore royal!- Weather sheet's home!"-"Hoist awaysir!" is bawled from aloft. "Overhaul yourclew-lines!" shouts the mate. "Ayeayesirall clear!"-"Taught leech! belay! Well the lee brace; haul taught to windward"-and the royals are set. These brought us up again; but the wind continuinglightthe California set hersand it was soon evident that she was walkingaway from us. Our captain then hailedand said that he should6 keep off to hiscourse; adding- "She isn't the Alert now. If I had her in your trimshewould have been out of sight by this time." This was good-naturedlyanswered from the Californiaand she braced sharp upand stood close upon thewind up the coast; while we squared away our yardsand stood before the wind tothe south-southwest. The California's crew manned her weather riggingwavedtheir hats in the airand gave up three hearty cheerswhich we answered asheartilyand the customary single cheer came back to us from over the water.She stood on her waydoomed to eighteen months' or two years' hard service uponthat hated coastwhile we were making our way to our hometo which every hourand every mile was bringing us nearer.

As soon as we parted company with the Californiaall hands were sent aloftto set the studding-sails. Booms were rigged outtacks and halyards rovesailafter sail packed upon heruntil every available inch of canvas was spreadthat we might not lose a breath of the fair wind. We could now see how much shewas cramped and deadened by her cargo; for with a good breeze on her quarterand every stitch of canvas spreadwe could not get more than six knots out ofher. She had no more life in her than if she were water-logged. The log was hoveseveral times; but she was doing her best. We had hardly patience with herbutthe older sailors said- "Stand by! you'll see her work herself loose in aweek or twoand then she'll walk up to Cape Horn like a race-horse."

When all sail had been setand the decks cleared upthe California was aspeck in the horizonand the coast lay like a low cloud along the north-east.At sunset they were both out of sightand we were once more upon the oceanwhere sky and water meet.


At eight o'clock all hands were called aftand the watches set for thevoyage. Some changes were made; but I was glad to find myself still in thelarboard watch. Our crew was somewhat diminished; for a man and a boy had gonein the Pilgrim; another was second mate of the Ayacucho; and a thirdthe oldestman of the crewhad broken down under the hard work and constant exposure onthe coastandhaving had a stroke of the palsywas left behind at thehide-house under the charge of Captain Arthur. The poor fellow wished very muchto come home in the ship; and he ought to have been brought home in her. But alive dog is better than a dead lionand a sick sailor belongs to nobody's mess;so he was sent ashore with the rest of the lumberwhich was only in the way. Bythese diminutionswe were shorthanded for a voyage round Cape Horn in the deadof winter. Besides S--- and myselfthere were only five in the forecastle; whotogether with four boys in the steeragethe sailmakercarpenteretc.composed the whole crew. In addition to thiswe were only three or four daysoutwhen the sailmakerwho was the oldest and best seaman on boardwas takenwith the palsyand was useless for the rest of the voyage. The constant wadingin the waterin all weathersto take off hidestogether with the otherlaborsis too much for old menand for any who have not good constitutions.Beside these two men of oursthe second officer of the California and thecarpenter of the Pilgrim broke down under the workand the latter died at SantaBarbara. The young mantoowho came out with us from Boston in the Pilgrimhad to be taken from his berth before the mast and made clerkon account of afit of rheumatism which attacked him soon after he came upon the coast. By theloss of the sailmakerour watch was reduced to fiveof whom two were boyswhonever steered but in fine weatherso that the other two and myself had to standat the wheel four hours apiece out of every twenty-four; and the other watch hadonly four helmsmen. "Never mind- we're homeward bound!" was the answerto everything; and we should not have minded thiswere it not for the thoughtthat we should be off Cape Horn in the very dead of winter. It was now the firstpart of May; and two months would bring us off the cape in Julywhich is theworst month in the year there; when the sun rises at nine and sets at threegiving eighteen hours nightand there is snow and raingales and high seasinabundance.

The prospect of meeting this in a ship half mannedand loaded so deep thatevery heavy sea must wash her fore and aftwas by no means pleasant. The Alertin her passage outdoubled the Cape in the month of Februarywhich ismidsummer; and we came round in the Pilgrim in the latter part of Octoberwhichwe thought was bad enough. There was only one of our crew who had been off therein the winterand that was in a whaleshipmuch lighter and higher than ourship; yet he said they had man-killing weather for twenty days withoutintermissionand their decks were swept twiceand they were all glad enough tosee the last of it. The Brandywine frigatealsoin her passage roundhadsixty days off the Capeand lost several boats by the heavy sea. All this wasfor our comfort; yet pass it we must; and all hands agreed to make the best ofit.

During our watches below we overhauled our clothesand made and mendedeverything for bad weather. Each of us had made for himself a suit of oil-clothor tarpaulinand these we got outand gave thorough coatings of oil or tarand hung upon the stays to dry. Our stout bootstoowe covered over with athick mixture of melted grease and tarand hung out to dry. Thus we tookadvantage of the warm sun and fine weather of the Pacific to prepare for itsother face. In the forenoon watches belowour forecastle looked like theworkshop of what a sailor is- a Jack at all trades. Thick stockings and drawerswere darned and patched; mittens dragged from the bottom of the chest andmended; comforters made for the neck and ears; old flannel shirts cut up to linemonkey jackets; southwesters lined with flanneland a pot of paint smuggledforward to give them a coat on the outside; and everything turned to hand; sothatalthough two years had left us but a scanty wardrobeyet the economy andinvention which necessity teaches a sailorsoon put each of us in pretty goodtrim for bad weathereven before we had seen the last of the fine. Even thecobbler's art was not out of place. Several old shoes were very decentlyrepairedand with waxed endsan awland the top of an old bootI made mequite a respectable sheath for my knife.

There was one difficultyhoweverwhich nothing that we could do wouldremedy; and that was the leaking of the forecastlewhich made it veryuncomfortable in bad weatherrendered half of the berths tenantless. Thetightest shipsin long voyagefrom the constant strain which is upon thebowspritwill leakmore or lessround the heel of the bowspritand thebittswhich come down into the forecastle; butin addition to thiswe thiswe had an unaccountable leak on the starboard bownear the cat-headwhichdrove us from the forward berths on that sideandindeedwhen she was on thestarboard tackfrom all the forward berths. One of the after berthstooleaked in very bad weather; so that in a ship which was in other respects astight as a bottleand brought her cargo to Boston perfectly drywe hadafterevery effort made to prevent itin the way of caulking and leadingaforecastle with only three dry berths for seven of us. Howeveras there isnever but one watch below at a timeby 'turning in and out' we did prettywell. And there beingin our watchbut three of us who lived forwardwegenerally had a dry berth apiece in bad weather. *006

All thishoweverwas but anticipation. We were still in fine weather in theNorth Pacificrunning down the north-east tradeswhich we took on the secondday after leaving San Diego. -

SundayMay 15thone week outwe were in latitude 14 deg. 56' N.long. 116deg. 14' W.having goneby reckoningover thirteen hundred miles in sevendays. In factever since leaving San Diegowe had had a fair windand as muchas we wanted of it. For seven daysour lower and topmast studding-sails wereset all the timeand our royals and top-gallant studding-sailswhenever shecould stagger under them. Indeedthe captain had shownfrom the moment we gotto seathat he was to have no boy's playbut that the ship had got to carryall she couldand that he was going to make upby "cracking on" toherwhat she wanted in lightness. In this waywe frequently made three degreesof latitudebesides something in longitudein the course of twenty-fourhours.- Our days were spent in the usual ship's work. The rigging which hadbecome slack from being long in port was to be set up; breast backstays got up;studding-sail booms rigged upon the main yard; and the royal studding-sails gotready for the light trades; ring-tail set; and new rigging fitted and sails gotready for Cape Horn. Forwith a ship's gearas well as a sailor's wardrobefine weather must be improved to get ready for the bad to come. Our forenoonwatch belowas I have saidwas given to our own workand our night watcheswere spent in the usual manner:- a trick at the wheela look-out on theforecastlea nap on a coil of rigging under the lee of the rail; a yarn roundthe windlass-end; oras was generally my waya solitary walk fore and aftinthe weather waistbetween the windlass-end and the main tack. Every wave thatshe threw aside brought us nearer homeand every day's observation at noonshowed a progress whichif it continuedwould in less than five monthstakeus into Boston Bay. This is the pleasure of life at sea- fine weatherdayafter daywithout interruption- fair windand a plenty of it- and homewardbound. Every one was in good humor; things went right; and all was done with awill. At the dog watchall hands came on deckand stood round the weather sideof the forecastleor sat upon the windlassand sung sea songsand thoseballads of pirates and highwaymenwhich sailors delight in. Hometooand whatwe should do when we got thereand when and how we should arrivewas noinfrequent topic. Every nightafter the kids and pots were put awayand we hadlighted our pipes and cigars at the galleyand gathered about the windlassthefirst question was-

"WellTomwhat was the latitude to-day?"

"Why fourteennorthand she has been going seven knots eversince."

"Wellthis will bring us up to the fine in five days."

"Yesbut these trades won't last twenty-four hours longer" saysan old saltpointing with the sharp of his hand to leeward- "I know thatby the look of the clouds."

Then came all manner of calculations and conjectures as to the continuance ofthe windthe weather under the linethe south-east tradesetc.and roughguesses as to the time the ship would be up with the Horn; and somemoreventurousgave her so many days to Boston lightand offered to bet that shewould not exceed it.

"You'd better wait till you get round Cape Horn" says an oldcroaker.

"Yes" says another"you may see Bostonbut you've got to'smell hell' before that good day."

Rumors also of what had been said in the cabinas usualfound their wayforward. The steward had heard the captain say something about the straits ofMagellanand the man at the wheel fancied he had heard him tell the"passenger" thatif he found the wind ahead and the weather very badoff the Capehe should stick her off for New Hollandand come home round theCape of Good Hope.

This passenger- the first and only one we had hadexcept to go from port toporton the coastwas no one else than a gentleman whom I had known in mybetter days; and the last person I should have expected to have seen on thecoast of California- Professor N---of Cambridge. I had left him quietly seatedin the chair of Botany and Ornithologyin Harvard University; and the next Isaw of himwas strolling about San Diego beachin a sailor's pea-jacketwitha wide straw hatand barefootedwith his trowsers rolled up to his kneespicking up stones and shells. He had travelled overland to the North-west Coastand come down in a small vessel to Monterey. There he learned that there was aship at the leewardabout to sail for Boston; andtaking passage in thePilgrimwhich was then at Montereyhe came slowly downvisiting theintermediate portsand examining the treesplantsearthsbirdsetc.andjoined us at San Diego shortly before we sailed. The second mate of the Pilgrimtold me that they had an old gentleman on board who knew meand came from thecollege that I had been in. He could not recollect his namebut said he was a"sort of an oldish man" with white hairand spent all his time inthe bushand along the beachpicking up flowers and shellsand such truckand had a dozen boxes and barrelsfull of them. I thought over everybody whowould be likely to be therebut could fix upon no one; whenthe next dayjustas we were about to shove off from the beachhe came down to the boatin therig I have describedwith his shoes in his handand his pockets full ofspecimens. I knew him at oncethough I should not have been more surprised tohave seen the Old South steeple shoot up from the hide-house. He probably had noless difficulty in recognizing me. As we left home about the same timewe hadnothing to tell one another; andowing to our different situations on boardIsaw but little of him on the passage home. Sometimeswhen I was at the wheel ofa calm nightand the steering required no attentionand the officer of thewatch was forwardhe would come aft and hold a short yarn with me; but this wasagainst the rules of the shipas isin factall intercourse betweenpassengers and the crew. I was often amused to see the sailors puzzled to knowwhat to make of himand to hear their conjectures about him and his business.They were as much puzzled as our old sailmaker was with the captain'sinstruments in the cabin. He said there were three:- the chro-nometerthechre-nometerand the the-nometer. (Chronometerbarometerand thermometer.)The Pilgrim's crew christened Mr. N. "Old Curious" from his zeal forcuriositiesand some of them said that he was crazyand that his friends lethim go about and amuse himself in this way. Why else a rich man (sailors callevery man rich who does not work with his handsand wears a long coat andcravat) should leave a Christian countryand come to such a place asCaliforniato pick up shells and stonesthey could not understand. One ofthemhoweveran old saltwho had seen something more of the world ashoresetall to rightsas he thought- "Oh'vast there!- You don't know anythingabout them craft. I've seen them collegesand know the ropes. They keep allsuch things for curiositiesand study 'emand have men a' purpose to go andget 'em. This old chap knows what he's about. He a'n't the child you take himfor. He'll carry all these things to the collegeand if they are better thanany that they have had beforehe'll be head of the college. Thenby-and-bysomebody else will go after some moreand if they beat himhe'll have to goagainor else give up his berth. That's the way they do it. This old coveyknows the ropes. He has worked a traverse over 'emand come 'way out herewhere nobody's ever been aforeand where they'll never think of coming."This explanation satisfied Jack; and as it raised Mr. N.'s credit for capacityand was near enough to the truth for common purposesI did not disturb it.

With the exception of Mr. N.we had no one on board but the regular ship'scompanyand the live stock. Upon thiswe had made a considerable inroad. Wekilled one of the bullocks every four daysso that they did not last us up tothe line. Weorrathertheythen began upon the sheep and the poultryforthese never come into Jack's mess. *007 The pigs were left for the latter partof the voyagefor they are sailorsand can stand all weathers. We had an oldsow on boardthe mother of a numerous progenywho had been twice round theCape of Good Hopeand once round Cape Horn. The last time going roundwas verynearly her death. We heard her squealing and moaning one dark nightafter ithad been snowing and hailing for several hoursand getting into the stywefound her nearly frozen to death. We got some strawan old sailand otherthingsand wrapped her up in a corner of the stywhere she staid until we gotinto fine weather again.

There is a singular piece of rhymetraditional among sailorswhich they sayover such pieces of beef. I do not know that it ever appeared in print before.When seated round the kidif a particularly bad piece is foundone of themtakes it upand addressing itrepeats these lines:

"Old horser old horse! what brought you here?"

-"From Sacarap to Portland pier

I've carted stone this many a year:

Tillkilled by blows and sore abuse

They salted down for sailors' use.

The sailors they do me despise:

They turn me over and damn my eyes;

Cut off my meatand pick my bones

And pitch the rest to Davy Jones."

There is a story current among seamenthat a beef-dealer was convictedatBostonof having sold old horse for ship's storesinstead of beefand hadbeen sentenced to be confined in jailuntil he should eat the whole of it; andthat he is now lying in Boston jail. I have heard this story oftenon boardother vessels beside those of our own nation. It is very generally believedandis always highly commendedas a fair instance of retaliatory justice. -

WednesdayMay 18th. Lat. 9 deg. 54' N.long. 113 deg. 17' W.Thenorth-east trades had now left usand we had the usual variable windswhichprevail near the linetogether with some rain. So long as we were in theselatitudeswe had but little rest in our watch on deck at nightforas thewinds were light and variableand we could not lose a breathwe were all thewatch bracing the yardsand taking in and making sailand"humbugging" with our flying kites. A little puff of wind on thelarboard quarterand then - "larboard fore braces!" andstudding-booms were rigged outstudding-sails set alow and aloftthe yardstrimmedand jibs and spanker in; when it would come as calm as a duck-pondandthe man at the wheel stand with the palm of his hand upfeeling for the wind."Keep her off a little!" "All aback forwardsir!" cries aman from the forecastle. Down go the braces again; in come the studding-sailsall in a messwhich half an hour won't set right; yards braced sharp up; andshe's on the starboard tackclose hauled. The studding-sails must now becleared awayand set up in the topsand on the booms. By the time this isdoneand you are looking out for a soft plank for a nap- "Lay aft hereand square in the head yards!" and the studding-sails are all set again onthe starboard side. So it goes until it is eight bells- call the watch- heavethe log- relieve the wheeland go below the larboard watch. -

SundayMay 22d. Lat. 5 deg. 14' N.long. 166 deg. 45' W. We were now afortnight outand within five degrees of the lineto which two days of goodbreeze would take us; but we hadfor the most partwhat sailors call "anIrishman's hurricane- right up and down." This day it rained nearly alldayand being Sundayand nothing to dowe stopped up the scuppers and filledthe decks with rain waterand bringing all our clothes on deckhad a grandwashfore and aft. When this was throughwe stripped to our drawersandtaking pieces of soap and strips of canvas for towelswe turned-to and soapedwashedand scrubbed one another downto get offas we saidthe Californiadust; for the common wash in salt waterwhich is all Jack can getbeing on anallowance of freshhad little efficacyand was more for taste than utility.The captain was below all the afternoonand we had something nearer to aSaturnalia than anything we had yet seen; for the mate came into the scupperswith a couple of boys to scrub himand got into a battle with them in heavingwater. By unplugging the holeswe let the soapsuds off the decksand in ashort time had a new supply of rain waterin which we had a grand rinsing. Itwas surprising to see how much soap and fresh water did for the complexions ofmany of us; how much of what we supposed to be tan and sea-blackingwe got ridof. The next daythe sun rising clearthe ship was coveredfore and aftwithclothes of all sortshanging out to dry.

As we approached the linethe wind became more easterlyand the weatherclearerand in twenty days from San Diego- -

SaturdayMay 28that about three P. M.with a fine breeze from theeast-southeastwe crossed the equator. In twenty-four hoursafter crossing thelinewhich was very unusualwe took the regular south-east trades. These windscome a little from the eastward of south-eastandwith usthey blew directlyfrom the east-southeastwhich was fortunate for usfor our course wassouth-by-westand we could thus go one point free. The yards were braced sothat every sail drewfrom the spanker to the flying-jib; and the upper yardsbeing squared in a littlethe fore and main top-gallant studding-sails weresetand just drew handsomely. For twelve days this breeze blew steadilynotvarying a pointand just so fresh that we could carry our royals; andduringthe whole timewe hardly started a brace. Such progress did we makethat atthe end of seven days from the time we took the breezeon-- -

SundayJune 5thwe were in lat. 19 deg. 29' S.and long. 118 deg. 01' W.having made twelve hundred miles in seven daysvery nearly upon a taughtbowline. Our good ship was getting to be herself againhad increased her rateof sailing more than one-third since leaving San Diego. The crew ceasedcomplaining of herand the officers hove the log every two hours with evidentsatisfaction. This was glorious sailing. A steady breeze; the light trade-windclouds over our heads; the incomparable temperature of the Pacific- neither hotnor cold; a clear sun every dayand clear moon and stars each night; and newconstellations rising in the southand the familiar ones sinking in the northas we went on our course- "stemming nightly toward the pole." Alreadywe had sunk the north star and the Great Bear in the northern horizonand allhands looked out sharp to the southward for the Magellan Cloudswhicheachsucceeding nightwe expected to make. "The next time we see the northstar" said one"we shall be standing to the northwardthe otherside of the Horn." This was true enoughand no doubt it would be a welcomesight; for sailors say that in coming home from round Cape Hornand the Cape ofGood Hopethe north star is the first land you make.

These trades were the same thatin the passage out in the Pilgrimlastednearly all the way from Juan Fernandez to the line; blowing steadily on ourstarboard quarter for three weekswithout our starting a braceor evenbrailing down the skysails. Though we had now the same windand were in thesame latitude with the Pilgrim on her passage outyet we were nearly twelvehundred miles to the westward of her course; for the captaindepending upon thestrong south-west winds which prevail in high southern latitudes during thewinter monthstook the full advantage of the tradesand stood well to thewestwardso far that we passed within about two hundred miles of Ducie'sIsland.

It was this weather and sailing that brought to my mind a little incidentthat occurred on board the Pilgrimwhile we were in the same latitude. We weregoing along at a great ratedead before the windwith studding-sails out onboth sidesalow and alofton a dark nightjust after midnightand everythingwas as still as the graveexcept the washing of the water by the vessel's side;forbeing before the windwith a smooth seathe little brigcovered withcanvaswas doing great businesswith very little noise. The other watch wasbelowand all our watchexcept myself and the man at the wheelwere asleepunder the lee of the boat. The second matewho came out before the mastandwas always very thick with mehad been holding a yarn with meand just goneaft to his place on the quarter-deckand I had resumed my usual walk to andfrom the windlass-endwhensuddenlywe heard a loud scream coming from aheadapparently directly from under the bows. The darknessand complete stillness ofthe nightand the solitude of the oceangave to the sound a dreadful andalmost supernatural effect. I stood perfectly stilland my heart beat quick.The sound woke up the rest of the watchwho stood looking at one another."Whatin the name of Godis that?" said the second matecomingslowly forward. The first thought I had wasthat it might be a boatwith thecrew of some wrecked vesselor perhaps the boat of some whaleshipout overnightand we had run them down in the darkness. Another screambut less loudthan the first. This started usand we ran forwardand looked over the bowsand over the sidesto leewardbut nothing was to be seen or heard. What was tobe done. Call the captainand heave the ship aback? Just at this momentincrossing the forecastleone of the men saw a light belowand looking down thescuttlesaw the watch all out of their berthsand afoul of one poor fellowdragging him out of his berthand shaking himto wake him out of a nightmare.They had been waked out of their sleepand as much alarmed at the scream as wewereand were hesitating whether to come on deckwhen the second soundcomingdirectly from one of the berthsrevealed the cause of the alarm. The fellow gota good shaking for the trouble he had given. We made a joke of the matter and wecould well laughfor our minds were not a little relieved by its ridiculoustermination. -

We were now close upon the southern tropical lineandwith so fine abreezewere daily leaving the sun behind usand drawing nearer to Cape Hornfor which it behoved us to make every preparation. Our rigging was all examinedand overhauledand mendedor replaced with newwhere it was necessary: newand strong bobstays fitted in the place of the chain oneswhich were worn out;the spritsail yard and martingale guys and back-ropes set well taught; bran newfore and main braces rove; top-gallant sheetsand wheel-ropesmade of greenhidelaid up in the form of ropewere stretched and fitted; and new top-sailclewlinesetc.rove; new fore-topmast back-stays fitted; and otherpreparations madein good seasonthat the ropes might have time to stretch andbecome limber before we got into cold weather. -

SundayJune 12th. Lat. 26 deg. 04' S.116 deg. 31' W. We had now lost theregular tradesand had the winds variableprincipally from the westwardandkept onin a southerly coursesailing very nearly upon a meridianand at theend of the week-

SundayJune 19thwere in lat. 34 deg. 15' S.and long. 116 deg. 38' W.


There now began to be a decided change in the appearance of things. The daysbecame shorter and shorter; the sun running lower in its course each dayandgiving less and less heat; and the nights so cold as to prevent our sleeping ondeck; the Magellan Clouds in sightof a clear night; the skies looking cold andangry; andat timesa longheavyugly seasetting in from the southwardtold us what we were coming to. Stillhoweverwe had a finestrong breezeand kept on our wayunder as much sail as our ship would bear. Toward themiddle of the weekthe wind hauled to the southwardwhich brought us upon ataught bowlinemade the ship meetnearly head onthe heavy swell which rolledfrom that direction; and there was something not at all encouraging in themanner in which she met it. Being so deep and heavyshe wanted the buoyancywhich should have carried her over the seasand she dropped heavily into themthe water washing over the decks; and every now and thenwhen an unusuallylarge sea met her fairly upon the bowsshe struck it with a sound as dead andheavy as that with which a sledge-hammer falls upon the pileand took the wholeof it in upon the forecastleand risingcarried it aft in the scupperswashing the rigging off the pinsand carrying along with it everything whichwas loose on deck. She had been acting in this way all of our forenoon watchbelow; as we could tell by the washing of the water over our headsand theheavy breaking of the seas against her bows(with a sound as though she werestriking against a rock) only the thickness of the plank from our headsas welay in our berthswhich are directly against the bows. At eight bellsthewatch was calledand we came on deckone hand going aft to take the wheelandanother and another going to the galley to get the grub for dinner. I stood onthe forecastlelooking at the seaswhich were rolling highas far as the eyecould reachtheir tops white with foamand the body of them of a deep indigobluereflecting the bright rays of the sun. Our ship rose slowly over a few ofthe largest of themuntil one immense fellow came rolling onthreatening tocover herand which I was sailor enough to knowby "the feeling ofher" under my feetshe would not rise over. I sprang upon theknight-headsand seizing hold of the fore-stay with my handsdrew myself uponit. My feet were just off the stanchionwhen she struck fairly into the middleof the seaand it washed her fore and aftburying her in the water. As soon asshe rose out of itI looked aftand everything forward of the main-mastexcept the long-boatwhich was griped and doublelashed down to the ring-boltswas swept off clear. The galleythe pig-stythe hen-coopand a largesheep-pen which had been built upon the forehatchwere all gonein thetwinkling of an eye- leaving the deck as clean as a chin new-reaped- and not astick leftto show where they had stood. In the scuppers lay the galleybottomupand a few boards floating aboutthe wreck of the sheep-pen- and half adozen miserable sheep floating among themwet throughand not a littlefrightened at the sudden change that had come upon them. As soon as the sea hadwashed byall hands sprung out of the forecastle to see what had become of theship and in a few moments the cook and old Bill crawled out from under thegalleywhere they had been lying in the waternearly smotheredwith thegalley over them. Fortunatelyit rested against the bulwarksor it would havebroken some of their bones. When the water ran offwe picked the sheep upandput them in the long-boatgot the long-boatgot the galley back in its placeand set things a little to rights; buthad not our ship had uncommonly highbulwarks and raileverything must have been washed overboardnot excepting OldBill and the cook. Bill had been standing at the galley-doorwith the kid ofbeef in his hand for the forecastle messwhenaway he wentkidbeefandall. He held on to the kid till the lastlike a good fellowbut the beef wasgoneand when the water had run offwe saw it lying high and drylike a rockat low tide- nothing could hurt that. We took the loss of our beef very easilyconsoling ourselves with the recollection that the cabin had more to lose thanwe; and chuckled not a little at seeing the remains of the chicken-pie andpan-cakes floating in the scuppers. "This will never do!" was whatsome saidand every one felt. Here we werenot yet within a thousand miles ofthe latitude of Cape Hornand our decks swept by a sea not one half so high aswe must expect to find there. Some blamed the captain for loading his ship sodeepwhen he knew what he must expect; while others said that the wind wasalways southwestoff the Capein the winter; and thatrunning before itweshould not mind the seas so much. When we got down into the forecastleOldBillwho was somewhat of a croaker- having met with a great many accidents atsea- said that if that was the way she was going to actwe might as well makeour willsand balance the books at onceand put on a clean shirt. "'Vastthereyou bloody old owl! You're always hanging out blue lights! You'refrightened by the ducking you got in the scuppersand can't take a joke! What'sthe use in being always on the look-out for Davy Jones?" "Standby!" says another"and we'll get an afternoon watch belowby thisscrape;" but in this they were disappointedfor at two bellsall handswere called and set to workgetting lashings upon everything on deck; and thecaptain talked of sending down the long top-gallant masts; butas the sea wentdown toward nightand the wind hauled abeam we left them standingand set thestudding-sails.

The next dayall hands were turned-to upon unbending the old sailsandgetting up the new ones; for a shipunlike people on shoreputs on her bestsuit in bad weather. The old sails were sent downand three new topsailsandnew fore and main coursesjiband fore-topmast staysailwhich were made onthe coastand never had been usedwere bentwith a complete set of newearingsrobands and reef-points; and reef-tackles were rove to the coursesandspilling-lines to the top-sails. Thesewith new braces and clew-linesfore andaftgave us a good suit of running rigging.

The wind continued westerlyand the weather and sea less rough since the dayon which we shipped the heavy seaand we were making great progress understudding-sailswith our light sails all setkeeping a little to the eastwardof south; for the captaindepending upon westerly winds off the Capehad keptso far to the westwardthat though we were within about five hundred miles ofthe latitude of Cape Hornwe were nearly seventeen hundred miles to thewestward of it. Through the rest of the weekwe continued on with a fair windgraduallyas we got more to the southwardkeeping a more easterly courseandbringing the wind on our larboard quarteruntil-- -

SundayJune 26thwhenhaving a fineclear daythe captain got a lunarobservationas well as his meridian altitudewhich made us in lat. 47 deg. 50'S.long. 113 deg. 49' W.; Cape Horn bearingaccording to my calculationE. S.E. 1/2 E.and distant eighteen hundred miles.

MondayJune 27th. During the first part of this daythe wind continuedfairandas we were going before itit did not feel very coldso that wekept at work on deckin our common clothes and round jackets. Our watch had anafternoon watch belowfor the first time since leaving San Diegoand havinginquired of the third mate what the latitude was at noonand made our usualguesses as to the time she would needto be up with the Hornwe turned infora nap. We were sleeping away "at the rates of knots" when threeknocks on the scuttleand "All hands ahoy!" started us from ourberths. What could be the matter? It did not appear to be blowing hardandlooking up through the scuttlewe could see that it was a clear dayoverhead;yet the watch were taking in sail. We thought there must be a sail in sightandthat we were about to heave-to and speak her; and were just congratulatingourselves upon it- for we had seen neither sail nor land since we had left port-when we heard the mate's voice on deck(he turned-in "all standing"and was always on deck the moment he was called) singing out to the men whowere taking in the studding-sailsand asking where his watch were. We did notwait for a second callbut tumbled up the ladder; and thereon the starboardbowwas a bank of mistcovering sea and skyand driving directly for us. Ihad seen the same beforein my passage round in the Pilgrimand knew what itmeantand that there was no time to be lost. We had nothing on but thinclothesyet there was not a moment to spareand at it we went.

The boys of the other watch were in the topstaking in the topgallantstudding-sailsand the lower and topmast studding-sails were and down by therun. It was nothing but "haul down and clew up" until we got all thestudding-sails inand the royalsflying-jiband mizen top-gallant sailfurledand the ship kept off a littleto take the squall. The fore and maintop-gallant sails were still on herfor the "old man" did not mean tobe frightened in broad daylightand was determined to carry sail till the lastminute. We all stood waiting for its comingwhen the first blast showed us thatit was not be trifled with. Rainsleetsnowand windenough to take ourbreath from usand make the toughest turn his back to windward! The ship laynearly over on her beam-ends; the spars and rigging snapped and cracked; and hertop-gallant masts bent like whip-sticks. "Clew up the fore and maintop-gallant sails!" shouted the captainand all hands sprang to theclewlines. The decks were standing nearly at an angle of forty-five degreesandthe ship going like a mad steed through the waterthe whole forward part of herin a smother of foam. The halyards were let go and the yard clewed downand thesheets startedand in a few minutes the sails smothered and kept in byclewlines and buntlines.- "Furl 'emsir?" asked the mate.- "Letgo the topsail halyardsfore and aft!" shouted the captainin answeratthe top of his voice. Down came the topsail yardsthe reef-tackles were mannedand hauled outand we climbed up to windwardand sprang into the weatherrigging. The violence of the windand the hail and sleetdriving nearlyhorizontally across the oceanseemed actually to pin us down to the rigging. Itwas hard work making head against them. One after anotherwe got out upon theyards. And here we had work to do; for our new sailswhich had hardly been bentlong enough to get the starch out of themwere as stiff as boardsand the newearings and reef-pointsstiffened with the sleetknotted like pieces of ironwire. Having only our round jackets and straw hats onwe were soon wet throughand it was every moment growing colder. Our hands were soon stiffened andnumbedwhichadded to the stiffness of everything elsekept us a good whileon the yard. After we had got the sail hauled upon the yardwe had to wait along time for the weather earing to be passed; but there was no fault to befoundfor French John was at the earingand a better sailor never laid out ona yard; so we leaned over the yardand beat our hands upon the sail to keepthem from freezing. At length the word came- "Haul out to leeward"-and we seized the reef-points and hauled the band taught for the lee earing."Taught band- Knot away" and we got the first reef fastand werejust going to lay downwhen- "Two reefs- two reefs!" shouted themateand we had a second reef to takein the same way. When this was fastwelaid down on deckmanned the halyards to leewardnearly up to our knees inwaterset the topsailand then laid aloft on the main topsail yardand reefedthat sail in the same manner; foras I have before statedwe were a good dealreduced in numbersandto make it worsethe carpenteronly two days beforecut his leg with an axeso that he could not go aloft. This weakened us so thatwe could not well manage more than one topsail at a timein such weather asthisandof courseour labor was doubled. From the main topsail yardwe wentupon the main yardand took a reef in the mainsail. No sooner had we got ondeckthan- "Lay aloft theremizen-top-menand close-reef the mizentopsail!" This called me; and being nearest to the riggingI got firstaloftand out to the weather earing. English Ben was on the yard just after meand took the lee earingand the rest of our gang were soon on the yardandbegan to fist the sailwhen the mate considerately sent up the cook andstewardto help us. I could now account for the long time it took to pass theother earingsforto do my bestwith a strong hand to help me at the dog'searI could not get it passed until I heard them beginning everything tocomplain in the bunt. One reef after another we took inuntil the sail wasclose-reefedwhen we went down and hoisted away at the halyards. In the meantimethe jib had been furled and the staysail setand the shipunder herreduced sailhad got more upright and was under management; but the twotop-gallant sails were still hanging in the buntlinesand slatting and jerkingas though they would take the masts out of her. We gave a look aloftand knewthat our work was not done yet; andsure enoughno sooner did the mate seethat we were on deckthan- "Lay aloft therefour of youand furl thetop-gallant sails!" This called me againand two of us went aloftup thefore riggingand two more up the mainupon the top-gallant yards. The shroudswere now iced overthe sleet having formed a crust or cake round all thestanding riggingand on the weather side of the masts and yards. When we gotupon the yardmy hands were so numb that I could not have cast off the knot ofthe gasket to have saved my life. We both lay over the yard for a few secondsbeating our hands upon the sailuntil we started the blood into our fingers'endsand at the next moment our hands were in a burning heat. My companion onthe yard was a ladwho came out in the ship a weakpuny boyfrom one of theBoston schools;- "no larger than a spritsail sheet knot" nor"heavier than a paper of lampblack" and "not strong enough tohaul a shad off a gridiron" but who was now "as long as a sparetopmaststrong enough to knock down an oxand hearty enough to eat him."We fisted the sail togetherand after six or eight minutes of hard hauling andpulling and beating down the sailwhich was as stiff as sheet ironwe managedto get it furied; and snugly furled it must befor we knew the mate well enoughto be certain that if it got adrift againwe should be called up from our watchbelowat any hour of the nightto furl it.

I had been on the look-out for a moment to jump below and clap on a thickjacket and south-wester; but when we got on deck we found that eight bells hadbeen struckand the other watch gone belowso that there were two hours of dogwatch for usand a plenty of work to do. It had now set in for a steady galefrom the south-west; but we were not yet far enough to the southward to make afair wind of itfor we must give Terra del Fuego a wide berth. The decks werecovered with snowand there was a constant driving of sleet. In factCape Hornhad set in with good earnest. In the midst of all thisand before it becamedarkwe had all the studding-sails to make up and stow awayand then to layaloft and rig in all the boomsfore and aftand coil away the tackssheetsand halyards. This was pretty tough work for four or five handsin the face ofa gale which almost took us off the yardsand with ropes so stiff with ice thatit was almost impossible to bend them. I was nearly half an hour out on the endof the fore yardtrying to coil away and stop down the topmast studding-sailtack and lower halyards. It was after dark when we got throughand we were nota little pleased to hear four bells struckwhich sent us below for two hoursand gave us each a pot of hot tea with our cold beef and breadandwhat wasbetter yeta suit of thickdry clothingfitted for the weatherin place ofour thin clotheswhich were wet through and now frozen stiff.

This sudden turnfor which we were so little preparedwas as unacceptableto me as to any of the rest; for I had been troubled for several days with aslight tooth-acheand this cold weatherand wetting and freezingwere not thebest things in the world for it. I soon found that it was getting strong holdand running over all parts of my face; and before the watch was out I went aftto the matewho had charge of the medicine-chestto get something for it. Butthe chest showed like the end of a long voyagefor there was nothing that wouldanswer but a few drops of laudanumwhich must be saved for any emergency; so Ihad only to bear the pain as well as I could.

When we went on deck at eight bellsit had stopped snowingand there were afew stars outbut the clouds were still blackand it was blowing a steadygale. Just before midnightI went aloft and sent down the mizen royal yardandhad the good luck to do it to the satisfaction of the matewho said it was done"out of hand and ship-shape." The next four hours below were butlittle relief to mefor I lay awake in my berththe whole timefrom the painin my faceand heard every bell strikeandat four o'clockturned out withthe watchfeeling little spirit for the hard duties of the day. Bad weather andhard work at sea can be borne up against very wellif one only has spirit andhealth; but there is nothing brings a man downat such a timelike bodily painand want of sleep. There washowevertoo much to do to allow time to think;for the gale of yesterdayand the heavy seas we met with a few days beforewhile we had yet ten degrees more southing to makehad convinced the captainthat we had something before us which was not to be trifled withand orderswere given to send down the long topgallant masts. The top-gallant and royalyards were accordingly struckthe flying jib-boom rigged inand thetop-gallant masts sent down on deckand all lashed together by the side of thelong-boat. The rigging was then sent down and coiled away belowand everythingwas made snug aloft. There was not a sailor in the ship who was not rejoiced tosee these sticks come down; forso long as the yards were alofton the leastsign of a lullthe top-gallant sails were loosedand then we had to furl themagain in a snow-squalland shin up and down single ropes caked with iceandsend royal yards down in the teeth of a gale coming right from the south pole.It was an interesting sighttooto see our noble shipdismantled of all hertop-hamper of long tapering masts and yardsand boom pointed with spear-headwhich ornamented her in port; and all that canvaswhich a few days before hadcovered her like a cloudfrom the truck to the water's edgespreading far outbeyond her hull on either sidenow gone; and shestrippedlike a wrestler forthe fight. It correspondedtoowith the desolate character of her situation;-aloneas she wasbattling with stormswindand iceat this extremity of theglobeand in almost constant night. -

FridayJuly 1st. We were now nearly up to the latitude of Cape Hornandhaving over forty degrees of easting to makewe squared away the yards before astrong westerly galeshook a reef out of the fore-topsailand stood on ourwayeast-by-southwith the prospect of being up with the Cape in a week or tendays. As for myselfI had had no sleep for forty-eight hours; and the want ofresttogether with constant wet and coldhad increased the swellingso thatmy face was nearly as large as twoand I found it impossible to get my mouthopen wide enough to eat. In this statethe steward applied to the captain forsome rice to boil for mebut he only got only got a- "No! d-- you! Tellhim to eat salt junk and hard breadlike the rest of them." For thisofcourseI was much obliged to himand in truth it was just what I expected.HoweverI did not starvefor the matewho was a man as well as a sailorandhad always been a good friend to mesmuggled a pan of rice into the galleyandtold the cook to boil it for meand not let the "old man" see it. Hadit been fine weatheror in portI should have gone below and lain by until myface got well; but in such weather as thisand short-handed as we wereit wasnot for me to desert my post; so I kept on deckand stood my watch and did myduty as well as I could. -

SaturdayJuly 2nd. This day the sun rose fairbut it ran too low in theheavens to give any heator thaw out our sails and rigging; yet the sight of itwas pleasant; and we had a steady "reef topsail breeze" from thewestward. The atmospherewhich had previously been clear and coldfor the lastfew hours grew dampand had a disagreeablewet chilliness in it; and the manwho came from the wheel said he heard the captain tell "the passenger"that the thermometer had fallen several degrees since morningwhich he couldnot account for in any other way than by supposing that there must be ice nearus; though such a thing had never been heard of in this latitudeat this seasonof the year. At twelve o'clock we went belowand had just got through dinnerwhen the cook put his head down the scuttle and told us to come on deck and seethe finest sight that we had ever seen. "Where awaycook?" asked thefirst man who was up. "On the larboard bow." And there layfloatingin the oceanseveral miles offan immenseirregular massits top and pointscovered with snowand its center of a deep indigo color. This was an icebergand of the largest sizeas one of our men said who had been in the Northernocean. As far as the eye could reachthe sea in every direction was of a deepblue colorthe waves running high and freshand sparkling in the lightand inthe midst lay this immense mountain-islandits cavities and valleys thrown intodeep shadeand its points and pinnacles glittering in the sun. All hands weresoon on decklooking at itand admiring in various ways its beauty andgrandeur. But no description can give any idea of the strangenesssplendorandreallythe sublimityof the sight. Its great size;- for it must have beenfrom two to three miles in circumferenceand several hundred feet in height;-its slow motionas ts base rose and sank in the waterand its high pointsnodded against the clouds; the dashing of the waves upon itwhichbreakinghigh with foamlined its base with a white crust; and the thundering sound ofthe cracking of the massand the breaking and tumbling down of huge pieces;together with its nearness and approachwhich added a slight element of fear-all combined to give to it the character of true sublimity. The main body of themass wasas I have saidof an indigo colorits base crusted with frozen foam;and as it grew thin and transparent toward the edges and topits color shadedoff from a deep blue to the whiteness of snow. It seemed to be drifting slowlytoward the northso that we kept away and avoided it. It was in sight all theafternoon; and when we got to leeward of itthe wind died awayso that welay-to quite near it for a greater part of the night. Unfortunatelythere wasno moonbut it was a clear nightand we could plainly mark the longregularheaving of the stupendous massas its edges moved slowly against the stars.Several times in our watch loud cracks were heardwhich sounded as though theymust have run through the whole length of the icebergand several pieces felldown with a thundering crashplunging heavily into the sea. Toward morningastrong breeze sprang upand we filled awayand left it asternand at daylightit was out of sight. The next daywhich was -

SundayJuly 3dthe breeze continued strongthe air exceedingly chillyandthe thermometer low. In the course of the day we saw several icebergsofdifferent sizesbut none so near as the one which we saw the day before. Someof themas well as we could judgeat the distance at which we weremust havebeen as large as thatif not larger. At noon we were in latitude 55 deg. 12'southand supposed longitude 89 deg. 5' west. Toward night the wind hauled tothe southwardand headed us off our course a littleand blew a tremendousgale; but this we did not mindas there was no rain nor snowand we werealready under close sail. -

MondayJuly 4th. This was "independence day" in Boston. Whatfiring of gunsand ringing of bellsand rejoicings of all sortsin every partof our country! The ladies (who have not gone down to Nahantfor a breath ofcool airand sight of the ocean) walking the streets with parasols over theirheadsand the dandies in their white pantaloons and silk stockings! Whatquantities of ice-cream have been eatenand what quantities of ice brought intothe city from a distanceand sold out by the lump and the pound! The smallestof the islands which we saw to-day would have made the fortune of poor Jackifhe had had it in Boston; and I dare say he would have had no objection to beingthere with it. Thisto be surewas no place to keep the fourth of July. Tokeep ourselves warmand the ship out of the icewas as much as we could do.Yet no one forgot the day; and many were the wishesand conjecturesandcomparisonsboth serious and ludicrouswhich were made among all hands. Thesun shone bright as long as it was uponly that a scud of black clouds was everand anon driving across it. At noon we were in lat. 54 deg. 27' S.and long. 85deg. 5' W.having made a good deal of eastingbut having lost in our latitudeby the heading of the wind. Between daylight and dark- that isbetween nineo'clock and three- we saw thirty-four ice islandsof various sizes; some nobigger than the hull of our vesseland others apparently nearly as large as theone that we first saw; thoughas we went onthe islands became smaller andmore numerous; andat sundown of this daya man at the mast-head saw largefields of floating ice called "field-ice" at the south-east. This kindof ice is much more dangerous than the large islandsfor those can be seen at adistanceand kept away from; but the field-icefloating in great quantitiesand covering the ocean for miles and milesin pieces of every size-largeflatand broken cakeswith here and there an island rising twenty and thirty feetand as large as the ship's hull;- thisit is very difficult to sheer clear of.A constant look-out was necessary; for any of these piecescoming with theheave of the seawere large enough to have knocked a hole in the shipand thatwould have been the end of us; for no boat (even if we could have got one out)could have lived in such a sea; and no man could have lived in a boat in suchweather. To make our condition still worsethe wind came out due eastjustafter sundownand it blew a gale dead aheadwith hail and sleetand a thickfogso that we could not see half the length of the ship. Our chief reliancethe prevailing westerly galeswas thus cut off; and here we werenearly sevenhundred miles to the westward of the Capewith a gale dead from the eastwardand the weather so thick that we could not see the ice with which we weresurroundeduntil it was directly under our bows. At fourP. M. (it was thenquite dark) all hands were calledand sent aloft in a violent squall of halland rainto take in sail. We had now all got on our "Cape Horn rig"-thick bootssouth-westers coming down over our neck and earsthick trowsersand jacketsand some with oil-cloth suits over all. Mittenstoowe wore ondeckbut it would not do to go aloft with them onfor it was impossible towork with themandbeing wet and stiffthey might let a man slip overboardfor all the hold be could get upon a rope; sowe were obliged to work with barehandswhichas well as our faceswere often cut with the hail-stoneswhichfell thick and large. Our ship was now all cased with ice- hullsparsandstanding rigging;- and the running rigging so stiff that we could hardly bend itso as to delay itorstill worsetake a knot with it; and the sails nearly asstiff as sheet iron. One at a time(for it was a long piece of work andrequired many hands) we furled the coursesmizen topsailand fore-topmaststaysailand close-reefed the fore and main topsailsand hove the ship tounder the forewith the main hauled up by the clewlines and buntlinesandready to be sheeted homeif we found it necessary to make sail to get towindward of an ice island. A regular look-out was then setand kept by eachwatch in turnuntil the morning. It was a tedious and anxious night. It blewhard the whole timeand there was an almost constant driving of either rainhallor snow. In addition to thisit was "as thick as muck" and theice was all about us. The captain was on deck nearly the whole nightand keptthe cook in the galleywith a roaring fireto make coffee for himwhich hetook every few hoursand once or twice gave a little to his officers; but not adrop of anything was there for the crew. The captainwho sleeps all thedaytimeand comes and goes at night as he choosescan have his brandy andwater in the cabinand his hot coffee at the galley; while Jackwho has tostand through everythingand work in wet and coldcan have nothing to wet hislips or warm his stomach. This was a "temperance ship" andlike toomany such shipsthe temperance was all in the forecastle. The sailorwho onlytakes his one glass as it is dealt out to himis in danger of being drunk;while the captainwho has all under his handand can drink as much as hechoosesand upon whose self-possession and cool judgment the lives of alldependmay be trusted with any amountto drink at his will. Sailors will neverbe convinced that rum is a dangerous thingby taking it away from themandgiving it to the officers; nor thatthat temperance is their friendwhichtakes from them what they have always hadand gives them nothing in the placeof it. By seeing it allowed to their officersthey will not be convinced thatit is taken from them for their good; and by receiving nothing in its placethey will not believe that it is done in kindness. On the contrarymany of themlook upon the change as a new instrument of tyranny. Not that they prefer rum. Inever knew a sailorin my lifewho would not prefer a pot of hot coffee orchocolatein a cold nightto all the rum afloat. They all say that rum onlywarms them for a time; yetif they can get nothing betterthey will miss whatthey have lost. The momentary warmth and glow from drinking it; the break andchange which is made in a longdreary watch by the mere calfing all hands aftand serving of it out; and the simply having some event to look forward toandto talk about; give it an importance and a use which no one can appreciate whohas not stood his watch before the mast. On my passage round Cape Horn beforethe vessel that I was in was not under temperance articlesand grog was servedout every middle and morning watchand after every reefing of topsails; andthough I had never drank rum beforeand never intend to againI took myallowance then at the capstanas the rest didmerely for the momentary warmthit gave the systemand the change in our feelings and aspect of our duties onthe watch. At the same timeas I have statedthere was not a man on board whowould not have pitched the rum to the dogs(I have heard them say soa dozentimes) for a pot of coffee or chocolate; or even for our common beverage-"water bewitchedand tea begrudged" as it was. *008 The temperancereform is the best thing that ever was undertaken for the sailor; but when thegrog is taken from himhe ought to have something in its place. As it is nowin most vesselsit is a mere saving to the owners; and this accounts for thesudden increase of temperance shipswhich surprised even the best friends ofthe cause. If every merchantwhen he struck grog from the list of the expensesof his shiphad been obliged to substitute as much coffeeor chocolateaswould give each man a pot-full when he came off the topsail yardon a stormynight;- I fear Jack might have gone to ruin on the old road. *009

But this is not doubling Cape Horn. Eight hours of the nightour watch wason deckand during the whole of that time we kept a bright look-out: one man oneach bowanother in the bunt of the fore yardthe third mate on the scuttleone on each quarterand a man always standing by the wheel. The chief mate waseverywhereand commanded the ship when the captain was below. When a largepiece of ice was seen in our wayor drifting near usthe word was passedalongand the ship's head turned one way and another; and sometimes the yardssquared or braced up. There was little else to do than to look out; and we hadthe sharpest eyes in the ship on the forecastle. The only variety was themonotonous voice of the look-out forward- "Another island!"- "Iceahead!" "Ice on the lee bow!"- "Hard up the helm!"-"Keep her off a little!"- "Stead-y!" -

In the meantimethe wet and cold had brought my face into such a state thatI could neither eat nor sleep; and though I stood it out all nightyetwhen itbecame lightI was in such a statethat all hands told me I must go belowandlie-by for a day or twoor I should be laid up for a long timeand perhapshave the lock-jaw. When the watch was changed I went into the steerageand tookoff my hat and comforterand showed my face to the matewho told me to gobelow at onceand stay in my berth until the swelling went downand gave thecook orders to make a poultice for meand said he would speak to the captain.

I went below and turned-incovering myself over with blankets and jacketsand lay in my berth nearly twenty-four hourshalf asleep and half awakestupidfrom the dull pain. I heard the watch calledand the men going up anddownand sometimes a noise on deckand a cry of "ice" but I gavelittle attention to anything. At the end of twenty-four hours the pain wentdownand I had a long sleepwhich brought me back to my proper state; yet myface was so swollen and tenderthat I was obliged to keep to my berth for twoor three days longer. During the two days I had been belowthe weather was muchthe same that it had beenhead windsand snow and rain; orif the wind camefairtoo foggyand the ice too thickto run. At the end of the third day theice was very thick; a complete fog-bank covered the ship. It blew a tremendousgale from the eastwardwith sleet and snowand there was every promise of adangerous and fatiguing night. At darkthe captain called all hands aftandtold them that not a man was to leave the deck that night; that the ship was inthe greatest danger; any cake of ice might knock a hole in heror she might runon an island and go to pieces. No one could tell whether she would be a ship thenext morning. The look-outs were then setand every man was put in his station.When I heard what was the state of thingsI began to put on my clothes to standit out with the rest of themwhen the mate came belowand looking at my faceordered me back to my berthsaying that if we went downwe should all go downtogetherbut if I went on deck I might lay myself up for life. This was thefirst word I had heard from aft; for the captain had done nothingnor inquiredhow I wassince I went below.

In obedience to the mate's ordersI went back to my berth; but a moremiserable night I never wish to spend. I never felt the curse of sickness sokeenly in my life. If I could only have been on deck with the restwheresomething was to be doneand seenand heard; where there were fellow-beingsfor companions in duty and danger- but to be cooped up alone in a black holeinequal dangerbut without the power to dowas the hardest trial. Several timesin the course of the nightI got updetermined to go on deck; but the silencewhich showed that there was nothing doingand the knowledge that I might makemyself seriously illfor nothingkept me back. It was not easy to sleeplyingas I didwith my head directly against the bowswhich might be dashedin by an island of icebrought down by the very next sea that struck her. Thiswas the only time I had been ill since I left Bostonand it was the worst timeit could have happened. I felt almost willing to bear the plagues of Egypt forthe rest of the voyageif I could but be well and strong for that one night.Yet it was a dreadful night for those on deck. A watch of eighteen hourswithwetand coldand constant anxietynearly wore them out; and when they camebelow at nine o'clock for breakfastthey almost dropped asleep on their chestsand some of them were so stiff that they could with difficulty sit down. Not adrop of anything had been given them during the whole time(though the captainas on the night that I was on deckhad his coffee every four hours) exceptthat the mate stole a potful of coffee for two men to drink behind the galleywhile he kept a look-out for the captain. Every man had his stationand was notallowed to leave it; and nothing happened to break the monotony of the nightexcept once setting the main topsails to run clear of a large island to leewardwhich they were drifting fast upon. Some of the boys got so sleepy andstupefiedthat they actually fell asleep at their posts; and the young thirdmatewhose station was the exposed one of standing on the fore scuttlewas sostiffwhen he was relievedthat he could not bend his knees to get down. By aconstant look-outand a quick shifting of the helmas the islands and piecescame in sightthe ship went clear of everything but a few small piecesthoughdaylight showed the ocean covered for miles. At daybreak it fell a dead calmand with the sunthe fog cleared a littleand a breeze sprung up from thewestwardwhich soon grew into a gale. We had now a fair winddaylightandcomparatively clear weather; yetto the surprise of every onethe shipcontinued hove-to. Why does not he run? What is the captain about? was asked byevery one; and from questionsit soon grew into complaints and murmurings. Whenthe daylight was so shortit was too bad to lose itand a fair windtoowhich every one had been praying for. As hour followed hourand the captainshowed no sign of making sailthe crew became impatientand there was a gooddeal of talking and consultation togetheron the forecastle. They had beenbeaten out with the

exposure and hardshipand impatient to get out of itand this unaccountabledelay was more than they could bear in quietnessin their excited and restlessstate. Some said that the captain was frightened- completely cowedby thedangers and difficulties that surrounded usand was afraid to make sail; whileothers said that in his anxiety and suspense he had made a free use of brandyand opiumand was unfit for his duty. The carpenterwho was an intelligentmanand a thorough seamanand had great influence with the crewcame downinto the forecastleand tried to induce the crew to go aft and ask the captainwhy he did not runor request himin the name of all handsto make sail. Thisappeared to be a very reasonable requestand the crew agreed that if he did notmake sail before noonthey would go aft. Noon cameand no sail was made. Aconsultation was held againand it was proposed to take the ship from thecaptain and give the command of her to the matewho had been heard to say thatif he could have his waythe ship would have been half the distance to the Capebefore nights- ice or no ice. And so irritated and impatient had the crewbecomethat even this propositionwhich was open mutinypunishable with stateprisonwas entertainedand the carpenter went to his berthleaving it tacitlyunderstood that something serious would be doneif things remained as they weremany hours longer. When the carpenter leftwe talked it all overand I gave myadvice strongly against it. Another of the mentoowho had known something ofthe kind attempted in another ship by a crew who were dissatisfied with theircaptainand which was followed with serious consequenceswas opposed to it.S---who soon came downjoined usand we determined to have nothing to dowith it. By these meansthey were soon induced to give it upfor the presentthough they said they would not lie where they were much longer without knowingthe reason.

The affair remained in this state until four o'clockwhen an order cameforward for all hands to come aft upon the quarter-deck. In about ten minutesthey came forward againand the whole affair had been blown. The carpentervery prematurelyand without any authority from the crewhad sounded the mateas to whether he would take command of the shipand intimated an intention todisplace the captain; and the mateas in duty boundhad told the whole to thecaptainwho immediately sent for all hands aft. Instead of violent measuresorat leastan outbreak of quarter-deck bravadothreatsand abusewhichthey had every reason to expecta sense of common danger and common sufferingseemed to have tamed his spiritand begotten something like a humane fellowfeeling; for he received the crew in a manner quietand even almost kind. Hetold them what he had heardand said that he did not believe that they wouldtry to do any such thing as was intimated; that they had always been good men-obedientand knew their dutyand he had no fault to find with them; and askedthem what they had to complain of- said that no one could say that he was slowto carry sail(which was true enough;) and thatas soon as he thought it wassafe and properhe should make sail. He added a few words about their duty intheir present situationand sent them forwardsaying that he should take nofurther notice of the matter; butat the same timetold the carpenter torecollect whose power he was inand that if he heard another word from him hewould have cause to remember him to the day of his death.

This language of the captain had a very good effect upon the crewand theyreturned quietly to their duty.

For two days more the wind blew from the southward and eastward; or in theshort intervals when it was fairthe ice was too thick to run; yet the weatherwas not so dreadfully badand the crew had watch and watch. I still remained inmy berthfast recoveringyet still not well enough to go safely on deck. And Ishould have been perfectly useless; forfrom having eaten nothing for nearly aweekexcept a little ricewhich I forced into my mouth the last day or twoIwas as weak as an infant. To be sick in a forecastle is miserable indeed. It isthe worst part of a dog's life; especially in bad weather. The forecastleshutup tight to keep out the water and cold air;- the watch either on deckorasleep in their berths;- no one to speak to;- the pale light of the single lampswinging to and fro from the beamso dim that one can scarcely seemuch lessread by it;- the water dropping from the beams and carlinesand running downthe sides; and the forecastle so wetand darkand cheerlessand so lumberedup with chests and wet clothesthat sitting up is worse than lying in theberth! These are some of the evils. FortunatelyI needed no help from any oneand no medicine; and if I had needed helpI don't know where I should havefound it. Sailors are willing enoughbut it is trueas is often said- No oneships for nurse on board a vessel. Our merchant ships are always under-mannedand if one man is lost by sicknessthey cannot spare another to take care ofhim. A sailor is always presumed to be welland if he's sickhe's a poor dog.One has to stand his wheeland another his lookoutand the sooner he gets ondeck againthe better.

Accordinglyas soon as I could possibly go back to my dutyI put on mythick clothes and boots and south-westerand made my appearance on deck. ThoughI had been but a few days belowyet everything looked strangely enough. Theship was cased in ice- deckssidesmastsyardsand rigging. Twoclose-reefed top-sails were all the sail she had onand every sail and rope wasfrozen so stiff in its placethat it seemed as though it would be impossible tostart anything. Reducedtooto her top-mastsshe had altogether a mostforlorn and crippled appearance. The sun had come up brightly; the snow wasswept off the decksand ashes thrown upon themso that we could walkfor theyhad been as slippery as glass. It wascoursetoo cold to carry on any ship'sworkand we had only to walk the deck and keep ourselves warm. The wind wasstill aheadand the whole oceanto the eastwardcovered with islands andfield-ice. At four bells the order was given to square away the yards; and theman who came from the helm said that the captain had kept her off to N. N. E.What could this mean? Some said that he was going to put into Valparaisoandwinterand others that he was going to run out of the ice and cross thePacificand go home round the Cape of Good Hope. Soonhoweverit leaked outand we found that we were running for the straits of Magellan. The news soonspread through the shipand all tongues were at worktalking about it. No oneon board had been through the straits but I had in my chest an account of thepassage of the ship A. J. Donelsonof New Yorkthrough those straitsa fewyears before. The account was given by the captainand the representation wasas favorable as possible. It was soon read by every one on boardand variousopinions pronounced. The determination of our captain had at least this goodeffect; it gave every one something to think and talk aboutmade a break in ourlifeand diverted our minds from the monotonous dreariness of the prospectbefore us. Having made a fair wind of itwe were going off at a good rateandleaving the thickest of the ice behind us. Thisat leastwas something.

Having been long enough below to get my hands well warmed and softenedthefirst handling of the ropes was rather tough; but a few days hardened themandas soon as I got my mouth open wide enough to take in a piece of salt beef andhard breadI was all right again. -

SundayJuly 10th. Lat. 54 deg. 10'long. 79 deg. 07'. This was our positionat noon. The sun was out bright; the ice was all left behindand things hadquite a cheering appearance. We brought our wet pea-jackets and trowsers ondeckand hung them up in the riggingthat the breeze and the few hours of sunmight dry them a little; andby the permission of the cookthe galley wasnearly filled with stockings and mittenshung round to be dried. Bootstoowere brought up; and having got a little tar and slush from belowwe gave thema thick coat. After dinnerall hands were turned-toto get the anchors overthe bowsbend on the chainsetc. fishtackle was got upfish-davit rigged outand after two or three hours of hard and cold workboth the anchors were readyfor instant usea couple of kedges got upa hawser coiled away upon thefore-hatchand the deep-sea-lead-line overhauled and got ready. Our spiritsreturned with having something to do; and when the tackle was manned to bowsethe anchor homenotwithstanding the desolation of the scenewe struck up"Cheerily ho!" in full chorus. This pleased the matewho rubbed hishands and cried out- "That's rightmy boys; never say die! That soundslike the old crew!" and the captain came upon hearing the songand saidto the passengerwithin hearing of the man at the wheel- "That soundslike a lively crew. They'll have their song so long as there're enough left fora chorus!"

This preparation of the cable and anchors was for the passage of the straits;forbeing very crookedand with a variety of currentsit is necessary to comefrequently to anchor. This was notby any meansa pleasant prospectforofall the work that a sailor is called upon to do in cold weatherthere is noneso bad as working the ground-tackle. The heavy chain cables to be hauled andpulled about the decks with bare hands; wet hawsersslip-ropesand buoyropesto be hauled aboarddripping in waterwhich is running up your sleevesandfreezing; clearing hawse under the bows; getting under weigh and coming-toatall hours of the night and dayand a constant look-out for rocks and sands andturns of tides;- these are some of the disagreeables of such a navigation to acommon sailor. Fair or foulhe wants to have nothing to do with the groundtackle between port and port. One of our handstoohad unluckily fallen upon ahalf of an old newspaper which contained an account of the passagethrough thestraitsof a Boston brigcalledI thinkthe Peruvianin which she lostevery cable and anchor she hadgot aground twiceand arrived at Valparaiso indistress. This was set off against the account of the A. J. Donelsonand led usto look forward with less confidence to the passageespecially as no one onboard had ever been throughand the captain had no very perfect charts.Howeverwe were spared any further experience on the point; for the next daywhen we must have been near the Cape of Pillarswhich is the south-west pointof the mouth of the straitsa gale set in from the eastwardwith a heavy fogso that we could not see half of the ship's length ahead. Thisof courseputan end to the projectfor the present; for a thick fog and a gale blowing deadahead are not the most favorable circumstances for the passage of difficult anddangerous straits. This weathertooseemed likely to last for some timeandwe could not think of beating about the mouth of the straits for a week or twowaiting for a favorable opportunity; so we braced up on the larboard tackputthe ship's head due southand struck her off for Cape Horn again.


In our first attempt to double the Capewhen we came up to the latitude ofitwe were nearly seventeen hundred miles to the westwardbutin running forthe straits of Magellanwe stood so far to the eastwardthat we made oursecond attempt at a distance of not more than four or five hundred miles; and wehad great hopesby this meansto run clear of the ice; thinking that theeasterly galeswhich had prevailed for a long timewould have driven it to thewestward. With the wind about two points freethe yards braced in a littleandtwo close-reefed topsails and a reefed foresail on the shipwe made great waytoward the southward andalmost every watchwhen we came on deckthe airseemed to grow colderand the sea to run higher. Stillwe saw no iceand hadgreat hopes of going clear of it altogetherwhenone afternoonabout threeo'clockwhile we were taking a siesta during our watch below"Allhands!" was called in a loud and fearful voice. "Tumble up heremen!-tumble up!- don't stop for your clothes- before we're upon it!" We sprangout of our berths and hurried upon deck. The loudsharp voice of the captainwas heard giving ordersas though for life or deathand we ran aft to thebracesnot waiting to look aheadfor not a moment was to be lost. The helm washard upthe after yards shakingand the ship in the act of wearing. Slowlywith stiff ropes and iced riggingwe swung the yards roundeverything cominghardand with a creaking and rending soundlike pulling up a plank which hadbeen frozen into the ice. The ship wore round fairlythe yards were steadiedand we stood off on the other tackleaving behind usdirectly under ourlarboard quartera large ice islandpeering out of the mistand reaching highabove our topswhile astern; and on either side of the islandlarge tracts offield-ice were dimly seenheaving and rolling in the sea. We were now safeandstanding to the northward; butin a few minutes morehad it not been for thesharp look-out of the watchwe should have been fairly upon the iceand leftour ship's old bones adrift in the Southern ocean. After standing to thenorthward a few hourswe wore shipand the wind having hauledwe stood to thesouthward and eastward. All night longa bright lookout was kept from everypart of the deck; and whenever ice was seen on the one bow or the otherthehelm was shifted and the yards bracedand by quick working of the ship she waskept clear. The accustomed cry of "Ice ahead!"- "Ice on the leebow!"- "Another island!" in the same tonesand with the sameorders following themseemed to bring us directly back to our old position ofthe week before. During our watch on deckwhich was from twelve to fourthewind came out aheadwith a pelting storm of hail and sleetand we lay hove-tounder a close-reefed main topsailthe whole watch. During the next watch itfell calmwith a drenching rainuntil daybreakwhen the wind came out to thewestwardand the weather cleared upand showed us the whole oceanin thecourse which we should have steeredhad it not been for the head wind and calmcompletely blocked up with ice. Here then our progress was stoppedand we woreshipand once more stood to the northward and eastward; not for the straits ofMagellanbut to make another attempt to double the Capestill farther to theeastward; for the captain was determined to get round if perseverance could doit; and the third timehe saidnever failed.

With a fair wind we soon ran clear of the field-iceand by noon had only thestray islands floating far and near upon the ocean. The sun was out brightthesea of a deep bluefringed with the white foam of the waves which ran highbefore a strong southwester; our solitary ship tore on through the waterasthough glad to be out of her confinement; and the ice islands lay scattered uponthe ocean here and thereof various sizes and shapesreflecting the brightrays of the sunand drifting slowly northward before the gale. It was acontrast to much that we had lately seenand a spectacle not only of beautybut of life; for it required but little fancy to imagine these islands to beanimate masses which had broken loose from the "thrilling regions ofthick-ribbed ice" and were working their wayby wind and currentsomealoneand some in fleetsto milder climes. No pencil has ever yet givenanything like the true effect of an iceberg. In a picturethey are hugeuncouth massesstuck in the seawhile their chief beauty and grandeur- theirslowstately motion; the whirling of the snow about their summitsand thefearful groaning and cracking of their parts- the picture cannot give. This isthe large iceberg; while the small and distant islandsfloating on the smoothseain the light of a clear daylook like little floating fairy isles ofsapphire.

From a north-east course we gradually hauled to the eastwardand aftersailing about two hundred mileswhich brought us as near to the western coastof Terra del Fuego as was safeand having lost sight of the ice altogether-for the third time we put the ship's head to the southwardto try the passageof the Cape. The weather continued clear and coldwith a strong gale from thewestwardand we were fast getting up with the latitude of the Capewith aprospect of soon being round. One fine afternoona man who had gone into thefore-top to shift the rolling tacklessung outat the top of his voiceandwith evident glees- "Sail ho!" Neither land nor sail had we seen sinceleaving San Diego; and any one who has traversed the length of a whole oceanalonecan imagine what an excitement such an announcement produced on board."Sail ho!" shouted the cookjumping out of his galley; "Sailho!" shouted a manthrowing back the slide of the scuttleto the watchbelowwho were soon out of their berths and on deck; and "Sail ho!"shouted the captain down the companion-way to the passenger in the cabin.Besides the pleasure of seeing a ship and human beings in so desolate a placeit was important for us to speak a vesselto learn whether there was ice to theeastwardand to ascertain the longitude; for we had no chronometerand hadbeen drifting about so long that we had nearly lost our reckoningandopportunities for lunar observations are not frequent or sure in such a place asCape Horn. For these various reasonsthe excitement in our little community wasrunning highand conjectures were madeand everything thought of for which thecaptain would hailwhen the man aloft sung out- "Another saillarge onthe weather bow!" This was a little oddbut so much the betterand didnot shake our faith in their being sails. At length the man in the top hailedand said he believed it was landafter all. "Land in your eye!" saidthe matewho was looking through a telescope; "they are ice islandsif Ican see a hole through a ladder;" and a few moments showed the mate to beright and all our expectations fled; and instead of what we most wished to seewe had what we most dreadedand what we hoped we had seen the last of. We soonhoweverleft these asternhaving passed within about two miles of them; and atsundown the horizon was clear in all directions.

Having a fine windwe were soon up with and passed the latitude of the Capeand having stood far enough to the southward to give it a wide berthwe beganto stand to the eastwardwith a good prospect of being round and steering tothe northward on the other sidein a very few days.

But ill luck seemed to have lighted upon us. Not four hours had we beenstanding on in this coursebefore it fell dead calm; and in half an hour itclouded up; a few straggling blastswith spits of snow and sleetcame from theeastward; and in an hour morewe lay hove-to under a close-reefed main topsaildrifting bodily off to leeward before the fiercest storm that we had yet feltblowing dead aheadfrom the eastward. It seemed as though the genius of theplace had been roused at finding that we had nearly slipped through his fingersand had come down upon us with tenfold fury. The sailors said that every blastas it shook the shroudsand whistled through the riggingsaid to the old ship"Noyou don't!"- "Noyou don't!"

For eight days we lay drifting about in this manner. Sometimes- generallytowards noons- it fell calm; once or twice a round copper ball showed itselffor a few moments in the place where the sun ought to have been; and a puff ortwo came from the westwardgiving some hope that a fair wind had come at last.During the first two dayswe made sail for these puffsshaking the reefs outof the topsails and boarding the tacks of the courses; but finding that it onlymade work for us when the gale set in againit was soon given upand we lay-tounder our close-reefs.

We had less snow and hail than when we were farther to the westwardbut wehad an abundance of what is worse to a sailor in cold weather- drenching rain.Snow is blindingand very bad when coming upon a coastbutfor genuinediscomfortgive me rain with freezing weather. A snow-storm is excitingand itdoes not wet through the clothes (which is important to a sailor); but aconstant rain there is no escaping from. It wets to the skinand makes allprotection vain. We had long ago run through all our dry clothesand as sailorshave no other way of drying them than by the sunwe had nothing to do but toput on those which were the least wet. At the end of each watchwhen we camebelowwe took off our clothes and wrung them out; two taking hold of a pair oftrowsers- one at each end- and jackets in the same way. Stockingsmittensand allwere wrung out also and then hung up to drain and chafe dry against thebulk-heads. Thenfeeling of all our clotheswe picked out those which were theleast wetand put them onso as to be ready for a calland turned-incoveredourselves up with blanketsand slept until three knocks on the scuttle and thedismal sound of "All starbowlines ahoy! Eight bellsthere below! Do youhear the news?" drawled out from on deckand the sulky answer of"Ayeaye!" from belowsent us up again.

On deckall was as dark as a pocketand either a dead calmwith the rainpouring steadily downormore generallya violent gale dead aheadwith rainpelting horizontallyand occasional variations of hail and sleet;- decks afloatwith water swashing from side to sideand constantly wet feet; for boots couldnot be wrung out like drawersand no composition could stand the constantsoaking. In factwet and cold feet are inevitable in such weatherand are notthe least of those little items which go to make up the grand total of thediscomforts of a winter passage round the Cape. Few words were spoken betweenthe watches as they shiftedthe wheel was relievedthe mate took his place onthe quarter-deckthe look-outs in the bows; and each man had his narrow spaceto walk fore and aft inorratherto swing himself forward and back infromone belaying pin to another- for the decks were too slippery with ice and waterto allow of much walking. To make a walkwhich is absolutely necessary to passaway the timeone of us hit upon the expedient of sanding the deck; andafterwardswhenever the rain was not so violent as to wash it offtheweatherside of the quarterdeck and a part of the waist and forecastle weresprinkled with the sand which we had on board for holystoning; and thus we madea good promenadewhere we walked fore and afttwo and twohour after hourinour longdulland comfortless watches. The bells seemed to be an hour or twoapartinstead of half an hourand an age to elapse before the welcome sound ofeight bells. The sole object was to make the time pass on. Any chance was soughtforwhich would break the monotony of the time; and even the two hours' trickat the wheelwhich came round to each of usin turnonce in every otherwatchwas looked upon as a relief. Even the never-failing resource of longyarnswhich eke out many a watchseemed to have failed us now; for we had beenso long

together that we had heard each other's stories told over and over againtill we had them by heart; each one knew the whole history of each of theothersand we were fairly and literally talked out. Singing and jokingwe werein no humor forandin factany sound of mirth or laughter would have struckstrangely upon our earsand would not have been toleratedany more thanwhistlingor a wind instrument. The last resortthat of speculating upon thefutureseemed now to fail usfor our discouraging situationand the danger wewere really in(as we expected every day to find ourselves drifted back amongthe ice) "clapped a stopper" upon all that. From saying- "when weget home"- we began insensibly to alter it to- "if we get home"-and at last the subject was dropped by a tacit consent.

In this state of thingsa new light was struck outand a new field openedby a change in the watch. One of our watch was laid up for two or three days bya bad hand(for in cold weather the least cut or bruise ripens into a sore)and his place was supplied by the carpenter. This was a windfalland there wasquite a contestwho should have the carpenter to walk with him. As"Chips" was a man of some little educationand he and I had had agood deal of intercourse with each otherhe fell in with me in my walk. He wasa Finbut spoke English very welland gave me long accounts of his country;-the customsthe tradethe townswhat little he knew of the government(Ifound he was no friend of Russia)his voyageshis first arrival in Americahis marriage and courtship;- he had married a countrywoman of hisadress-makerwhom he met with in Boston. I had very little to tell him of myquietsedentary life at home; andin spite of our best effortswhich hadprotracted these yarns through five or six watcheswe fairly talked one anotheroutand I turned him over to another man in the watchand put myself upon myown resources.

I commenced a deliberate system of time-killingwhich united some profitwith a cheering up of the heavy hours. As soon as I came on deckand took myplace and regular walkI began with repeating over to myself a string ofmatters which I had in my memoryin regular order. Firstthe multiplicationtable and the tables of weights and measures; then the states of the unionwiththeir capitals; the counties of Englandwith their shire towns; the kings ofEngland in their order; and a large part of the peeragewhich I committed froman almanac that we had on board; and then the Kanaka numerals. This carried methrough my factsandbeing repeated deliberatelywith long intervalsofteneked out the two first bells. Then came the ten commandments; the thirty-ninthchapter of Joband a few other passages from Scripture. The next in the orderthat I never varied fromcame Cowper's Castawaywhich was a great favoritewith me; the solemn measure and gloomy character of whichas well as theincident that it was founded uponmade it well suited to a lonely watch at sea.Then his lines to Maryhis address to the jackdawand a short extract fromTable Talk; (I abounded in Cowperfor I happened to have a volume of his poemsin my chest;) "Ille et nefasto" from Horaceand Goethe's Erl King.After I had got through theseI allowed myself a more general range amongeverything that I could rememberboth in prose and verse. In this waywith anoccasional break by relieving the wheelheaving the logand going to thescuttle-butt for a drink of waterthe longest watch was passed away; and I wasso regular in my silent recitationsthat if there was no interruption by ship'sdutyI could tell very nearly the number of bells by my progress.

Our watches below were no more varied than the watch on deck. All washingsewingand reading was given up; and we did nothing but eatsleepand standour watchleading what might be called a Cape Horn life. The forecastle was toouncomfortable to sit up in; and whenever we were belowwe were in our berths.To prevent the rainand the sea-water which broke over the bowsfrom washingdownwe were obliged to keep the scuttle closedso that the forecastle wasnearly air-tight. In this littlewetleaky holewe were all quarteredin anatmosphere so bad that our lampwhich swung in the middle from the beamssometimes actually burned bluewith a large circle of foul air about it. StillI was never in better health than after three weeks of this life. I gained agreat deal of fleshand we all ate like horses. At every watchwhen we camebelowbefore turning-inthe bread barge and beef kid were overhauled. Each mandrank his quart of hot tea night and morning; and glad enough we were to get itfor no nectar and ambrosia were sweeter to the lazy immortalsthan was a pot ofhot teaa hard biscuitand a slice of cold salt beefto us after a watch ondeck. To be surewe were mere animals and had this life lasted a year insteadof a month we should have been little better than the ropes in the ship. Not arazornor a brushnor a drop of waterexcept the rain and the sprayhad comenear us all the time; for we were on an allowance of fresh water; and who wouldstrip and wash himself in salt water on deckin the snow and icewith thethermometer at zero?

After about eight days of constant easterly galesthe wind hauledoccasionally a little to the southwardand blew hardwhichas we were well tothe southwardallowed us to brace in a little and stand onunder all the sailwe could carry. These turns lasted but a short whileand sooner or later it setagain from the old quarter; yet each time we made somethingand were graduallyedging along to the eastward. One nightafter one of these shifts of the windand when all hands had been up a great part of the timeour watch was left ondeckwith the mainsail hanging in the buntlinesready to be set if necessary.It came on to blow worse and worsewith hail and snow beating like so manyfuries upon the shipit being as dark and thick as night could make it. Themainsail was blowing and slatting with a noise like thunderwhen the captaincame on deckand ordered it to be furled. The mate was about to call all handswhen the captain stopped himand said that the men would be beaten out if theywere called up so often; that as our watch must stay on deckit might as wellbe doing that as anything else. Accordinglywe went upon the yard; and nevershall I forget that piece of work. Our watch had been so reduced by sicknessand by some having been left in Californiathatwith one man at the wheelwehad only the third mate and three beside myself to go aloft; so that at mostwecould only attempt to furl one yard-arm at a time. We manned the weatheryard-armand set to work to make a furl of it. Our lower masts being shortandour yards very squarethe sail had a head of nearly fifty feetand a shortleachmade still shorter by the deep reef which was in itwhich brought theclew away out on the quarters of the yardand made a bunt nearly as square asthe mizen royal-yard. Beside this difficultythe yard over which we lay wascased with icethe gaskets and rope of the foot and leach of the sail as stiffand hard as a piece of suctionhoseand the sail itself about as pliable asthough it had been made of sheets of sheathing copper. It blew a perfecthurricanewith alternate blasts of snowhailand rain. We had to fist thesail with bare hands. No one could trust himself to mittensfor if he slippedhe was a gone man. All the boats were hoisted in on deckand there was nothingto be lowered for him. We had need of every finger God had given us. Severaltimes we got the sail upon the yardbut it blew away again before we couldsecure it. It required men to lie over the yard to pass each turn of thegasketsand when they were passedit was almost impossible to knot them sothat they would hold. Frequently we were obliged to leave off altogether andtake to beating our hands upon the sailto keep them from freezing. After sometime- which seemed forever- we got the weather side stowed after a fashionand went over to leeward for another trial. This was still worsefor the bodyof the sail had been blown over to leewardand as the yard was a-cock-bill bythe lying over of the vesselwe had to light it all up to windward. When theyard-arms were furledthe bunt was all adrift againwhich made more work forus. We got all secure at lastbut we had been nearly an hour and a half uponthe yardand it seemed an age. It just struck five bells when we went upandeight were struck soon after we came down. This may seem slow workbutconsidering the state of everythingand that we had only five men to a sailwith just half as many square yards of canvas in it as the mainsail of theIndependencesixty-gun shipwhich musters seven hundred men at her quartersit is not wonderful that we were no quicker about it. We were glad enough to geton deckand still moreto go below. The oldest sailor in the watch saidas hewent down- "I shall never forget that main yard;- it beats all my going afishing. Fun is funbut furling one yard-arm of a courseat a timeoff CapeHornis no better than man-killing."

During the greater part of the next two daysthe wind was pretty steady fromthe southward. We had evidently made great progressand had good hope of beingsoon up with the Capeif we were not there already. We could put but littleconfidence in our reckoningas there had been no opportunities for anobservationand we had drifted too much to allow of our dead reckoning beinganywhere near the mark. If it would clear off enough to give a chance for anobservationor if we could make landwe should know where we were; and upontheseand the chances of falling in with a sail from the eastwardwe dependedalmost entirely. -

FridayJuly 22d. This day we had a steady gale from the southwardand stoodon under close sailwith the yards eased a little by the weather bracestheclouds lifting a littleand showing signs of breaking away. In the afternoonIwas below with Mr. H--- the third mateand two othersfilling the bread lockerin the steerage from the caskswhen a bright gleam of sunshine broke out andshone down the companion-way and through the sky-lightlighting up everythingbelowand sending a warm glow through the heart of every one. It was a sight wehad not seen for weeks- an omena god-send. Even the roughest and hardest faceacknowledged its influence. Just at that moment we heard a loud shout from allparts of the deckand the mate called out down the companion-way to thecaptainwho was sitting in the cabin. What he saidwe could not distinguishbut the captain kicked over his chairand was on deck at one jump. We could nottell what it was; andanxious as we were to knowthe discipline of the shipwould not allow of our leaving our places. Yetas we were not calledwe knewthere was no danger. We hurried to get through with our jobwhenseeing thesteward's black face peering out of the pantryMr. H--- hailed him. to knowwhat was the matter. "Lan' oto be suresir! No you hear 'em sing out'Lan' o?' De cap'em say 'im Cape Horn!"

This gave us a new startand we were soon through our workand on deck; andthere lay the landfair upon the larboard beamand slowly edging away upon thequarter. All hands were busy looking at it- the captain and mates from thequarter-deckthe cook from his galleyand the sailors from the forecastle; andeven Mr. N.the passengerwho had kept in his shell for nearly a monthandhardly been seen by anybodyand who we had almost forgotten was on boardcameout like a butterflyand was hopping round as bright as a bird.

The land was the island of Staten Landandjust to the eastward of CapeHorn; and a more desolate-looking spot I never wish to set eyes upon;- barebrokenand girt with rocks and icewith here and therebetween the rocks andbroken hillocksa little stunted vegetation of shrubs. It was a place wellsuited to stand at the junction of the two oceansbeyond the reach of humancultivationand encounter the blasts and snows of a perpetual winter. Yetdismal as it wasit was a pleasant sight to us; not only as being the firstland we had seenbut because it told us that we had passed the Cape- were inthe Atlantic- and thatwith twenty-four hours of this breezemight biddefiance to the Southern Ocean. It told ustooour latitude and longitudebetter than any observation; and the captain now knew where we wereas well asif we were off the end of Long wharf.

In the general joyMr. N. said he should like to go ashore upon the islandand examine a spot which probably no human being had ever set foot upon; but thecaptain intimated that he would see the island- specimens and all- in- anotherplacebefore he would get out a boat or delay the ship one moment for him.

We left the land gradually astern; and at sundown had the Atlantic Oceanclear before us.


It is usualin voyages round the Cape from the Pacificto keep to theeastward of the Falkland Islands; but as it had now set in a strongsteadyandclear south-westerwith every prospect of its lastingand we had had enough ofhigh latitudesthe captain determined to stand immediately to the northwardrunning inside the Falkland Islands. Accordinglywhen the wheel was relieved ateight o'clockthe order was given to keep her due northand all hands wereturned up to square away the yards and make sail. In a momentthe news ranthrough the ship that the captain was keeping her offwith her nose straightfor Bostonand Cape Horn over her taffrail. It was a moment of enthusiasm.Every one was on the alertand even the two sick men turned out to lend a handat the halyards. The wind was now due south-westand blowing a gale to which avessel close hauled could have shown no more than a single close-reefed sail;but as we were going before itwe could carry on. Accordinglyhands were sentaloftand a reef shaken out of the top-sailsand the reefed foresail set. Whenwe came to masthead the topsail yardswith all hands at the halyardswe struckup "Cheerilymen" with a chorus which might have been heard half-wayto Staten Land. Under her increased sailthe ship drove on through the water.Yet she could bear it well; and the captain sang out from the quarter-deck-"Another reef out of that fore-topsailand give it to her!" Two handssprang aloft; the frozen reef-points and earings were cast adriftthe halyardsmannedand the sail gave out her increased canvas to the gale. All hands werekept on deck to watch the effect of the change. It was as much as she could wellcarryand with a heavy sea asternit took two men at the wheel to steer her.She flung the foam from her bows; the spray breaking aft as far as the gangway.She was going at a prodigious rate. Stilleverything held. Preventer braceswere reeved and hauled taught; tackles got upon the backstays; and each thingdone to keep all snug and strong. The captain walked the deck at a rapid stridelooked aloft at the sailsand then to windward; the mate stood in the gangwayrubbing his handsand talking aloud to the ship- "Hurrahold bucket! theBoston girls have got hold of the tow-rope!" and the like; and we were onthe forecastlelooking to see how the spars stood itand guessing the rate atwhich she was going- when the captain called out- "Mr. Brownget up thetopmast studding-sail! What she can't carry she may drag!" The mate lookeda moment; but he would let no one be before him in daring. He sprang forward-"Hurrahmen! rig out the topmast studdingsail boom! Lay aloftand I'llsend the rigging up to you!"- We sprang aloft into the top; lowered agirt-line downby which we hauled up the rigging; rove the tacks and halyards;ran out the boom and lashed it fastand sent down the lower halyardsas apreventer. It was a clear starlight nightcold and blowing; but everybodyworked with a will. Someindeedlooked as though they thought the "oldman" was madbut no one said a word. We had had a new topmaststudding-sail made with a reef in it- a thing hardly ever heard ofand whichthe sailors had ridiculed a good dealsaying that when it was time to reef astudding-sailit was time to take it in. But we found a use for it now; forthere being a reef in the topsailthe studding-sail could not be set withoutone in it also. To be surea studding-sail with reefed topsails was rather anew thing; yet there was some reason in itfor if we carried that awayweshould lose only a sail and a boom; but a whole topsail might have carried awaythe mast and all.

While we were aloftthe sail had been got outbent to the yardreefedandready for hoisting. Waiting for a good opportunitythe halyards were manned andthe yard hoisted fairly up to the block; but when the mate came to shake thecatspaw out of the downhauland we began to boom-end the sailit shook theship to her centre. The boom buckled up and bent like a whip-stickand welooked every moment to see something go; butbeing of the shorttough uplandspruceit bent like whaleboneand nothing could break it. The carpenter saidit was the best stick he had ever seen. The strength of all hands soon broughtthe tack to the boom-endand the sheet was trimmed downand the preventer andthe weather brace hauled taught to take off the strain. Every rope-yarn seemedstretched to the utmostand every thread of canvas; and with this sail added toherthe ship sprang through the water like a thing possessed. The sail beingnearly all forwardit lifted her out of the waterand she seemed actually tojump from sea to sea. From the time her keel was laidshe had never been sodriven; and had it been life or death with every one of usshe could not haveborne another stitch of canvas.

Finding that she would bear the sailthe hands were sent belowand ourwatch remained on deck. Two men at the wheel had as much as they could do tokeep her within three points of her coursefor she steered as wild as a youngcolt. The mate walked the decklooking at the sailsand then over the side tosee the foam fly by herslapping his hands upon his thighs and talking to theship- "Hurrahyou jadeyou've got the scent!- you know where you'regoing!" And when she leaped over the seasand almost out of the waterandtrembled to her very keelthe spars and masts snapping and creaking-"There she goes!- There she goes- handsomely!- as long as she cracks sheholds!"- while we stood with the rigging laid down fair for letting goandready to take in sail and clear awayif anything went. At four bells we hovethe logand she was going eleven knots fairly; and had it not been for the seafrom aft which sent the ship homeand threw her continually off her coursethelog would have shown her to have been going much faster. I went to the wheelwith a young fellow from the Kennebecwho was a good helmsman; and for twohours we had our hands full. A few minutes showed us that our monkey-jacketsmust come off; andcold as it waswe stood in our shirt-sleevesin aperspiration; and were glad enough to have it eight bellsand the wheelrelieved. We turned-in and slept as well as we couldthough the sea made aconstant roar under her bowsand washed over the forecastle like a smallcataract.

At four o'clockwe were called again. The same sail was still on the vesseland the galeif there was any changehad increased a little. No attempt wasmade to take the studding-sail in; andindeedit was too late now. If we hadstarted anything toward taking it ineither tack or halyardsit would haveblown to piecesand carried something away with it. The only way now was to leteverything standand if the gale went downwell and good; if notsomethingmust go- the weakest stick or rope first- and then we could get it in. For morethan an hour she was driven on at such a rate that she seemed actually to crowdthe sea into a heap before her; and the water poured over the spritsail yard asit would over a dam. Toward daybreak the gale abated a littleand she was justbeginning to go more easily alongrelieved of the pressurewhen Mr. Browndetermined to give her no respiteand depending upon the wind's subsiding asthe sun rosetold us to get along the lower studding-sail. This was an immensesailand held wind enough to last a Dutchman a week- hove-to. It was soonreadythe boom topped uppreventer guys roveand the idlers called up to manthe halyards; yet such was still the force of the galethat we were nearly anhour setting the sail; carried away the outhaul in doing itand came very nearsnapping off the swinging boom. No sooner was it set than the ship tore on againlike one that was madand began to steer as wild as a hawk. The men at thewheel were puffing and blowing at their workand the helm was going hard up andhard downconstantly. Add to thisthe gale did not lessen as the day came onbut the sun rose in clouds. A sudden lurch threw the man from the weather wheelacross the deck and against the side. The mate sprang to the wheeland the manregaining his feetseized the spokesand they hove the wheel up just in timeto save her from broaching to; though nearly half the studding-sail went underwater; and as she came tothe boom stood up at an angle of forty-five degrees.She had evidently more on her than she could bear; yet it was in vain to try totake it in- the clewline was not strong enough; and they were thinking ofcutting awaywhen another wide yaw and a come-tosnapped the guysand theswinging boom came inwith a crashagainst the lower rigging. The outhaulblock gave wayand the topmast studding-sail boom bent in a manner which Inever before supposed a stick could bend. I had my eye on it when the guyspartedand it made one spring and buckled up so as to form nearly a halfcircleand sprang out again to its shape. The clewline gave way at the firstpull; the cleat to which the halyards were belayed was wrenched offand thesail blew round the spritsail yards and head guyswhich gave us a bad job toget it in. A half hour served to clear all awayand she was suffered to driveon with her topmast studding-sail setit being as much as she could staggerunder.

During all this day and the next nightwe went on under the same sailthegale blowing with undiminished force; two men at the wheel all the time; watchand watchand nothing to do but to steer and look out for the shipand beblown along;- until the noon of the next day- -

SundayJuly 24thwhen we were in latitude 50 deg. 27' S.longitude 62 deg.13' W.having made four degrees of latitude in the last twenty-four hours.Being now to northward of the Falkland Islandsthe ship was kept offnorth-eastfor the equator; and with her head for the equatorand Cape Hornover her taffrailshe went gloriously on; every heave of the sea leaving theCape asternand every hour bringing us nearer to homeand to warm weather.Many a timewhen blocked up in the icewith everything dismal and discouragingabout ushad we said- if we were only fairly roundand standing north on theother sidewe should ask for no more:- and now we had it allwith a clear seaand as much wind as a sailor could pray for. If the best part of the voyage isthe last partsurely we had all now that we could wish. Every one was in thehighest spiritsand the ship seemed as glad as any of us at getting out of herconfinement. At each change of the watchthose coming on deck asked those goingbelow- "How does she go along?" and got for answerthe rateand thecustomary addition- "Aye! and the Boston girls have had hold of thetow-rope all the watchand can't haul half the slack in!" Each day the sunrose higher in the horizonand the nights grew shorter; and at coming on deckeach morningthere was a sensible change in the temperature. The icetoobegan to melt from off the rigging and sparsandexcept a little whichremained in the tops and round the hounds of the lower mastswas soon gone. Aswe left the gale behind usthe reefs were shaken out of the topsailsand sailmade as fast as she could bear it; and every time all hands were sent to thehalyardsa song was called forand we hoisted away with a will.

Sail after sail was addedas we drew into fine weather; and in one weekafter leaving Cape Hornthe long topgallant masts were got uptopgallant androyal yards crossedand the ship restored to her fair proportions.

The Southern Cross we saw no more after the first night; the Magellan Cloudssettled lower and lower in the horizon; and so great was our change of latitudeeach succeeding nightthat we sank some constellation in the southand raisedanother in the northern horizon. -

SundayJuly 31st. At noon we were in lat. 36 deg. 41' S.long. 38 deg. 08'W.having traversed the distance of two thousand milesallowing for changes ofcoursein nine days. A thousand miles in four days and a half!- This is equalto steam.

Soon after eight o'clockthe appearance of the ship gave evidence that thiswas the first Sunday we had yet had in fine weather. As the sun came up clearwith the promise of a fairwarm dayandas usual on Sundaythere was no workgoing onall hands turned-to upon clearing out the forecastle. The wet andsoiled clothes which had accumulated there during the past monthwere broughtup on deck; the chests moved; broomsbuckets of waterswabsscrubbing-brushesand scrapers carried downand applieduntil the forecastlefloor was as white as chalkand everything neat and in order. The bedding fromthe berths was then spread on deckand driedand aired; the deck-tub filledwith water; and a grand washing begun of all the clothes which were brought up.Shirtsfrocksdrawerstrowsersjacketsstockingsof every shape and colorwet and dirty- many of them mouldy from having been lying a long time wet in afoul corner- these were all washed and scrubbed outand finally towed overboardfor half an hour; and then made fast in the rigging to dry. Wet boots and shoeswere spread out to dry in sunny places on deck; and the whole ship looked like aback yard on a washing day. After we had done with our clotheswe began uponour own persons. A little fresh waterwhich we had saved from our allowancewas put in bucketsand with soap and towelswe had what sailors call afresh-water wash. The same bucketto be surehad to go through several handsand was spoken for by one after anotherbut as we rinsed off in salt waterpure from the oceanand the fresh was used only to start the accumulated grimeand blackness of five weeksit was held of little consequence. We soaped downand scrubbed one another with towels and pieces of canvasstripping to it; andthengetting into the headthrew buckets of water upon each other. After thiscame shavingand combingand brushing; and whenhaving spent the first partof the day in this waywe sat down on the forecastlein the afternoonwithclean duck trowsersand shirts onwashedshavedand combedand looking adozen shades lighter for itreadingsewingand talking at our easewith aclear sky and warm sun over our headsa steady breeze over the larboardquarterstudding-sails out alow and aloftand all the flying kites aboard;- wefelt that we had got back into the pleasantest part of a sailor's life. Atsundown the clothes were all taken down from the rigging- clean and dry- andstowed neatly away in our chests; and our southwestersthick bootsguernseyfrocksand other accompaniments of bad weatherput out of the waywe hopedfor the rest of the voyageas we expected to come upon the coast early in theautumn.

Notwithstanding all that has been said about the beauty of a ship under fullsailthere are very few who have ever seen a shipliterallyunder all hersail. A ship coming in or going out of portwith her ordinary sailsandperhaps two of three studding-sailsis commonly said to be under full sail; buta ship never has all her sail upon herexcept when she has a lightsteadybreezevery nearlybut not quitedead aftand so regular that it can betrustedand is likely to last for some time. Thenwith all her sailslightand heavyand studding-sailson each sidealow and aloftshe is the mostglorious moving object in the world. Such a sightvery feweven some who havebeen at sea a great dealhave ever beheld; for from the deck of your own vesselyou cannot see heras you would a separate object.

One nightwhile we were in these tropicsI went out to the end of theflying-jib-boomupon some dutyandhaving finished itturned roundand layover the boom for a long timeadmiring the beauty of the sight before me. Beingso far out from the deckI could look at the shipas at a separate vessel;-and there rose up from the watersupported only by the small black hullapyramid of canvasspreading out far beyond the hulland towering up almostasit seemed in the indistinct night airto the clouds. The sea was as still as aninland lake; the light trade-wind was gently and steadily breathing from astern;the dark blue sky was studded with the tropical stars; there was no sound butthe rippling of the water under the stem; and the sails were spread outwideand high;- the two lower studding-sails stretchingon each sidefar beyond thedeck; the topmast studding-sailslike wings to the topsails; the top-gallantstudding-sails spreading fearlessly out above them; still higherthe two royalstudding-sailslooking like two kites flying from the same string; andhighestof allthe little skysailthe apex of the pyramidseeming actually to touchthe starsand to be out of reach of human hand. So quiettoowas the seaandso steady the breezethat if these sails had been sculptured marblethey couldnot have been more motionless. Not a ripple upon the surface of the canvas; noteven a quivering of the extreme edges of the sail- so perfectly were theydistended by the breeze. I was so lost in the sightthat I forgot the presenceof the man who came out with meuntil he said(for hetoorough oldman-of-war's-man as he washad been gazing at the show) half to himselfstilllooking at the marble sails- "How quietly they do their work!"

The fine weather brought work with itas the ship was to be put in order forcoming into port. This may give a landsman some notion of what is done on boardship.- All the first part of a passage is spent in getting a ship ready for seaand the last part in getting her ready for port. She isas sailors saylike alady's watchalways out of repair. The newstrong sailswhich we had up offCape Hornwere to be sent downand the old setwhich were still serviceablein fine weatherto be bent in their place; all the rigging to be set upforeand aft; the masts stayed; the standing rigging to be tarred down; lower andtopmast rigging rattled downfore and aft; the ship scrapedinside and outand painted; decks varnished; new and neat knotsseizings and coverings to befitted; and every part put in orderto look well to the owner's eyeon cominginto Boston. Thisof coursewas a long matter; and all hands were kept on deckat work for the whole of each dayduring the rest of the voyage. Sailors callthis hard usage; but the ship must be in crack orderand "we're homewardbound" was the answer to everything.

We went on for several daysemployed in this waynothing remarkableoccurring; andat the latter part of the weekfell in with the south-easttradesblowing about east-southeastwhich brought them nearly two points abaftour beam. These blew strong and steadyso that we hardly started a ropeuntilwe were beyond their latitude. The first day of "all hands" one ofthose little incidents occurredwhich are nothing in themselvesbut are greatmatters in the eyes of a ship's companyas they serve to break the monotony ofa voyageand afford conversation to the crew for days afterwards. These smallmatterstooare often interestingas they show the customs and state offeeling on shipboard.

In merchant vesselsthe captain gives his orders as to the ship's worktothe matein a general wayand leaves the execution of themwith theparticular orderingto him. This has become so fixed a customthat it is likea lawand is never infringed upon by a wise masterunless his mate is noseaman; in which casethe captain must often oversee things for himself. Thishowevercould not be said of our chief mate; and he was very jealous of anyencroachment upon the borders of his authority.

On Monday morningthe captain told him to stay the fore-topmast plumb. Heaccordingly came forwardturned all hands towith tackles on the stays andback-stayscoming up with the seizingshauling herebelaying thereand fullof businessstanding between the knightheads to sight the mast- when thecaptain came forwardand also began to give orders. This made confusionandthe matefinding that he was all abackleft his place and went aftsaying tothe captain--

"If you come forwardsirI'll go aft. One is enough on theforecastle."

This produced a replyand another fierce answer; and the words flewfistswere doubled upand things looked threateningly.

"I'm master of this ship."

"Yessirand I'm mate of herand know my place! My place is forwardand yours is aft!"

"My place is where I choose! I command the whole ship; and you are mateonly so long as I choose!"

"Say the wordCapt. T.and I'm done! I can do a man's work aboard! Ididn't come through the cabin windows! If I'm not mateI can be man"etc.etc.

This was all fun for uswho stood bywinking at each otherand enjoyingthe contest between the higher powers. The captain took the mate aft; and theyhad a long talkwhich ended in the mate's returning to his duty. The captainhad broken through a customwhich is a part of the common-law of a shipandwithout reason; for he knew that his mate was a sailorand needed no help fromhim; and the mate was excusable for being angry. Yet he was wrongand thecaptain right. Whatever the captain does is rightipso factoand anyopposition to it is wrongon board ship; and every officer and man knows thiswhen he signs the ship's articles. It is a part of the contract. Yet there hasgrown up in merchant vessels a series of customswhich have become a wellunderstood systemand have almost the force of prescriptive law. To be sureall power is in the captainand the officers hold their authority only duringhis will; and the men are liable to be called upon for any service; yetbybreaking in upon these usagesmany difficulties have occurred on board shipand even come into courts of justicewhich are perfectly unintelligible to anyone not acquainted with the universal nature and force of these customs. Many aprovocation has been offeredand a system of petty oppression pursued towardsmenthe force and meaning of which would appear as nothing to strangersanddoubtless do appear so to many "'long-shore" juries and judges.

The next little diversionwas a battle on the forecastle one afternoonbetween the mate and the steward. They had been on bad terms the whole voyage;and had threatened a rupture several times. This afternoonthe mate asked himfor a tumbler of waterand he refused to get it for himsaying that he waitedupon nobody but the captain: and here he had the custom on his side. But inansweringhe left off "the handle to the mate's name." This enragedthe matewho called him a "black soger;" and at it they wentclenchingstrikingand rolling over and over; while we stood bylooking onand enjoying the fun. The darky tried to butt himbut the mate got him downand held himthe steward singing out"Let me goMr. Brownor there'llbe blood spilt!" In the midst of thisthe captain came on deckseparatedthemtook the steward aftand gave him half a dozen with a rope's end. Thesteward tried to justify himself; but he had been heard to talk of spillingbloodand that was enough to earn him his flogging; and the captain did notchoose to inquire any further.


The same dayI met with one of those narrow escapeswhich are so oftenhappening in a sailor's life. I had been aloft nearly all the afternoonatworkstanding for as much as an hour on the fore top-gallant yardwhich washoisted upand hung only by the tie; whenhaving got through my workI balledup my yarnstook my serving-board in my handlaid hold deliberately of thetop-gallant riggingtook one foot from the yardand was just lifting theotherwhen the tie partedand down the yard fell. I was safeby my hold uponthe riggingbut it made my heart beat quick. Had the tie parted one instantsooneror had I stood an instant longer on the yardI should inevitably havebeen thrown violently from the height of ninety or a hundred feetoverboard;orwhat is worseupon the deck. However"a miss is as good as amile;" a saying which sailors very often have occasion to use. An escape isalways a joke on board ship. A man would be ridiculed who should make a seriousmatter of it. A sailor knows too well that his life hangs upon a threadto wishto be always reminded of it; soif a man has an escapehe keeps it to himselfor makes a joke of it. I have often known a man's life to be saved by an instantof timeor by the merest chance- the swinging of a rope- and no notice takenof it. One of our boyswhen off Cape Hornreefing topsails of a dark nightand when there were no boats to be lowered awayand whereif a man felloverboard he must be left behind- lost his hold of the reef-pointslipped fromthe foot-ropeand would have been in the water in a momentwhen the man whowas next to him on the yard caught him by the collar of his jacketand hauledhim up upon the yardwith- "Hold onanother timeyou young monkeyandbe d--d to you!"- and that was all that was heard about it. -

SundayAugust 7th. Lat. 25 deg. 59' S.long. 27 deg. 0' W.Spoke

the English bark Mary-Catherinefrom Bahiabound to Calcutta. This was thefirst sail we had fallen in withand the first time we had seen a human form orheard the human voiceexcept of our own numberfor nearly a hundred days. Thevery yo-ho-ing of the sailors at the ropes sounded sociably upon the ear. Shewas an olddamaged-looking craftwith a high poop and top-gallant forecastleand sawed off squarestem and sternlike a true English "tea-wagon"and with a run like a sugar-box. She had studding-sails out alow and aloftwitha light but steady breezeand her captain said he could not get more than fourknots out of her and thought he should have a long passage. We were going six onan easy bowline.

The next dayabout three P. M.passed a large corvette-built shipcloseupon the windwith royals and skysails set fore and aftunder English colors.She was standing south-by-eastprobably bound round Cape Horn. She had men inher topsand black mast-heads; heavily sparredwith sails cut to a tandother marks of a man-of war. She sailed welland presented a fine appearance;the proudaristocratic-looking banner of St. Georgethe cross in a blood-redfieldwaving from the mizen. We probably were as fine a sightwith ourstudding-sails spread far out beyond the ship on either sideand rising in apyramid to royal studding-sails and sky-sailsburying the hull in canvasandlooking like what the whale-men on the Banks under their stump top-gallantmastscall "a Cape Horner under a cloud of sail." -

FridayAugust 12th. At daylight made the island of Trinidadsituated inlat. 20 deg. 28' S.long. 29 deg. 08' W. At twelve bore N. W. 1/2 N.distant twenty-seven miles. It was a beautiful daythe sea hardly ruffled bythe light tradesand the island looking like a small blue mound rising from afield of glass. Such a fair and peaceful-looking spot is said to have beenfora long timethe resort of a band of pirateswho ravaged the tropical seas. -

ThursdayAugust 18th. At three P. M.made the island of Fernando Naronhalying in lat. 3 deg. 55' S.long. 32 deg. 35' W.; and between twelve o'clockFriday night and one o'clock Saturday morningcrossed the equatorfor thefourth time since leaving Bostonin long. 35 deg. W.; having been twenty-sevendays from Staten Land- a distanceby the courses we had madeof more than fourthousand miles.

We were now to the northward of the lineand every day added to ourlatitude. The Magellan Cloudsthe last sign of South latitudewere sunk in thehorizonand the north starthe Great Bearand the familiar signs of northernlatitudeswere rising in the heavens. Next to seeing landthere is no sightwhich makes one realize more that he is drawing near homethan to see the sameheavensunder which he was bornshining at night over his head. The weatherwas extremely hotwith the usual tropical alternations of a scorching sun andsqualls of rain; yet not a word was said in complaint of the heatfor we allremembered that only three or four weeks before we would have given nearly ourall to have been where we now were. We had plenty of watertoowhich we caughtby spreading an awningwith shot thrown in to make hollows. These rain squallscame up in the manner usual between the tropics.- A clear sky; burningverticalsun; work going lazily onand men about decks with nothing but duck trowserschecked shirtsand straw hats; the ship moving as lazily through the water; theman at the helm resting against the wheelwith his hat drawn over his eyes; thecaptain belowtaking an afternoon nap; the passenger leaning over the taffrailwatching a dolphin following slowly in our wake; the sailmaker mending an oldtopsail on the lee side of the quarterdeck; the carpenter working at his benchin the waist; the boys making sinner; the spun-yarn winch whizzing round androundand the men walking slowly fore and aft with their yarns.- A cloud risesto windwardlooking a little black; the sky-sails are brailed down; the captainputs his head out of the companion-waylooks at the cloudcomes upand beginsto walk the deck.- The cloud spreads and comes on;- the tub of yarnsthe sailand other mattersare thrown belowand the sky-light and booby-hatch put onand the slide drawn over the forecastle.- "Stand by the royalhalyards;"- the man at the wheel keeps a good weather helmso as not to betaken aback. The squall strikes her. If it is lightthe royal yards are cleweddownand the ship keeps on her way; but if the squall takes strong holdtheroyals are clewed upfore and aft; light hands lay aloft and furl them;top-gallant yards clewed downflying-jib hauled downand the ship kept offbefore it- the man at the helm laying out his strength to heave the wheel up towindward. At the same time a drenching rainwhich soaks one through in aninstant. Yet no one puts on a jacket or cap; for if it is only warma sailordoes not mind a ducking; and the sun will soon be out again. As soon as theforce of the squall has passedthough to a common eye the ship would seem to bein the midst of its- "Keep her up to her courseagain!"- "Keepher upsir" (answer);- "Hoist away the top-gallant yards!"-"Run up the flying jib!"- "Lay aloftyou boysand loose theroyals!"- and all sail is on her again before she is fairly out of thesquall; and she is going on in her course. The sun comes out once morehotterthan everdries up the decks and the sailors' clothes; the hatches are takenoff; the sail got up and spread on the quarter-deck; spun-yarn winch set awhirling again; rigging coiled up; captain goes below; and every sign of aninterruption is removed.

These sceneswith occasional dead calmslasting for hoursand sometimesfor daysare fair specimens of the Atlantic tropics. The nights were fine; andas we had all hands all daythe watch were allowed to sleep on deck at nightexcept the man at the wheeland one look-out on the forecastle. This was not somuch expressly allowedas winked at. We could do it if we did not ask leave. Ifthe look-out was caught nappingthe whole watch was kept awake. We made themost of this permissionand stowed ourselves away upon the riggingunder theweather railon the sparsunder the windlassand in all the snug corners; andfrequently slept out the watchunless we had a wheel or a look-out. And we wereglad enough to get this rest; for under the "all hands" systemout ofevery other thirty-six hourswe had only four below; and even an hour's sleepwas a gain not to be neglected. One would have thought soto have seen ourwatchsome nightssleeping through a heavy rain. And often have we come ondeckand finding a dead calm and a lightsteady rainand determined not tolose our sleephave laid a coil of rigging down so as to keep us out of thewater which was washing about decksand stowed ourselves away upon itcoveringa jacket over usand slept as soundly as a Dutchman between two feather beds.

For a week or ten days after crossing the linewe had the usual variety ofcalmssquallshead windsand fair winds;- at one time braced sharp upon thewindwith a taught bowlineand in an hour afterslipping quietly alongwitha light breeze over the taffrailand studding-sails out on both sides;- untilwe fell in with the north-east trade-winds; which we did on the afternoon of -

SundayAugust 28thin lat. 12 deg. N. The trade-wind clouds had been insight for a day or two previouslyand we expected to take them every hour. Thelight southerly breezewhich had been blowing languidly during the first partof the daydied away toward noonand in its place came puffs from thenorth-eastwhich caused us to take our studding-sails in and brace up; and in acouple of hours morewe were bowling gloriously alongdashing the spray farahead and to leewardwith the coolsteady north-east tradesfreshening up theseaand giving us as much as we could carry our royals to. These winds blewstrong and steadykeeping us generally upon a bowlineas our course was aboutnorth-northwest; and sometimesas they veered a little to the eastwardgivingus a chance at a main top-gallant studding-sail; and sending us well to thenorthwarduntil- -

SundaySept. 4thwhen they left usin lat. 22 deg. N.long. 51 deg. W.directly under the tropic of Cancer.

For several days we lay "humbugging about" in the Horse latitudeswith all sorts of winds and weatherand occasionallyas we were in thelatitude of the West Indies- a thunder storm. It was hurricane monthtooandwe were just in the track of the tremendous hurricane of 1830which swept theNorth Atlanticdestroying almost everything before it. The first night afterthe tradewinds left uswhile we were in the latitude of the island of Cubawehad a specimen of a true tropical thunder storm. A light breeze had been blowingdirectly from aft during the first part of the night which gradually died awayand before midnight it was dead calmand a heavy black cloud had shrouded thewhole sky. When our watch came on deck at twelve o'clockit was as black asErebus; the studding-sails were all taken inand the royals furled; not abreath was stirring; the sails hung heavy and motionless from the yards; and theperfect stillnessand the darknesswhich was almost palpablewere trulyappalling. Not a word was spokenbut every one stood as though waiting forsomething to happen. In a few minutes the mate came forwardand in a low tonewhich was almost a whispertold us to haul down the jib. The fore and mizentop-gallant sails were taken inin the same silent manner; and we laymotionless upon the waterwith an uneasy expectationwhichfrom the longsuspensebecame actually painful. We could hear the captain walking the deckbut it was too dark to see anything more than one's hand before the face. Soonthe mate came forward againand gave an orderin a low toneto clew up themain top-gallant sail; and so infectious was the awe and silencethat theclewlines and buntlines were hauled up without any of the customary singing outat the ropes. An English lad and myself went up to furl it; and we had just gotthe bunt upwhen the mate called out to ussomethingwe did not hear what-but supposing it to be an order to bear-a-handwe hurriedand made all fastand came downfeeling our way among the rigging. When we got down we found allhands looking aloftand theredirectly over where we had been standinguponthe main top-gallant-mast-headwas a ball of lightwhich the sailors name acorposant (corpus sancti)and which the mate had called out to us to look at.They were all watching it carefullyfor sailors have a notion that if thecorposant rises in the riggingit is a sign of fair weatherbut if it comeslower downthere will be a storm. Unfortunatelyas an omenit came downandshowed itself on the top-gallant yard-arm. We were off the yard in good seasonfor it is held a fatal sign to have the pale light of the corposant thrown uponone's face. As it wasthe English lad did not feel comfortably at having had itso near himand directly over his head. In a few minutes it disappearedandshowed itself again on the fore top-gallant yard; and after playing about forsome timedisappeared again; when the man on the forecastle pointed to it uponthe flying-jib-boom-end. But our attention was drawn from watching thisby thefalling of some drops of rain and by a perceptible increase of the darknesswhich seemed suddenly to add a new shade of blackness to the night. In a fewminuteslowgrumbling thunder was heardand some random flashes of lightningcame from the south-west. Every sail was taken in but the topsailsstillnosquall appeared to be coming. A few puffs lifted the topsailsbut they fellagain to the mastand all was as stiff as ever. A moment moreand a terrificflash and peal broke simultaneously upon usand a cloud appeared to opendirectly over our heads and let down the water in one bodylike a fallingocean. We stood motionlessand almost stupefied; yet nothing had been struck.Peal after peal rattled over our headswith a sound which seemed actually tostop the breath in the bodyand the "speedy gleams" kept the wholeocean in a glare of light. The violent fall of rain lasted but a few minutesand was succeeded by occasional drops and showers; but the lightning continuedincessant for several hoursbreaking the midnight darkness with irregular andblinding flashes. During all which time there was not a breath stirringand welay motionlesslike a mark to be shot atprobably the only object on thesurface of the ocean for miles and miles. We stood hour after houruntil ourwatch was outand we were relievedat four o'clock. During all this timehardly a word was spoken; no bells were struckand the wheel was silentlyrelieved. The rain fell at intervals in heavy showersand we stood drenchedthrough and blinded by the flasheswhich broke the Egyptian darkness with abrightness which seemed almost malignant; while the thunder rolled in pealstheconcussion of which appeared to shake the very ocean. A ship is not ofteninjured by lightningfor the electricity is separated by the great number ofpoints she presentsand the quantity of iron which she has scattered in variousparts. The electric fluid ran over our anchorstop-sail sheets and ties; yet noharm was done to us. We went below at four o'clockleaving things in the samestate. It is not easy to sleepwhen the very next flash may tear the ship intwoor set her on fire; or where the deathlike calm may be broken by the blastof a hurricanetaking the masts out of the ship. But a man is no sailor if hecannot sleep when he turns-inand turn out when he's called. And whenat sevenbellsthe customary "All the larboard watchahoy!" brought us ondeckit was a fineclearsunny morningthe ship going leisurely alongwitha good breeze and all sail set.