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IN writing this ponderous tomethe author's desire has been to describe

the eminent characters and remarkable events of our annals in such a

form and style that the YOUNG may make acquaintance with them of their

own accord. For this purposewhile ostensibly relating the adventures

of a chairhe has endeavored to keep a distinct and unbroken thread of

authentic history. The chair is made to pass from one to another of

those personages of whom he thought it most desirable for the young

reader to have vivid and familiar ideasand whose lives and actions

would best enable him to give picturesque sketches of the times. On its

sturdy oaken legs it trudges diligently from one scene to anotherand

seems always to thrust itself in the waywith most benign complacency

whenever an historical personage happens to be looking round for a seat.

There is certainly no method by which the shadowy outlines of departed

men and women can be made to assume the hues of life more effectually

than by connecting their images with the substantial and homely reality

of a fireside chair. It causes us to feel at once that these characters

of history had a private and familiar existenceand were not wholly

contained within that cold array of outward action which we are

compelled to receive as the adequate representation of their lives. If

this impression can be givenmuch is accomplished.

Setting aside Grandfather and his auditorsand excepting the adventures

of the chairwhich form the machinery of the worknothing in the

ensuing pages can be termed fictitious. The authorit is truehas

sometimes assumed the license of filling up the outline of history with

details for which he has none but imaginative authoritybut whichhe

hopesdo not violate nor give a false coloring to the truth. He

believes thatin this respecthis narrative will not be found to

convey ideas and impressions of which the reader may hereafter find it

necessary to purge his mind.

The author's great doubt iswhether he has succeeded in writing a book

which will be readable by the class for whom he intends it. To make a

lively and entertaining narrative for childrenwith such unmalleable

material as is presented by the sombresternand rigid characteristics

of the Puritans and their descendantsis quite as difficult an attempt

as to manufacture delicate playthings out of the graniterocks on which

New England is founded.








GRANDFATHER had been sitting in his old arm-chair all that pleasant

afternoonwhile the children were pursuing their various sports far off

or near at handSometimes you would have said"Grandfather is asleep;"

hut stilleven when his eyes were closedhis thoughts were with the

young peopleplaying among the flowers and shrubbery of the garden.

He heard the voice of Laurencewho had taken possession of a heap of

decayed branches which the gardener had lopped from the fruit-treesand

was building a little hut for his cousin Clara and himself. He heard

Clara's gladsome voicetooas she weeded and watered the flower-bed

which had been given her for her own. He could have counted every

footstep that Charley tookas he trundled his wheelbarrow along the

gravel-walk. And though' Grandfather was old and gray-hairedyet his

heart leaped with joy whenever little Alice came flutteringlike a

butterflyinto the room. Sire had made each of the children her

playmate in turnand now made Grandfather her playmate tooand thought

him the merriest of them all.

At last the children grew weary of their sports. because a summer

afternoon is like a long lifetime to the young. So they came into the

room togetheranti clustered round Grandfather's great chair. Little

Alicewho was hardly five years oldtook the privilege of the

youngestand climbed his knee. It was a pleasant thing to behold that

fair and golden-haired child in the lap of the old manand to think

thatdifferent as they werethe hearts of both could be gladdened with

the same joys.

"Grandfather" said little Alicelaying her head back upon his arm"I

am very tired now. You must tell me a story to make me go to sleep."

"That is not what story-tellers like" answered Grandfathersmiling.

"They are better satisfied when they can keep their auditors awake."

"But here are Laurenceand Charleyand I" cried cousin Clarawho was

twice as old as little Alice. "We will all three keep wide awake. And

prayGrandfathertell us a story about this strange-looking old


Nowthe chair in which Grandfather sat was made of oakwhich had grown

dark with agebut had been rubbed and polished till it shone as bright

as mahogany. It was very large and heavyand had. a back that rose high

above Grandfather's white head. This back was curiously carved in open

workso as to represent flowersand foliageand other deviceswhich

the children had often gazed atbut could never understand what they

meant. On the very tip-top of the chairover the head of Grandfather

himselfwas a likeness of a lion's headwhich had such a savage grin

that you would almost expect to hear it growl and snarl.

The children had seen Grandfather sitting in this chair ever since they

could remember anything. Perhaps the younger of them supposed that he

and the chair had come into the world togetherand that both had always

been as old as they were now. At this timehoweverit happened to be

the fashion for ladies to adorn their drawing-rooms with the oldest and

oddest chairs that could be found. It seemed to cousin Clara thatif

these ladies could have seen Grandfather's old chairthey would have

thought it worth all the rest together. She wondered if it were not even

older than Grandfather himselfand longed to know all about its


"DoGrandfathertalk to us about this chair" she repeated.

"Wellchild" said Grandfatherpatting Clara's cheek"I cantell you

a great many stories of my chair. Perhaps your cousin Laurence would

like to hear them too. They would teach him something about the history

and distinguished people of his country which he has never read in any

of his schoolbooks."

Cousin Laurence was a boy of twelvea bright scholarin whom an early

thoughtfulness and sensibility began to show themselves. His young fancy

kindled at the idea of knowing all the adventures of this venerable

chair. He looked eagerly in Grandfather's face; and even Charleya

boldbriskrestless little fellow of ninesat himself down on the

carpetand resolved to be quiet for at least ten minutesshould the

story last so long.

Meantimelittle Alice was already asleep; so Grandfatherbeing much

pleased with such an attentive audiencebegan to talk about matters

that happened long ago.



BUT before relating the adventures of the chairs found it necessary to

speak of circumstances that caused the first settlement of New England.

For it will soon be perceived that the story of this remarkable chair

cannot be told without telling a great deal of the history of the


So Grandfather talked about the Puritans{Foot Note: It is more precise

to give the name of Pilgrims to those Englishmen who went to Holland and

afterward to Plymouth. They were sometimes called Separatists because

they separated themselves from the church of Englandsometimes

Brownists after the name of one of their eminent ministers. The Puritans

formed a great political as well as religious party in Englandand did

not at first separate themselves from the church of Englandthough

those who came to this country did so at once.} as those persons were

called who thought it sinful to practise certain religious forms and

ceremonies of the Church of England. These Puritans suffered so much

persecuted in England thatin 1607many of them went over to Holland

and lived ten or twelve years at Amsterdam and Leyden. But they feared

thatif they continued there much longerthey should cease to be

Englandand should adopt all the mannersand ideasand feelings of

the Dutch. For this and other reasonsin the year 1620 they embarked on

board the ship Mayflowerand crossed the oceanto the shores of Cape

Cod. There they made a settlementand called it Plymouthwhich

though now a part of Massachusettswas for a long time a colony by

itself. And thus was formed the earliest settlement of the Puritans in


Meantimethose of the Puritans who remained in England continued to

suffer grievous persecution on account of their religious opinions. They

began to look around them for some spot where they might worship God

not as the king and bishops thought fitbut according to the dictates

of their own consciences. When their brethren had gone from Holland to

Americathey bethought themselves that they likewise might find refuge

from persecution there. Several gentlemen among them purchased a tract

of country on the coast of Massachusetts Bayand obtained a charter

from King Charleswhich authorized them to make laws for the settlers.

In the year 1628 they sent over a few peoplewith John Endicott at

their beadto commence a plantation at Salem. {Foot Note: The Puritans

had a liking for Biblical names for their childrenand they sometimes

gave names out of the Bible to placesSalem means Peace. The Indian

name was Naumkeag.} Peter PalfreyRoger Conantand one or two more had

built houses there in 1626and may be considered as the first settlers

of that ancient town. Many other Puritans prepared to follow Endicott.

"And now we come to the chairmy dear children'' said Grandfather.

"This chair is supposed to have been made of an oak-tree which grew in

the park of the English Earl of Lincoln between two and three centuries

ago. In its younger days it usedprobablyto stand in the hall of the

earl's castle. I)o not you see the coat of arms of the family of Lincoln

carved in the open work of the back? But when his daughterthe Lady

Arbellawas married to a certain Mr. Johnsonthe earl gave her this

valuable chair."

"Who was Mr. Johnson?" inquired Clara.

"He was a gentleman of great wealthwho agreed with the Puritans in

their religious opinions" answered Grandfather. "And as his beliefwas

the same as theirshe resolved that he would live and die with them.

Accordinglyin the month of April1630he left his pleasant abode and

all his comforts in Englandand embarkedwith Lady Arbellaon board

of a ship bound for America."

As Grandfather was frequently impeded by the questions and observations

of his young auditorswe deem it advisable to omit all such prattle as

is no( essential to the story. We have taken some pains to find out

exactly what Grandfather saidand here offer to our readersas nearly

as possible in his own wordsthe story of the Lady Arbella.

The ship in which Mr. Johnson and his lady embarkedtaking

Grandfather's chair along with themwas called the Arbellain honor of

the lady herself. A fleet of ten or twelve vesselswith many hundred

passengersleft England about the same time; for a multitude of people

who were discontented with the king's government and oppressed by the

bishopswere flocking over to the New World. One of the vessels in the

fleet was that same Mayflower which had carried the Puritan Pilgrims to

Plymouth. And nowmy childrenI would have you fancy yourselves in the

cabin of the good ship Arbella; becauseif you could behold the

passengers aboard that vesselyou would feel what a blessing and honor

it was for New England to have such settlers. They were the best men and

women of their day.

Among the passengers was John Winthropwho had sold the estate of his

forefathersand was going to prepare a new home for his wife and

children in the wilderness. He had the king's charter in his keeping

and was appointed the first governor of Massachusetts. Imagine him a

person of grave and benevolent aspectdressed in a black velvet suit

with a broad ruff around his neckand a peaked beard upon his chin.

{Foot Note: There is a statue representing John Winthrop in Scollay

Square in Boston. He holds the charter in his handand a Bible is under

his arm.} There was likewise a minister of the gospel whom the English

bishops had forbidden to preachbut who knew that he should have

liberty both to preach and pray in the forests of America. He wore a

black cloakcalled a Geneva cloakand had a black velvet capfitting

close to his headas was the fashion of almost all the Puritan

clergymen. In their company came Sir Richard Saltonstallwho had been

one of the five first projectors of the new colony. He soon returned to

his native country. But his descendants still remain in New England; and

the good old family name is as much respected in our days as it was in

those of Sir Richard.

Not only thesebut several other men of wealth and pious ministers were

in the cabin of the Arbella. One had banished himself forever from the

old hall where his ancestors had lived for hundreds of years. Another

had left his quiet parsonagein a country town of England. Others had

come from the Universities of Oxford or Cambridgewhere they had gained

great fame for their learning. And here they all weretossing upon the

uncertain and dangerous seaand bound for a home that was more

dangerous than even the sea itself. In the cabinlikewisesat the Lady

Arbella in her chairwith a gentle and sweet expression on her face

but looking too pale and feeble to endure the hardships of the


Every morning and evening the Lady Arbella gave up her great chair to

one of the ministerswho took his place in it and read passages from

the Bible to his companions. And thuswith prayersand pious

conversationand frequent singing of hymnswhich the breezes caught

from their lips and scattered far over the desolate wavesthey

prosecuted their voyageand sailed into the harbor of Salem in the

month of June.

At that period there were but six or eight dwellings in the town; and

these were miserable hovelswith roofs of straw and wooden chimneys.

The passengers in the fleet either built huts with bark and branches of

treesor erected tents of cloth till they could provide themselves with

better shelter. Many of them went to form a settlement at Charlestown.

It was thought fit that the Lady Arbella should tarry in Salem for a

time; she was probably received as a guest into the family of John

Endicott. He was the chief person in the plantationand had the only

comfortable house which the new-comers had beheld since they left

England. So nowchildrenyou must imagine Grandfather's chair in the

midst of a new scene.

Suppose it a hot summer's dayand the lattice-windows of a chamber in

Mr. Endicott's house thrown wide open. The Lady Arbellalooking paler

than she did on shipboardis sitting in her chairand thinking

mournfully of far-off England. She rises and goes to the window. There

amid patches Of garden ground and cornfieldshe sees the few wretched

hovels of the settlerswith the still ruder wigwams and cloth tents of

the passengers who had arrived in the same fleet with herself. Far and

near stretches the dismal forest of pine-treeswhich throw their black

shadows over the whole landand likewise over the heart of this poor


All the inhabitants of the little village are busy. One is clearing a

spot on the verge of the forest for his homestead; another is hewing the

trunk of a fallen pine-treein order to build himself a dwelling; a

third is hoeing in his field of Indian corn. Here comes a huntsman out

of the woodsdragging a bear which he has shotand shouting to the

neighbors to lend him a hand. There goes a man to the sea-shorewith a

spade and a bucketto dig a mess of clamswhich were a principal

article of food with the first settlers. Scattered here and there are

two or three dusky figuresclad in mantles of furwith ornaments of

bone hanging from their earsand the feathers of wild birds in their

coal-black hair. They have belts of shellwork slung across their

shouldersand are armed with bows and arrowsand flint-headed spears.

These are an Indian sagamore and his attendantswho have come to gaze

at the labors of the white men. And now rises a cry that a pack of

wolves have seized a young calf in the pasture; and every man snatches

up his gun or pike and runs in chase of the marauding beasts.

Poor Lady Arbella watches all these sightsand feels that this New

World is fit only for rough and hardy people. None should be here but

those who can struggle with wild beasts and wild menand can toil in

the heat or coldand can keep their hearts firm against all

difficulties and dangers. But she is not of these. Her gentle and timid

spirit sinks within her; andturning away from the windowshe sits

down in the great chair and wonders whereabouts in the wilderness her

friends will dig her grave.

Mr. Johnson had gonewith Governor Winthrop and most of the other

passengersto Bostonwhere he intended to build a house for Lady

Arbella and himself. Boston was then covered with wild woodsand had

fewer inhabitantseventhan Salem. During her husband's absencepoor

Lady Arbella felt herself growing illand was hardly able to stir from

the great chair. Whenever John Endicott noticed her despondency he

doubtless addressed her with words of comfort. "Cheer upmy goodlady!"

he would say.

"In a little time you will love this rude life of the wilderness as I

do." But Endicott's heart was as bold and resolute as ironand he could

not understand why a woman's heart should not be of iron too.

Stillhoweverhe spoke kindly to the ladyand then hastened forth to

till his cornfield and set out fruit-treesor to bargain with the

Indians for fursor perchance to oversee the building of a fort. Also

being a magistratehe had often to punish some idler or evil doerby

ordering him to be set in the stocks or scourged at the whipping-post.

Oftentooas was the custom of the timeshe and Mr. Higginsonthe

minister of Salemheld long religious talks together. Thus John

Endicott was a man of multifarious businessand had no time to look

back regretfully to his native land. He felt himself fit for the New

World and for the work that he had to doand set himself resolutely to

accomplish it.

What a contrastmy dear childrenbetween this boldroughactive man

and the gentle Lady Arbellawho was fading awaylike a pale English

flowerin the shadow of the forest! And now the great chair was often

emptybecause Lady Arbella grew too weak to arise from bed.

Meantimeher husband had pitched upon a spot for their new home. He

returned from Boston to Salemtravelling through the woods on footand

leaning on his pilgrim's staff. His heart yearned within him; for he was

eager to tell his wife of the new home which he had chosen. But when he

beheld her pale and hollow cheekand found how her strength was wasted

he must have known that her appointed home was in a better land. Happy

for him then--happy both for him and her--if they remembered that there

was a path to heavenas well from this heathen wilderness as from the

Christian land whence they had come. And soin one short month from her

arrivalthe gentle Lady Arbella faded away and died. They dug a grave

for her in the new soilwhere the roots of the pine-trees impeded their

spades; and when her bones had rested there nearly two hundred years

and a city had sprung up around thema church of stone was built upon

the spot.

Charleyalmost at the commencement of the foregoing narrativehad

galloped awaywith a prodigious clatterupon Grandfather's stickand

was not yet returned. So large a boy should have been ashamed to ride

upon a stick. But Laurence and Clara had listened attentivelyand were

affected by this true story of the gentle lady who had come so far to

die so soon. Grandfather had supposed that little Alice was asleep; but

towards the close of the storyhappening to look down upon herhe saw

that her blue eyes were wide openand fixed earnestly upon his face.

The tears had gathered in themlike dew upon a delicate flower; but

when Grandfather ceased to speakthe sunshine of her smile broke forth


"Ohthe lady must have been so glad to get to heaven!" exclaimedlittle

Alice. "Grandfatherwhat became of Mr. Johnson?" asked Clara.

"His heart appears to have been quite broken" answeredGrandfather;

"for he died at Boston within a month after the death of his wife. He

was buried in the very same tract of ground where he had intended to

build a dwelling for Lady Arbella and himself. Where their house would

have stoodthere was his grave."

"I never heard anything so melancholy" said Clara.

"The people loved and respected Mr. Johnson so much" continued

Grandfather"that it was the last request of many of themwhen they

diedthat they might be buried as near as possible to this good man's

grave. And so the field became the first burial ground in Boston. When

you pass through Tremont Streetalong by King's Chapelyou see a

burial-groundcontaining many old grave-stones and monuments. That was

Mr. Johnson's field."

"How sad is the thought" observed Clara"that one of thefirst things

which the settlers had to dowhen they came to the New Worldwas to

set apart a burial-ground!"

"Perhaps" said Laurence"if they had found no need ofburial-grounds

herethey would have been gladafter a few yearsto go back to


Grandfather looked at Laurenceto discover whether he knew how profound

and true a thing he had said.





NOT long after Grandfather had told the story of his great chairthere

chanced to be a rainy day. Our friend Charleyafter disturbing the

household with beat of drum and riotous shoutsraces up and down the

staircaseoverturning of chairsand much other uproarbegan to feel

the quiet and confinement within doors intolerable. But as the rain came

down in a floodthe little fellow was hopelessly a prisonerand now

stood with sullen aspect at a windowwondering whether the sun itself

were not extinguished by so much moisture in the sky.

Charley had already exhausted the less eager activity of the other

children; and they had betaken themselves to occupations that did not

admit of his companionship. Laurence sat in a recess near the book-ease

readingnot for the first timethe Midsummer Night's Dream. Clara was

making a rosary of beads for a little figure of a Sister of Charitywho

was to attend the Bunker Hill fair and lend her aid in erecting the

Monument. Little Alice sat on Grandfather's footstoolwith a picture-

book in her hand; andfor every picturethe child was telling

Grandfather a story. She did not read from the book (for little Alice

had not much skill in reading)but told the story out of her own heart

and mind.

Charley was too big a boyof courseto care anything about little

Alice's storiesalthough Grandfather appeared to listen with a good

deal of interest. Often in a young child's ideas and fanciesthereis

something which it requires the thought of a lifetime to comprehend. But

Charley was of opinion thatif a story must be toldit had better be

told by Grandfather than little Alice.

"GrandfatherI want to hear more about your chair" said he.

NowGrandfather remembered that Charley had galloped away upon a stick

in the midst of the narrative of poor Lady Arbellaand I know not

whether he would have thought it worth while to tell another story

merely to gratify such an inattentive auditor as Charley. But Laurence

laid down his book and seconded the request. Clara drew her chair nearer

to Grandfather; and little Alice immediately closed her picture-book and

looked up into his face. Grandfather had not the heart to disappoint


He mentioned several persons who had a share in the settlement of our

countryand who would be well worthy of remembranceif we could find

room to tell about them all. Among the restGrandfather spoke of the

famous Hugh Petersa minister of the gospelwho did much good to the

inhabitants of Salem. Mr. Peters afterwards went back to Englandand

was chaplain to Oliver Cromwell; but Grandfather did not tell the

children what became of this upright and zealous man at last. In fact

his auditors were growing impatient to hear more about the history of

the chair.

"After the death of Mr. Johnson" said he"Grandfather'schair came

into the possession of Roger Williams. He was a clergymanwho arrived

at Salemand settled there in 1631. Doubtless the good man has spent

many a studious hour in this old chaireither penning a sermon or

reading some abstruse book of theologytill midnight came upon him

unawares. At that periodas there were few lamps or candles to be had

people used to read or work by the light of pitch. pine torches. These

supplied the place of the 'midnight oil' to the learned men of New


Grandfather went on to talk about Roger Williamsand told the children

several particularswhich we have not room to repeat.





"ROGER WILLIAMS" said Grandfather"did not keep possessionof the

chair a great while. His opinions of civil and religious matters

differedin many respectsfrom those of the rulers and clergymen of

Massachusetts. Nowthe wise men of those days believed that the country

could not be safe unless all the inhabitants thought and felt alike."

"Does anybody believe so in our daysGrandfather?" asked Lawrence.

"Possibly there are some who believe it" said Grandfather;"but they

have not so much power to act upon their belief as the magistrates and

ministers had in the days of Roger Williams. They had the power to

deprive this good man of his homeand to send him out from the midst of

them in search of a new place of rest. He was banished in 1634and went

first to Plymouth colony; but as the people there held the same opinions

as those of Massachusettshe was not suffered to remain among them.

Howeverthe wilderness was wide enough; so Roger Williams took his

staff and travelled into the forest and made treaties with the Indians

and began a plantation which he called Providence."

"I have been to Providence on the railroad" said Charley. "Itis but a

two-hours' ride."

"YesCharley" replied Grandfather; "but when Roger Williamstravelled

thitherover hills and valleysand through the tangled woodsand

across swamps and streamsit was a journey of several days. Wellhis

little plantation has now grown to be a populous city; and the

inhabitants have a great veneration for Roger Williams. His name is

familiar in the mouths of allbecause they see it on their bank-bills.

How it would have perplexed this good clergyman if he had been told that

he should give his name to the ROGER WILLIAMS BANK!"

"When he was driven from Massachusetts" said Lawrence"andbegan his

journey into the woodshe must have felt as if he were burying himself

forever from the sight and knowledge of men. Yet the whole country has

now heard of himand will remember him forever."

"Yes" answered Grandfather; "it often happens that theoutcasts of one

generation are those who are reverenced as the wisest and best of men by

the next. The securest fame is that which comes after a man's death. But

let us return to our story. When Roger Williams was banishedhe appears

to have given the chair to Mrs. Anne Hutchinson. At all eventsit was

in her possession in 1687. She was a very sharp-witted and well-

instructed ladyand was so conscious of her own wisdom and abilities

that she thought it a pity that the world should not have the benefit of

them. She therefore used to hold lectures in Boston once or twice a

weekat which most of the women attended. Mrs. Hutchinson presided at

these meetingssitting with great state and dignity in Grandfather's


"Grandfatherwas it positively this very chair?" demanded Claralaying

her hand upon its carved elbow.

"Why notmy dear Clara?" said Grandfather. "WellMrs.Hutchinson's

lectures soon caused a great disturbance; for the ministers of Boston

did not think it safe and proper that a woman should publicly instruct

the people in religious doctrines. Moreovershe made the matter worse

by declaring that the Rev. Mr. Cotton was the only sincerely pious and

holy clergyman in New England. Nowthe clergy of those days had quite

as much share in the government of the countrythough indirectlyas

the magistrates themselves; so you may imagine what a host of powerful

enemies were raised up against Mrs. Hutchinson. A synod was convened;

that is to sayan assemblage of all the ministers in Massachusetts.

They declared that there were eighty-two erroneous opinions on religious

subjects diffused among the peopleand that Mrs. Hutchinson's opinions

were of the number."

"If they had eighty-two wrong opinions" observed Charley"Idon't see

how they could have any right ones."

"Mrs. Hutchinson had many zealous friends and converts" continued

Grandfather. "She was favored by young Henry Vanewho had come over

from England a year or two beforeand had since been chosen governor of

the colonyat the age of twenty-four. But Winthrop and most of the

other leading menas well as the ministersfelt an abhorrence of her

doctrines. Thus two opposite parties were formed; and so fierce were the

dissensions that it was feared the consequence would be civil war and

bloodshed. But Winthrop and the ministers being the most powerfulthey

disarmed and imprisoned Mrs. Hutchinson's adherents. Shelike Roger

Williamswas banished."

"Dear Grandfatherdid they drive the poor woman

into the woods?" exclaimed little Alicewho contrived to feel a human

interest even in these discords of polemic divinity.

"They didmy darling" replied Grandfather; "and the end ofher life

was so sad you must not hear it. At her departureit appearsfrom the

best authoritiesthat she gave the great Chair to her friend Henry

Vane. He was a young man of wonderful talents and great learningwho

had imbibed the religious opinions of the Puritansand left England

with the intention of spending his life in Massachusetts. The people

chose him governor; but the controversy about Mrs. Hutchinsonand other

troublescaused him to leave country in 1637. You may read the

subsequent events of his life in the History of England."

"YesGrandfather" cried Laurence; "and we may read thembetter in Mr.

Upham’s biography of Vane. And what a beautiful death he diedlong

afterwards! beautifulthough it was on a scaffold."

"Many of the most beautiful dear]as have been there" saidGrandfather.

"The enemies of a great and good man can in no other way make him so

glorious as by giving him the crown of martyrdom."

In order that the children might fully understand the all-important

history of the chairGrandfather now thought fit to speak of the

progress that was made in settling several colonies. The settlement of

Plymouthin 1620has already been mentioned. In 1635 Mr. Hooker and

Mr. Stonetwo ministerswent on foot from Massachusetts to

Connecticutthrough the pathless woodstaking their whole congregation

along with them. They founded the town of Hartford. In 1638 Mr.

Davenporta very celebrated ministerwentwith other peopleand

began a plantation at New Haven. In the same yearsome persons who had

been persecuted in Massachusetts went to the Isle of Rhodessince

called Rhode Islandand settled there. About this timealsomany

settlers had gone to Maineand were living without any regular govern-

ment. There were likewise settlers near Piscataqua Riverin the region

which is now called New Hampshire.

Thusat various points along the coast of New Englandthere were

communities of Englishmen. Though these communities were independent of

one anotheryet they had a common dependence upon England; andat so

vast a distance from their native homethe inhabitants must all have

felt like brethren. They were fitted to become one united People at a

future period. Perhaps their feelings of brotherhood were the stronger

because different nations had formed settlements to the north and to the

south. In Canada and Nova Scotia were colonies of French. On the banks

of the Hudson River was a colony of Dutchwho had taken possession of

that region many years beforeand called it New Netherlands.

Grandfatherfor aught I knowmight have gone on to speak of Maryland

and Virginia; for the good old gentleman really seemed to suppose that

the whole surface of the United States was not too broad a foundation to

place the four legs of his chair upon. Buthappening to glance at

Charleyhe perceived that this naughty boy was growing impatient and

meditating another ride upon a stick. So herefor the present

Grandfather suspended the history of his chair.





The children had now learned to look upon the chair with an interest

which was almost the same as if it were a conscious beingand could

remember the many famous people whom it had held within its arms.

Even Charleylawless as he wasseemed to feel that this venerable

chair must not be clambered upon nor overturnedalthough he had no

scruple in taking such liberties With every other chair in the house.

Clara treated it with still greater reverenceoften taking occasion to

smooth its cushionand to brush the dust from the carved flowers and

grotesque figures of its oaken back and arms. Laurence would sometimes

sit a whole hourespecially at twilightgazing at the chairandby

the spell of his imaginationssummoning up its ancient occupants to

appear in it again.

Little Alice evidently employed herself in a similar way; for once when

Grandfather had gone abroadthe child was heard talking with the gentle

Lady Arbellaas if she were still sitting in the chair. So sweet a

child as little Alice may fitly talk with angelssuch as the Lady

Arbella had long since become.

Grandfather was soon importuned for more stories about the chair. He had

no difficulty in relating them; for it really seemed as if every person

noted in our early history hadon some occasion or otherfound repose

within its comfortable arms. If Grandfather took pride in anythingit

was in being the possessor of such an honorable and historic elbow-


"I know not precisely who next got possession of the chair after

Governor Vane went back to England" said Grandfather. "But thereis

reason to believe that President Dunster sat in itwhen he held the

first Commencement at Harvard College. You have often heardchildren

how careful our forefathers were to give their young people a good

education. They had scarcely cut down trees enough to make room for

their own dwellings before they began to think of establishing a

college. Their principal object wasto rear up pious and learned

ministers; and hence old writers call Harvard College a school of the


"Is the college a school of the prophets now?" asked Charley.

"It is a long while since I took my degreeCharley. You must ask some

of the recent graduates" answered Grandfather. "As I was tellingyou

President Dunster sat in Grandfather's chair in 1642when he conferred

the degree of bachelor of arts on nine young men. They were the first in

America who had received that honor. And nowmy dear auditorsI must

confess that there are contradictory statements and some uncertainty

about the adventures of the chair for a period of almost ten years. Some

say that it was occupied by your own ancestorWilliam Hawthornefirst

speaker of the House of Representatives. I have nearly satisfied myself

howeverthatduring most of this questionable periodit was literally

the chair of state. It gives me much pleasure to imagine that several

successive governors of Massachusetts sat in it at the council board."

"ButGrandfather" interposed Charleywho was a matter-of-factlittle

person"what reason have youto imagine so?"

"Pray do imagine itGrandfather" said Laurence.

"With Charley's permissionI will" replied Grandfathersmiling."Let

us consider it settledthereforethat WinthropBellinghamDudley

and Endicotteach of themwhen chosen governortook his seat in our

great chair on election day. In this chairlikewisedid those

excellent governors preside while holding consultations with the chief

councillors of the provincewho were styled assistants. The governor

sat in this chairtoowhenever messages were brought to him from the

chamber of representatives."

And here Grandfather took occasion to talk rather tediously about the

nature and forms of government that established themselvesalmost

spontaneouslyin Massachusetts and the other New England colonies.

Democracies were the natural growth of the New World. As to

Massachusettsit was at first intended that the colony should be

governed by a council in London. But in a little while the people had

the whole power in their own handsand chose annually the governorthe

councillorsand the representatives. The people of Old England had

never enjoyed anything like the liberties and privileges which the

settlers of New England now possessed. And they did not adopt these

modes of government after long studybut in simplicityas if there

were no other way for people to be ruled.

"ButLaurence" continued Grandfather"when you wantinstruction on

these pointsyou must seek it in Mr. Bancroft's History. I am merely

telling the history of a chair. To proceed. The period during which the

governors sat in our chair was not very full of striking incidents. The

province was now established on a secure foundation; but it did not

increase so rapidly as at firstbecause the Puritans were no longer

driven from England by persecution. Howeverthere was still a quiet and

natural growth. The Legislature incorporated townsand made new

purchases of lands from the Indians. A very memorable event took place

in 1643. The colonies of MassachusettsPlymouthConnecticutand New

Haven formed a unionfor the purpose of assisting each other in

difficultiesfor mutual defence against their enemies. They called

themselves the United Colonies of New England."

"Were they under a government like that of the United States?"inquired


"No" replied Grandfather; "the different colonies did notcompose one

nation together; it was merely a confederacy among the governments: It

somewhat resembled the league of the Amphictyonswhich you remember in

Grecian history. But to return to our chair. In 1644 it was highly

honored; for Governor Endicott sat in it when he gave audience to an

ambassador from the French governor of Acadiaor Nova Scotia. A treaty

of peace between Massachusetts and the French colony was then signed."

"Did England allow Massachusetts to make war and peace with foreign

countries?" asked Laurence.

"Massachusetts and the whole of New England was then almost independent

of the mother country" said Grandfather. "There was now a civilwar in

England; and the kingas you may well supposehad his hands full at

homeand could pay but little attention to these remote colonies. When

the Parliament got the power into their handsthey likewise had enough

to do in keeping down the Cavaliers. Thus New Englandlike a young and

hardy lad whose father and mother neglect itwas left to take care of

itself. In 1649 King Charles was beheaded. Oliver Cromwell then became

Protector of England; and as he was a Puritan himselfand had risen by

the valor of the English Puritanshe showed himself a loving and

indulgent father to the Puritan colonies in America."

Grandfather might have continued to talk in this dull manner nobody

knows how long; but suspecting that Charley would find the subject

rather dryhe looked sidewise at that vivacious little fellowand saw

him give an involuntary yawn. Whereupon Grandfather proceeded with the

history of the chairand related a very entertaining incidentwhich

will be found in the next chapter.





"ACCORDING to the most authentic recordsmy dear children" said

Grandfather"the chairabout this timehad the misfortune to break

its leg. It was probably on account of this accident that it ceased to

be the seat of the governors of Massachusetts; forassuredlyit would

have been ominous of evil to the commonwealth if the chair of state had

tottered upon three legs. Being therefore sold at auction--alas I what

a vicissitude for a chair that had figured in such high company!--our

venerable friend was knocked down to a certain Captain John Hull. This

old gentlemanon carefully examining the maimed chairdiscovered that

its broken leg might be clamped with iron and made as serviceable as


"Here is the very leg that was broken!" exclaimed Charleythrowing

himself down on the floor to look at it. "And here are the iron clamps.

How well it was mended!"

When they had all sufficiently examined the broken legGrandfather told

them a story about Captain John Hull and the Pine-tree Shillings.

The Captain John Hull aforesaid was the mint-master of Massachusetts

and coined all the money that was made there. This was a new line of

businessforin the earlier days of the colonythe current coinage

consisted of gold and silver money of EnglandPortugaland Spain.

These coins being scarcethe people were often forced to barter their

commodities instead of selling them.

For instanceif a man wanted to buy a coathe perhaps exchanged a

bear-skin for it. If he wished for a barrel of molasseshe might

purchase it with a pile of pine boards. Musket-bullets were used instead

of farthings. The Indians had a sort of moneycalled wampumwhich was

made of clam-shells; and this strange sort of specie was likewise taken

in payment of debts by the English settlers. Bank-bills had never been

heard of. There was not money enough of any kindin many parts of the

countryto pay the salaries of the ministers; so that they sometimes

had to take quintals of fishbushels of cornor cords of woodinstead

of silver or gold.

As the people grew more numerousand their trade one with another

increasedthe want of current money was still more sensibly felt. To

supply the demandthe General Court passed a law for establishing a

coinage of shillingssixpencesand threepences. Captain John Hull was

appointed to manufacture this moneyand was to have about one shilling

out of every twenty to pay him for the trouble of making them.

Hereupon all the old silver in the colony was handed over to Captain

John Hull. The battered silver cans and tankardsI supposeand silver

bucklesand broken spoonsand silver buttons of worn-out coatsand

silver hilts of swords that had figured at court- all such curious old

articles were doubtless thrown into the melting-pot together. But by far

the greater part of the silver consisted of bullion from the mines of

South Americawhich the English buccaneers--who were little better than

pirates--had taken from the Spaniards and brought to Massachusetts.

All this old and new silver being melted down and coinedthe result was

an immense amount of splendid shillingssixpencesand threepences.

Each had the date1652on the one sideand the figure of a pine-tree

on the other. Hence they were called pine-tree shillings. And for every

twenty shillings that he coinedyou will rememberCaptain John Hull

was entitled to put one shilling into his own pocket.

The magistrates soon began to suspect that the mint master would have

the best of the bargain. They offered him a large sum of money if he

would but give up that twentieth shilling which he was continually

dropping into his own pocket. But Captain Hull declared himself

perfectly satisfied with the shilling. And well he might be; for so

diligently did he laborthatin a few yearshis pocketshis money-

bagsand his strong box were overflowing with pine-tree shillings. This

was probably the case when he came into possession of Grandfather's

chair; andas he had worked so hard at the mintit was certainly

proper that he should have a comfortable chair to rest him self in.

When the mint-master had grown very richa young manSamuel Sewall by

namecame a-courting to his only daughter. His daughter--whose name I

do not knowbut we will call her Betsey--was a finehearty damselby

no means so slender as some young ladies of our own days. On the

contraryhaving always fed heartily on pumpkin-piesdoughnutsIndian

puddingsand other Puritan daintiesshe was as round and plump as a

pudding herself. With this roundrosy Miss Betsey did Samuel Sewall

fall in love. As he was a young man of good characterindustrious in

his businessand a member of the churchthe mint-master very readily

gave his consent.

"Yesyou may take her" said hein his rough way"andyou'll find her

a heavy burden enough!"

On the wedding daywe may suppose that honest John Hull dressed himself

in a plum-colored coatall the buttons of which were made of pine-tree

shillings. The buttons of his waistcoat were sixpences; and the knees of

his small-clothes were buttoned with silver threepences. Thus attired

he sat with great dignity in Grandfather's chair; andbeing a portly

old gentlemanhe completely filled it from elbow to elbow. On the

opposite side of the roombetween her bride-maidssat Miss Betsey. She

was blushing with all her mightand looked like a full-blown peonyor

a great red apple.

Theretoowas the bridegroomdressed in a fine purple coat and gold-

lace waistcoatwith as much other finery as the Puritan laws and

customs would allow him to put on. His hair was cropped close to his

headbecause Governor Endicott had forbidden any man to wear it below

the ears. But he was a very personable young man; and so thought the

bridemaids and Miss Betsey herself.

The mint-master also was pleased with his new Son-in-law; especially as

he had courted Miss Betsey out of pure loveand had said nothing at all

about her portion. Sowhen the marriage ceremony was overCaptain Hull

whispered a word to two of his men-servantswho immediately went out

and soon returnedlugging in a large pair of scales. They were such a

pair as wholesale merchants use for weighing bulky commodities; and

quite a bulky commodity was now to be weighed in them.

"Daughter Betsey" said the mint-master"get into one side ofthese


Miss Betsey--or Mrs. Sewallas we must now call her--did as she was

bidlike a dutiful childwithout any question of the why and

wherefore. But what her father could meanunless to make her husband

pay for her by the pound (in which case she would have been a dear

bargain)she had not the least idea.

"And now" said honest John Hull to the servants "bring thatbox


The box to which the mint-master pointed was a hugesquareiron-bound

oaken chest; it was big enoughmy childrenfor all four of you to play

at hide-and-seek in. The servants tugged with might and mainbut could

not lift this enormous receptacleand were finally obliged to drag it

across the floor. Captain Hull then took a key from his girdleunlocked

the chestand lifted its ponderous lid. Behold! it was full to the brim

of bright pine-tree shillingsfresh from the mint; and Samuel Sewall

began to think that his father-in-law had got possession of all the

money in the Massachusetts treasury. But it was only the mint-master's

honest share of the coinage.

Then the servantsat Captain Hull's commandheaped double handfuls of

shillings into one side of the scaleswhile Betsey remained in the

other. Jinglejinglewent the shillingsas handful after handful was

thrown intillplump and ponderous as she wasthey fairly weighed the

young lady from the floor.

"Thereson Sewall!" cried the honest mint-masterresuming hisseat in

Grandfather's chair"take these shillings for my daughter's portion.

Use her kindlyand thank Heaven for her. It is not every wife that's

worth her weight in silver!"

The children laughed heartily at this legendand would hardly be

convinced but that Grandfather had made it out of his own head. He

assured them faithfullyhoweverthat he had found it in the pages of a

grave historianand had merely tried to tell it in a somewhat funnier

style. As for Samuel Sewallhe afterwards became chief justice of


"WellGrandfather" remarked Clara"if wedding portionsnowadays were

paid as Miss Betsey's wasyoung ladies would not pride themselves upon

an airy figureas many of them do."





WHEN his little audience next assembled round the chairGrandfather

gave them a doleful history of the Quaker persecutionwhich began in

1656and raged for about three years in Massachusetts.

He told them howin the first placetwelve of the converts of George

Foxthe first Quaker in the worldhad come over from England. They

seemed to be impelled by an earnest love for the souls of menand a

pure desire to make known what they considered a revelation from Heaven.

But the rulers looked upon them as plotting the downfall of all

government and religion. They were banished from the colony. In a little

whilehowevernot only the first twelve had returnedbut a multitude

of other Quakers had come to rebuke the rulers and to preach against the

priests and steeple-houses.

Grandfather described the hatred and scorn with which these enthusiasts

were received. They were thrown into dungeons; they were beaten with

many stripeswomen as well as men; they were driven forth into the

wildernessand left to the tender mercies of tender mercies of wild

beasts and Indians. The children were amazed hear that the more the

Quakers were scourgedand imprisonedand banishedthe more did the

sect increaseboth by the influx of strangers and by converts from

among the PuritansBut Grandfather told them that God had put something

into the soul of manwhich always turned the cruelties of the

persecutor to naught.

He went on to relate thatin 1659two Quakersnamed William Robinson

and Marmaduke Stephen-sonwere hanged at Boston. A woman had been sen-

tenced to die with thembut was reprieved on condition of her leaving

the colony. Her name was Mary Dyer. In the year 1660 she returned to

Bostonalthough she knew death awaited her there; andif Grandfather

had been correctly informedan incident had then taken place which

connects her with our story. This Mary Dyer had entered the mint-

master's dwellingclothed in sackcloth and ashesand seated herself in

our great chair with a sort of dignity and state. Then she proceeded to

deliver what she called a message from Heavenbut in the midst of it

they dragged her to prison.

"And was she executed?" asked Laurence.

"She was" said Grandfather.

"Grandfather" cried Charleyclinching his fist"I wouldhave fought

for that poor Quaker woman!"

"Ahbut if a sword had been drawn for her" said Laurence"it would

have taken away all the beauty of her death."

It seemed as if hardly any of the preceding stories had thrown such an

interest around Grandfather's chair as did the fact that the poor

persecutedwandering Quaker woman had rested in it for a moment. The

children were so much excited that Grandfather found it necessary to

bring his account of the persecution to a close.

"In 1660the same year in which Mary Dyer was executed" said he

"Charles II. was restored to the throne of his fathers. This king had

many vices; but he would not permit blood to be shedunder pretence of

religionin any part of his dominions. The Quakers in England told him

what had been done to their brethren in Massachusetts; and he sent

orders to Governor Endicott to forbear all such proceedings in future.

And so ended the Quaker persecution--one of the most mournful passages

in the history of our forefathers."

Grandfather then told his auditorsthatshortly after the above

incidentthe great chair had been given by the mint-master to the Rev.

Mr. John Eliot. He was the first minister of Roxbury. But besides

attending to the pastoral duties therehe learned the language of the

red menand often went into the woods to preach to them. So earnestly

did he labor for their conversion that he has always been called the

apostle to the Indians. The mention of this holy man suggested to

Grandfather the propriety of giving a brief sketch of the history of the

Indiansso far as they were connected with the English colonists.

A short period before the arrival of the first Pilgrims at Plymouth

there had been a very grievous plague among the red men; and the sages

and ministers of that day were inclined to the opinion that Providence

had sent this mortality in order to make room for the settlement of the

English. But I know not why we should suppose that an Indian's life is

less preciousin the eye of Heaventhan that of a white man. Be that

as it maydeath had certainly been very busy with the savage tribes.

In many places the English found the wigwams deserted and the cornfields

growing to wastewith none to harvest the grain. There were heaps of

earth alsowhichbeing dug openproved to be Indian graves

containing bows and flint-headed spears and arrows; for the Indians

buried the dead warrior's weapons along with him. In some spots there

were skulls and other human bones lying unburied. In 1633and the year

afterwardsthe small-pox broke out among the Massachusetts Indians

multitudes of whom died by this terrible disease of the Old World. These

misfortunes made them far less powerful than they had formerly been.

For nearly half a century after the arrival of the English the red men

showed themselves generally inclined to peace and amity. They often made

submission when they might have made successful war. The Plymouth

settlersled by the famous Captain Miles Standishslew some of them

in 1623without any very evident necessity for so doing. In 1636and

the following yearthere was the most dreadful war that had yet

occurred between the Indians and the English. The Connecticut settlers

assisted by a celebrated Indian chief named Uncasbore the brunt of

this warwith but little aid from Massachusetts. Many hundreds of the

hostile Indians were slain or burned in their wigwams. Sassacustheir

sachemfled to another tribeafter his own people were defeated; but

he was murdered by themand his head was sent to his English enemies.

From that period down to the time of King Philip's Warwhich will be

mentioned hereafterthere was not much trouble with the Indians. But

the colonists were always on their guardand kept their weapons ready

for the conflict.

"I have sometimes doubted" said Grandfatherwhen he had toldthese

things to the Children- "I have sometimes doubted whether there was

more than a single man among our forefathers who realized that an Indian

possesses a mindand a heartand an immortal soul. That single man was

John Eliot. All the rest of the early settlers seemed to think that the

Indians were an inferior race of beingswhom the Creator had merely

allowed to keep possession of this beautiful country till the white men

should be in want of it."

"Did the pious men of those days never try to make Christian ofthem?"

asked Laurence. "Sometimesit is true" answered Grandfather"the

magistrates and ministers would talk about civilizing and converting the

red people. Butat the bottom of their heartsthey would have had

almost as much expectation of civilizing the wild bear of the woods and

making him fit for paradise. They felt no faith in the success of any

such attemptsbecause they had no love for the poor Indians. NowEliot

was full of love for them; and therefore so full of faith and hope that

he spent the labor of a lifetime in their behalf."

"I would have conquered them firstand then converted them" said


"AhCharleythere spoke the very spirit of our forefathers."replied

Grandfather. "But Mr. Eliot a better spirit. He looked upon them as his

brethren. He persuaded as many of them as he could to leave off their

idle and wandering habitsand to build houses and cultivate the earth

as the English did. He established schools among them and taught many of

the Indians how to read. He taught themlikewisehow to pray. Hence

they were called 'praying Indians.' Finallyhaving spent the best years

of his life for their goodMr. Eliot resolved to spend the remainder in

doing them a yet greater benefit."

"I know what that was!" cried Laurence.

"He sat down in his study" continued Grandfather"and begana

translation of the Bible into the Indian tongue. It was while he was

engaged in this pious work that the mint-master gave him our great

chair. His toil needed it and deserved it."

"O Grandfathertell us all about that Indian Bible!" exclaimed

Laurence. "I have seen it in the library of the Athenaeum; and the tears

came into my eyes to think that there were no Indians left to read it."





As Grandfather was a great admirer of the apostle Eliothe was glad to

comply with the earnest request which Laurence had made at the close of

the last chapter. So he proceeded to describe how good Mr. Eliot

laboredwhile he was at work upon the Indian Bible.

My dear childrenwhat a task would you think iteven with a long

lifetime before youwere you bidden to copy every chapterand verse

and wordin yonder family Bible! Would not this be a heavy toil? But if

the task werenot to write off the English Biblebut to learn a

language utterly unlike all other tonguesa language which hitherto had

never been learnedexcept by the Indians themselvesfrom their

mothers' lips--a language never writtenand the strange words of which

seemed inexpressible by letters--if the task werefirst to learn this

new variety of speechand then to translate the Bible into itand to

do it so carefully that not one idea throughout the holy book should be

changed--what would induce you to undertake this toil? Yet this was

what the apostle Eliot did.

It was a mighty work for a mannow growing oldto take upon himself.

And what earthly reward could he expect from it? None; no reward on

earth. But he believed that the red men were the descendants of those

lost tribes of Israel of whom history has been able to tell us nothing

for thousands of years. He hoped that God had sent the English across

the oceanGentiles as they wereto enlighten this benighted portion of

his once chosen race. And when he should be summoned hencehe trusted

to meet blessed spirits in another worldwhose bliss would have been

earned by his patient toil in translating the word of God. This hope and

trust were far dearer to him than anything that earth could offer.

Sometimeswhile thus at workhe was visited by learned menwho

desired to know what literary undertaking Mr. Eliot had in hand. They

like himselfhad been bred in the studious cloisters of a university

and were supposed to possess all the erudition which mankind has hoarded

up from age to age. Greek and Latin were as familiar to them as the bab-

ble of their childhood. Hebrew was like their mother tongue. They had

grown gray in study; their eyes were bleared with poring over print and

manuscript by the light of the midnight lamp.

And yethow much had they left unlearned! Mr. Eliot would put into

their hands some of the pages which he had been writing; and behold! the

gray-headed men stammered over the longstrange wordslike a little

child in his first attempts to read. Then would the apostle call to him

an Indian boyone of his scholarsand show him the manuscript which

had so puzzled the learned Englishmen.

"Read thismy child" would he say; "these are some brethrenof mine

who would fain hear the sound of thy native tongue."

Then would the Indian boy cast his eyes over the mysterious pageand

read it so skilfully that it sounded like wild music. It seemed as if

the forest leaves were singing in the ears of his auditorsand as the

roar of distant streams were poured through the young Indian's voice.

Such were the sounds amid which the language of the red man had been

formed; and they were still heard to echo in it.

The lesson being overMr. Eliot would give the Indian boy an apple or a

cakeand bid him leap forth into the open air which his free nature

loved. The Apostle was kind to childrenand even shared in their sports

sometimes. And when his visitors had bidden him farewellthe good man

turned patiently to his toil again.

No other Englishman had ever understood the Indian character so well

nor possessed so great an influence over the New England tribesas the

apostle did. His advice and assistance must often have been valuable to

his countrymen in their transactions with the Indians. Occasionally

perhapsthe governor and some of the councillors came to visit Mr.

Eliot. Perchance they were seeking some method to circumvent the forest

people. They inquiredit may behow they could obtain possession of

such and such a tract of their rich land. Or they talked of making the

Indians their servants; as if God had destined them for perpetual

bondage to the more powerful white man.

Perhapstoosome warlike captaindressed in his buff coatwith a

corselet beneath itaccompanied the governor and councillors. Laying

his hand upon his sword hilthe would declare that the only method of

dealing with the red men was to meet them with the sword drawn and the

musket presented.

But the apostle resisted both the craft of the politician and the

fierceness of the warrior.

"Treat these sons of the forest as men and brethren'' he would say;

"and let us endeavor to make them Christians. Their forefathers were of

that chosen race whom God delivered from Egyptian bondage. Perchance he

has destined us to deliver the children from the more cruel bondage of

ignorance and idolatry. Chiefly for this endit may bewe were

directed across the ocean."

When these other visitors were goneMr. Eliot bent himself again over

the half-written page. He dared hardly relax a moment from his toil. He

felt thatin the book which he was translatingthere was a deep human

as well as heavenly wisdomwhich would of itself suffice to civilize

and refine the savage tribes. Let the Bible be diffused among themand

all earthly good would follow. But how slight a consideration was this

when he reflected that the eternal welfare of a whole race of men

depended upon his accomplishment of the task which he had set himself!

What if his hands should be palsied? What if his mind should lose its

vigor? What if death should come upon him ere the work were done? Then

must the red man wander in the dark wilderness of heathenism forever.

Impelled by such thoughts as thesehe sat writing in the great chair

when the pleasant summer breeze came in through his open casement; and

also when the fire of forest logs sent up its blaze and smokethrough

the broad stone chimneyinto the wintry air. Before the earliest bird

sang in the morning the apostle's lamp was kindled; andat midnight

his weary head was not yet upon its pillow. And at lengthleaning back

in the great chairhe could say to himselfwith a holy triumph"The

work is finished!"

It was finished. Here was a Bible for the Indians. Those long-lost

descendants of the ten tribes of Israel would now learn the history of

their forefathers. That grace which the ancient Israelites had forfeited

was offered anew to their children.

There is no impiety in believing thatwhen his long life was overthe

apostle of the Indians was welcomed to the celestial abodes by the

prophets of ancient days and by those earliest apostles and evangelists

who had drawn their inspiration from the immediate presence of the

Saviour. They first had preached truth and salvation to the world. And

Eliotseparated from them by many centuriesyet full of the same

spirithas borne the like message to the New World of the west. Since

the first days of Christianitythere has been no man more worthy to be

numbered in the brotherhood of the apostles than Eliot.

"My heart is not satisfied to think" observed Laurence"thatMr.

Eliot's labors have done no good except to a few Indians of his own

time. Doubtless he would not have regretted his toilif it were the

means of saving but a single soul. But it is a grievous thing to me that

he should have toiled so hard to translate the Bibleand now the

language and the people are gone! The Indian Bible itself is almost the

only relic of both."

"Laurence" said his Grandfather"if ever you should doubtthat man is

capable of disinterested zeal for his brother's goodthen remember how

the apostle Eliot toiled. And if you should feel your own self-interest

pressing upon your heart too closelythen think of Eliot's Indian

Bible. It is good for the world that such a man has lived and left this

emblem of his life."

The tears gushed into the eyes of Laurenceand he acknowledged that

Eliot had not toiled in vain. Little Alice put up her arms to

Grandfatherand drew down his white head beside her own golden locks.

"Grandfather" whispered she"I want to kiss good Mr.Eliot!"

Anddoubtlessgood Mr. Eliot would gladly receive the kiss of so sweet

a child as little Aliceand would think it a portion of his reward in


Grandfather now observed that Dr. Francis had written a very beautiful

Life of Eliotwhich he advised Laurence to peruse. He then spoke of

King Philip's Warwhich began in 1675and terminated with the death of

King Philipin the following year. Philip was a proudfierce Indian

whom Mr. Eliot had vainly endeavored to convert to the Christian faith.

"It must have been a great anguish to the apostle" continued

Grandfather"to hear of mutual slaughter and outrage between his own

countrymen and those for whom he felt the affection of a father. A few

of the praying Indians joined the followers of King Philip. A greater

number fought on the side of the English. In the course of the war the

little community of red people whom Mr. Eliot had begun to civilize was

scatteredand probably never was restored to a flourishing condition.

But his zeal did not grow cold; and only about five years before his

death he took great pains in preparing a new edition of the Indian


"I do wishGrandfather" cried Charley"you would tell usall about

the battles in King Philip's War."

"Oh no!" exclaimed Clara. "Who wants to hear about tomahawksand

scalping knives?"

"NoCharley" replied Grandfather"I have no time to sparein talking

about battles. You must be content with knowing that it was the

bloodiest war that the Indians had ever waged against the white men; and

thatat its closethe English set King Philip's head upon a pole."

"Who was the captain of the English?" asked Charley.

"Their most noted captain was Benjamin Churcha very famouswarrior"

said Grandfather. "But I assure youCharleythat neither Captain

Churchnor any of the officers and soldiers who fought in King Philip's

Wardid anything a thousandth part so glorious as Mr. Eliot did when he

translated the Bible for the Indians."

"Let Laurence be the apostle" said Charley to himself"and Iwill be

the captain."





The children were now accustomed to assemble round Grandfather's chair

at all their unoccupied moments; and often it was a striking picture to

behold the white-headed old sirewith this flowery wreath of young

people around him. When he talked to themit was the past speaking to

the presentor rather to the future--for the children were of a

generation which had not become actual. Their part in lifethus far

was only to be happy and to draw knowledge from a thousand sources. As

yetit was not their time to do.

Sometimesas Grandfather gazed at their fairunworldly countenancesa

mist of tears bedimmed his spectacles. He almost regretted that it was

necessary for them to know anything of the past or to provide aught for

the future. He could have wished that they might be always the happy

youthful creatures who had hitherto sported around his chairwithout

inquiring whether it had a history. It grieved him to think that his

little Alicewho was a flower bud fresh from paradisemust open her

leaves to the rough breezes of the worldor ever open them in any

clime. So sweet a child she wasthat it seemed fit her infancy should

be immortal.

But such repinings were merely flitting shadows across the old man's

heart. He had faith enough to believeand wisdom enough to knowthat

the bloom of the flower would be even holier and happier than its bud.

Even within himselfthough Grandfather was now at that period of life

when the veil of mortality is apt to hang heavily over the soulstill

in his inmost being he was conscious of something that he would not have

exchanged for the best happiness of childhood. It was a bliss to which

every sort of earthly experience--all that he had enjoyedor suffered

or seenor heardor actedwith the broodings of his soul upon the

whole--had contributed somewhat. In the same manner must a blissof

which now they could have no conceptiongrow up within these children

and form a part of their sustenance for immortality.

So Grandfatherwith renewed cheerfulnesscontinued his history of the

chairtrusting that a profounder wisdom than his own would extract

from these flowers and weeds of Timea fragrance that might last beyond

all time.

At this period of the story Grandfather threw a glance backward as far

as the year 1660. He spoke of the ill-concealed reluctance with which

the Puritans in America had acknowledged the sway of Charles II. on his

restoration to his father's throne. When death had stricken Oliver

Cromwellthat mighty protector had no sincerer mourners than in New

England. The new king had been more than a year upon the throne before

his accession was proclaimed in Bostonalthough the neglect to perform

the ceremony might have subjected the rulers to the charge of treason.

During the reign of Charles II.howeverthe American colonies had but

little reason to complain of harsh or tyrannical treatment. But when

Charles diedin 1685and was succeeded by his brother Jamesthe

patriarchs of New England began to tremble. King James was known to be

of an arbitrary temper. It was feared by the Puritans that he would

assume despotic power. Our forefathers felt that they had no security

either for their religion or their liberties.

The result proved that they had reason for their apprehensions. King

James caused the charters of all the American colonies to be taken away.

The old charter of Massachusettswhich the people regarded as a holy

thing and as the foundation of all their libertieswas declared void.

The colonists were now no longer freemen; they were entirely dependent

on the king's pleasure. At firstin 1685King James appointed Joseph

Dudleya native of Massachusettsto be president of New England. But

soon afterwardsSir Edmund Androsan officer of the English army

arrivedwith a commission to be governor-general of New England and New


The king had given such powers to Sir Edmund Andros that there was now

no libertynor scarcely any lawin the colonies over which he ruled.

The inhabitants were not allowed to choose representativesand

consequently had no voice whatever in the governmentnor control over

the measures that were adopted. The councillors with whom the governor

consulted on matters of state were appointed by himself. This sort of

government was no better than an absolute despotism.

"The people suffered much wrong while Sir Edmund Andros ruled over

them" continued Grandfather; "and they were apprehensive of muchmore.

He had brought some soldiers with him from Englandwho took possession

of the old fortress on Castle Island and of the fortification on Fort

Hill. Sometimes it was rumored that a general massacre of the

inhabitants was to be perpetrated by these soldiers. There were reports

toothat all the ministers were to be slain or imprisoned."

"For what?" inquired Charley.

"Because they were the leaders of the peopleCharley" said

Grandfather. "A minister was a more formidable man than a generalin

those days. Wellwhile these things were going on in AmericaKing

James had so misgoverned the people of England that they sent over to

Holland for the Prince of Orange. He had married the king's daughter

and was therefore considered to have a claim to the crown. On his

arrival in Englandthe Prince of Orange was proclaimed kingby the

name of William III. Poor old King James made his escape to France."

Grandfather told howat the first intelligence of the landing of the

Prince of Orange in Englandthe people of Massachusetts rose in their

strength and overthrew the government of Sir Edmund Andros. Hewith

Joseph DudleyEdmund Randolphand his other principal adherentswas

thrown into prison. Old Simon Bradstreetwho had been governor when

King James took away the charterwas called by the people to govern

them again.

"Governor Bradstreet was a venerable old mannearly ninety years of

age" said Grandfather. "He came over with the first settlersandhad

been the intimate companion of all those excellent and famous men who

laid the foundation of our country. They were all gone before him to the

graveand Bradstreet was the last of the Puritans."

Grandfather paused a moment and smiledas if he had something very

interesting to tell his auditors. He then proceeded:--

"And nowLaurence--nowClara--nowCharley--nowmy dear little

Alice--what chair do you think had been placed in the council chamber

for old Governor Bradstreet to take his seat in? Would you believe that

it was this very chair in which Grandfather now sitsand of which he is

telling you the history?"

"I am glad to hear itwith all my heart!" cried Charleyafter ashout

of delight. "I thought Grandfather had quite forgotten the chair."

"It was a solemn and affecting sight" said Grandfather"whenthis

venerable patriarchwith his white beard flowing down upon his breast

took his seat in his chair of state. Within his remembranceand even

since his mature agethe site where now stood the populous town had

been a wild and forest-covered peninsula. The provincenow so fertile

and spotted with thriving villageshad been a desert wilderness. He was

surrounded by a shouting multitudemost of whom had- been born in the

country which he had helped to found. They were of one generationand

he of another. As the old man looked upon themand beheld new faces

everywherehe must have felt that it was now time for him to go whither

his brethren had gone before him."

"Were the former governors all dead and gone?" asked Laurence.

"All of them" replied Grandfather. "Winthrop had been deadforty years.

Endicott dieda very old manin 1665. Sir Henry Vane was beheadedin

Londonat the beginning of the reign of Charles II. And HaynesDudley

Bellinghamand Leverettwho had all been governors of Massachusetts

were now likewise in their graves. Old Simon Bradstreet was the sole

representative of that departed brotherhood. There was no other public

man remaining to connect the ancient system of government and manners

with the new system which was about to take its place. The era of the

Puritans was now completed."

"I am sorry for it!" observed Laurence; "for though they wereso stern

yet it seems to me that there was something warm and real about them. I

thinkGrandfatherthat each of these old governors should have his

statue set up in our State HouseSculptured out of the hardest of New

England granite."

"It would not be amissLaurence" said Grandfather; "butperhaps clay

or some other perishable materialmight suffice for some of their

successors. But let us go back to our chair. It was occupied by Governor

Bradstreet from April1689until May1692. Sir William Phips then

arrived in Boston with a new charter from King William and a commission

to be governor."





"AND what became of the chair?" inquired Clara"The outwardaspect of

our chair" replied Grandfather"was now somewhat the worse forits

long and arduous services. It was considered hardly magnificent enough

to be allowed to keep its place in the council chamber of Massachusetts.

In factit was banished as an article of useless lumber. But Sir

William Phips happened to see itandbeing much pleased with its

constructionresolved to take the good old chair into his private

mansion. Accordinglywith his own gubernatorial handshe repaired one

of its armswhich had been slightly damaged."

"WhyGrandfatherhere is the very arm!" interrupted Charleyingreat

wonderment. "And did Sir William Phips put in these screws with his own

hands? I am sure he did it beautifully! But how came a governor to know

how to mend a chair?"

"I will tell you a story about the early life of Sir WilliamPhips"

said Grandfather. "You will then perceive that he well knew how to use

his hands."

So Grandfather related the wonderful and true tale of the sunken


Picture to yourselvesmy dear childrena handsomeold-fashioned room

with a largeopen cupboard at one endin which is displayed a

magnificent gold cupwith some other splendid articles of gold and

silver plate. In another part of the roomopposite to a tall looking-

glassstands our beloved chairnewly polishedand adorned with a

gorgeous cushion of crimson velvet tufted with gold.

In the chair sits a man of strong and sturdy framewhose face has been

roughened by northern tempests and blackened by the burning sun of the

West Indies. He wears an immense periwigflowing down over his

shoulders. His coat has a wide embroidery of golden foliage; and his

waistcoatlikewiseis all flowered over and bedizened with gold. His

redrough handswhich have done many a good day's work with the hammer

and adzeare half covered by the delicate lace ruffles at his wrists.

On a table lies his silver-hilted sword; and in a corner of the room

stands his gold-headed canemade of a beautifully polished West India


Somewhat such an aspect as this did Sir William Phips present when he

sat in Grandfather's chair after the king had appointed him governor of

Massachusetts. Truly there was need that the old chair should be

varnished and decorated with a crimson cushionin order to make it

suitable for such a magnificent-looking personage.

But Sir William Phips had not always worn a gold-embroidered coatnor

always sat so much at his ease as he did in Grandfather's chair. He was

a poor man's sonand was born in the province of Mainewhere he used

to tend sheep upon the hills in his boyhood and youth. Until he had

grown to be a manhe did not even know how to read and write. Tired of

tending sheephe next apprenticed himself to a ship-carpenterand

spent about four years in hewing the crooked limbs of oak-trees into

knees for vessels.

In 1673when he was twenty-two years oldhe came to Bostonand soon

afterwards was married to a widow ladywho had property enough to set

him up in business. It was not longhoweverbefore he lost all the

money that he had acquired by his marriageand became a poor man again.

Still he was not discouraged. He often told his wife thatsome time or

otherhe should be very richand would build a "fair brick house"in

the Green Lane of Boston.

Do not supposechildrenthat he had been to a fortune-teller to

inquire his destiny. It was his own energy and spirit of enterpriseand

his resolution to lead an industrious lifethat made him look forward

with so much confidence to better days.

Several years passed awayand William Phips had not yet gained the

riches which he promised to himself. During this time he had begun to

follow the sea for a living. In the year 1684 he happened to hear of a

Spanish ship which had been cast away near the Bahama Islandsand which

was supposed to contain a great deal of gold and silver. Phips went to

the place in a small vesselhoping that he should be able to recover

some of the treasure from the wreck. He did not succeedhoweverin

fishing up gold and silver enough to pay the expenses of his voyage.

Butbefore he returnedhe was told of another Spanish shipor

galleonwhich had been east away near Porto de la Plata. She had now

lain as much as fifty years beneath the waves. This old ship had been

laden with immense wealth; andhithertonobody had thought of the

possibility of recovering any part of it from the deep sea which was

rolling and tossing it about. But though it was now an old storyand

the most aged people had almost forgotten that such a vessel had been

wreckedWilliam Phips resolved that the sunken treasure should again be

brought to light.

He went to London and obtained admittance to King Jameswho had not yet

been driven from his throne. He told the king of the vast wealth that

was lying at the bottom of the sea. King James listened with attention

and thought this a fine opportunity to fill his treasury with Spanish

gold. He appointed William Phips to be captain of a vesselcalled the

Rose Algiercarrying eighteen guns and ninety-five men. So now he was

Captain Phips of the English navy.

Captain Phips sailed from England in the Rose Algierand cruised for

nearly two years in the West Indiesendeavoring to find the wreck of

the Spanish ship. But the sea is so wide and deep that it is no easy

matter to discover the exact spot where a sunken vessel lies. The

prospect of success seemed very small; and most people would have

thought that Captain Phips was as far from having money enough to build

a "fair brick house" as he was while he tended sheep.

The seamen of the Rose Algier became discouragedand gave up all hope

of making their fortunes by discovering the Spanish wreck. They wanted

to compel Captain Phips to turn pirate. There was a much better

prospectthey thoughtof growing rich by plundering vessels which

still sailed in the sea than by seeking for a ship that had lain beneath

the waves full half a century. They broke out in open mutiny; but were

finally mastered by Phipsand compelled to obey his orders. It would

have been dangeroushoweverto continue much longer at sea with such a

crew of mutinous sailors; andbesidesthe Rose Algier was leaky and

unseaworthy. So Captain Phips judged it best to return to England.

Before leaving the West Indieshe met with a Spaniardan old manwho

remembered the wreck of the Spanish shipand gave him directions how to

find the very spot. It was on a reef of rocksa few leagues from Porto

de la Plata.

On his arrival in EnglandthereforeCaptain Phips solicited the king

to let him have another vessel and send him back again to the West

Indies. But King Jameswho had probably expected that the Rose Algier

would return laden with goldrefused to have anything more to do with

the affair. Phips might never have been able to renew the search if the

Duke of Albemarle and some other noblemen had not lent their assistance.

They fitted out a shipand gave the command to Captain Phips. He sailed

from Englandand arrived safely at Porto de la Platawhere he took an

adze and assisted his men to build a large boat.

The boat was intended for the purpose of going closer to the reef of

rocks than a large vessel could safely venture. When it was finished

the captain sent several men in it to examine the spot where the Spanish

ship was said to have been wrecked. They were accompanied by some

Indianswho were skilful diversand could go down a great way into the

depths of the


The boat's crew proceeded to the reef of rocksand rowed round and

round it a great many times. They gazed down into the waterwhich was

so transparent that it seemed as if they could have seen the gold and

silver at the bottomhad there been any of those precious metals there.

Nothinghowevercould they seenothing more valuable than a curious

sea shrubwhich was growing beneath the waterin a crevice of the reef

of rocks. It flaunted to and fro with the swell and reflux of the waves

and looked as bright and beautiful as if its leaves were gold.

"We won't go back empty-handed" cried an English sailor; and thenhe

spoke to one of the Indian divers. "Dive down and bring me that pretty

sea shrub there. That's the only treasure we shall find."

Down plunged the diverand soon rose dripping from the waterholding

the sea shrub in his hand. But he had learned some news at the bottom of

the sea.

"There are some ship's guns" said hethe moment he had drawnbreath

"some great cannonamong the rocksnear where the shrub wasgrowing."

No sooner had he spoken than the English sailors knew that they had

found the very spot where the Spanish galleon had been wreckedso many

years before. The other Indian divers immediately plunged over the

boat's side and swam headlong downgroping among the rocks and sunken

cannon. In a few moments one of them rose above the water with a heavy

lump of silver in his arms. The single lump was worth more than a

thousand dollars. The sailors took it into the boatand then rowed back

as speedily as they couldbeing in haste to inform Captain Phips of

their good luck.

Butconfidently as the captain had hoped to find the Spanish wreck

yetnow that it was really foundthe news seemed too good to be true.

He could not believe it till the sailors showed him the lump of silver.

"Thanks be to God!" then cries Captain Phips "We shall everyman of us

make our fortunes!"

Hereupon the captain and all the crew set to workwith iron rakes and

great hooks and linesfishing for gold and silver at the bottom of the

sea. Up came the treasure in abundance. Now they beheld a table of solid

silveronce the property of an old Spanish grandee. Now they found a

sacramental vesselwhich had been destined as a gift to some Catholic

church. Now they drew up a golden cupfit for the King of Spain to

drink his wine out of. Perhaps the bony hand of its former owner had

been grasping the precious cupand was drawn up along with it. Now

their rakes or fishing-lines were loaded with masses of silver bullion.

There were also precious stones among the treasureglittering and

sparklingso that it is a wonder how their radiance could have been


There is something sad and terrible in the idea of snatching all this

wealth from the devouring oceanwhich had possessed it for such a

length of years. It seems as if men had no right to make themselves rich

with it. It ought to have been left with the skeletons of the ancient

Spaniardswho had been drowned when the ship was wreckedand whose

bones were now scattered among the gold and silver.

But Captain Phips and his crew were troubled with no such thoughts as

these. After a day or two they lighted on another part of the wreck

where they found a great many bags of silver dollars. But nobody could

have guessed that these were money-bags. By remaining so long in the

salt waterthey had become covered over with a crust which had the

appearance of stoneso that it was necessary to break them in pieces

with hammers and axes. When this was donea stream of silver dollars

gushed out upon the deck of the vessel.

The whole value of the recovered treasureplatebullionprecious

stonesand allwas estimated at more than two millions of dollars. It

was dangerous even to look at such a vast amount of wealth. A sea-

captainwho had assisted Phips in the enterpriseutterly lost his

reason at the sight of it. He died two years afterwardsstill raving

about the treasures that lie at the bottom of the sea. It would have

been better for this man if he had left the skeletons of the shipwrecked

Spaniards in quiet possession of their wealth.

Captain Phips and his men continued to fish up platebullionand

dollarsas plentifully as evertill their provisions grew short. Then

as they could not feed upon gold and silver any more than old King Midas

couldthey found it necessary to go in search of better sustenance.

Phips resolved to return to England. He arrived there in 1687and was

received with great joy by the Duke of Albemarle and other English lords

who had fitted out the vessel. Well they might rejoice; for they took by

far the greater part of the treasure to themselves.

The captain's sharehoweverwas enough to make him comfortable for the

rest of his days. It also enabled him to fulfil his promise to his wife

by building a "fair brick house" in the Green Lane of Boston. TheDuke

of Albemarle sent Mrs. Phips a magnificent gold cupworth at least five

thousand dollars. Before Captain Phips left LondonKing James made him

a knight; so thatinstead of the obscure ship-carpenter who had

formerly dwelt among themthe inhabitants of Boston welcomed him on his

return as the rich and famous Sir William Phips.





"Sir William Phips" continued Grandfather"was too activeand

adventurous a man to sit still in the quiet enjoyment of his good

fortune. In the year 1690 he went on a military expedition against the

French colonies in Americaconquered the whole province of Acadiaand

returned to Boston with a great deal of plunder."

"WhyGrandfatherhe was the greatest man that ever sat in thechair!"

cried Charley.

"Ask Laurence what he thinks" replied Grandfatherwith a smile."Well

in the same yearSir William took command of an expedition against Que-

becbut did not succeed in capturing the city. In 1692being then in

LondonKing William III. appointed him governor of Massachusetts. And

nowmy dear childrenhaving followed Sir William Phips through all his

adventures and hardships till we find him comfortably seated in

Grandfather's chairwe will here bid him farewell. May he be as happy

in ruling a people as he was while he tended sheep!"

Charleywhose fancy had been greatly taken by the adventurous

disposition of Sir William Phipswas eager to know how he had acted and

what happened to him while he held the office of governor. But

Grandfather had made up his mind to tell no more stories for the


"Possiblyone of these daysI may go on with the adventures of the

chair" said he. "But its history becomes very obscure just at this

point; and I must search into some old books and manuscripts before

proceeding further. Besidesit is now a good time to pause in our

narrative; because the new charterwhich Sir William Phips brought over

from Englandformed a very important epoch in the history of the


"ReallyGrandfather" observed Laurence"this seems to bethe most

remarkable chairin the world. Its history cannot be told without

intertwining it with the lives of distinguished men and the great events

that have befallen the country."

"TrueLaurence'" replied Grandfathersmiling; "we mustwrite a book

with some such title as this: MEMOIRS OF MY OWN TIMESBY GRANDFATHER'S


"That would be beautiful!" exclaimed Laurenceclapping his hands.

"Butafter all" continued Grandfather"any other old chairif it

possessed memory and a hand to write its recollectionscould record

stranger stories than any that I have told you. From generation to

generationa chair sits familiarly in the midst of human interestsand

is witness to the most secret and confidential intercourse that mortal

man can hold with his fellow. The human heart may best be read in the

fireside chair. And as to external eventsGrief and Joy keep a

continual vicissitude around it and within it. Now we see the glad face

and glowing form of Joysitting merrily in the old chairand throwing

a warm firelight radiance over all the household. Nowwhile we thought

not of itthe dark-clad mournerGriefhas stolen into the place of

Joybut not to retain it long. The imagination can hardly grasp so wide

a subject as is embraced in the experience of a family chair."

"It makes my breath fluttermy heart thrillto think of it" said

Laurence. "Yesa family chair must have a deeper history than a chair

of state."

"Oh yes!" cried Claraexpressing a woman's feeling of the point in

question; "the history of a country is not nearly so interesting as that

of a single family would be."

"But the history of a country is more easily told" saidGrandfather.

"Soif we proceed with our narrative of the chairI shall still

confine myself to its connection with public events."

Good old Grandfather now rose and quitted the roomwhile the children

remained gazing at the chair. Laurenceso vivid was his conception of

past timeswould hardly have deemed it strange if its former occupants

one after anotherhad resumed the seat which they had each left vacant

such a dim length of years ago.

Firstthe gentle and lovely Lady Arbella would have been seen in the

old chairalmost sinking out of its arms for very weakness; then Roger

Williamsin his cloak and bandearnestenergeticand benevolent;

then the figure of Anne Hutchinsonwith the like gesture as when she

presided at the assemblages of women; then the darkintellectual face

of Vane"young in yearsbut in sage counsel old." Next would have

appeared the successive governorsWinthropDudleyBellinghamand

Endicottwho sat in the chair while it was a chair of state. Then its

ample seat would have been pressed by the comfortablerotund

corporation of the honest mint-master. Then the half-frenzied shape of

Mary Dyerthe persecuted Quaker womanclad in sackcloth and ashes

would have rested in it for a moment. Then the holyapostolic form of

Eliot would have sanctified it. Then would have arisenlike the shade

of departed Puritanismthe venerable dignity of the white-bearded

Governor Bradstreet. Lastlyon the gorgeous crimson cushion of

Grandfather's chair would have shone the purple and golden magnificence

of Sir William Phips. But all thesewith the other historic personages

in the midst of whom the chair had so often stoodhad passedboth in

substance and shadowfrom the scene of ages. Yet here stood the chair

with the old Lincoln coat of armsand the oaken flowers and foliage

and the fierce lion's head at the summitthe wholeapparentlyin as

perfect preservation as when it had first been placed in the Earl of

Lincoln's hall. And what vast changes of society and of nations had been

wrought by sudden convulsions or by slow degrees since that era!

"This Chair had stood firm when the thrones of kings wereoverturned!"

thought Laurence. "Its oaken frame has proved stronger than many frames

of government!"

More the thoughtful and imaginative boy might have mused; but now a

large yellow cata great favorite with all the childrenleaped in at

the open window. Perceiving that Grandfather's chair was emptyand

having often before experienced its comfortspuss laid herself quietly

down upon the cushion. LaurenceClaraCharleyand little Alice all

laughed at the idea of such a successor to the worthies of old times.

"Pussy" said little Aliceputting out her handinto which thecat

laid a velvet paw"you look very wise. Do tell us a story about







MR. ELIOT had been for some time assiduously employed in learning the

Indian language. To accomplish thishe secured the assistance of one of

the nativeswho could speak English. Eliotat the close of his Indian

Grammarmentions him as "a pregnant-witted young manwho had been a

servant in an English housewho pretty well understood his own

languageand had a clear pronunciation." He took this Indian into his

familyand by constant intercourse with him soon become sufficiently

conversant with the vocabulary and construction of the language to

translate the ten commandmentsthe Lord's prayerand several passages

of Scripturebesides composing exhortations and prayers.

Mr. Eliot must have found his task anything but easy or inviting. He was

to learn a dialectin which he could be assisted by no affinity with

the languages he already knew. He was to do this without the help of any

written or printed specimenswith nothing in the shape of a grammar or

analysisbut merely by oral communication with his Indian instructor

or with other nativeswhohowever comparatively intelligentmust from

the nature of the case have been very imperfect teachers. He applied

himself to the work with great patience and sagacitycarefully acting


differences between the Indian and the English modes of constructing

words; andhaving once got a clew to thishe pursued every noun and

verb he could think of through all possible variations. In this way he

arrived at analyses and ruleswhich he could apply for himself in a

general manner.

Neal says that Eliot was able to speak the language intelligibly after

conversing with the Indian servant a few months. Thisin a limited

sensemay be true; but he is said to have been engaged two years in the

process of learningbefore he went to preached to the Indians. In that

time he acquired a somewhat ready facility in the use of that dialect

by means of which he was to carry the instructions of spiritual truth to

the men of the forestthough as late as 1649 he still lamented his want

of skill in this respect.

Notice having been given of his intention [of instructing the Indians]

Mr. Eliotin company with three otherswhose names are not mentioned

having implored the divine blessing on the undertakingmade his first

visit to the Indians on the 28th of October1646 at a place afterwards

called Nonantum; a spot that has the honor of being the first on which a

civilized and Christian settlement of Indians was effected within the

English colonies of North America. This name was given to the high

grounds in the northeast part of Newtonand to the bounds of that

town and Watertown. At a short distance from the wigwamsthey were met

by Wabana leading man among the Indians at that placeaccompanied by

othersand were welcomed with "English salutations." Wabanwho is

described as "the chief minister of justice among them" had before

shown a better disposition than any other native to receive the

religious instruction of the Christiansand had voluntarily proposed to

have his eldest son educated by them. His son had been accordingly

placed at school in Dedhamwhence he had now come to attend the


The Indians assembled in Waban's wigwam; and thither Mr. Eliot and his

friends were conducted. When the company were all collected and quieta

religious service was begun with prayer. This was uttered in English;

the reason for whichas given by Mr. Eliot and his companionswas

that he did not then feel sufficiently acquainted with the Indian

language to use it in that service.

The same difficulty would not occur in preachingsince for thiswe may

supposehe had sufficiently prepared his thoughts and expressions to

make his discourse intelligible on all important points; and if he

shouldin some partsfail of beingunderstoodhe could repeat or

correct himselftill he should succeed better. Besideshe took with

him an interpretorwho was frequently able to express his instructions

more distinctly than he could himself. Though the prayer was

unintelligible to the Indiansyetas they knew what the nature of the

service wasMr. Eliot believed it might not be without an effect in

subduing their feelings so as to prepare them better to listen to the


Mr. Eliot then began his sermonor addressfrom Ezek. xxxvii. 910.

The word windin this passagesuggested to the minds of somewho

afterwards gave an account of this meetinga coincidence which might

in the spirit of the timesbe construed into a special appointment of

Providence. The name of Waban signifiedin the Indian tonguewind; so

that when the preacher uttered the words"say to the wind" it wasas

if he had proclaimed"say to Waban." As this man afterwardsexerted

much influence in awaking the attention of his fellow savages to

Christianityit might seem that in this first visit of the messengers

of the gospel he was singled out by a special call to work in the cause.

It is not surprising that the Indians were struck with the coincidence.

Mr. Eliot gave no countenance to a superstitious use of the

circumstanceand took care to tell them thatwhen he chose his text

he had no thought of any such application.

The sermon was an hour and a quarter long. One cannot but suspect that

Mr. Eliot injudiciously crowded too much into one address. It would seem

to have been betterfor the first time at leastto have given a

shorter sermonand to have touched upon fewer subjects. But he was

doubtless borne on by his zeal to do much in a good cause; andas we

have reason to thinkby the attentivethough vaguecuriosity of the


Thus ended a conference three hours longat the end of which the

Indians affirmed that they were not wearyand requested their visitors

to come again. They expressed a wish to build a town and live together.

Mr. Eliot promised to intercede for them with the court. He and his

companions then gave the men some tobaccoand the children some apples

and bade them farewell.

A fortnight afterwardson the 11th of NovemberMr. Eliot and his

friends repeated their visit to the wigwam of Waban. This meeting was

more numerous than the former. The religious service was openedas

beforewith a prayer in English. This was followed by a few brief and

plain questions addressed to the childrenadmitting short and easy

answers. The children seemed well disposed to listen and learn. To

encourage themMr. Eliot gave them occasionally an apple or a cake; and

the adults were requested to repeat to them the instructions that had

been given. He then preached to the assembly in their own language

telling them that he had come to bring them good news from Godand show

them how wicked men might become good and happy; andin general

discoursing on nearly the same topics as he had treated at his first








"O GRANDFATHERdear Grandfather" cried little Alice"praytell us

some more stories about your chair!"

How long a time had fled since the children bad felt any curiousity to

hear the sequel of this venerable chair's adventures! Summer was now

past and goneand the better part of autumn likewise. Drearychill

November was howling out of doorsand vexing the atmosphere with sudden

showers of wintry rainor sometimes with gusts of snowthat rattled

like small pebbles against the windows.

When the weather began to grow coolGrandfather's chair had been

removed from the summer parlor into a smaller and snugger room. It now

stood by the side of a brightblazing wood-fire. Grandfather loved a

wood-fire far better than a grate of glowing anthraciteor than the

dull heat of an invisible furnacewhich seems to think that it has done

its duty in merely warming the house. But the wood-fire is a kindly

cheerfulsociable spiritsympathizing with mankindand knowing that

to create warmth is but one of the good offices which are expected from

it. Therefore it dances on the hearthand laughs broadly throughout the

roomand plays a thousand anticsand throws a joyous glow over all the

faces that encircle it.

In the twilight of the evening the fire grew brighter and more cheerful.

And thusperhapsthere was something in Grandfather's heart that

cheered him most with its warmth and comfort in the gathering twilight

of old age. He had been gazing at the red embers as intently as if his

past life were all pictured thereor as if it were a prospect of the

future worldwhen little Alice's voice aroused him. "DearGrandfather"

repeated the little girlmore earnestly"do talk to us again about

your chair."

Laurenceand Claraand Charleyand little Alice had been attracted to

other objects for two or three months past. They had sported in the

gladsome sunshine of the presentand so had forgotten the shadowy

region of the pastin the midst of which stood Grandfather's chair. But

nowin the autumnal twilightilluminated by the flickering blaze of

the wood-firethey looked at the old chairand thought that it had

never before worn such an interesting aspect. There it stood in the

venerable majesty of more than two hundred years. The light from the

hearth quivered upon the flowers and foliage that were wrought into its

oaken back; and the lion's head at the summit seemed almost to move its

jaws and shake its mane.

"Does little Alice speak for all of you?" asked Grandfather."Do you

wish me to go on with the adventures of the chair?'

"Oh yesyesGrandfather!" cried Clara. "The dear old chair!How

strange that we should have forgotten it so long!"

"Ohpray beginGrandfather" said Laurence"for I thinkwhen we talk

about old timesit should be in the early eveningbefore the candles

are lighted. The shapes of the famous persons who once sat in the chair

will be more apt to come backand be seen among usin this glimmer and

pleasant gloomthan they would in the vulgar daylight. Andbesideswe

can make pictures of all that you tell us among the glowing embers and

white ashes."

Our friend Charleytoothought the evening the best time to hear

Grandfather's storiesbecause he could not then be playing out of

doors. So finding his young auditors unanimous in their petitionthe

good old gentleman took up the narrative of the historic chair at the

point where he had dropped it.





"You recollectmy dear children" said Grandfather"that wetook leave

of the chair in 1692while it was occupied by Sir William Phips. This

fortunate treasure-seekeryou will rememberhad come over from

Englandwith King William's commissionto be governor of

Massachusetts. Within the limits of this province were now included the

old colony of Plymouthand the territories of Maine and Nova Scotia.

Sir William Phips had likewise brought a new charter from the king

which served instead of a constitutionand set forth the method in

which the province was to be governed."

"Did the new charter allow the people all their former liberties?"

inquired Laurence.

"No" replied Grandfather. "Under the first charterthepeople had been

the source of all power. WinthropEndicottBradstreetand the rest of

them had been governors by the choice of the peoplewithout any

interference of the king. But henceforth the governor was to hold his

station solely by the king's appointment and during his pleasure; and

the same was the case with the lieutenant-governor and some other high

officers. The peoplehoweverwere still allowed to choose

representatives; and the governor's council was chosen by the General


"Would the inhabitants have elected Sir William Phips" askedLaurence

"if the choice of governor had been left to them?"

"He might probably have been a successful candidate" answered

Grandfather; "for his adventures and military enterprises had gained him

a sort of renownwhich always goes a great way with the people. And he

had many popular characteristics--being a kind warm-hearted mannot

ashamed of his low origin nor haughty in his present elevation. Soon

after his arrivalhe proved that he did not blush to recognize his

former associates."

"How was that?" inquired Charley.

"He made a grand festival at his new brick house” said Grandfather

"and invited all the ship-carpenters of Boston to be his guests. At the

head of the tablein our great chairsat Sir William Phips himself

treating these hard-handed men as his brethrencracking jokes with

themand talking familiarly about old times. I know not whether he wore

his embroidered dress; but I rather choose to imagine that he had on a

suit of rough clothessuch as he used to labor in while he was Phips

the ship-carpenter."

"An aristocrat need not be ashamed of the trade" observedLaurence;

"for the Czar Peter the Great once served an apprenticeship to it."

"Did Sir William Phips make as good a governor as he was a ship-

carpenter?" asked Charley.

"History says but little about his merits as a ship-carpenter"answered

Grandfather; " butas a governora great deal of fault was found with

him. Almost as soon as he assumed the governmenthe became engaged in a

very frightful businesswhich might have perplexed a wiser and better

cultivated head than his. This was the witchcraft delusion."

And here Grandfather gave his auditors such details of this melancholy

affair as he thought it fit for them to know. They shuddered to hear

that a frenzywhich led to the death of many innocent personshad

originated in the wicked arts of a few children. They belonged to the

Rev. Mr. Parrisminister of Salem. These children complained of being

pinched and pricked with pinsand otherwise tormented by the shapes of

men and womenwho were supposed to have power to haunt them invisibly

both in darkness and daylight. Often in the midst of their family and

friends the children would pretend to be seized with strange

convulsionsand would cry out that the witches were afflicting them.

These stories spread abroadand caused great tumult and alarm. From the

foundation of New Englandit had been the custom of the inhabitantsin

all matters of doubt and difficultyto look to their ministers for

counsel. So they did now; butunfortunatelythe ministers and wise men

were more deluded than the illiterate people. Cotton Mathera very

learned and eminent clergymanbelieved that the whole country was full

of witches and wizardswho had given up their hopes of heavenand

signed a covenant with the evil one.

Nobody could be certain that his nearest neighbor or most intimate

friend was not guilty of this imaginary crime. The number of those who

pretended to be afflicted by witchcraft grew daily more numerous; and

they bore testimony against many of the best and worthiest people. A

ministernamed George Burroughswas among the accused. In the months

of August and September1692he and nineteen other innocent men and

women were put to death. The place of execution was a high hillon the

outskirts of Salem; so that many of the sufferersas they stood beneath

the gallowscould discern their own habitations in the town.

The martyrdom of these guiltless persons seemed only to increase the

madness. The afflicted now grew bolder in their accusations. Many people

of rank and wealth were either thrown into prison or compelled to flee

for their lives. Among these were two sons of .old Simon Bradstreetthe

last of the Puritan governors. Mr. Willarda pious minister of Boston

was cried out upon as a wizard in open court. Mrs. Halethe wife of the

minister of Beverlywas likewise accused. Philip Englisha rich

merchant of Salemfound it necessary to take flightleaving his

property and business in confusion. But a short time afterwardsthe

Salem people were glad to invite him back.

"The boldest thing that the accusers did" continued Grandfather"was

to cry out against the governor's own beloved wife. Yesthe lady of Sir

William Phips was accused of being a witch and of flying through the air

to attend witch-meetings. When the governor heard this he probably

trembledso that our great chair shook beneath him."

"Dear Grandfather" cried little Aliceclinging closer to hisknee"is

it true that witches ever come in the night-time to frighten little


"Nonodear little Alice" replied Grandfather. "Even ifthere were

any witchesthey would flee away from the presence of a pure-hearted

child. But there are none; and our forefathers soon became convinced

that they had been led into a terrible delusion. All the prisoners on

account of witchcraft were set free. But the innocent dead could not be

restored to life and the hill where they were executed will always

remind people of the saddest and most humiliating passage in our


Grandfather then said that the next remarkable eventwhile Sir William

Phips remained in the chairwas the arrival at Boston of an English

fleet in 1698. It brought an army which was intended for the conquest of

Canada. But a malignant diseasemore fatal than the smallpoxbroke out

among the soldiers and sailorsand destroyed the greater part of them.

The infection spread into the town of Bostonand made much havoc there.

This dreadful sickness caused the governor and Sir Francis Wheelerwho

was commander of the British forcesto give up all thoughts of

attacking Canada.

"Soon after this" said Grandfather"Sir William Phipsquarrelled with

the captain of an English frigateand also with the collector of

Boston. Being a man of violent temperhe gave each of them a sound

beating with his cane."

"He was a bold fellow" observed Charleywho was himself somewhat

addicted to a similar mode or settling disputes.

"More bold than wise" replied Grandfather; "for complaintswere carried

to the kingand Sir William Phips was summoned to England to make the

best answer he could. Accordingly he went to Londonwherein 1695he

was seized with a malignant feverof which he died. Had he lived

longerhe would probably have gone again in search of sunken treasure.

He had heard of a Spanish shipwhich was cast away in 1502during the

lifetime of Columbus. BovadillaRoldanand many other Spaniards were

lost in hertogether with the immense wealth of which they had robbed

the South American kings."

"WhyGrandfather!" exclaimed Laurence"what magnificentideas the

governor had! Only think of recovering all that old treasure which had

lain almost two centuries under the sea! Methinks Sir William Phips

ought to have been buried in the ocean when he diedso that he might

have gone down among the sunken ships and cargoes of treasure which he

was always dreaming about in his lifetime."

"He was buried in one of the crowded cemeteries of London" said

Grandfather. "As he left no childrenhis estate was inherited by his

nephewfrom whom is descended the present Marquis of Normandy. The

noble Marquis is not awareperhapsthat the prosperity of his family

originated in the successful enterprise of a New England ship-






"At the death of Sir William Phips" proceeded Grandfather"our chair

was bequeathed to Mr. Ezekiel Cheevera famous schoolmaster in Boston.

This old gentleman came from London in 1637and had been teaching

school ever since; so that there were now aged mengrandfathers like

myselfto whom Master Cheever had taught their alphabet. He was a

person of venerable aspectand wore a long white beard."

"Was the chair placed in his school?" asked Charley.

"Yesin his school" answered Grandfather; "and we may safelysay that

it had never before been regarded with such awful reverence--nonot

even when the old governors of Massachusetts sat in it. Even you

Charleymy boywould have felt some respect for the chair if you had

seen it occupied by this famous schoolmaster."

And here grandfather endeavored to give his auditors an idea how matters

were managed in schools above a hundred years ago. As this will probably

be an interesting subject to our readerswe shall make a separate

sketch of itand call it The Old-Fashioned School.

Nowimagine yourselvesmy childrenin Master Ezekiel Cheever's

school-room. It is a largedingy roomwith a sanded floorand is

lighted by windows that turn on hinges and have little diamond-shaped

panes of glass. The scholars sit on long bencheswith desks before

them. At one end of the room is a great fireplaceso very spacious that

there is room enough for three or four boys to stand in each of the

chimney corners. This was the good old fashion of fireplaces when there

was wood enough in the forests to keep people warm without their digging

into the bowels of the earth for coal.

It is a winter's day when we take our peep into the school-room. See

what great logs of wood have been rolled into the fireplaceand what a

broadbright blaze goes leaping up the chimney! And every few moments a

vast cloud of smoke is puffed into the roomwhich sails slowly over the

heads of the scholarsuntil it gradually settles upon the walls and

ceiling. They are blackened with the smoke of many years already.

Next look at our old historic chair! It is placedyou perceivein the

most comfortable part of the roomwhere the generous glow of the fire

is sufficiently felt without being too intensely hot. How stately the

old chair looksas if it remembered its many famous occupantsbut yet

were conscious that a greater man is sitting in it now! Do you see the

venerable schoolmastersevere in aspectwith a black skullcap on his

headlike an ancient Puritanand the snow of his white beard drifting

down to his very girdle? What boy would dare to play; or whisperor

even glance aside from his book; while Master Cheever is on the lookout

behind his spectacles? For such offendersif any such there bea rod

of birch is hanging over the fireplaceand a heavy ferule lies on the

master's desk.

And now school is begun. What a murmur of multitudinous tongueslike

the whispering leaves of a wind-stirred oakas the scholars con over

their various tasks! Buzz! buzz! buzz! Amid just such a murmur has

Master Cheever spent above sixty years; and long habit has made it as

pleasant to him as the hum of a beehive when the insects are busy in the


Now a class in Latin is called to recite. Forth steps a rowel queer-

looking little fellowswearing square-skirted coats and small-clothes

with buttons at the knee. They look like so many grandfathers in their

second-childhood. These lads are to be sent to Cambridge and educated

for the learned professions. Old Master Cheever had lived so longand

seen so many generations of school-boys grow up to be menthat now he

can almost prophesy what sort of a man each boy will be. One urchin

shall hereafter be a doctorand administer pills and potionsand stalk

gravely through lifeperfumed with assafoetida. Another shall wrangle

at the barand fight his way to wealth and honors andin his declining

ageshall be a worshipful member of his Majesty's council. A third-and

he is the master's favorite--shall be a worthy successor to the old

Puritan ministers now in their graves; he shall preach with great

unction and effectand leave volumes of sermonsin print and

manuscriptfor the benefit of future generations.

Butas they are merely school-boys nowtheir business is to construe

Virgil. Poor Virgil! whose verseswhich he took so much pains to

polishhave been misscannedand misparsedand misinterpreted by so

many generations of idle school-boys. Theresit downye Latinists. Two

or three of youI fearare doomed to feel the master's ferule.

Next comes a class in arithmetic. These boys are to be the merchants

shopkeepersand mechanics of a future period. Hitherto they have traded

only in marbles and apples. Hereafter some will send vessels to England

for broadcloths and all sorts of manufactured waresand to the West

Indies for sugarand rumand coffee. Others will stand behind

countersand measure tapeand ribbonand cambric by the yard. Others

will upheave the blacksmith's hammeror drive the plane over the

carpenter's benchor take the lapstone and the awl and learn the trade

of shoemaking. Many will follow the seaand become boldrough sea-


This class of boysin shortmust supply the world with those active

skilful handsand clearsagacious headswithout which the affairs of

life would be thrown into confusion by the theories of studious and

visionary men. Whereforeteach them their multiplication-tablegood

Master Cheeverand whip them well when they deserve it; for much of the

country's welfare depends on these boys.

Butalas! whilewe have been thinking of other mattersMaster

Cheever's watchful eye has caught two boys at play. Now we shall see

awful times. The two malefactors are summoned before the master's chair

wherein he sits with the terror of a judge upon his brow. Our old chair

is now a judgment-seat. AhMaster Cheever has taken down that terrible

birch rod! Short is the trial--the sentence quickly passed--and now

the judge prepares to execute it in person. Thwack! thwack! thwack! In

these good old timesa schoolmaster's blows were well laid on.

Seethe birch rod has lost several of its twigsand will hardly serve

for another execution. Mercy on hiswhat a bellowing the urchins make!

My ears are almost deafenedthough the clamor comes through the far

length of a hundred and fifty years. Therego to your seatspoor boys;

and do not crysweet little Alicefor they have ceased to feel the

pain a long time since.

And thus the forenoon passes away. Now it is twelve o'clock. The master

looks at his great silver watchand thenwith tiresome deliberation

puts the ferule into his desk. The little multitude await the word of

dismissal with almost irrepressible impatience.

"You are dismissed" says Master Cheever.

The boys retiretreading softly until they have passed the threshold;

butfairly out of the schoolroomlowhat a joyous shout! what a

scampering and trampling of feet! what a sense of recovered freedom

expressed in the merry uproar of all their voices! What care they for

the ferule and birch rod now? Were boys created merely to study Latin

and arithmetic? No; the better purposes of their being are to sportto

leapto runto shoutto slide upon the iceto snowball.

Happy boys! Enjoy your playtime nowand come again to study and to feel

the birch rod and the ferule to-morrow; not till to-morrow; for to-day

is Thursday lecture; andever since the settlement of Massachusetts

there has been no school on Thursday afternoons. Therefore sportboys

while you mayfor the morrow comethwith the birch rod and the ferule;

and after that another morrowwith troubles of its own.

Now the master has set everything to rightsand is ready to go home to

dinner. Yet he goes reluctantly. The old man has spent so much of his

life in the smokynoisybuzzing school-roomthatwhen he has a

holidayhe feels as if his place were lost and himself a stranger in

the world. But forth he goes; and there stands our old chairvacant and

solitarytill good Master Cheever resumes his seat in it to-morrow


"Grandfather" said Charley"I wonder whether the boys didnot use to

upset the old chair when the schoolmaster was out."

"There is a tradition" replied Grandfather"that one of itsarms was

dislocated in some such manner. But I cannot believe that any school-boy

would behave so naughtily."

As it was now later than little Alice's usual bedtimeGrandfather broke

off his narrativepromising to talk more about Master Cheever and his

scholars some other evening.





Accordinglythe next eveningGrandfather resumed the history of his

beloved chair.

"Master Ezekiel Cheever" said he"died in 1707after havingtaught

school about seventy years. It would require a pretty good scholar in

arithmetic to tell how many stripes he had inflictedand how many birch

rods he had worn outduring all that timein his fatherly tenderness

for his pupils. Almost all the great men of that periodand for many

years backhad been whipped into eminence by Master Cheever. Moreover

he had written a Latin Accidencewhich was used in schools more than

half a century after his death; so that the good old maneven in his

gravewas still the cause of trouble and stripes to idle schoolboys."

Grandfather proceeded to saythatwhen Master Cheever diedhe

bequeathed the chair to the most learned man that was educated at his

schoolor that had ever been born in America. This was the renowned

Cotton Matherminister of the Old North Church in Boston.

"And author of the MagnaliaGrandfatherwhich we sometimes see you

reading" said Laurence.

"YesLaurence" replied Grandfather. "The Magnalia is astrange

pedantic historyin which true events and real personages move before

the reader with the dreamy aspect which they wore in Cotton Mather's

singular mind. This huge volumehoweverwas written and published

before our chair came into his possession. Butas he was the author of

more books than there are days in the yearwe may conclude that he

wrote a great deal while sitting in this chair."

"I am tired of these schoolmasters and learned men" said Charley."I

wish some stirring manthat knew how to do something in the worldlike

Sir William Phipswould sit in the chair."

"Such men seldom have leisure to sit quietly in a chair" said

Grandfather. "We must make the best of such people as we have."

As Cotton Mather was a very distinguished manGrandfather took some

pains to give the children a lively conception of his character. Over

the door of his library were painted these wordsBE SHORT--as a

warning to visitors that they must not do the world so much harm as

needlessly to interrupt this great man's wonderful labors. On entering

the room you would probably behold it crowdedand piledand heaped

with books. There were hugeponderous foliosand quartosand little

duodecimosin EnglishLatinGreekHebrewChaldaicand all other

languages that either originated at the confusion of Babel or have since

come into use.

All these booksno doubtwere tossed about in confusionthus forming

a visible emblem of the manner in which their contents were crowded into

Cotton Mather's brain. And in the middle of the room stood tableon

whichbesides printed volumeswere strewn manuscript sermons

historical tractsand political pamphletsall written in such a queer

blindcrabbedfantastical handthat a writing-master would have gone

raving mad at the sight of them. By this table stood Grandfather's

chairwhich seemed to have contracted an air of deep eruditionas if

its cushion were stuffed with LatinGreekand Hebrewand other hard


In this chairfrom one year's end to anothersat that prodigious

bookwormCotton Mathersometimes devouring a great bookand sometimes

scribbling one as big. In Grandfather's younger days there used to be a

wax figure of him in one of the Boston museumsrepresenting a solemn

dark-visaged personin a minister's black gownand with a black-letter

volume before him.

"It is difficultmy children" observed Grandfather"to makeyou

understand such a character as Cotton Mather'sin whom there was so

much goodand yet so many failings and frailties. Undoubtedly he was a

pious man. Often he kept fasts; and oncefor three whole dayshe

allowed himself not a morsel of foodbut spent the time in prayer and

religious meditation. Many a live-long night did he watch and pray.

These fasts and vigils made him meagre and haggardand probably caused

him to appear as if he hardly belonged to the world."

"Was not the witchcraft delusion partly caused by Cotton Mather?"

inquired Laurence.

"He was the chief agent of the mischief" answered Grandfather;"but we

will not suppose that he acted otherwise than conscientiously. He

believed that there were evil spirits all about the world. Doubtless he

imagined that they were hidden in the corners and crevices of his

libraryand that they peeped out from among the leaves of many of his

booksas he turned them overat midnight. He supposed that these

unlovely demons were everywherein the sunshine as well as in the

darknessand that they were hidden in men's heartsand stole into

their most secret thoughts."

Here Grandfather was interrupted by little Alicewho hid her face in

his lapand murmured a wish that he would not talk any more about

Cotton Mather and the evil spirits. Grandfather kissed herand told her

that angels were the only spirits whom she had anything to do with.

He then spoke of the public affairs of the period.

A new War between France and England had broken out in 1702and had

been raging ever since. In the course of itNew England suffered much

injury from the French and Indianswho often came through the woods

from Canada and assaulted the frontier towns. Villages were sometimes

burnedand the inhabitants slaughteredwithin a day's ride of Boston.

The people of New England had a bitter hatred against the Frenchnot

only for the mischief which they did with their own handsbut because

they incited the Indians to hostility.

The New-Englanders knew that they could never dwell in security until

the provinces of France should be subdued and brought under the English

government. They frequentlyin time of warundertook military

expeditions against Acadia and Canadaand sometimes besieged the

fortresses by which those territories were defended. But the most

earnest wish of their hearts was to take Quebecand so get possession

of the whole province of Canada. Sir William Phips had once attempted

itbut without success.

Fleets and soldiers were often sent from England to assist the colonists

in their warlike undertakings. In 1710 Port Royala fortress of Acadia

was taken by the English. The next yearin the month of Junea fleet

commanded by Admiral Sir Hovenden Walkerarrived in Boston Harbor. On

board of this fleet was the English General Hillwith seven regiments

of soldierswho had been fighting under the Duke of Marlborough in

Flanders. The government of Massachusetts was called upon to find

provisions for the army and fleetand to raise more men to assist in

taking Canada.

What with recruiting and drilling of soldiersthere was now nothing but

warlike bustle in the streets of Boston. The drum and fifethe rattle

of armsand the shouts of boys were heard from morning till night. In

about a month the fleet set sailcarrying four regiments from New

England and New Yorkbesides the English soldiers. The whole army

amounted to at least seven thousand men. They steered for the mouth of

the river St. Lawrence.

"Cotton Mather prayed most fervently for their success" continued

Grandfather"both in his pulpit and when he kneeled down in the

solitude of his libraryresting his face on our old chair. But

Providence ordered the result otherwise. In a few weeks tidings were

received that eight or nine of the vessels had been wrecked in the St.

Lawrenceand that above a thousand drowned soldiers had been washed

ashore on the banks of that mighty river. After this misfortune Sir

Hovenden Walker set sail for England; and many pious people began to

think it a sin even to wish for the conquest of Canada."

"I would never give it up so" cried Charley.

"Nor did theyas we shall see" replied Grandfather."Howeverno more

attempts were made during this warwhich came to a close in 1713. The

people of New England were probably glad of some repose; for their young

men had been made soldierstill many of them were fit for nothing else.

And those who remained at home had been heavily taxed to pay for the

armsammunition; fortificationsand all the other endless expenses of

a war. There was great need of the prayers of Cotton Mather and of all

pious mennot only on account of the sufferings of the peoplebut

because the old moral and religious character of New England was in

danger of being utterly lost."

"How glorious it would have been" remarked Laurence"if our

forefathers could have kept the country unspotted with blood!"

"Yes" said Grandfather; "but there was a sternwarlikespirit in them

from the beginning. They seem never to have thought of questioning

either the morality or piety of war."

The next event which Grandfather spoke of was one that Cotton Matheras

well as most of the other inhabitants of New Englandheartily rejoiced

at. This was the accession of the Elector of Hanover to the throne of

Englandin 1714on the death of Queen Anne. Hitherto the people had

been in continual dread that the male line of the Stuartswho were

descended from the beheaded King Charles and the banished King James

would be restored to the throne.

"The importance of this event" observed Grandfather"was athousand

times greater than that of a Presidential election in our own days. If

the people dislike their Presidentthey may get rid of him in four

years; whereas a dynasty of kings may wear the crown for an unlimited


The German elector was proclaimed king from the balcony of the town-

house in Bostonby the title of George I.; while the trumpets sounded

and the people cried amen. That night the town was illuminated; and

Cotton Mather threw aside book and penand left Grandfather’s chair

vacantwhile he walked hither and thither to witness the rejoicings.





"COTTON MATHER" continued Grandfather" was a bitter enemy toGovernor

Dudley; and nobody exulted more than he when that crafty politician was

removed from the governmentand succeeded by Colonel Shute. This took

place in 1716. The new governor had been an officer in the renowned Duke

of Marlborough's armyand had fought in some of the great battles in


"Now I hope" said Charley"we shall hear of his doing greatthings."

"I am afraid you will be disappointedCharley" answeredGrandfather.

"It is true that Colonel Shute had probably never led so unquiet a life

while fighting the French as he did nowwhile governing this province

of Massachusetts Bay. But his troubles consisted almost entirely of

dissensions with the Legislature. The king had ordered him to lay claim

to a fixed salary; but the representatives of the people insisted upon

paying him only such sums from year to year as they saw fit."

Grandfather here explained some of the circumstances that made the

situation of a colonial governor so difficult and irksome. There was not

the same feeling towards the chief magistrate now that had existed while

he was chosen by the free suffrages of the peopleit was felt that as

the king appointed the governorand as he held his office during the

king's pleasureit would be his great object to please the king. But

the people thought that a governor ought to have nothing in view but the

best interests of those whom he governed.

"The governor" remarked Grandfather"had two masters toserve--the

kingwho appointed him; and the peopleon whom he depended for his

pay. Few men in this position would have ingenuity enough to satisfy

either party. Colonel Shutethough a good-naturedwell-meaning man

succeeded so ill with the peoplethatin 1722he suddenly went away

to England and made Complaint to King George. In the meantime

Lieutenant-Governor Dummer directed the affairs of the provinceand

carried on a long and bloody war with the Indians."

"But where was our chair all this time?" asked Clara.

"It still remained in Cotton Mather's library" repliedGrandfather;

"and I must not omit to tell you an incident which is very much to the

honor of this celebrated man. It is the more propertoothat you

should hear itbecause it will show you what a terrible calamity the

smallpox was to our forefathers. The history of the province (andof

coursethe history of our chair) would be incomplete without particular

mention of it."

Accordingly Grandfather told the children a storyto whichfor want of

a better titlewe shall give that of The Rejected Blessing.

One dayin 1721Doctor Cotton Mather sat in his library reading a book

that had been published by the Royal Society of London. But every few

moments he laid the book upon the tableand leaned back in

Grandfather's chair with an aspect of deep care and disquietude. There

were certain things which troubled him exceedinglyso that he could

hardly fix his thoughts upon what he read.

It was now a gloomy time in Boston. That terrible disease; the small-

poxhad recently made its appearance in the town. Ever since the first

settlement of the country this awful pestilence had come at intervals

and swept away multitudes of the inhabitants. Whenever it commenced its

ravagesnothing seemed to stay its progress until there were no more

victims for it to seize upon. Oftentimes hundreds of people at once lay

groaning with its agony; and when it departedits deep footsteps were

always to be traced in many graves.

The people never felt secure from this calamity. Sometimesperhapsit

was brought into the country by a poor sailorwho had caught the

infection in foreign partsand came hither to die and to be the cause

of many deaths. Sometimesno doubtit followed in the train of the

pompous governors when they came over from England. Sometimes the

disease lay hidden in the cargoes of shipsamong silksand brocades

and other costly merchandise which was imported for the rich people to

wear. And sometimes it started up seemingly of its own accordand

nobody could tell whence it came. The physicianbeing called to attend

the sick personwould look at himand say"It is the small-pox! Let

the patient be carried to the hospital."

And now this dreadful sickness had shown itself again in Boston. Cotton

Mather was greatly afflicted for the sake of the whole province. He had

childrentoowho were exposed to the danger. At that very moment he

heard the voice of his youngest sonfor whom his heart was moved with


"Alas! I fear for that poor child" said Cotton Mather to himself."What

shall I do for my son Samuel?"

Again he attempted to drive away these thoughts by taking up the book

which he had been reading. And nowall of a suddenhis attention

became fixed. The book contained a printed letter that an Italian

physician had written upon the very subject about .which Cotton Mather

was so anxiously meditating. He ran his eye eagerly over the pages; and

behold! a method was disclosed to him by which the small-pox might be

robbed of its worst terrors. Such a method was known in Greece. The

physicians of Turkeytoothose long-bearded Eastern sageshad been

acquainted with it for many years. The negroes of Africaignorant as

they werehad likewise practised itand thus had shown themselves

wiser than the white men.

"Of a truth" ejaculated Cotton Matherclasping his hands andlooking

up to heaven"it was a merciful Providence that brought this book under

mine eye. I will procure a consultation of physiciansand see whether

this wondrous inoculation may not stay the progress of the destroyer."

So he arose from Grandfather's chair and went out of the library. Near

the door he met his son Samuelwho seemed downcast and out of spirits.

The boy had heardprobablythat some of his playmates were taken ill

with the small-pox. Butas his father looked cheerfully at himSamuel

took couragetrusting that either the wisdom of so learned a minister

would find some remedy for the dangeror else that his prayers would

secure protection from on high.

Meanwhile Cotton Mather took his staff and three-cornered hat and walked

about the streetscalling at the houses of all the physicians in

Boston. They were a very wise fraternity; and their huge wigsand black

dressesand solemn visages made their wisdom appear even profounder

than it was. One after another he acquainted them with the discovery

which he had hit upon.

But the grave and sagacious personages would scarcely listen to him. The

oldest doctor in town contented himself with remarking that no such

thing as inoculation was mentioned by Galen or Hippocrates; and it was

impossible that modern physicians should be wiser than those old sages.

A second held up his hands in dumb astonishment and horror at the mad-

ness of what Cotton Mather proposed to do. A third told himin pretty

plain termsthat he knew not what he was talking about. A fourth

requestedin the name of the whole medical fraternitythat Cotton

Mather would confine his attention to people's soulsand leave the

physicians to take care of their bodies. In shortthere was but a

single doctor among them all who would grant the poor minister so much

as a patient hearingThis was Doctor Zabdiel Boylston. He looked into

the matter like a man of senseand findingbeyond a doubtthat

inoculation had rescued many from deathhe resolved to try the

experiment in his own family.

And so he did. But when the other physicians heard of it they arose in

great fury and began a war of wordswrittenprintedand spoken

against Cotton Mather and Doctor Boylston. To hear them talkyou would

have supposed that these two harmless and benevolent men had plotted the

ruin of the country.

The peoplealsotook the alarm. Manywho thought themselves more

pious than their neighborscontended thatif Providence had ordained

them to die of the small-poxit was sinful to aim at preventing it. The

strangest reports were in circulation. Some said that Doctor Boylston

had contrived a method for conveying the goutrheumatismsick-

headacheasthmaand all other diseases from one person to anotherand

diffusing them through the whole community. Others flatly affirmed that

the evil one had got possession of Cotton Matherand was at the bottom

of the whole business.

You must observechildrenthat Cotton Mather's fellow-citizens were

generally inclined to doubt the wisdom of any measure which he might

propose to them. They recollected how he had led them astray in the old

witchcraft delusion; and nowif he thought and acted ever so wiselyit

was difficult for him to get the credit of it.

The people's wrath grew so hot at his attempt to guard them from the

small-pox that he could not walk the streets in peace. Whenever the

venerable form of the old ministermeagre and haggard with fasts and

vigilswas seen approachinghisses were heardand shouts of derision

and scornful and bitter laughter. The women snatched away their children

from his pathlest he should do them a mischief. Stillhowever

bending his head meeklyand perhaps stretching out his hands to bless

those who reviled himhe pursued his way. But the tears came into his

eyes to think how blindly the people rejected the means of safety that

were offered them.

Indeedthere were melancholy sights enough in the streets of Boston to

draw forth the tears of a compassionate man. Over the door of almost

every dwelling a red flag was fluttering in the air. This was the signal

that the small-pox had entered the house and attacked some member of the

family; or perhaps the whole familyold and youngwere struggling at

once with the pestilence. Friends and relativeswhen they met one

another in the streetswould hurry onward without a grasp of the hand

or scarcely a word of greetinglest they should catch or communicate

the contagion; and often a coffin was borne hastily along.

"Alas! alas!" said Cotton Mather to himself"what shall bedone for

this poormisguided people? Oh that Providence would open their eyes

and enable them to discern good from evil!"

So furioushoweverwere the peoplethat they threatened vengeance

against any person who should dare to practise inoculationthough it

were only in his own family. This was a hard case for Cotton Mather

who saw no other way to rescue his poor child Samuel from the disease.

But he resolved to save himeven if his house should be burned over his


"I will not be turned aside" said he. "My townsmen shall seethat I

have faith in this thingwhen I make the experiment on my beloved son

whose life is dearer to me than my own. And when I have saved Samuel

peradventure they will be persuaded to save themselves."

Accordingly Samuel was inoculated; and so was Mr. Waltera son-in-law

of Cotton Mather. Doctor Boylestonlikewiseinoculated many persons;

and while hundreds died who had caught the contagion from the garments

of the sickalmost all were preserved who followed the wise physician's


But the people were not yet convinced of their mistake. One night a

destructive little instrumentcalled a hand-grenadewas thrown into

Cotton Mather's windowand rolled under Grandfather's chair. It was

supposed to be filled with gunpowderthe explosion of which would have

blown the poor minister to atoms. But the best informed historians are

of opinion that the grenade contained only brimstone and assafoetida

and was meant to plague Cotton Mather with a very evil perfume.

This is no strange thing in human experience. Men who attempt to do the

world mere good than the world is able entirely to comprehend are almost

invariably held in bad odor. But yetif the wise and good man can wait

awhileeither the present generation or posterity will do him justice.

So it proved in the case which we have been speaking of. In after years

when inoculation was universally practisedand thousands were saved

from death by itthe people remembered old Cotton Matherthen sleeping

in his grave. They acknowledged that the very thing for which they had

so reviled and persecuted him was the best and wisest thing he ever did.

"Grandfatherthis is not an agreeable story" observed Clara.

"NoClara" replied Grandfather. "But it is right that youshould know

what a dark shadow this disease threw over the times of our forefathers.

And nowif you wish to learn more about Cotton Matheryou must read

his biographywritten by Mr. Peabodyof Springfield. You will find it

very entertaining and instructive; but perhaps the writer is somewhat

too harsh in his judgment of this singular man. He estimates him fairly

indeedand understands him well; but he unriddles his character rather

by acuteness than by sympathy. Nowhis life should have been written by

one whoknowing all his faultswould nevertheless love him."

So Grandfather made an end of Cotton Mathertelling his auditors that

he died in 1728at the age of sixty-fiveand bequeathed the chair to

Elisha Cooke. This gentleman was a famous advocate of the people's


The same year William Burnera son of the celebrated Bishop Burnet

arrived in Boston with the commission of governor. He was the first that

had been appointed since the departure of Colonel ShuteGovernor Burnet

took up his residence with Mr. Cooke while the Province House was

undergoing repairs. During this period he was always complimented with a

seat in Grandfather's chair; and so comfortable did he find itthaton

removing to the Province Househe could not bear to leave it behind

him. Mr. Cookethereforerequested his acceptance of it.

"I should think" said Laurence"that the people would havepetitioned

the king always to appoint a native-born New-Englander to govern them."

"Undoubtedly it was a grievance" answered Grandfather"tosee men

placed in this station who perhaps had neither talents nor virtues to

fit them for itand who certainly could have no natural affection for

the country. The king generally bestowed the governorships of the

American colonies upon needy noblemenor hangers-on at courtor

disbanded officers. The people knew that such persons would be very

likely to make the good of the country subservient to the wishes of the

king. The Legislaturethereforeendeavored to keep as much power as

possible in their own handsby refusing to settle a fixed salary upon

the governors. It was thought better to pay them according to their


"Did Governor Burner work well for his money?" asked Charley.

Grandfather could not help smiling at the simplicity of Charley's

question. Neverthelessit put the matter in a very plain point of view.

He then described the character of Governor Bur-netrepresenting him as

a good scholarpossessed of much abilityand likewise of unspotted

integrity. His story affords a striking example how unfortunate it is

for a manwho is placed as ruler over a country to be compelled to aim

at anything but the good of the people. Governor Burnet was so chained

down by his instructions from the king that he could not act as he might

otherwise have wished. Consequentlyhis whole term of office was wasted

in quarrels with the Legislature.

"I am afraidchildren" said Grandfather"that GovernorBurner found

but little rest or comfort in our old chair. Here he used to sit

dressed in a coat which was made of roughshaggy cloth outsidebut of

smooth velvet within. It was said that his own character resembled that

coat; for his outward manner was roughbut his inward disposition soft

and kind. It is a pity that such a man could not have been kept free

from trouble. But so harassing were his disputes with the

representatives of the people that he fell into a feverof which he

died in 1729. The Legislature had refused him a salary while alive; but

they appropriated money enough to give him a splendid and pompous


And now Grandfather perceived that little Alice had fallen fast asleep

with her head upon his footstool. Indeedas Clara observedshe had

been sleeping from the time of Sir Hovenden Walker's expedition against

Quebec until the death of Governor Burnet--a period of about eighteen

years. And yetafter so long a napsweet little Alice was a golden-

haired child of scarcely five years old.

"It puts me in mind" said Laurence"of the story of theenchanted

princesswho slept many a hundred yearsand awoke as young and

beautiful as ever."





A FEW evenings afterwardscousin Clara happened

inquire of Grandfather whether the old chair had never been present at a

ball. At the same time little Alice brought forward a dollwith whom

she had been holding a long conversation.

"SeeGrandfather! "cried she. "Did such a pretty lady as thisever sit

in your great chair?"

These questions led Grandfather to talk about the fashions and manners

which now began to be introduced from England into the provinces. The

simplicity of the good old Puritan times was fast disappearing. This was

partly owing to the increasing number and wealth of the inhabitantsand

to the additions which they continually received by the arrival and

settlement of people from beyond the sea.

Another cause of a pompous and artificial mode of lifeamong those who

could afford itwas that the example was set by the royal governors.

Under the old charterthe governors were the representatives of the

peopleand therefore their way of living had probably been marked by a

popular simplicity. But nowas they represented the person of the king

they thought it necessary to preserve the dignity of their station by

the practice of high and gorgeous ceremonials. Andbesidesthe

profitable offices under the government were filled by men who had lived

in Londonand had there contracted fashionable and luxurious habits of

living which they would not now lay aside. The wealthy people of the

province imitated them; and thus began a general change in social life.

"Somy dear Clara" said Grandfather"after our chair hadentered the

Province Houseit must often have been present at balls and festivals;

though I cannot give you a description of any particular one. But I

doubt not that they were very magnificent; and slaves in gorgeous

liveries waited on the guestsand offered them wine in goblets of

massive silver."

"Were there slaves in those days!" exclaimed Clara.

"Yesblack slaves and white" replied Grandfather. "Ourancestors not

only brought negroes from Africabut Indians from South Americaand

white people from Ireland. These last were soldnot for lifebut for a

certain number of yearsin order to pay the expenses of their voyage

across the Atlantic. Nothing was more common than to see a lot of likely

Irish girls advertised for sale in the newspapers. As for the little

negro babiesthey were offered to be giver away like young kittens."

"Perhaps Alice would have liked one to play withinstead of herdoll"

said Charleylaughing.

But little Alice clasped the waxen doll closer to her bosom.

"Nowas for this pretty dollmy little Alice" said Grandfather"I

wish you could have seen what splendid dresses the ladies wore in those

times. They had silksand satinsand damasksand brocadesand high

head-dressesand all sorts of fine things. And they used to wear hooped

petticoats of such enormous size that it was quite a journey to walk

round them."

"And how did the gentlemen dress?" asked Charley.

"With full as much magnificence as the ladies" answeredGrandfather.

"For their holiday suits they had coats of figured velvetcrimson

greenblueand all other gay colorsembroidered with gold or silver

lace. Their waistcoatswhich were five times as large as modern ones

were very splendid. Sometimes the whole waistcoatwhich came down

almost to the kneeswas made of gold brocade."

"Whythe wearer must have shone like a golden image!" said Clara.

"And then" continued Grandfather"they wore various sorts ofperiwigs

such as the tiethe Spencerthe brigadierthe majorthe Albemarle

the Ramilliesthe feather-topand the full-bottom. Their three-

cornered hats were laced with gold or silver. They had shining buckles

at the knees of their small-clothesand buckles likewise in their

shoes. They wore swords with beautiful hiltseither of silveror

sometimes of polished steelinlaid with gold."

"OhI should like to wear a sword!" cried Charley.

"And an embroidered crimson velvet coat" said Claralaughing"and a

gold brocade waistcoat down to your knees."

"And knee-buckles and shoe-buckles" said Laurencelaughing also.

"And a periwig" added little Alicesoberlynot knowing what wasthe

article of dress which she recommended to our friend Charley.

Grandfather smiled at the idea of Charley's sturdy little figure in such

a grotesque caparison. He then went on with the history of the chair

and told the children thatin 1730King George II. appointed Jonathan

Belcher to be governor of Massachusetts in place of the deceased

Governor Burner. Mr. Belcher was a native of the provincebut had spent

much of his life in Europe.

The new governor found Grandfather's chair in the Province House. He was

struck with its noble and stately aspectbut was of opinion that age

and hard services had made it scarcely so fit for courtly company as

when it stood in the Earl of Lincoln's hall. Whereforeas Governor

Belcher was fond of splendorhe employed a skilful artist to beautify

the chair. This was done by polishing and varnishing itand by gilding

the carved work of the elbowsand likewise the oaken flowers of the

back. The lion's head now shone like a veritable lump of gold. Finally

Governor Belcher gave the chair a cushion of blue damaskwith a rich

golden fringe.

"Our good old chair being thus glorified" proceeded Grandfather"it

glittered with a great deal more splendor than it had exhibited just a

century beforewhen the Lady Arbella brought it over from England. Most

people mistook it for a chair of the latest London fashion. And this may

serve for an examplethat there is almost always an old and timeworn

substance under all the glittering show of new invention."

"GrandfatherI cannot see any of the gilding" remarked Charleywho

had been examining the chair very minutely.

"You will not wonder that it has been rubbed off" repliedGrandfather

"when you hear all the adventures that have since befallen the chair.

Gilded it was; and the handsomest room in the Province House was adorned

by it."

There was not much to interest the children in what happened during the

years that Governor Belcher remained in the chair. At firstlike

Colonel Shute and Governor Burnerhe was engaged in disputing with the

Legislature about his salary. Butas he found it impossible to get a

fixed sumhe finally obtained the king's leave to accept whatever the

Legislature chose to give him. And thus the people triumphedafter this

long contest for the privilege of expending their own money as they saw


The remainder of Governor Belcher's term of office was principally taken

up in endeavoring to settle the currency. Honest John Hull's pine-tree

shillings had long ago been worn outor lostor melted down again; and

their place was supplied by bills of paper or parchmentwhich were

nominally valued at threepence and upwards. The value of these bills

kept continually sinkingbecause the real hard money could not be

obtained for them. They were a great deal worse than the old Indian

currency of clam-shells. These disorders of the circulating medium were

a source of endless plague and perplexity to the rulers and legislators

not only in Governor Belcher's daysbut for many years before and


Finally the people suspected that Governor Belcher was secretly

endeavoring to establish the Episcopal mode of worship in the provinces.

There was enough of the old Puritan spirit remaining to cause most of

the true sons of New England to look with horror upon such an attempt.

Great exertions were made to induce the king to remove the governor.

Accordinglyin 1740he was compelled to resign his officeand

Grandfather's chair into the bargainto Mr. Shirley.





"WILLIAM SHIRLEY" said Grandfather"had come from England afew years

beforeand begun to practise law in Boston. You will thinkperhaps

thatas he had been a lawyerthe new governor used to sit in our great

chair reading heavy law-books from morning till night. On the contrary

he was as stirring and active a governor as Massachusetts ever had. Even

Sir William Phips hardly equalled him. The first year or two of his

administration was spent in trying to regulate the currency. But in

1744after a peace of more than thirty yearswar broke out between

France and England."

"And I suppose" said Charley"the governor went to takeCanada."

"Not exactlyCharley" said Grandfather;" though you havemade a pretty

shrewd conjecture. He plannedin 1745an expedition against Louisburg.

This was a fortified cityon the island of Cape Bretonnear Nova

Scotia. Its walls were of immense height and strengthand were defended

by hundreds of heavy cannon. It was the strongest fortress which the

French possessed in America; and if the king of France had guessed

Governor Shirley's intentionshe would have sent all the ships he could

muster to protect it."

As the siege of Louisburg was one of the most remarkable events that

ever the inhabitants of New England were engaged inGrandfather

endeavored to give his auditors a lively idea of the spirit with which

they set about it. We shall call his description The Provincial Muster.

The expedition against Louisburg first began to be thought of in the

month of January. From that time the governor's chair was continually

surrounded by councillorsrepresentativesclergymencaptainspilots

and all manner of peoplewith whom he consulted about this wonderful


First of allit was necessary to provide men and arms. The Legislature

immediately sent out a huge quantity of paper-moneywith whichas if

by magic spellthe governor hoped to get possession of all the old

cannonpowder and ballsrusty swords and musketsand everything else

that would be serviceable in killing Frenchmen. Drums were beaten in all

the villages of Massachusetts to enlist soldiers for the service.

Messages were sent to the other governors of New Englandand to New

York and Pennsylvaniaentreating them to unite in this crusade against

the French. All these provinces agreed to give what assistance they


But there was one very important thing to be decided. Who shall be the

general of this great army? Peace had continued such an unusual length

of time that there was now less military experience among the colonists

than at any former period. The old Puritans had always kept their

weapons brightand were never destitute of warlike captains who were

skilful in assault or defence. But the swords of their descendents had

grown rusty by disuse. There was nobody in New England that knew

anything about sieges or any other regular fighting. The only persons at

all acquainted with warlike business were a few elderly menwho had

hunted Indians through the underbrush of the forest in old Governor

Dummer's War.

In this dilemma Governor Shirley fixed upon a wealthy merchantnamed

William Pepperellwho was pretty well known and liked among the people.

As to military skillhe had no more of it than his neighbors. Butas

the governor urged him very pressinglyMr. Pepperell consented to shut

up his ledgergird on a swordand assume the title of general.

Meantimewhat a hubbub was raised by this scheme! Rub-a-dub-dub! rub-a-

dub-dub! The rattle of drumsbeaten out of all manner of timewas

heard above every other sound.

Nothing now was so valuable as armsof whatever style and fashion they

might be. The bellows blewand the hammer clanged continually upon the

anvilwhile the blacksmiths were repairing the broken weapons of other

wars. Doubtless some of the soldiers lugged out those enormousheavy

muskets which used to be firedwith restsin the time of the early

Puritans. Great horse-pistolstoowere foundwhich would go off with

a bang like a cannon. Old cannonwith touchholes almost as big as their

muzzleswere looked upon as inestimable treasures. Pikes which

perhapshad been handled by Miles Standish's soldiersnow made their

appearance again. Many a young man ransacked the garret and brought

forth his great-grandfather's swordcorroded with rust and stained with

the blood of King Philip's War.

Never had there been such an arming as thiswhen a peopleso long

peacefulrose to the war with the best weapons that they could lay

their hands upon. And still the drums were heard--rub-a-dub-dub! rub-a-

dub-dub!--in all the towns and villages; and louder and more numerous

grew the trampling footsteps of the recruits that marched behind.

And now the army began to gather into Boston. Tanlankyawkward

fellows came in squadsand companiesand regimentsswaggering along

dressed in their brown homespun clothes and blue yarn stockings. They

stooped as if they still had hold of the plough-handlesand marched

without any time or tune. Hither they camefrom the cornfieldsfrom

the clearing in the forestfrom the blacksmith's forgefrom the

carpenter's workshopand from the shoemaker's seat. They were an army

of rough faces and sturdy frames. A trained officer of Europe would have

laughed at them till his sides had ached. But there was a spirit in

their bosoms which is more essential to soldiership than to wear red

coats and march in stately ranks to the sound of regular music.

Still was heard the beat of the drum- rub-a-dub-dub! And now a host of

three or four thousand men had found their way to Boston. Little quiet

was there then! Forth scampered the school-boysshouting behind the

drums. The whole townthe whole landwas on fire with war.

After the arrival of the troopsthey were probably reviewed upon the

Common. We may imagine Governor Shirley and General Pepperell riding

slowly along the linewhile the drummers beat strange old tuneslike

psalm-tunesand all the officers and soldiers put on their most warlike

looks. It would have been a terrible sight for the Frenchmencould they

but have witnessed it!

At lengthon the 24th of March1745the army gave a parting shout

and set sail from Boston in ten or twelve vessels which had been hired

by the governor. A few days afterwards an English fleetcommanded by

Commodore Peter Warrensailed also for Louisburg to assist the

provincial army. So nowafter all this bustle of preparationthe town

and province were left in stillness and repose.

But stillness and reposeat such a time of anxious expectationare

hard to bear. The hearts of the old people and women sunk within them

when they reflected what perils they had sent their sonsand husbands

and brothers to encounter. The boys loitered heavily to Schoolmissing

the rub-a-dub-dub and the trampling marchin the rear of which they had

so lately run and shouted. All the ministers prayed earnestly in their

pulpits for a blessing on the army of New England. In every familywhen

the good man lifted up his heart in domestic worshipthe burden of his

petition was for the safety of those dear ones who were fighting under

the walls of Louisburg.

Governor Shirley all this time was probably in an ecstasy of impatience.

He could not sit still a moment. He found no quietnot even in

Grandfather's chair; but hurried to and froand up and down the

staircase of the Province House. Now he mounted to the cupola and looked

seawardstraining his eyes to discover if there were a sail upon the

horizon. Now he hastened down the stairsand stood beneath the portal

on the red free-stone stepsto receive some mud-bespattered courier

from whom he hoped to hear tidings of the army. A few weeks after the

departure of the troopsCommodore Warren sent a small vessel to Boston

with two French prisoners. One of them was Monsieur Bouladriewho had

been commander of a battery outside the walls of Louisburg. The other

was the Marquis de la Maison Fortecaptain of a French frigate which

had been taken by Commodore Warren's fleet. These prisoners assured

Governor Shirley that the fortifications of Louisburg were far too

strong ever to be stormed by the provincial army.

Day after day and week after week went on. The people grew almost heart-

sick with anxiety; for the flower of the country was at peril in this

adventurous expedition. It .was now daybreak on the morning of the 3d of


But hark! what sound is this? The hurried clang of a bell! There is the

Old North pealing suddenly out!--there the Old South strikes in!--now

the peal comes from the church in Brattle Street!--the bells of nine or

ten steeples are all flinging their iron voices at once upon the morning

breeze! Is it joyor alarm? There goes the roar of a cannon too! A

royal salute is thundered forth. And now we hear the loud exulting shout

of a multitude assembled in the street. Huzza! huzza! Louisburg has

surrendered! Huzza!

"O Grandfatherhow glad I should have been to live in thosetimes!"

cried Charley. "And what reward did the king give to General Pepperell

and Governor Shirley?"

"He made Pepperell a baronet; so that he was now to be called Sir

William Pepperell" replied Grandfather. "He likewise appointedboth

Pepperell and Shirley to be colonels in the royal army. These rewards

and higher oneswere well deserved; for this was the greatest triumph

that the English met with in the whole course of that war. General

Pepperell became a man of great fame. I have seen a full-length portrait

of himrepresenting him in a splendid scarlet uniformstanding before

the walls of Louisburgwhile several bombs are falling through the


"But did the country gain any real good by the conquest ofLouisburg?"

asked Laurence. "Or was all the benefit reaped by Pepperell and


"The English Parliament" replied Grandfather"agreed to paythe

colonists for all the expenses of the siege. Accordinglyin 1749two

hundred and fifteen chests of Spanish dollars and one hundred casks of

copper coin were brought from England to Boston. The whole amount was

about a million of dollars. Twenty-seven carts and trucks carried this

money from the wharf to the provincial treasury. Was not this a pretty

liberal reward?"

"The mothers of the young men who were killed at the siege of Louisburg

would not have thought it so" said Laurence.

"No; Laurence" rejoined Grandfather; "and every warlikeachievement

involves an amount of physical and moral evilfor which all the gold in

the Spanish mines would not be the slightest recompense. But we are to

consider that this siege was one of the occasions on which the colonists

tested their ability for warand thus were prepared for the great

contest of the Revolution. In that point of viewthe valor of our

forefathers was its own reward."

Grandfather went on to say that the success of the expedition against

Louisburg induced Shirley and Pepperell to form a scheme for conquering

CanadaThis planhoweverwas not carried into execution.

In the year 1746 great terror was excited by the arrival of a formidable

French fleet upon the coast It was commanded by the Duke d'Anvilleand

consisted of forty ships of warbesides vessels with soldiers on board.

With this force the French intended to retake Louisburgand afterwards

to ravage the whole of New England. Many people were ready to give up

the country for lost.

But the hostile fleet met with so many disasters and losses by storm and

shipwreckthat the Duke d'Anville is said to have poisoned himself in

despair. The officer next in command threw himself upon his sword and

perished. Thus deprived of their commandersthe remainder of the ships

returned to France. This was as great a deliverance for New England as

that which Old England had experienced in the days of Queen Elizabeth

when the Spanish Armada was wrecked upon her coast.

"In 1747" proceeded Grandfather"Governor Shirley was drivenfrom the

Province Housenot by a hostile fleet and armybut by a mob of the

Boston people. They were so incensed at the conduct of the British

Commodore Knowleswho had impressed some of their fellow-citizensthat

several thousands of them surrounded the council chamber and threw

stones and brickbats into the windows. The governor attempted to pacify

them; but not succeedinghe thought it necessary to leave the town and

take refuge within the walls of Castle William. Quiet was not restored

until Commodore Knowles had sent back the impressed men. This affair was

a flash of spirit that might have warned the English not to venture upon

any oppressive measures against their colonial brethren."

Peace being declared between France and England in 1748the governor

had now an opportunity to sit at his ease in Grandfather's chair. Such

reposehoweverappears not to have suited his disposition; for in the

following year he went to Englandand thence was despatched to France

on public business. Meanwhileas Shirley had not resigned his office

Lieu-tenant-Governor Phips acted as chief magistrate in his stead.





IN the early twilight of Thanksgiving Eve came Laurenceand Claraand

Charleyand little Alicehand in handand stood in a semicircle round

Grandfather's chair. They had been joyous throughout that day of

festivitymingling together in all kinds of playso that the house had

echoed with their airy mirth.

Grandfathertoohad been happy though not mirthful. He felt that this

was to be set down as one of the good Thanksgivings of his life. In

truthall his former Thanksgivings had borne their part in the present

one; for his years of infancyand youthand manhoodwith their

blessings and their griefshad flitted before him while he sat silently

in the great chair. Vanished scenes had been pictured in the air. The

forms of departed friends had visited him. Voices to be heard no more on

earth had sent an echo from the infinite and the eternal. These shadows

if such they wereseemed almost as real to him as what was actually

present--as the merry shouts and laughter of the children--as their

figuresdancing like sunshine before his eyes.

He felt that the past was not taken from him. The happiness of former

days was a possession forever. And there was something in the mingled

sorrow of his lifetime that became akin to happinessafter being long

treasured in the depths of his heart. There it underwent a changeand

grew more precious than pure gold.

And now came the childrensomewhat aweary with their wild playand

sought the quiet enjoyment of Grandfather's talk. The good old gentleman

rubbed his eyes and smiled round upon them all. He was gladas most

aged people areto find that he was yet of consequenceand could give

pleasure to the world. After being so merry all day longdid these

children desire to hear his sober talk? Ohthenold Grandfather had

yet a place to fill among living men- or at least among boys and girls!

"Begin quickGrandfather" cried little Alice; "for pussywants to hear


And truly our yellow friendthe catlay upon the hearth-rugbasking

in the warmth of the firepricking up her earsand turning her head

from the children to Grandfatherand from Grandfather to the children

as if she felt herself very sympathetic with them all. A loud purrlike

the singing of a tea-kettle or the hum of a spinning-wheeltestified

that she was as comfortable and happy as a cat could be. For puss had

feasted; and thereforelike Grandfather and the childrenhad kept a

good Thanksgiving.

"Does pussy want to hear me?" said Grandfathers smiling."Wellwe must

please pussyif we can."

And so he took up the history of the chair from the epoch of the peace

of 1748. By one of the provisions of the treatyLouisburgwhich the

New-Englanders had been at so much pains to takewas restored to the

King of France.

The French were afraid thatunless their colonies should be better

defended than heretoforeanother war might deprive them of the whole.

Almost as soon as peace was declaredthereforethey began to build

strong fortifications in the interior of North America. It was strange

to behold these warlike castles on the banks of solitary lakes and far

in the midst of woods. The Indianpaddling his birch canoe on Lake

Champlainlooked up at the high ramparts of Ticonderogastone piled on

stonebristling with cannonand the white flag of France floating

above. There were similar fortifications on Lake Ontarioand near the

great Falls of Niagaraand at the sources of the Ohio River. And all

around these forts and castles lay the eternal forestand the roll of

the drum died away in those deep solitudes.

The truth wasthat the French intended to build forts all the way from

Canada to Louisiana. They would then have had a wall of military

strength at the back of the English settlements so as completely to hem

them in. The King of England considered the building of these forts as a

sufficient cause of warwhich was accordingly commenced in 1754.

"Governor Shirley" said Grandfather"had returned to Bostonin 1753.

While in Paris he had married a second wifea young French girland

now brought her to the Province House. But when war was breaking out it

was impossible for such a bustling man to stay quietly at homesitting

in our old chairwith his wife and childrenround about him. He

therefore obtained a command in the English forces."

"And what did Sir William Pepperell do?" asked Charley.

"He stayed at home" said Grandfather"and was general of themilitia.

The veteran regiments of the English army which were now sent across the

Atlantic would have scorned to fight under the orders of an old American

merchant. And now began what aged people call the old French War. It

would be going too far astray from the history of our chair to tell you

one half of the battles that were fought. I cannot even allow myself to

describe the bloody defeat of General Braddocknear the sources of the

Ohio Riverin 1755. But I must not omit to mention thatwhen the Eng-

lish general was mortally wounded and his army routedthe remains of it

were preserved by the skill and valor of George Washington."

At the mention of this illustrious name the children started as if a

sudden sunlight had gleamed upon the history of their countrynow that

the great deliverer had arisen above the horizon.

Among all the events of the old French WarGrandfather thought that

there was none more interesting than the removal of the inhabitants of

Acadia. From the first settlement of this ancient province of the

Frenchin 1604until the present timeits people could scarcely ever

know what kingdom held dominion over them. They were a peaceful race

taking no delight in warfareand caring nothing for military renown.

And yetin every wartheir region was infested with iron-hearted

soldiersboth French and Englishwho fought one another for the

privilege of ill-treating these poorharmless Acadians. Sometimes the

treaty of peace made them subjects of one kingsometimes of another.

At the peace of 1748 Acadia had been ceded to England. But the French

still claimed a large portion of itand built forts for its defence. In

1755 these forts were takenand the whole of Acadia was conquered by

three thousand men from Massachusettsunder the command of General

Winslow. The inhabitants were accused of supplying the French with

provisionsand of doing other things that violated their neutrality.

"These accusations were probably true" observed Grandfather;"for the

Acadians were descended from the Frenchand had the same friendly

feelings towards them that the people of Massachusetts had for the

English. But their punishment was severe. The English determined to tear

these poor people from their native homes and scatter them abroad."

The Acadians were about seven thousand in number. A considerable part of

them were made prisonersand transported to the English colonies. All

their dwellings and churches were burnedtheir cattle were killedand

the whole country was laid wasteso that none of them might find

shelter or food in their old homes after the departure of the English.

One thousand of the prisoners were sent to Massachusetts; and

Grandfather allowed his fancy to follow them thitherand tried to give

his auditors an idea of their situation.

We shall call this passage the story of


A sad day it was for the poor Acadians when the armed soldiers drove

themat the point of the bayonetdown to the sea-shore. Very sad were

theylikewisewhile tossing upon the ocean in the crowded transport

vessels. But methinks it must have been sadder still when they were

landed on the Long Wharf in Bostonand left to themselves on a foreign


Thenprobablythey huddled together and looked into one another's

faces for the comfort which was not there. Hitherto they had been

confined on board of separate vesselsso that they could not tell

whether their relatives and friends were prisoners along with them. But

nowat leastthey could tell that many had been left behind or

transported to other regions.

Now a desolate wife might be heard calling for her husband. Healas!

had goneshe knew not whither; or perhaps had fled into the woods of

Acadiaand had now returned to weep over the ashes of their dwelling.

An aged widow was crying out in a querulouslamentable tone for her

sonwhose affectionate toil had supported her for many a. year. He was

not in the crowd of exiles; and what could this aged widow do but sink

down and die? Young men and maidenswhose hearts had been torn asunder

by separationhad hopedduring the voyageto meet their beloved ones

at its close. Now they began to feel that they were separated forever.

And perhaps a lonesome little girla golden-haired child of five years

oldthe very picture of our little Alicewas weeping and wailing for

her motherand found not a soul to give her a kind


Ohhow many broken bonds of affection were here! Country lost--friends

lost--their rural wealth of cottagefieldand herds all lost

together! Every tie between these poor exiles and the world seemed to be

cut off at once. They must have regretted that they had not died before

their exile; for even the English would not have been so pitiless as to

deny them graves in their native soil. The dead were happy; for they

were not exiles!

While they thus stood upon the wharfthe curiosity and inquisitiveness

of the New England people would naturally lead them into the midst of

the poor Acadians. Prying busybodies thrust their heads into the circle

wherever two or three of the exiles were conversing together. How

puzzled did they look at the outlandish sound of the French tongue!

There were seen the New England womentoo. They had just come out of

their warmsafe homeswhere everything was regular and comfortable

and where their husbands and children would be with them at nightfall.

Surely they could pity the wretched wives and mothers of Acadia! Or aid

the sign of the cross which the Acadians continually made upon their

breastsand which was abhorred by the descendants of the Puritans--did

that sign exclude all pity?

Among the spectatorstoowas the noisy brood of Boston school-boys

who came runningwith laughter and shoutsto gaze at this crowd of

oddly dressed foreigners. At first they danced and capered around them

full of merriment and mischief. But the despair of the Acadians soon had

its effect upon these thoughtless ladsand melted them into tearful


At a little distance from the throng might be seen the wealthy and

pompous merchants whose warehouses stood on Long Wharf. It was difficult

to touch these rich men's hearts; for they had all the comforts of the

world at their command; and when they walked abroad their feelings were

seldom movedexcept by the roughness of the pavement irritating their

gouty toes. Leaning upon their gold-headed canesthey watched the scene

with an aspect of composure. But let us hype they distributed some of

their superfluous coin among these hapless exiles to purchase food and a

night's lodging.

After standing a long time at the end of the wharfgazing seawardas

if to catch a glimpse of their lost Acadiathe strangers began to stray

into the town.

They wentwe will supposein parties and groupshere a hundredthere

a scorethere tenthere three or fourwho possessed some bond of

unity among themselves. Here and there was one whoutterly desolate

stole away by himselfseeking no companionship.

Whither did they go? I imagine them wandering about the streetstelling

the townspeoplein outlandishunintelligible wordsthat no earthly

affliction ever equalled what had befallen them. Man's brotherhood with

man was sufficient to make the New-Englanders understand this language.

The strangers wanted food. Some of them sought hospitality at the doors

of the stately mansions which then stood in the vicinity of Hanover

Street and the North Square. Others were applicants at the humble wooden

tenementswhere dwelt the petty shopkeepers and mechanics. Pray Heaven

that no family in Boston turned one of these poor exiles from their

door! It would be a reproach upon New England--a crime worthy of heavy

retribution--if the aged women and childrenor even the strong men

were allowed to feel the pinch of hunger.

Perhaps some of the Acadiansin their aimless wanderings through the

townfound themselves near a large brick edificewhich was fenced in

from the street by an iron railingwrought with fantastic figures. They

saw a flight of red freestone steps ascending to a portalabove which

was a balcony and balustrade. Misery and desolation give men the right

of free passage everywhere. Let us supposethenthat they mounted the

flight of steps and passed into the Province House. Making their way

into one of the apartmentsthey beheld a richly-clad gentlemanseated

in a stately chairwith gilding upon the carved work of its backand a

gilded lion's head at the summit. This was Governor Shirleymeditating

upon matters of war and statein Grandfather's chair!

If such an incident did happenShirleyreflecting what a ruin of

peaceful and humble hopes had been

wrought by the cold policy of the statesman and the iron band of the

warriormight have drawn a deep moral from it. It should have taught

him that the poor man's hearth is sacredand that armies and nations

have no right to violate it. It should have made him feel that England's

triumph and increased dominion could not compensate to mankind nor atone

to Heaven for the ashes of a single Acadian cottage. But it is not thus

that statesmen and warriors moralize.

"Grandfather" cried Laurencewith emotion trembling in his voice"did

iron-hearted War itself ever do so hard and cruel a thing as this


"You have read in historyLaurenceof whole regions wantonly laid

waste" said Grandfather. "In the removal of the Acadiansthetroops

were guilty of no cruelty or outrageexcept what was inseparable from

the measure."

Little Alicewhose eyes had all along been brimming full of tearsnow

burst forth a-sobbing; for Grandfather had touched her sympathies more

than he intended.

"To think of a whole people homeless in the world!' said Clarawith

moistened eyes. "There never was anything so sad!"

"It was their own fault!" cried Charleyenergetically. "Whydid not

they fight for the country where they were born? Thenif the worst had

happened to themthey could only have been killed and buried there.

They would not have been exiles then."

"Certainly their lot was as hard as death" said Grandfather."All that

could be done for them in the English provinces wasto send them to the

almshousesor bind them out to taskmasters. And this was the fate of

persons who had possessed a comfortable property in their native

country. Some of them found means to embark for France; but though it

was the land of their forefathersit must have been a foreign land to

them. Those who remained behind always cherished a belief that the King

of France would never make peace with England till his poor Acadians

were restored to their country and their homes."

"And did he?" inquired Clara.

"Alas! my dear Clara" said Grandfather"it is improbablethat the

slightest whisper of the woes of Acadia ever reached the ears of Louis

XV. The exiles grew old in the British provincesand never saw Acadia

again. Their descendants remain among us to this day. They have

forgotten the language of their ancestorsand probably retain no

tradition of their misfortunes. Butmethinksif I were an American

poetI would choose Acadia for the subject of my song."

Since Grandfather first spoke these wordsthe most famous of American

poets has drawn sweet tears from all of us by his beautiful poem


And nowhaving thrown a gentle gloom around the Thanksgiving fireside

by a story that made the children feel the blessing of a secure and

peaceful hearthGrandfather put off the other events of the old French

War till the next evening.





IN the twilight of the succeeding evewhen the red beams of the fire

were dancing upon the wallthe children besought Grandfather to tell

them what had next happened to the old chair.

"Our chair" said Grandfather"stood all this time in theProvince

House. But Governor Shirley had seldom an opportunity to repose within

its arms. He was leading his troops through the forestor sailing in a

flat-boat on Lake Ontarioor sleeping in his tentwhile the awful

cataract of Niagara sent its roar through his dreams. At one periodin

the early part of the warShirley had the chief command of all the

king's forces in America."

"Did his young wife go with him to the war?" asked Clara.

"I rather imagine" replied Grandfather"that she remained inBoston.

This ladyI supposehad our chair all to herselfand used to sit in

it during those brief intervals when a young Frenchwoman can be quiet

enough to sit in a chair. The people of Massachusetts were never fond of

Governor Shirley's young French wife. They had a suspicion that she

betrayed the military plans of the English to the generals of the French


"And was it true?" inquired Clara.

"Probably not" said Grandfather. "But the mere suspicion didShirley a

great deal of harm. Partlyperhapsfor this reasonbut much more on

account of his inefficiency as a generalhe was deprived of his command

in 1756and recalled to England. He never afterwards made any figure in

public life."

As Grandfather's chair had no locomotive propertiesand did not even

run on castorsit cannot be supposed to have marched in person to the

old French War. But Grandfather delayed its momentous history while he

touched briefly upon some of the bloody battlessiegesand onslaughts

the tidings of which kept continually coming to the ears of the old

inhabitants of Boston. The woods of the North were populous with

fighting men. All the Indian tribes uplifted their tomahawksand took

part either with the French or English. The rattle of musketry and roar

of cannon disturbed the ancient quiet of the forestand actually drove

the bears and other wild beasts to the more cultivated portion of the

country in the vicinity of the seaports. The children felt as if they

were transported back to those forgotten timesand that the couriers

from the armywith the news of a battle lost or wonmight even now be

heard galloping through the streets. Grandfather told them about the

battle of Lake George in 1755when the gallant Colonel Williamsa

Massachusetts officerwas slainwith many of his countrymen. But

General Johnson and General Lymanwith their armydrove back the enemy

and mortally wounded the French leaderwho was called the Baron

Dieskau. A gold watchpilfered from the poor baronis still in

existenceand still marks each moment of time without complaining of

wearinessalthough its hands have been in motion ever since the hour of


In the first years of the war there were many disasters on the English

side. Among these was the loss of Fort Oswego in 1756and of Fort

William Henry in the following year. But the greatest misfortune that

befell the English during the whole war was the repulse of General

Abercrombiewith his armyfrom the ramparts of Ticonderoga in 1758. He

attempted to storm the walls; but a terrible conflict ensuedin which

more than two thousand Englishmen and New-Englanders were killed or

wounded. The slain soldiers now lie buried around that ancient fortress.

When the plough passes over the soilit turns up here and there a

mouldering bone.

Up to this periodnone of the English generals had shown any military

talent. Shirleythe Earl of Loudonand General Abercrombie had each

held the chief command at different times; but not one of them had won a

single important triumph for the British arms. This ill success was not

owing to the want of means: forin 1758General Abercrombie had fifty

thousand soldiers under his command. But the French generalthe famous

Marquis de Montcalmpossessed a great genius for warand had something

within him that taught him how battles were to be won.

At lengthin 1759Sir Jeffrey Amherst was appointed commander-in-chief

of all the British forces in America. He was a man of ability and a

skilful soldier. A plan was now formed for accomplishing that object

which had so long been the darling wish of the New-Englandersand which

their fathers had so many times attempted. This was the conquest of


Three separate armies were to enter Canada from different quarters. One

of the threecommanded by General Prideauxwas to embark on Lake

Ontario and proceed to Montreal. The secondat the head of which was

Sir Jeffrey Amherst himselfwas destined to reach the river St.

Lawrence by the way of Lake Champlainand then go down the river to

meet the third army. This lastled by General Wolfewas to enter the

St. Lawrence from the sea and ascend the river to Quebec. It is to Wolfe

and his army that England owes one of the most splendid triumphs ever

written in her history.

Grandfather described the siege of Quebecand told how Wolfe led his

soldiers up a rugged and lofty precipicethat rose from the shore of

the river to the plain on which the city stood. This bold adventure was

achieved in the darkness of night. At daybreak tidings were carried to

the Marquis de Montcalm that the English army was waiting to give him

battle on the Plains of Abraham. This brave French general ordered his

drums to strike upand immediately marched to encounter Wolfe.

He marched to his own death. The battle was the most fierce and terrible

that had ever been fought in America. General Wolfe was at the head of

his soldiersandwhile encouraging them onwardreceived a mortal

wound. He reclined against a stone in the agonies of death; but it

seemed as if his spirit could not pass away while the fight yet raged so

doubtfully. Suddenly a shout came pealing across the battle-field. "They

flee! they flee!" andfor a momentWolfe lifted his languid head."Who

flee?" he inquired.

"The French" replied an officer. "Then I die satisfied!"said Wolfe

and expired in the arms of victory.

"If ever a warrior's death were gloriousWolfe's was so" said

Grandfather; and his eye kindledthough he was a man of peaceful

thoughts and gentle spirit. "His life-blood streamed to baptize the soil

which he had added to the dominion of Britain. His dying breath was

mingled with his army's shout of victory."

"Ohit was a good death to die!" cried Charleywith glisteningeyes.

"Was it not a good deathLaurence?"

Laurence made no reply; for his heart burned within himas the picture

of Wolfedying on the blood-stained field of victoryarose to his

imagination; and yet he had a deep inward consciousness thatafter all

there was a truer glory than could thus be won.

"There were other battles in Canada after Wolfe's victory" resumed

Grandfather; "but we may consider the old French War as having

terminated with this great event. The treaty of peacehoweverwas not

signed until 1763. The terms of the treaty were very disadvantageous to

the French; for all Canadaand all Acadiaand the Island of Cape

Breton--in shortall the territories that France and England had been

fighting about for nearly a hundred years--were surrendered to the


"So nowat last" said Laurence"New England had gained herwish.

Canada was taken."

"And now there was nobody to fight with but the Indians" saidCharley.

Grandfather mentioned two other important events. The first was the

great fire of Boston in 1760when the glare from nearly three hundred

buildingsall in flames at onceshone through the windows of the

Province Houseand threw a fierce lustre upon the gilded foliage and

lion's head of our old chair. The second event was the proclamationin

the same yearof George III. as King of Great Britain. The blast of the

trumpet sounded from the balcony of the Town Houseand awoke the echoes

far and wideas if to challenge all mankind to dispute King George's


Seven timesas the successive monarchs of Britain ascended the throne

the trumpet peal of proclamation had been heard by those who sat in our

venerable chair. But when the next king put on his father's crownno

trumpet peal proclaimed it to New England. Long before that day America

had shaken off the royal government.





NOW THAT Grandfather had fought through the old French Warin which our

chair made no very distinguished figurehe thought it high time to tell

the children some of the more private history of that praiseworthy old

piece of furniture.

"In 1757" said Grandfather"after Shirley had been summonedto

EnglandThomas Pownall was appointed governor of Massachusetts. He was

a gay and fashionable English gentlemanwho had spent much of his life

in Londonbut had a considerable acquaintance with America. The new

governor appears to have taken no active part in the war that was going

on; althoughat one periodhe talked of marching against the enemy at

the head of his company of cadets. Buton the wholehe probably

concluded that it was more befitting a governor to remain quietly in our

chairreading the newspapers and official documents."

"Did the people like Pownall?" asked Charley.

"They found no fault with him" replied Grandfather. "It wasno time to

quarrel with the governor when the utmost harmony was required in order

to defend the country against the French. But Pownall did not remain

long in Massachusetts. In 1759 he was sent to be governor of South

Carolina. In thus exchanging one government for anotherI suppose he

felt no regretexcept at the necessity of leaving Grandfather's chair

behind him."

"He might have taken it to South Carolina" observed Clara.

"It appears to me" said Laurencegiving the rein to his fancy"that

the fate of this ancient chair wassomehow or othermysteriously

connected with the fortunes of old Massachusetts. If Governor Pownall

had put it aboard the vessel in which he sailed for South Carolinashe

would probably have lain wind-bound in Boston Harbor. It was ordained

that the chair should not be taken away. Don't you think so


"It was kept here for Grandfather and me to sit in together" said

little Alice"and for Grandfather to tell stories about."

"And Grandfather is very glad of such a companion and such atheme"

said the old gentlemanwith a smile. "WellLaurenceif our oaken

chairlike the wooden palladium of Troywas connected with the

country's fateyet there appears to have been no supernatural obstacle

to its removal from the Province House. In 1760 Sir Francis Bernardwho

had been' governor of New Jerseywas appointed to the same office in

Massachusetts. He looked at the old chairand thought it quite too

shabby to keep company with a new set of mahogany chairs and an

aristocratic sofa which had just arrived from London. He therefore

ordered it to be put away in the garret."

The children were loud in their exclamations against this irreverent

conduct of Sir Francis Bernard. But Grandfather defended him as well as

he could. He observed that it was then thirty years since the chair had

been beautified by Governor Belcher. Most of the gilding was worn off by

the frequent scourings which it had undergone beneath the hands of a

black slave. The damask cushiononce so splendidwas now squeezed out

of all shapeand absolutely in tattersso many were the ponderous

gentlemen who had deposited their weight upon it during these thirty


Moreoverat a council held by the Earl of Loudon with the governors of

New England in 1757his lordshipin a moment of passionhad kicked

over the chair with his military boot. By this unprovoked and

unjustifiable actour venerable friend had suffered a fracture of one

of its rungs.

"But" said Grandfather"our chairafter allwas notdestined to

spend the remainder of its days in the inglorious obscurity of a garret.

Thomas HutchinsonLieutenant-governor of the provincewas told of Sir

Francis Bernard's design. This gentleman was more familiar with the

history of New England than any other man alive. He knew all the

adventures and vicissitudes through which the old chair had passedand

could have told as accurately as your own Grandfather who were the

personages that had occupied it. Oftenwhile visiting at the Province

Househe had eyed the chair with admirationand felt a longing desire

to become the possessor of it. He now waited upon Sir Francis Bernard

and easily obtained leave to carry it home."

"And I hope" said Clara"he had it varnished and gildedanew."

"No" answered Grandfather. "What Mr. Hutchinson desired wasto restore

the chair as much as possible to its original aspectsuch as it had

appeared when it was first made out of the Earl of Lincoln's oak-tree.

For this purpose he ordered it to be well scoured with soap and sand and

polished with waxand then provided it with a substantial leather cush-

ion. When all was completed to his mind he sat down in the old chair

and began to write his History of Massachusetts."

"Ohthat was a bright thought in Mr. Hutchinson" exclaimedLaurence.

"And no doubt the dim figures of the former possessors of the chair

flitted around him as he wroteand inspired him with a knowledge of all

that they had done and suffered while on earth."

"Whymy dear Laurence" replied Grandfathersmiling"if Mr.

Hutchinson was favored with ally such extraordinary inspirationhe made

but a poor use of it in his history; for a duller piece of composition

never came from any man's pen. Howeverhe was accurateat least

though far from possessing the brilliancy or philosophy of Mr.


"But if Hutchinson knew the history of the chair" rejoinedLaurence

"his heart must have been stirred by it."

"It mustindeed" said Grandfather. "It would be entertainingand

instructiveat the present dayto imagine what were Mr. Hutchinson's

thoughts as he looked back upon the long vista of events with which this

chair was so remarkably connected."

And Grandfather allowed his fancy to shape out an image of Lieutenant-

Governor Hutchinsonsitting in an evening reverie by his firesideand

meditating on the changes that had slowly passed around the chair.

A devoted MonarchistHutchinson would heave no sigh for the subversion

of the original republican governmentthe purest that the world had

seenwith which the colony began its existence. While reverencing the

grim and stern old Puritans as the founders of his native landhe would

not wish to recall them from their gravesnor to awaken again that

king-resisting spirit which he imagined to be laid asleep with them

forever. WinthropDudleyBellinghamEndicottLeverettand

Bradstreet--all these had had their day. Ages might come and gobut

never again would the people's suffrages place a republican governor in

their ancient chair of state.

Coming down to the epoch of the second charterHutchinson thought of

the ship-carpenter Phips springing from the lowest of the people and

attaining to the loftiest station in the land. But he smiled to perceive

that this governor's example would awaken no turbulent ambition in the

lower orders; for it was a king's gracious boon alone that made the

ship-carpenter a ruler. Hutchinson rejoiced to mark the gradual growth

of an aristocratic classto whom the common peopleas in duty bound

were learning humbly to resign the honorsemolumentsand authority of

state. He saw--or else deceived himself--thatthroughout this epoch

the people's disposition to self-government had been growing weaker

through long disuseand now existed only as a faint traditionary


The lieutenant-governor's reverie had now come down to the period at

which he himself was sitting in the historic chair. He endeavored to

throw his glance forward over the coming years. Thereprobablyhe saw

visions of hereditary rank for himself and other aristocratic colonists.

He saw the fertile fields of New England proportioned out among a few

great landholdersand descending by entail from generation to

generation. He saw the people a race of tenantrydependent on their

lords. He saw starsgarterscoronetsand castles.

"But" added Grandfatherturning to Laurence"thelieutenant-

governor's castles were built nowhere but among the red embers of the

fire before which he was sitting. Andjust as he had constructed a

baronial residence for himself and his posteritythe fire rolled down

upon the hearth and crumbled it to ashes!"

Grandfather now looked at his watchwhich hung within a beautiful

little ebony templesupported by four Ionic columns. He then laid his

hand on the golden locks of little Alicewhose head had sunk down upon

the arm of our illustrious chair.

"To bedto beddear child!" said he. "Grandfather has putyou to sleep

already by his stories about these FAMOUS OLD PEOPLE."






AT a consultationheld between Colonel Winslow and Captain Murray[of

the New England forcescharged with the duty of exiling the Acadians]

it was agreed that a proclamation should be issued at the different

settlementsrequiring the attendance of the people at the respective

posts on the same day; which proclamation should be so ambiguous in its

nature that the object for which they were to assemble could not be

discernedand so peremptory in its terms as to ensure implicit

obedience. This instrumenthaving been drafted and approvedwas

distributed according to the original plan. That which was addressed to

the people inhabiting the country now comprised within the limits of

King's Countywas as follows:--

"To the inhabitants of the District of Grand PreMinasRiver Canard

&c.; as well ancientas young men and lads:

"Whereashis Excellency the Governor has instructed us of his late

resolutionrespecting the matter proposed to the inhabitantsand has

ordered us to communicate the same in personhis Excellency being

desirous that each of them should be fully satisfied of his Majesty's

intentionswhich he has also ordered us to communicate to yousuch as

they have been given to him. Wethereforeorder and strictly enjoin

by these presentsall of the inhabitantsas well of the above-named

district as of all the other Districtsboth old men and young menas

well as all the lads of ten years of ageto attend at the Church at

Grand Preon Fridaythe fifth instantat three of the clock in the

afternoonthat we may impart to them what we are ordered to communicate

to them; declaring that no excuse will be admitted on any pretence

whateveron pain of forfeiting goods and chattelsin default of real

estate. Given at Grand Pre2d September1755and 29th year of his

Majesty's Reign.

"John Winslow."

In obedience to this summons four hundred and eighteen able-bodied men

assembled. These being shut into the church (for thattoohad become

an arsenal)Colonel Winslow placed himselfwith his officersin the

centreand addressed them thus:--


"I have received from his Excellency Governor Lawrencethe King's

Commissionwhich I have in my hand; and by his orders you are convened

together to manifest to youhis Majesty's final resolution to the

French inhabitants of this his Province of Nova-Scotia; whofor almost

half a centuryhave had more indulgence granted them than any of his

subjects in any part of his dominions; what use you have made of it you

yourselves best know. The part of duty I am now uponthough necessary

is very disagreeable to my natural make and temperas I know it must be

grievous to youwho are of the same species; but it is not my business

to animadvert but to obey such orders as I receiveand therefore

without hesitationshall deliver you his Majesty's orders and

instructionsnamely- that your lands and tenementscattle of all kinds

and live stock of all sortsare forfeited to the Crown; with all other

your effectssaving your money and household goodsand you yourselves

to be removed from this his Province.

"Thus it is peremptorily his Majesty's orders that the whole French

inhabitants of these Districts be removed; and I amthrough his

Majesty's goodnessdirected to allow you liberty to carry off your

money and household goodsas many as you can without discommoding the

vessels you go in. I shall do everything in my power that all those

goods be secured to youand that you are not molested in carrying them

off; alsothat whole families shall go in the same vesseland make

this removewhich I am sensible must give you a great deal of trouble

as easy as his Majesty's service will admit; and hope thatin whatever

part of the world you may fallyou may be faithful subjectsa

peaceable and happy people. I must also inform youthat it is his

Majesty's pleasure that you remain in security under the inspection and

direction of the troops that I have the honor to command."

And he then declared them the King's prisoners. The whole number of

persons collected at Grand Pre finally amounted to four hundred and

eighty-three menand three hundred and thirty-seven womenheads of

families; and their sons and daughtersto five hundred and twenty-seven

of the formerand five hundred and seventy-six of the latter; making in

the whole one thousand nine hundred and twenty-three souls. Their stock

consisted of one thousand two hundred and sixty-nine oxenone thousand

five hundred and fifty-seven cowsfive thousand and seven young cattle

four hundred and ninety-three horseseight thousand six hundred and

ninety sheepand four thousand one hundred and ninety-seven hogs. As

some of these wretched inhabitants escaped to the woodsall possible

measures were adopted to force them back to captivity. The country was

laid waste to prevent their subsistence. In the District of Minas alone

there were destroyed two hundred and fifty-five housestwo hundred and

seventy-six barnsone hundred and fifty-five outhouseseleven mills

and one church; and the friends of those who refused to surrender were

threatened as the victims of their obstinacy.

In shortso operative were the terrors that surrounded themthat of

twenty-four young menwho deserted from a transporttwenty-two were

glad to return of themselvesthe others being shot by sentinels; and

one of their friendswho was supposed to have been accessory to their

escapewas carried on shore to behold the destruction of his house and

effectswhich were burned in his presenceas a punishment for his

temerity and perfidious aid to his comrades. The prisoners expressed the

greatest concern at having incurred his Majesty's displeasureand in a

petition addressed to Colonel Winslow intreated him to detain a part of

them as sureties for the appearance of the restwho were desirous of

visiting their familiesand consoling them in their distress and

misfortunes. To comply with this request of holding a few as hostages

for the surrender of the whole bodywas deemed inconsistent with his

instructions; butas there could be no objection to allow a small

number of them to return to their homespermission was given to them to

choose ten for the District of Minas (Horton) and ten for the District

of Canard (Cornwallis) to whom leave of absence was given for one day

and on whose return a similar number were indulged in the same manner.

They bore their confinementand received their sentence with a

fortitude and resignation altogether unexpected; but when the hour of

embarkation arrivedin which they were to leave the land of their

nativity forever--to part with their friends and relativeswithout the

hope of ever seeing them againand to be dispersed among strangers

whose languagecustoms and religion were opposed to their ownthe

weakness of human nature prevailedand they were overpowered with the

sense of their miseries. The preparations having been all completedthe

10th of September was fixed upon as the day of departure. The prisoners

were drawn up six deepand the young menone hundred and sixty-one in

numberwere ordered to go first on board of the vessels. This they

instantly and peremptorily refused to dodeclaring that they would not

leave their parents; but expressed a willingness to comply with the

orderprovided they were permitted to embark with their families. This

request was immediately rejectedand the troops were ordered to fix

bayonets and advance towards the prisonersa motion which had the

effect of producing obedience on the part of the young menwho

forthwith commenced their march. The road from the chapel to the shore

just one mile in lengthwas crowded with women and children; whoon

their kneesgreeted them as they passed with their tears and their

blessingswhile the prisoners advanced with slow and reluctant steps

weepingprayingand singing hymns. This detachment was followed by the

seniorswho passed through the same scene of sorrow and distress. In

this manner was the whole male part of the population of the District of

Minas put on board the five transportsstationed in the river

Gaspereauxeach vessel being guarded by six non-commissioned officers

and eighty privates. As soon as the other vessels arrivedtheir wives

and children followedand the whole were transported from Nova Scotia.

The haste with which these measures were carried into execution did not

admit of those preparations for their comfortwhichif unmerited by

their disloyaltywere at least due in pity to the severity of their

punishment. The hurryconfusionand excitement connected with the

embarkation had scarcely subsidedwhen the Provincials were appalled by

the work of their own hands The novelty and peculiarity of their

situation could not but force itself upon the attention of even the

unreflecting soldiery; stationed in the midst of a beautiful and fertile

countrythey suddenly found themselves without a foe to subdueand

without a population to protect. The volumes of smoke which the half

expiring embers emittedwhile they marked the site of the peasant's

humble cottagebore testimony to the extent of the work of destruction.

For several successive evenings the cattle assembled round the

smouldering ruinsas if in anxious expectation of the return of their

masterswhile all night long the faithful watchdogs of the Neutrals

howled over the scene of desolationand mourned alike the hand that had

fedand the house that had sheltered them.







ON THE evening of New-Year's Day Grandfather was walking to and fro

across the carpetlistening to the rain which beat hard against the

curtained windows. The riotous blast shook the casement as if a strong

man were striving to force his entrance into the comfortable room. With

every puff of the wind the fire leaped upward from the hearthlaughing

and rejoicing at the shrieks of the wintry storm.

Meanwhile Grandfather's chair stood in its customary place by the

fireside. The bright blaze gleamed upon the fantastic figures of its

oaken backand shone through the open workso that a complete pattern

was thrown upon the opposite side of the room. Sometimesfor a moment

or twothe shadow remained immovableas if it were painted on the

wall. Then all at once it began to quiverand leapand dance with a

frisky motion. Anonseeming to remember that these antics were unworthy

of such a dignified and venerable chairit suddenly stood still. But

soon it began to dance anew.

"Only see how Grandfather's chair is dancing!" cried little Alice.

And she ran to the wall and tried to catch hold of the flickering

shadow; forto children of five years olda shadow seems almost as

real as a substance.

"I wish" said Clara"Grandfather would sit down in the chairand

finish its history."

If the children had been looking at Grandfatherthey would have noticed

that he paused in his walk across the room when Clara made this remark.

The kind old gentleman was ready and willing to resume his stories of

departed times. But he had resolved to wait till his auditors should

request him to proceedin order that they might find the instructive

history of the chair a pleasureand not a task.

"Grandfather" said Charley"I am tired to death of thisdismal rain

and of hearing the wind roar in the chimney. I have had no good time all

day. It would be better to hear stories about the chair than to sit

doing nothing and thinking of nothing."

To say the truthour friend Charley was very much out of humor with the

stormbecause it had kept him all day within doorsand hindered him

from making a trial of a splendid sledwhich Grandfather had given him

for a New-Year's gift. As all sledsnowadaysmust have a namethe one

in question had been honored with the title of Grandfather's chair

which was painted in golden letters on each of the sides. Charley

greatly admired the construction of the new vehicleand felt certain

that it would outstrip any other sled that ever dashed adown the long

slopes of the Common.

As for Laurencehe happened to be thinkingjust at this momentabout

the history of the chair. Kind old Grandfather had made him a present of

a volume of engraved portraitsrepresenting the features of eminent and

famous people o f all countries. Among them Laurence found several who

had formerly occupied our chair or been connected with its adventures.

While Grandfather walked to and fro across the roomthe imaginative boy

was gazing at the historic chair. He endeavored to summon up the por-

traits which he had seen in his volumeand to place themlike living

figuresin the empty seat.

"The old chair has begun another year of its existenceto-day"said

Laurence. "We must make hasteor it will have a new history to be told

before we finish the old one."

"Yesmy children" replied Grandfatherwith a smile and a sigh

"another year has been added to those of the two centuries and upward

which have passed since the Lady Arbella brought this chair over from

England. It is three times as old as your Grandfather; but a year makes

no impression on its oaken framewhile it bends the old man nearer and

nearer to the earth; so let me go on with my stories while I may."

Accordingly Grandfather came to the fireside and seated himself in the

venerable chair. The lion's head looked down with a grimly good-natured

aspect as the children clustered around the old gentleman's knees. It

almost seemed as if a real lion were peeping over the back of the chair

and smiling at the group of auditors with a sort of lion-like

complaisance. Little Alicewhose fancy often inspired her with singular

ideasexclaimed that the lion's head was nodding at herand that it

looked as if it were going to open its wide jaws and tell a story.

But as the lion's head appeared to be in no haste to speakand as there

was no record or tradition of its having spoken during the whole

existence of the chairGrandfather did not consider it worth while to






"CHARLEYmy boy" said Grandfather"do you remember who wasthe last

occupant of the chair?"

"It was Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson" answered Charley."Sir Francis

Bernardthe new governorhad given him the chairinstead of putting

it away in the garret of the Province House. And when we took leave of

Hutchinson he was sitting by his firesideand thinking of the past

adventures of the chair and of what was to come."

"Very well" said Grandfather; "and you recollect that thiswas in 1763

or thereaboutsat the close of the old French War. Nowthat you may

fully comprehend the remaining adventures of the chairI must make some

brief remarks on the situation and character of the New England colonies

at this period."

So Grandfather spoke of the earnest loyalty of our fathers during the

old French Warand after the conquest of Canada had brought that war to

a triumphant close.

The people loved and reverenced the King of England even more than if

the ocean had not rolled its waves between him and them; forat the

distance of three thousand milesthey could not discover his bad

qualities and imperfections. Their love was increased by the dangers

which they had encountered in order to heighten his glory and extend his

dominion. Throughout the war the American colonists had fought side by

side with the soldiers of Old England; and nearly thirty thousand young

men had laid down their lives for the honor of King George. And the

survivors loved him the better because they had done and suffered so

much for his sake.

But there were some circumstances that caused America to feel more

independent of England than at an earlier period. Canada and Acadia had

now become British provinces; and our fathers were no longer afraid of

the bands of French and Indians who used to assault them in old times.

For a century and a half this had been the great terror of New England.

Now the old French soldier was driven from the North forever. And even

had it been otherwisethe English colonies were growing so populous and

powerful that they might have felt fully able to protect themselves

without any help from England.

There were thoughtful and sagacious menwho began to doubt whether a

great country like America would always be content to remain under the

government of an island three thousand miles away. This was the more

doubtfulbecause the English Parliament had long ago made laws which

were intended to be very beneficial to England at the expense of

America. By these laws the colonists were forbidden to manufacture

articles for their own useor to carry on trade with any nation but the


"Now" continued Grandfather"if King George III. and hiscounsellors

had considered these things wiselythey would have taken another course

than they did. But when they saw how rich and populous the colonies had

growntheir first thought was how they might make more profit out of

them than heretofore. England was enormously in debt at the close of the

old French War; and it was pretended that this debt had been contracted

for the defence of the American coloniesand thatthereforea part of

it ought to be paid by them."

"Whythis was nonsense!" exclaimed Charley. "Did not ourfathers spend

their livesand their money tooto get Canada for King George?"

"Truethey did" said Grandfather; "and they told the Englishrulers

so. But the king and his ministers would not listen to good advice. In

1765 the British Parliament passed a Stamp Act."

"What was that?" inquired Charley.

"The Stamp Act" replied Grandfather"was a law by which alldeeds

bondsand other papers of the same kind were ordered to be marked with

the king's stamp; and without this mark they were declared illegal and

void. Nowin order to get a blank sheet of paper with the king's stamp

upon itpeople were obliged to pay threepence more than the actual

value of the paper. And this extra sum of threepence was a taxand was

to be paid into the king's treasury."

"I am sure threepence was not worth quarrelling about!" remarkedClara.

"It was not for threepencenor for any amount of moneythat America

quarrelled with England" replied Grandfather; "it was for a great

principle. The colonists were determined not to be taxed except by their

own representatives. They said that neither the king and Parliamentnor

any other power on earthhad a right to take their money out of their

pockets unless they freely gave it. Andrather than pay threepence when

it was unjustly demandedthey resolved to sacrifice all the wealth of

the countryand their lives along with it. They therefore made a most

stubborn resistance to the Stamp Act."

"That was noble!" exclaimed Laurence. "I understand how itwas. If they

had quietly paid the tax of threepencethey would have ceased to be

freemenand would have become tributaries of England. And so they

contended about a great question of right and wrongand put everything

at stake for it."

"You are rightLaurence" said Grandfather"and it wasreally amazing

and terrible to see what a change came over the aspect of the people the

moment the English Parliament had passed this oppressive act. The former

history of our chairmy childrenhas given you some idea of what a

harshunyieldingstern set of men the old Puritans were. For a good

many years backhoweverit had seemed as if these characteristics were

disappearing. But no sooner did England offer wrong to the colonies than

the descendants of the early settlers proved that they had the same kind

of temper as their forefathers. The moment beforeNew England appeared

like a humble and loyal subject of the crown; the next instantshe

showed the grimdark features of an old king-resisting Puritan."

Grandfather spoke briefly of the public measures that were taken in

opposition to the Stamp Act. As this law affected all the American

colonies alikeit naturally led them to think of consulting together is

order to procure its repeal. For this purpose the Legislature of

Massachusetts proposed that delegates from every colony should meet in

Congress. Accordingly nine coloniesboth Northern and Southernsent

delegates to the city of New York.

"And did they consult about going to war with England?" askedCharley.

"NoCharley" answered Grandfather; "a great deal of talkingwas yet to

be done before England and America could come to blows. The Congress

stated the rights and grievances of the colonists. They sent a humble

petition to the kingand a memorial to the Parliamentbeseeching that

the Stamp Act might be repealed. This was all that the delegates had it

in their power to do."

"They might as well have stayed at homethen" said Charley.

"By no means" replied Grandfather. "It was a most importantand

memorable eventthis first coming together of the American people by

their representatives from the North and South. If England had been

wiseshe would have trembled at the first word that was spoken in such

an assembly."

These remonstrances and petitionsas Grandfather observedwere the

work of gravethoughtfuland prudent men. Meantime the young and hot-

headed people went to work in their own way. It is probable that the

petitions of Congress would have had little or no effect on the British

statesmen if the violent deeds of the American people had not shown how

much excited the people were. LIBERTY TREE was soon heard of in England.

"What was Liberty Tree?" inquired Clara.

"It was an old elm-tree" answered Grandfather"which stoodnear the

corner of Essex Streetopposite the Boylston Market. Under the

spreading branches of this great tree the people used to assemble

whenever they wished to express their feelings and opinions. Thusafter

a whileit seemed as if the liberty of the country was connected with

Liberty Tree."

"It was glorious fruit for a tree to bear" remarked Laurence.

"It bore strange fruitsometimes" said Grandfather. "Onemorning in

August1765two figures were found hanging on the sturdy branches of

Liberty Tree. They were dressed in square-skirted coats and small-

clothes; andas their wigs hung down over their facesthey looked like

real men. One was intended to represent the Earl of Butewho was

supposed to have advised the king to tax America. The other was meant

for the effigy of Andrew Olivera gentleman belonging to one of the

most respectable families in Massachusetts."

"What harm had he done?" inquired Charley.

"The king had appointed him to be distributor of the stamps"answered

Grandfather. "Mr. Oliver would have made a great deal of money by this

business. But the people frightened him so much by hanging him in

effigyand afterwards by breaking into his housethat he promised to

have nothing to do with the stamps. And all the king's friends

throughout America were compelled to make the same promise."





"LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR HUTCHINSON" continued Grandfather"nowbegan to

be unquiet in our old chair. He had formerly been much respected and

beloved by the peopleand had often proved himself a friend to their

interests. But the time was come when he could not be a friend to the

people without ceasing to be a friend to the king. It was pretty

generally understood that Hutchinson would act according to the king's

wishesright or wronglike most of the other gentlemen who held

offices under the crown. Besidesas he was brother-in-law of Andrew

Oliverthe people now felt a particular dislike to him."

"I should think" said Laurence"as Mr. Hutchinson hadwritten the

history of our Puritan forefathershe would have known what the temper

of the people wasand so have taken care not to wrong them."

"He trusted in the might of the King of England" repliedGrandfather

"and thought himself safe under the shelter of the throne. If no dispute

had arisen between the king and the peopleHutchinson would have had

the character of a wisegoodand patriotic magistrate. Butfrom the

time that he took part against the rights of his countrythe people's

love and respect were turned to scorn and hatredand he never had

another hour of peace."

In order to show what a fierce and dangerous spirit was now aroused

among the inhabitantsGrandfather related a passage from history which

we shall call The Hutchinson Mob.

On the evening of the 26th of August1765a bonfire was kindled in

King Street. It flamed high upwardand threw a ruddy light over the

front of the Town Houseon which was displayed a carved representation

of the royal arms. The gilded vane of the cupola glittered in the blaze.

The kindling of this bonfire was the well-known signal for the populace

of Boston to assemble in the street.

Before the tar-barrelsof which the bonfire was madewere half burned

outa great crowd had come together. They were chiefly laborers and

seafaring mentogether with many young apprenticesand all those idle

people about town who are ready for any kind of mischief. Doubtless some

school-boys were among them.

While these rough figures stood round the blazing bonfireyou might

hear them speaking bitter words against the high officers of the

province. Governor BernardHutchinsonOliverStoreyHallowelland

other men whom King George delighted to honorwere reviled as traitors

to the country. Now and thenperhapsan officer of the crown passed

along the streetwearing the gold-laced hatwhite wigand embroidered

waistcoat which were the fashion of the day. But when the people beheld

him they set up a wild and angry howl; and their faces had an evil

aspectwhich was made more terrible by the flickering blaze of the


"I should like to throw the traitor right into that blaze!" perhapsone

fierce rioter would say.

"Yes; and all his brethren too!" another might reply;" and thegovernor

and old Tommy Hutchinson into the hottest of it!"

"And the Earl of Bute along with them!" muttered a third; "andburn the

whole pack of them under King George's nose! No matter if it singed


Some such expressions as theseeither shouted aloud or muttered under

the breathwere doubtless heard in King Street. The mobmeanwhile

were growing fiercer and fiercerand seemed ready even to set the town

on fire for the sake of burning the king's friends out of house and

home. And yetangry as they werethey sometimes broke into a loud roar

of laughteras if mischief and destruction were their sport.

But we must now leave the rioters for a timeand take a peep into the

lieutenant-governor's splendid mansion. It was a large brick house

decorated with Ionic pilastersand stood in Garden Court Streetnear

the North Square.

While the angry mob in King Street were shouting his nameLieutenant-

Governor Hutchinson sat quietly in Grandfather's chairunsuspicious of

the evil that was about to fall upon his head. His beloved family were

in the room with him. He had thrown off his embroidered coat and

powdered wigand had on a loose-flowing gown and purple-velvet cap. He

had likewise laid aside the cares of state and all the thoughts that had

wearied and perplexed him throughout the day.

Perhapsin the enjoyment of his homehe had forgotten all about the

Stamp Actand scarcely remembered that there was a kingacross the

oceanwho had resolved to make tributaries of the New-Englanders.

Possiblytoohe had forgotten his own ambitionand would not have

exchanged his situationat that momentto be governoror even a lord.

The wax candles were now lightedand showed a handsome roomwell

provided with rich furniture. On the walls hung the pictures of

Hutchinson's ancestorswho had been eminent men in their dayand were

honorably remembered in the history of the country. Every object served

to mark the residence of a richaristocratic gentlemanwho held

himself high above the common peopleand could have nothing to fear

from them. In a corner of the roomthrown carelessly upon a chairwere

the scarlet robes of the chief justice. This high officeas well as

those of lieutenant-governorcouncillorand judge of probatewas

filled by Hutchinson.

Who or what could disturb the domestic quiet of such a great and

powerful personage as now sat in Grandfather's chair?

The lieutenant-governor's favorite daughter sat by his side. She leaned

on the arm of our great chairand looked up affectionately into her

father's facerejoicing to perceive that a quiet smile was on his lips.

But suddenly a shade came across her countenance. She seemed to listen

attentivelyas if to catch a distant sound.

"What is the mattermy child?" inquired Hutchinson.

"Fatherdo not you hear a tumult in the streets?" said she.

The lieutenant-governor listened. But his ears were duller than those of

his daughter; he could hear nothing more terrible than the sound of a

summer breezesighing among the tops of the elm-trees.

"Nofoolish child!" he repliedplayfully patting her cheek."There is

no tumult. Our Boston mobs are satisfied with what mischief they have

already done. The king's friends need not tremble."

So Hutchinson resumed his pleasant and peaceful meditationsand again

forgot that there were any troubles in the world. But his family were

alarmedand could not help straining their ears to catch the slightest

sound. More and more distinctly they heard shoutsand then the

trampling of many feet. While they were listeningone of the neighbors

rushed breathless into the room.

"A mob! a terrible mob'!" cried he. "They have broken into Mr.Storey's

houseand into Mr. Hallo-well'sand have made themselves drunk with

the liquors in his cellar; and now they are coming hitheras wild as so

many tigers. Fleelieutenant-governorfor your life! for your life!"

"Fatherdear fathermake haste!" shrieked his children.

But Hutchinson would not hearken to them. He was an old lawyer; and he

could not realize that the people would do anything so utterly lawless

as to assault him in his peaceful home. He was one of King George's

chief officers · and it would be an insult and outrage upon the king

himself if the lieutenant-governor should suffer any wrong.

"Have no fears on my account" said he. "I am perfectly safe.The king's

name shall be my protection.''

Yet he bade his family retire into one of the neighboring houses. His

daughter would have remained; but he forced her away.

The huzzas and riotous uproar of the mob were now heardclose at hand.

The sound was terribleand struck Hutchinson with the same sort of

dread as if an enraged wild beast had broken loose and were roaring for

its prey. He crept softly to the window. There he beheld an immense

concourse of peoplefilling all the street and rolling onward to his

house. It was like a tempestuous floodthat had swelled beyond its

bounds and would sweep everything before it. Hutchinson trembled; he

feltat that momentthat the wrath of the people was a thousand-fold

more terrible than the wrath of a king.

That was a moment when a loyalist and an aristocrat like Hutchinson

might have learned how powerless are kingsnoblesand great menwhen

the low and humble range themselves against them. King George could do

nothing for his servant now. Had King George been there he could have

done nothing for himself. If Hutchinson had understood this lessonand

remembered ithe need notin after yearshave been an exile from his

native countrynor finally have laid his bones in a distant land.

There was now a rush against the doors of the house. The people sent up

a hoarse cry. At this instant the lieutenant-governor's daughterwhom

he had supposed to be in a place of safetyran into the room and threw

her arms around him. She had returned by a private entrance.

"Fatherare you mad?" cried she. "Will the king's nameprotect you now?

Come with meor they will have your life."

"True" muttered Hutchinson to himself; "what care theseroarers for the

name of king? I must fleeor they will trample me down on the floor of

my own dwelling."

Hurrying awayhe and his daughter made their escape by the private

passage at the moment when the rioters broke into the house. The

foremost of them rushed up the staircaseand entered the room which

Hutchinson had just quitted. There they beheld our good old chair facing

them with quiet dignitywhile the lion's head seemed to move its jaws

in the unsteady light of their torches. Perhaps the stately aspect of

our venerable friendwhich had stood firm through a century and a half

of troublearrested them for an instant. But they were thrust forward

by those behindand the chair lay overthrown.

Then began the work of destruction. The carved and polished mahogany

tables were shattered with heavy clubs and hewn to splinters with axes.

The marble hearths and mantel-pieces were broken. The volumes of

Hutchinson's libraryso precious to a studious manwere torn out of

their coversand the leaves sent flying out of the windows.

Manuscriptscontaining secrets of our country's historywhich are now

lost foreverwere scattered to the winds.

The old ancestral portraitswhose fixed countenances looked down on the

wild scenewere rent from the walls. The mob triumphed in their

downfall and destructionas if these pictures of Hutchinson's

forefathers had committed the same offences as their descendant. A tall

looking-glasswhich had hitherto presented a reflection of the enraged

and drunken multitudewas now smashed into a thousand fragments. We

gladly dismiss the scene from the mirror of our fancy.

Before morning dawned the walls of the house were all that remained. The

interior was a dismal scene of ruin. A shower pattered in at the broken

windows; and when Hutchinson and his family returnedthey stood

shivering in the same room where the last evening had seen them so

peaceful and happy.

"Grandfather" said Laurenceindignantly"if the peopleacted in this

mannerthey were not worthy of even so much liberty as the King of

England was willing to allow them."

"It was a most unjustifiable actlike many other popular movements at

that time" replied Grandfather. "But we must not decide againstthe

justice of the people's cause merely because an excited mob was guilty

of outrageous violence. Besidesall these things were done in the first

fury of resentment. Afterwards the people grew more calmand were more

influenced by the counsel of those wise and good men who conducted them

safely and gloriously through the Revolution."

Little Alicewith tears in her blue eyessaid that she hoped the

neighbors had not let Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson and his family be

homeless in the streetbut had taken them into their houses and been

kind to them. Cousin Clararecollecting the perilous situation of our

beloved chairinquired what had become of it.

"Nothing was heard of our chair for some time afterwards'' answered

Grandfather.' "One day in Septemberthe same Andrew Oliverof whom I

before told youwas summoned to appear at high noon under Liberty Tree.

This was the strangest summons that had ever been heard of; for it was

issued in the name of the whole peoplewho thus took upon themselves

the authority of a sovereign power. Mr. Oliver dared not disobey.

Accordinglyat the appointed hour he wentmuch against his willto

Liberty Tree."

Here Charley interposed a remark that poor Mr. Oliver found but little

liberty under Liberty Tree. Grandfather assented.

"It was a stormy day" continued he. "The equinoctial galeblew

violentlyand scattered the yellow leaves of Liberty Tree all along the

street. Mr. Oliver's wig was dripping with water-drops; and he probably

looked haggarddisconsolateand humbled to the earth. Beneath the

treein Grandfather's chair--our own venerable chair--sat Mr. Richard

Danaa justice of the peace. He administered an oath to Mr. Oliver that

he would never have anything to do with distributing the stamps. A vast

concourse of people heard the oathand shouted when it was taken."

"There is something grand in this" said Laurence. "I like itbecause

the people seem to have acted with thoughtfulness and dignity; and this

proud gentlemanone of his Majesty's high officerswas made to feel

that King George could not protect him in doing wrong."

"But it was a sad day for poor Mr. Oliver" observed Grandfather."From

his youth upward it had probably been the great principle of his life to

be faithful and obedient to the king. And nowin his old ageit must

have puzzled and distracted him to find the sovereign people setting up

a claim to his faith and obedience."

Grandfather closed the evening's conversation by saying that the

discontent of America was so greatthatin 1766the British

Parliament was compelled to repeal the Stamp Act. The people made great

rejoicingsbut took care to keep Liberty Tree well pruned and free from

caterpillars and canker-worms. They foresaw that there might yet be

occasion for them to assemble under its far-projecting shadow.





THE NEXT eveningClarawho remembered that our chair had been left

standing in the rain under Liberty Treeearnestly besought Grandfather

to tell when and where it had next found shelter. Perhaps she was afraid

that the venerable chairby being exposed to the inclemency of a

September galemight get the rheumatism in its aged joints.

"The chair" said Grandfather"after the ceremony of Mr.Oliver's oath

appears to have been quite forgotten by the multitude. Indeedbeing

much bruised and rather ricketyowing to the violent treatment it had

suffered from the Hutchinson mobmost people would have thought that

its days of usefulness were over. Neverthelessit was conveyed away

under cover of the night and committed to the care of a skilful joiner.

He doctored our old friend so successfullythatin the course of a few

daysit made its appearance in the public room of the British Coffee

Houses in King Street."

"But why did not Mr. Hutchinson get possession of it again.?"inquired


"I know not" answered Grandfather"unless he considered it adishonor

and disgrace to the chair to have stood under Liberty Tree. At all

eventshe suffered it to remain at the British Coffee Housewhich was

the principal hotel in Boston. It could not possibly have found a

situation where it would be more in the midst of business and bustleor

would witness more important eventsor be occupied by a greater variety

of persons."

Grandfather went on to tell the proceedings of the despotic king and

ministry of England after the repeal of the Stamp Act. They could not

bear to think that their right to tax America should be disputed by the

people. In the year 1767thereforethey caused Parliament to pass an

act for laying a duty on tea and some other articles that were in

general use. Nobody could now buy a pound of tea without paying a tax to

King George. This scheme was pretty craftily contrived; for the women of

America were very fond of teaand did not like to give up the use of


But the people were as much opposed to this new act of Parliament as

they had been to the Stamp Act. Englandhoweverwas determined that

they should submit. In order to compel their obediencetwo regiments

consisting of more than seven hundred British soldierswere sent to

Boston. They arrived in September1768and were landed on Long Wharf.

Thence they marched to the Common with loaded musketsfixed bayonets

and great pomp and parade. So nowat lastthe free town of Boston was

guarded and overawed by redcoats as it had been in the days of old Sir

Edmund Andros.

In the month of November more regiments arrived. There were now four

thousand troops in Boston. The Common was whitened with their tents.

Some of the soldiers were lodged in Faneuil Hallwhich the inhabitants

looked upon as a consecrated placebecause it had been the scene of a

great many meetings in favor of liberty. One regiment was placed in the

Town Housewhich we now call the Old State House. The lower floor of

this edifice had hitherto been used by the merchants as an exchange. In

the upper stories were the chambers of the judgesthe representatives

and the governor's council. The venerable councillors could not assemble

to consult about the welfare of the province without being challenged by

sentinels and passing among the bayonets of the British soldiers.

Sentinels likewise were posted at the lodgings of the officers in many

parts of the town. When the inhabitants approached they were greeted by

the sharp question"Who goes there?" while the rattle of thesoldier's

musket was heard as he presented it against their breasts. There was no

quiet even on the sabbath day. The quiet descendants of the Puritans

were shocked by the uproar of military music; the drumfifeand bugle

drowning the holy organ peal and the voices of the singers. It would

appear as if the British took every method to insult the feelings of the


"Grandfather" cried Charleyimpatiently"the people did notgo to

fighting half soon enough! These British redcoats ought to have been

driven back to their vessels the very moment they landed on Long Wharf."

"Many a hot-headed young man said the same as you doCharley"answered

Grandfather. "But the elder and wiser people saw that the time was not

yet come. Meanwhilelet us take another peep at our old chair."

"Ahit drooped its headI know" said Charley"when it sawhow the

province was disgraced. Its old Puritan friends never would have borne

such doings."

"The chair" proceeded Grandfather"was now continuallyoccupied by

some of the high toriesas the king's friends were calledwho

frequented the British Coffee House. Officers of the Custom Housetoo

which stood on the opposite side of King Streetoften sat in the chair

wagging their tongues against John Hancock."

"Why against him?" asked Charley.

"Because he was a great merchant and contended against paying duties to

the king" said Grandfather.

"Wellfrequentlyno doubtthe officers of the British regimentswhen

not on dutyused to fling themselves into the arms of our venerable

chair. Fancy one of thema red-nosed captain in his scarlet uniform

playing with the hilt of his swordand making a circle of his brother

officers merry with ridiculous jokes at the expense of the poor Yankees.

And perhaps he would call for a bottle of wineor a steaming bowl of

punchand drink confusion to all rebels."

"Our grave old chair must have been scandalized at such scenes"

observed Laurence; "the chair that had been the Lady Arbella'sand

which the holy apostle Eliot had consecrated."

"It certainly was little less than sacrilege" replied Grandfather;"but

the time was coming when even the churcheswhere hallowed pastors had

long preached the word of Godwere to be torn down or desecrated by the

British troops. Some years passedhoweverbefore such things were


Grandfather now told his auditors thatin 1769Sir Francis Bernard

went to England after having been governor of Massachusetts ten years.

He was a gentleman of many good qualitiesan excellent scholarand a

friend to learning. But he was naturally of an arbitrary disposition;

and he had been bred at the University of Oxfordwhere young men were

taught that the divine right of kings was the only thing to be regarded

in matters of government. Such ideas were ill adapted to please the

people of Massachusetts. They rejoiced to get rid of Sir Francis

Bernardbut liked his successorLieutenant-Governor Hutchinsonno

better than himself.

About this period the people were much incensed at an act committed by a

person who held an office in the Custom House. Some ladsor young men

were snowballing his windows. He fired a musket at themand killed a

poor German boyonly eleven years old. This event made a great noise in

town and countryand much increased the resentment that was already

felt against the servants of the crown.

"Nowchildren" said Grandfather"I wish to make youcomprehend the

position of the British troops in King Street. This is the same which we

now call State Street. On the south side of the Town Houseor Old State

Housewas what military men call a court of guarddefended by two

brass cannonswhich pointed directly at one of the doors of the above

edifice. A large party of soldiers were always stationed in the court of

guard. The Custom House stood at a little distance down King Street

nearly where the Suffolk Bank now standsand a sentinel was continually

pacing before its front."

"I shall remember this to-morrow" said Charley; "and I willgo to State

Streetso as to see exactly where the British troops were stationed."

"And before long" observed Grandfather"I shall have torelate an

event which made King Street sadly famous on both sides of the Atlantic.

The history of our chair will soon bring us to this melancholy


Here Grandfather described the state of things which arose from the ill

will that existed between the inhabitants and the redcoats. The old and

sober part of the townspeople were very angry at the government for

sending soldiers to overawe them. But those gray-headed men were

cautiousand kept their thoughts and feelings in their own breasts

without putting themselves in the way of the British bayonets.

The younger peoplehowevercould hardly be kept within such prudent

limits. They reddened with wrath at the very sight of a soldierand

would have been willing to come to blows with them at any moment. For it

was their opinion that every tap of a British drumwithin the peninsula

of Boston was an insult to the brave old town.

"It was sometimes the case" continued Grandfather"thataffrays

happened between such wild young men as these and small parties of the

soldiers. No weapons had hitherto been used except fists or cudgels. But

when men have loaded muskets in their handsit is easy to foretell that

they will soon be turned against the bosoms of those who provoke their


"Grandfather" said little Alicelooking fearfully into his face"your

voice sounds as though you were going to tell us something awful!"





LITTLE ALICEby her last remarkproved herself a good judge of what

was expressed by the tones of Grandfather's voice. He had given the

above description of the enmity between the townspeople and the soldiers

in order to Prepare the minds of his auditors for a very terrible event.

It was one that did more to heighten the quarrel between England and

America than anything that had yet occurred.

Without further prefaceGrandfather began the story of the Boston


It was now the 8d of March1770. The sunset music of the British

regiments was heard as usual throughout the town. The shrill fife and

rattling drum awoke the echoes in King Streetwhile the last ray of

sunshine was lingering on the cupola of the Town House. And now all the

sentinels were posted. One of them marched up and down before the Custom

Housetreading a short path through the snowand longing for the time

when he would be dismissed to the warm fireside of the guard room.

Meanwhile Captain Preston wasperhapssitting in our great chair

before the hearth of the British Coffee House. In the course of the

evening there were two or three slight commotionswhich seemed to

indicate that trouble was at hand. Small parties of young men stood at

the corners of the streets or walked along the narrow pavements. Squads

of soldiers who were dismissed from duty passed by themshoulder to

shoulderwith the regular step which they had learned at the drill.

Whenever these encounters took placeit appeared to be the object of

the young men to treat the soldiers with as much incivility as possible.

"Turn outyou lobsterbacks!" one would say. "Crowd them offthe

sidewalks!" another would cry. "A redcoat has no right in Boston


"Oyou rebel rascals!" perhaps the soldiers would replyglaring

fiercely at the young men. "Some day or other we'll make our way through

Boston streets at the point of the bayonet!"

Once or twice such disputes as these brought on a scuffle; which passed

offhoweverwithout attracting much notice. About eight o'clockfor

some unknown causean alarm-bell rang loudly and hurriedly.

At the sound many people ran out of their housessupposing it to be an

alarm of fire. But there were no flames to be seennor was there any

smell of smoke in the clearfrosty air; so that most of the townsmen

went back to their own firesides and sat talking with their wives and

children about the calamities of the times. Others who were younger and

less prudent remained in the streets; for there seems to have been a

presentiment that some strange event was on the eve of taking place.

Later in the eveningnot far from nine o'clockseveral young men

passed by the Town House and walked down King Street. The sentinel was

still on his post in front of the Custom Housepacing to and fro;

whileas he turneda gleam of light from some neighboring window

glittered on the barrel of his musket. At no great distance were the

barracks and the guard-housewhere his comrades were probably telling

stories of battle and bloodshed.

Down towards the Custom Houseas I told youcame a party of wild young

men. When they drew near the sentinel he halted on his postand took

his musket from his shoulderready to present the bayonet at their


"Who goes there?" he criedin the gruffperemptory tones of a

soldier's challenge. The young menbeing Boston boysfelt as if they

had a right to walk their own streets without being accountable to a

British redcoateven though he challenged them in King George's name.

They made some rude answer to the sentinel. There was a disputeor

perhaps a scuffle. Other soldiers heard the noiseand ran hastily from

the barracks to assist their comrades. At the same time many of the

townspeople rushed into King Street by various avenuesand gathered in

a crowd round about the Custom House. It seemed wonderful how such a

multitude had started up all of a sudden.

The wrongs and insults which the people had been suffering for many

months now kindled them into a rage. They threw snowballs and lumps of

ice at the soldiers. As the tumult grew louder it reached the ears of

Captain Prestonthe officer of the day. He immediately ordered eight

soldiers of the main guard to take their muskets and follow him. They

marched across the streetforcing their way roughly through the crowd

and pricking the townspeople with their bayonets.

A gentleman (it was Henry Knoxafterwards general of the American

artillery) caught Captain Preston's arm.

"For Heaven's sakesir" exclaimed he"take heed what youdoor there

will be bloodshed."

"Stand aside!" answered Captain Prestonhaughtily. "Do notinterfere

sir. Leave me to manage the affair."

Arriving at the sentinel's postCaptain Preston drew up his men in a

semicirclewith their faces to the crowd and their rear to the Custom

House. When the people saw the officer and beheld the threatening

attitude with which the soldiers fronted themtheir rage became almost


"Fireyou lobsterbacks!" bellowed some.

"You dare not fireyou cowardly redcoats!" cried others.

"Rush upon them!" shouted many voices. "Drive the rascals totheir

barracks! Down with them! Down with them! Let them fire if they dare!"

Amid the uproarthe soldiers stood glaring at the people with the

fierceness of men whose trade was to shed blood.

Ohwhat a crisis had now arrived! Up to this very momentthe angry

feelings between England and America might have been pacified. England

had but to stretch out the hand of reconciliationand acknowledge that

she had hitherto mistaken her rightsbut would do so no more. Then the

ancient bonds of brotherhood would again have been knit together as

firmly as in old times. The habit of loyaltywhich had grown as strong

as instinctwas not utterly overcome. The perils sharedthe victories

wonin the old French Warwhen the soldiers of the colonies fought

side by side with their comrades from beyond the seawere unforgotten

yet. England was still that beloved country which the colonists called

their home. King Georgethough he had frowned upon Americawas still

reverenced as a father.

But should the king's soldiers shed one drop of American bloodthen it

was a quarrel to the death. Nevernever would America rest satisfied

until she had torn down the royal authority and trampled it in the dust.

"Fireif you darevillains!" hoarsely shouted the peoplewhilethe

muzzles of the muskets were turned upon them. "You dare not fire!"

They appeared ready to rush upon the levelled bayonets. Captain Preston

waved his swordand uttered a command which could not be distinctly

heard amid the uproar of shouts that issued from a hundred throats. But

his soldiers deemed that he had spoken the fatal mandate"Fire!"The

flash of their muskets lighted up the streetsand the report rang

loudly between the edifices. It was saidtoothat the figure of a man

with a cloth hanging down over his facewas seen to step into the

balcony of the Custom House and discharge a musket at the crowd.

A gush of smoke had overspread the scene. It rose heavilyas if it were

loath to reveal the dreadful spectacle beneath it. Eleven of the sons of

New England lay stretched upon the street. Somesorely woundedwere

struggling to rise again. Others stirred not nor groaned; for they were

past all pain. Blood was streaming upon the snow; and that purple stain

in the midst of King Streetthough it melted away in the next day's

sunwas never forgotten nor forgiven by the people.

Grandfather was interrupted by the violent sobs of little Alice. In his

earnestness he had neglected to soften clown the narrative so that it

might not terrify the heart of this unworldly infant. Since Grandfather

began the history of our chairlittle Alice had listened to many tales

of war. But probably the idea had never really impressed itself upon her

mind that men have shed the blood of their fellow-creatures. And now

that this idea was forcibly presented to herit affected the sweet

child with bewilderment and horror.

"I ought to have remembered our dear little Alice" saidGrandfather

reproachfully to himself. "Ohwhat a pity! Her heavenly nature has now

received its first impression of earthly sin and violence. WellClara

take her to bed and comfort her. Heaven grant that she may dream away

the recollection of the Boston massacre!"

"Grandfather" said Charleywhen Clara and little Alice hadretired

"did not the people rush upon the soldiers and take revenge?"

"The town drums beat to arms" replied Grandfather"thealarm-bells

rangand an immense multitude rushed into King Street. Many of them had

weapons in their hands. The British prepared to defend themselves. A

whole regiment was drawn up in the streetexpecting an attack; for the

townsmen appeared ready to throw themselves upon the bayonets."

"And how did it end?"

"Governor Hutchinson hurried to the spot" said Grandfather"and

besought the people to have patiencepromising that strict justice

should be done. A day or two afterward the British troops were withdrawn

from town and stationed at Castle William. Captain Preston and the eight

soldiers were tried for murder. But none of them were found guilty. The

judges told the jury that the insults and violence which had been

offered to the soldiers justified them in firing at the mob."

"The Revolution" observed Laurencewho had said but little duringthe

evening"was not such a calmmajestic movement as I supposed. I do not

love to hear of mobs and broils in the street. These things were

unworthy of the people when they had such a great object to accomplish."

"Neverthelessthe world has seen no grander movement than that of our

Revolution from first to last" said Grandfather. "The peopleto aman

were full of a great and noble sentiment. Truethere may be much fault

to find with their mode of expressing this sentiment; but they knew no

better; the necessity was upon them to act out their feelings in the

best manner they could. We must forgive what was wrong in their actions

and look into their hearts and minds for the honorable motives that

impelled them."

"And I suppose" said Laurence"there were men who knew howto act

worthily of what they felt."

"There were many such" replied Grandfather; "and we willspeak of some

of them hereafter."

Grandfather here made a pause. That night Charley had a dream about the

Boston massacreand thought that he himself was in the crowd and struck

down Captain Preston with a great club. Laurence dreamed that he was

sitting in our great chairat the window of the British Coffee House

and beheld the whole scene which Grandfather had described. It seemed to

himin his dreamthatif the townspeople and the soldiers would but

have heard him speak a single wordall the slaughter might have been

averted. But there was such an uproar that it drowned his voice.

The next morning the two boys went together to State Street and stood on

the very spot where the first blood of the Revolution had been shed. The

Old State House was still therepresenting almost the same aspect that

it had worn on that memorable eveningone-and-seventy years ago. It is

the sole remaining witness of the Boston massacre.








THE NEXT evening the astral lamp was lighted earlier than usualbecause

Laurence was very much engaged in looking over the collection of

portraits which had been his New-Year's gift from Grandfather.

Among them he found the features of more than one famous personage who

had been connected with the adventures of our old chair. Grandfather

bade him draw the table nearer to the fireside; and they looked over the

portraits togetherwhile Clara and Charley likewise lent their

attention. As for little Aliceshe sat in Grandfather's lapand seemed

to see the very men alive whose faces were there represented.

Turning over the volumeLaurence came to the portrait of a sterngrim-

looking manin plain attireof much more modern fashion than that of

the old Puritans. But the face might well have befitted one of those

iron-hearted men. Beneath the portrait was the name of Samuel Adams.

"He was a man of great note in all the doings that brought about the

Revolution" said Grandfather. "His character was suchthat itseemed

as if one of the ancient Puritans had been sent back to earth to animate

the people's hearts with the same abhorrence of tyranny that had

distinguished the earliest settlers. He was as religious as theyas

stern and inflexibleand as deeply imbued with democratic principles.

Hebetter than any one elsemay be taken as a representative of the

people of New Englandand of the spirit with which they engaged in the

Revolutionary struggle. He was a poor manand earned his bread by a

humble occupation; but with his tongue and pen he made the King of

England tremble on his throne. Remember himmy childrenas one of the

strong men of our country."

"Here is one whose looks show a very different character" observed

Laurenceturning to the portrait of John Hancock. "I should thinkby

his splendid dress and courtly aspectthat he was one of the king's


"There never was a greater contrast than between Samuel Adams and John

Hancock" said Grandfather. "Yet they were of the same side inpolitics

and had an equal agency in the Revolution. Hancock was born to the

inheritance of the largest fortune in New England. His tastes and habits

were aristocratic. He loved gorgeous attirea splendid mansion

magnificent furniturestately festivalsand all that was glittering

and pompous in external things. His manners were so polished that there

stood not a nobleman at the footstool of King George's throne who was a

more skilful courtier than John Hancock might have been. Nevertheless

he in his embroidered clothesand Samuel Adams in his threadbare coat

wrought together in the cause of liberty. Adams acted from pure and

rigid principle. Hancockthough he loved his countryyet thought quite

as much of his own popularity as he did of the people's rights. It is

remarkable that these two menso very different as I describe them

were the only two exempted from pardon by the king's proclamation."

On the next leaf of the book was the portrait of General Joseph Warren.

Charley recognized the nameand said that here was a greater man than

either Hancock or Adams.

"Warren was an eloquent and able patriot" replied Grandfather."He

deserves a lasting memory for his zealous efforts in behalf of liberty.

No man's voice was more powerful in Faneuil Hall than Joseph Warren's.

If his death had not happened so early in the contesthe would probably

have gained a high name as a soldier."

The next portrait was a venerable manwho held his thumb under his

chinandthrough his spectaclesappeared to be attentively reading a


"Here we see the most illustrious Boston boy that ever lived" said

Grandfather. "This is Benjamin Franklin. But I will not try to compress

into a few sentences the character of the sagewhoas a Frenchman

expressed itsnatched the lightning from the sky and the sceptre from a

tyrant. Mr. Sparks must help you to the knowledge of Franklin."

The book likewise contained portraits of James Otis and Josiah Quincy.

Both of themGrandfather observedwere men of wonderful talents and

true patriotism. Their voices were like the stirring tones of a trumpet

arousing the country to defend its freedom. Heaven seemed to have

provided a greater number of eloquent men than had appeared at any other

periodin order that the people might be fully instructed as to their

wrongs and the method of resistance.

"It is marvellous" said Grandfather"to see how manypowerful writers

oratorsand soldiers started up just at the time when they were wanted.

There was a man for every kind of work. It is equally wonderful that men

of such different characters were all made to unite in the one object of

establishing the freedom and independence of America. There was an over-

ruling Providence above them."

"Herewas another great man" remarked Laurencepointing to the

portrait of John Adams.

"Yes; an earnestwarm-temperedhonest and most able man" said

Grandfather. "At the period of which we are now speaking he was a lawyer

in Boston. He was destined in after years to be ruler over the whole

American peoplewhom he contributed so much to form into a nation."

Grandfather here remarked that many a New-Englanderwho had passed his

boyhood and youth in obscurityafterward attained to a fortune which he

never could have foreseen even in his most ambitious dreams. John Adams

the second President of the United States and the equal of crowned

kingswas once a schoolmaster and country lawyer. Hancockthe first

signer of the Declaration of Independenceserved his apprenticeship

with a merchant. Samuel Adamsafterwards governor of Massachusettswas

a small tradesman and a tax-gatherer. General Warren was a physician

General Lincoln a farmerand General Knox a bookbinder. General

Nathaniel Greenethe best soldierexcept Washingtonin the

Revolutionary armywas a Quaker and a blacksmith. All these became

illustrious menand can never be forgotten in American history.

"And any boy who is born in America may look forward to the same

things" said our ambitious friend Charley.

After these observationsGrandfather drew the book of portraits towards

him and showed the children several British peers and members of

Parliament who had exerted themselves either for or against the rights

of America. There were the Earl of ButeMr. Grenvilleand Lord North.

These were looked upon as deadly enemies to our country.

Among the friends of America was Mr. Pittafterward Earl of Chatham

who spent so much of his wondrous eloquence in endeavoring to warn

England of the consequences of her injustice. He fell down on the floor

of the House of Lords after uttering almost his dying words in defence

of our privileges as freemen. There was Edmund Burkeone of the wisest

men and greatest orators that ever the world produced. There was Colonel

Barrywho had been among our fathersand knew that they had courage

enough to die for their rights. There was Charles James Foxwho never

rested until he had silenced our enemies in the House of Commons.

"It is very remarkable to observe how many of the ablest orators in the

British Parliament were favorable to America" said Grandfather."We

ought to remember these great Englishmen with gratitude; for their

speeches encouraged our fathers almost as much as those of our own

orators in Faneuil Hall and under Liberty Tree. Opinions which might

have been received with doubtif expressed only by a native American

were set down as truebeyond disputewhen they came from the lips of

ChathamBurkeBarreor Fox"

"ButGrandfather" asked Lawrence"were there no able andeloquent men

in this country who took the part of King George?"

"There were many men of talent who said what they could in defence of

the king's tyrannical proceedings" replied Grandfather. "But theyhad

the worst side of the argumentand therefore seldom said anything worth

remembering. Moreovertheir hearts were faint and feeble; for they felt

that the people scorned and detested them. They had no friendsno

defenceexcept in the bayonets of the British troops. A blight fell

upon all their facultiesbecause they were contending against the

rights of their own native land."

"What were the names of some of them?" inquired Charley.

"Governor HutchinsonChief Justice OliverJudge Auchmutythe Rev.

Mather Bylesand several other clergymenwere among the most noted

loyalists" answered Grandfather.

"I wish the people had tarred and feathered every man of them!"cried


"That wish is very wrongCharley" said Grandfather. "Youmust not

think that there is no integrity and honor except among those who stood

up for the freedom of America. For aught I knowthere was quite as much

of these qualities on one side as on the other. Do you see nothing

admirable in a faithful adherence to an unpopular cause? Can you not

respect that principle of loyalty which made the royalists give up

countryfriendsfortuneeverythingrather than be false to their

king? It was a mistaken principle; but many of them cherished it

honorablyand were martyrs to it."

"OhI was wrong!" said Charleyingenuously.

"And I would risk my life rather than one of those good old royalists

should be tarred and feathered."

"The time is now come when we may judge fairly of them" continued

Grandfather. "Be the good and true men among them honored; for they were

as much our countrymen as the patriots were. Andthank Heavenour

country need not be ashamed of her sons--of most of them at least--

whatever side they took in the Revolutionary contest."

Among the portraits was one of King George III Little Alice clapped her

handsand seemed pleased with the bluff good-nature of his physiognomy.

But Laurence thought it strange that a man with such a faceindicating

hardly a common share of intellectshould have had influence enough on

human affairs to convulse the world with war. Grandfather observed that

this poor king had always appeared to him one of the most unfortunate

persons that ever lived. He was so honest and conscientiousthatif he

had been only a private manhis life would probably have been blameless

and happy. But his was that worst of fortunes--to be placed in a

station far beyond his abilities.

"And so" said Grandfather"his lifewhile he retained whatintellect

Heaven had gifted him withwas one long mortification. At last he grew

crazed with care and trouble. For nearly twenty years the men arch of

England was confined as a madman. In his old agetooGod took away his

eyesight; so that his royal palace was nothing to him but a dark

lonesome prison-house."





"OUR old chair? resumed Grandfather" did not now stand in tilemidst of

a gay circle of British officers. The troopsas I told youhad been

removed to Castle William immediately after the Boston massacre. Still

howeverthere were many toriescustom-house officersand Englishmen

who used to assemble in the British Coffee House and talk over the

affairs of the period. Matters grew worse and worse; and in 1773 the

people did a deed which incensed the king and ministry more than any of

their former doings."

Grandfather here described the affairwhich is known by the name of the

Boston Tea Party. The Americansfor some time pasthad left off

importing teaon account of the oppressive tax. The East India Company

in Londonhad a large stock of tea on handwhich they had expected to

sell to the Americansbut could find no market for it. But after a

whilethe government persuaded this company of merchants to send the

tea to America.

"How odd it is" observed Clara"that the liberties ofAmerica should

have had anything to do with a cup of tea!"

Grandfather smiledand proceeded with his narrative. When the people of

Boston heard that several cargoes of tea were coming across the

Atlanticthey held a great many meetings at Faneuil Hallin the Old

South Churchand under Liberty Tree. In the midst of their debates

three ships arrived in the harbor with the tea on board. The people

spent more than a fortnight in consulting what should be done. At last

on the 16th of December1773they demanded of Governor Hutchinson that

he should immediately send the ships back to England.

The governor replied that the ships must not leave the harbor until the

custom-house duties upon the tea should be paid. Nowthe payment of

these duties was the very thing against which the people had set their

faces; because it was a tax unjustly imposed upon America by the English

government. Thereforein the dusk of the eveningas soon as Governor

Hutchinson's reply was receivedan immense crowd hastened to Griffin's

Wharfwhere the tea-ships lay. The place is now called Liverpool Wharf.

"When the crowd reached the wharf" said Grandfather"theysaw that a

set of wild-looking figures were already on board of the ships. You

would have imagined that the Indian warriors of old times had come back

again; for they wore the Indian dressand had their faces covered with

red and black paintlike the Indians when they go to war. These grim

figures hoisted the tea-chests on the decks of the vessels; broke them

openand threw all the contents into the harbor."

"Grandfather" said little Alice"I suppose Indians don'tlove tea;

else they would never waste it so."

"They were not real Indiansmy child" answered Grandfather."They were

white men in disguise; because a heavy punishment would have been

inflicted on them if the king's officers had found who they were.

But it was never known. From that day to thisthough the matter has

been talked of by all the worldnobody can tell the names of those

Indian figures. Some people say that there were very famous men among

themwho afterwards became governors and generals. Whether this be true

I cannot tell."

When tidings of this bold deed were carried to EnglandKing George was

greatly enraged. Parliament immediately passed an actby which all

vessels were forbidden to take in or discharge their cargoes at the port

of Boston. In this way they expected to ruin all the merchantsand

starve the poor peopleby depriving them of employment. At the same

time another act was passedtaking away many rights and privileges

which had been granted in the charter of Massachusetts.

Governor Hutchinsonsoon afterwardwas summoned to Englandin order

that he might give his advice about the management of American affairs.

General Gagean officer of the old French Warand since commander-in-

chief of the British forces in Americawas appointed governor in his

stead. One of his first acts was to make Saleminstead of Bostonthe

metropolis of Massachusettsby summoning the General Court to meet


According to Grandfather's descriptionthis was the most gloomy time

that Massachusetts had ever seen. The people groaned under as heavy a

tyranny as in the days of Sir Edmund Andros. Boston looked as if it were

afflicted with some dreadful pestilence--so sad were the inhabitants

and so desolate the streets. There was no cheerful hum of business. The

merchants shut up their warehousesand the laboring men stood idle

about the wharves. But all America felt interested in the good town of

Boston; and contributions were raisedin many placesfor the relief of

the poor inhabitants.

"Our dear old chair!" exclaimed Clara. "How dismal it musthave been


"Oh" replied Grandfather"a gay throng of officers had nowcome back

to the British Coffee House; so that the old chair had no lack of

mirthful company. Soon after General Gage became governor a great many

troops had arrivedand were encamped upon the Common. Boston was now a

garrisoned and fortified town; for the general had built a battery

across the Neckon the road to Roxburyand placed guards for its

defence. Everything looked as if a civil war were close at hand."

"Did the people make ready to fight?" asked Charley.

"A Continental Congress assembled at Philadelphia'' said Grandfather

"and proposed such measures as they thought most conducive to the public

good. A Provincial Congress was likewise chosen in Massachusetts. They

exhorted the people to arm and discipline themselves. A great number of

minutemen were enrolled. The Americans called them minute-menbecause

they engaged to be ready to fight at a minute's warning. The English

officers laughedand said that the name was a very proper onebecause

the minute-men would run away the minute they saw the enemy. Whether

they would fight or run was soon to be proved."

Grandfather told the children that the first open resistance offered to

the British troopsin the province of Massachusettswas at Salem.

Colonel Timothy Pickeringwith thirty or forty militia-menprevented

the English colonelLesliewith four times as many regular soldiers

from taking possession of some military stores. No blood was shed on

this occasion; but soon afterward it began to flow.

General Gage sent eight hundred soldiers to Concordabout eighteen

miles from Bostonto destroy some ammunition and provisions which the

colonists had collected there. They set out on their march on the

evening of the 18th of April1775. The next morning the general sent

Lord' Percy with nine hundred men to strengthen the troops that had gone

before. All that day the inhabitants of Boston heard various rumors.

Some said that the British were making great slaughter among our

countrymen. Others affirmed that every man had turned out with his

musketand that not a single soldier would ever get back to Boston.

"It was after sunset" continued Grandfather"when thetroopswho had

marched forth so proudlywere seen entering Charlestown. They were

covered with dustand so hot and weary that their tongues hung out of

their mouths. Many of them were faint with wounds. They had not all

returned. Nearly three hundred were strewndead or dyingalong the

road from Concord. The yeomanry had risen upon the invaders and driven

them back."

"Was this the battle of Lexington?" asked Charley.

"Yes" replied Grandfather; "it was so calledbecause theBritish

without provocationhad fired upon a party of minute-mennear

Lexington meeting-houseand killed eight of them. That fatal volley

which was fired by order of Major Pitcairnbegan the war of the


About this timeif Grandfather had been correctly informedour chair

disappeared from the British Coffee House. The manner of its departure

cannot be satisfactorily ascertained. Perhaps the keeper of the Coffee

House turned it out of doors on account of its old-fashioned aspect.

Perhaps he sold it as a curiosity. Perhaps it was takenwithout leave

by some person who regarded it as public property because it had once

figured under Liberty Tree. Or perhaps the old chairbeing of a

peaceable dispositionhas made use of its four oaken legs and run away

from the seat of war.

"It would have made a terrible clattering over the pavement" said


"Meanwhile" continued Grandfather"during the mysteriousnon-

appearance of our chairan army of twenty thousand men had started up

and come to the siege of Boston. General Gage and his troops were cooped

up within the narrow precincts of the peninsula. On the 17th of June

1775the famous battle of Bunker Hill was fought. Here General Warren

fell. The British got the victoryindeedbut with the loss of more

than a thousand officers and men."

"Oh Grandfather" cried Charley"you must tell us about thatfamous


"NoCharley" said Grandfather"I am not like otherhistorians.

Battles shall not hold a prominent place in the history of our quiet and

comfortable old chair. But to-morrow eveningLaurenceClaraand

yourselfand dear little Alice tooshall visit the Diorama of Bunker

Hill. There you shall see the whole businessthe burning of Charlestown

and allwith your own eyesand hear the cannon and musketry with your

own ears."





THE next evening but onewhen the children had given Grandfather a full

account of the Diorama of Bunker Hillthey entreated him not to keep

them any longer in suspense about the fate of his chair. The reader will

recollect thatat the last accountsit had trotted away upon its poor

old legs nobody knew whither. Butbefore gratifying their curiosity

Grandfather found it necessary to say something about public events.

The Continental Congresswhich was assembled at Philadelphiawas

composed of delegates from all the colonies. They had now appointed

George Washingtonof Virginiato be commander-in-chief of all the

American armies. He wasat that timea member of Congress; but

immediately left Philadelphiaand began his journey to Massachusetts.

On the 3d of July1775he arrived at Cambridgeand took command of

the troops which were besieging General Gage.

"O Grandfather" exclaimed Laurence"it makes my heart throbto think

what is coming now. We are to see General Washington himself."

The children crowded around Grandfather and looked earnestly into his

face. Even little Alice opened her sweet blue eyeswith her lips apart

and almost held her breath to listen; so instinctive is the reverence of

childhood for the father of his country.

Grandfather paused a moment; for he felt as if it might be irreverent to

introduce the hallowed shade of Washington into a history where an

ancient elbow-chair occupied the most prominent place. Howeverhe

determined to proceed with his narrativeand speak of the hero when it

was needfulbut with an unambitious simplicity.

So Grandfather told his auditorsthaton General Washington's arrival

at Cambridgehis first care was to reconnoitre the British troops with

his spy-glassand to examine the condition of his own army. He found

that the American troops amounted to about fourteen thousand men. They

were extended all round the peninsula of Bostona space of twelve

milesfrom the high grounds of Roxbury on the right to Mystic River on

the left. Some were living in tents of sailclothsome in shanties

rudely constructed of boardssome in huts of stone or turf with curious

windows and doors of basket-work.

In order to be near the centre and oversee the whole of this wide-

stretched armythe commander-in-chief made his headquarters at

Cambridgeabout half a mile from the colleges. A mansion-housewhich

perhaps had been the country seat of some Tory gentle manwas provided

for his residence.

"When General Washington first entered this mansion" saidGrandfather

"he was ushered up the staircase and shown into a handsome apartment. He

sat down in a large chairwhich was the most conspicuous object in the

room. The noble figure of Washington would have done honor to a throne.

As he sat therewith his hand resting on the hilt of his sheathed

swordwhich was placed between his kneeshis whole aspect well

befitted the chosen man on whom his country leaned for the defence of

her dearest rights. America seemed safe under his protection. His face

was grander than any sculptor had ever wrought in marble; none could

behold him without awe and reverence. Never before had the lion's head

at the summit of the chair looked down upon such a face and form as


"WhyGrandfather!" cried Claraclasping her hands in amazement"was

it really so? Did General Washington sit in our great chair?"

"I knew how it would be" said Laurence; "I foresaw it themoment

Grandfather began to speak."

Grandfather smiled. Butturning from the personal and domestic life of

the illustrious leaderhe spoke of the methods which Washington adopted

to win back the metropolis of New England from the British.

The armywhen he took command of itwas without any discipline or

order. The privates considered themselves as good as their officers; and

seldom thought it necessary to obey their commandsunless they

understood the why and wherefore. Moreover. they were enlisted for so

short a periodthatas soon as they began to be respectable soldiers

it was time to discharge them. Then came new recruitswho had to be

taught their duty before they could be of any service. Such was the army

with which Washington had to contend against more than twenty veteran

British regiments.

Some of the men had no musketsand almost all were without bayonets.

Heavy cannonfor battering the British fortificationswere much

wanted. There was but a small quantity of powder and ballfew tools to

build intrenchments withand a great deficiency of provisions and

clothes for the soldiers. Yetin spite of these perplexing

difficultiesthe eyes of the whole people were fixed on General

Washingtonexpecting him to undertake some great enterprise against the

hostile army.

The first thing that he found necessary was to bring his own men into

better order and discipline. It is wonderful how soon he transformed

this rough mob of country people into the semblance of a regular army.

One of Washington's most invaluable characteristics was the faculty of

bringing order out of confusion. All business with which he had any

concern seemed to regulate itself as if by magic. The influence of his

mind was like light gleaming through an unshaped world. It was this

facultymore than any otherthat made him so fit to ride upon the

storm of the Revolution when everything was unfixed and drifting about

in a troubled sea.

"Washington had not been long at the head of the army" proceeded

Grandfather"before his soldiers thought as highly of him as if he had

led them to a hundred victories. They knew that he was the very man whom

the country neededand the only one who could bring them safely through

the great contest against the might of England. They put entire

confidence in his couragewisdomand integrity."

"And were they not eager to follow him against the British?" asked


"Doubtless they would have gone whithersoever his sword pointed the

way" answered Grandfather; "and Washington was anxious to make a

decisive assault upon the enemy. But as the enterprise was very

hazardoushe called a council of all the generals in the army.

Accordingly they came from their different postsand were ushered into

the reception-room. The commander-in-chief arose from our great chair to

greet them."

"What were their names?" asked Charley.

"There was General Artemas Ward" replied Grandfather"alawyer by

profession. He had commanded the troops before Washington's arrival

Another was General Charles Leewho had been a colonel in the English

armyand was thought to possess vast military science. He came to the

councilfollowed by two or three dogs which were always at his heels.

There was General Putnamtoowho was known all over New England by the

name of Old Put."

"Was it he who killed the wolf?" inquired Charley.

"The same" said Grandfather; "and he had done good service inthe old

French War. His occupation was that of a farmer; but he left his plough

in the furrow at the news of Lexington battle. Then there was General

Gateswho afterward gained great renown at Saratogaand lost it again

at Camden. General Greeneof Rhode Islandwas likewise at the council.

Washington soon discovered him to be one of the best officers in the


When the generals were all assembledWashington consulted them about a

plan for storming the English batteries. But it was their unanimous

opinion that so perilous an enterprise ought not to be attempted. The

armythereforecontinued to besiege Bostonpreventing the enemy from

obtaining supplies of provisionsbut without taking any immediate

measures to get possession of the town. In 'this manner the sum met

autumnand winter passed away.

"Many a nightdoubtless" said Grandfather"after Washingtonhad been

all day on horsebackgalloping from one post of the army to anotherhe

used to sit in our great chairrapt in earnest thought. Had you seen

himyou might have supposed that his whole mind was fixed on the blue

china tiles which adorned the old-fashioned fireplace. Butin reality

he was meditating how to capture the British armyor drive it out of

Boston. Oncewhen there was a hard frosthe formed a scheme to cross

the Charles River on the ice. But the other generals could not be

persuaded that there was any prospect of success."

"What were the British doing all this time?" inquired Charley.

"They lay idle in the town" replied Grandfather. "GeneralGage had been

recalled to Englandand was succeeded by Sir William Howe. The British

army and the inhabitants of Boston were now in great distress. Being

shut up in the town so longthey had consumed almost all their

provisions and burned up all their fuel. The soldiers tore down the Old

North Churchand used its rotten boards and timbers for firewood. To

heighten their distressthe small-pox broke out. They probably lost far

more men by coldhungerand sickness than had been slain at Lexington

and Bunker Hill."

"What a dismal time for the poor women and children!” exclaimed Clara.

"At length" continued Grandfather"in March1776GeneralWashington

who had now a good supply of powderbegan a terrible cannonade and

bombardment from Dorchester Heights. One of the cannon-balls which he

fired into the town struck the tower of the Brattle Street Churchwhere

it may still be seen. Sir William Howe made preparations to cross over

in boats and drive the Americans from their batteriesbut was prevented

by a violent gale and storm. General Washington next erected a battery

on Nook's Hillso near the enemy that it was impossible for them to

remain in Boston any longer."

"Hurrah! Hurrah!" cried Charleyclapping his hands triumphantly."I

wish I had been there to see how sheepish the Englishmen looked."

And as Grandfather thought that Boston had never witnessed a more

interesting period than thiswhen the royal power was in its death

agonyhe determined to take a peep into the town and imagine the

feelings of those who were quitting it forever.





ALAS for the poor tories!" said Grandfather. "Until the very last

morning after Washington's troops had shown themselves on Nook's Hill

these unfortunate persons could not believe that the audacious rebels

as they called the Americanswould ever prevail against King George's

army. But when they saw the British soldiers preparing to embark on

board of the ships of warthen they knew that they had lost their

country. Could the patriots have known how bitter were their regrets

they would have forgiven them all their evil deedsand sent a blessing

after them as they sailed away from their native shore."

In order to make the children sensible of the pitiable condition of

these menGrandfather singled out Peter Oliverchief justice of

Massachusetts under the crownand imagined him walking through the

streets of Boston on the morning before he left it forever.

This effort of Grandfather's fancy may be called the Tory's Farewell.

Old Chief Justice Oliver threw on his red cloakand placed his three-

cornered hat on the top of his white wig. In this garb he intended to go

forth and take a parting look at objects that had been familiar to him

from his youth. Accordinglyhe began his walk in the north part of the

townand soon came to Faneuil Hall. This edificethe cradle of

libertyhad been used by the British officers as a playhouse.

"Would that I could see its walls crumble to dust!" thought thechief

justice; andin the bitterness of his hearthe shook his fist at the

famous hall. "There began the mischief which now threatens to rend asun-

der the British empire. The seditious harangues of demagogues in Faneuil

Hall have made rebels of a loyal people and deprived me of my country."

He then passed through a narrow avenue and found himself in King Street

almost on the very spot whichsix years beforehad been reddened by

the blood of the Boston massacre. The chief justice stepped cautiously

and shudderedas if he were afraid thateven nowthe gore of his

slaughtered countrymen might stain his feet.

Before him rose the Town Houseon the front of which were still

displayed the royal arms. Within that edifice he had dispensed justice

to the people in the days when his name was never mentioned without

honor. Theretoowas the balcony whence the trumpet had been sounded

and the proclamation read to an assembled multitudewhenever a new king

of England ascended the throne.

"I remember--I remember" said Chief Justice Oliver to himself"when

his present most sacred Majesty was proclaimed. Then how the people

shouted! Each man would have poured out his life-blood to keep a hair of

King George's head from harm. But now there is scarcely a tongue in all

New England that does not imprecate curses on his name. It is ruin and

disgrace to love him. Can it be possible that a few fleeting years have

wrought such a change?"

It did not occur to the chief justice that nothing but the most grievous

tyranny could so soon have changed the people's hearts. Hurrying from

the spothe entered Cornhillas the lower part of Washington Street

was then called. Opposite to the Town House was the waste foundation of

the Old North Church. The sacrilegious hands of the British soldiers had

torn it downand kindled their barrack fires with the fragments.

Farther on he passed beneath the tower of the Old South. The threshold

of this sacred edifice was worn by the iron tramp of horses' feet; for

the interior had been used as a riding-school and rendezvous for a

regiment of dragoons. As the chief justice lingered an instant at the

door a trumpet sounded withinand the regiment came clattering forth

and galloped down the street. They were proceeding to the place of


"Let them go!" thought the chief justicewith somewhat of an old

Puritan feeling in his breast. "No good can come of men who desecrate

the house of God."

He went on a few steps fartherand paused before the Province House. No

range of brick stores had then sprung up to hide the mansion of the

royal governors from public view. It had a spacious courtyardbordered

with treesand enclosed with a wrought-iron fence. On the cupola that

surmounted the edifice was the gilded figure of an Indian chiefready

to let fly an arrow from his bow. Over the wide front door was a

balconyin which the chief justice had often stood when the governor

and high officers of the province showed themselves to the people.

While Chief Justice Oliver gazed sadly at the Province Housebefore

which a sentinel was pacingthe double leaves of the door were thrown

openand Sir William Howe made his appearance. Behind him came a throng

of officerswhose steel scabbards clattered against the stones as they

hastened down the court-yard. Sir William Howe was a dark-complexioned

manstern and haughty in his deportment. He stepped as proudly in that

hour of defeat as if he were going to receive the submission of the

rebel general.

The chief justice bowed and accosted him.

"This is a grievous hour for both of usSir William" said he.

"Forward! gentlemen" said Sir William Howe to the officers whoattended

him; "we have no time to hear lamentations now."

Andcoldly bowinghe departed. Thus the chief justice had a foretaste

of the mortifications which the exiled New-Englanders afterwards

suffered from the haughty Britons. They were despised even by that

country which they had served more faithfully than their own.

A still heavier trial awaited Chief Justice Oliveras he passed onward

from the Province House. He was recognized by the people in the street.

They had long known him as the descendant of an ancient and honorable

family. They had seen him sitting in his scarlet robes upon the

judgment-seat. All his life longeither for the sake of his ancestors

or on account of his own dignified station and unspotted characterhe

had been held in high respect. The old gentry of the province were

looked upon almost as noblemen while Massachusetts was under royal


But now all hereditary reverence for birth and rank was gone. The

inhabitants shouted in derision when they saw the venerable form of the

old chief justice. They laid the wrongs of the country and their own

sufferings during the siege--their hungercoldand sickness--partly to

his charge and to that of his brother Andrew and his kinsman Hutchinson.

It was by their advice that the king had acted in all the colonial

troubles. But the day of recompense was come.

"See the old tory!" cried the peoplewith bitter laughter."He is

taking his last look at us. Let him show his white wig among us an hour

henceand we'll give him a coat of tar and feathers!"

The chief justicehoweverknew that he need fear no violence so long

as the British troops were in possession of the town. Butalas! it was

a bitter thought that he should leave no loving memory behind him. His

forefatherslong after their spirits left the earthhad been honored

in the affectionate remembrance of the people. But hewho would

henceforth be dead to his native landwould have no epitaph save

scornful and vindictive words. The old man wept.

"They curse methey invoke all kinds of evil on my head!" thoughthe

in the midst of his tears. "Butif they could read my heartthey would

know that I love New England well. Heaven bless herand bring her again

under the rule of our gracious king! A blessingtooon these poor

misguided people!"

The chief justice flung out his hands with a gestureas if he were

bestowing a parting benediction on his countrymen. He had now reached

the southern portion of the townand was far within the range of

cannon-shot from the American batteries. Close beside him was the bread

stump of a treewhich appeared to have been recently cut down. Being

weary and heavy at hearthe was about to sit down upon the stump.

Suddenly it flashed upon his recollection that this was the stump of

Liberty Tree! The British soldiers had cut it downvainly boasting that

they could as easily overthrow the liberties of America. Under its

shadowy branchesten years beforethe brother of Chief Justice Oliver

had been compelled to acknowledge the supremacy of the people by taking

the oath which they prescribed. This tree was connected with all the

events that had severed America from England.

"Accursed tree!" cried the chief justicegnashing his teeth; foranger

overcame his sorrow. "Would that thou hadst been left standing till

HancockAdamsand every other traitorwere hanged upon thy branches!

Then fitly mightest thou have been hewn down and cast into the flames."

He turned backhurried to Long Wharf without looking behind him

embarked with the British troops for Halifaxand never saw his country

more. Throughout the remainder of his days Chief Justice Oliver was

agitated with those same conflicting emotions that had tortured him

while taking his farewell walk through the streets of Boston. Deep love

and fierce resentment burned in one flame within his breastAnathemas

struggled with benedictions. He felt as if one breath of his native air

would renew his lifeyet would have died rather than breathe the same

air with rebels. And such likewise were the feelings of the other

exilesa thousand in numberwho departed with the British army. Were

they not the most unfortunate of men?

"The misfortunes of those exiled tories" observed Laurence"must have

made them think of the poor exiles of Acadia."

"They had a sad time of itI suppose" said Charley. "But Ichoose to

rejoice with the patriotsrather than be sorrowful with the tories.

Grandfatherwhat did General Washington do now?"

"As the rear of the British army embarked from the wharf" replied

Grandfather"General Washington's troops marched over the Neckthrough

the fortification gatesand entered Boston in triumph. And nowfor the

first time since the Pilgrims landedMassachusetts was free from the

dominion of England. May she never again be subjected to foreign rule--

never again feel the rod of oppression!"

"Dear Grandfather" asked little Alice"did GeneralWashington bring

our chair back to Boston?"

"I know not how long the chair remained at Cambridge" saidGrandfather.

"Had it stayed there till this timeit could not have found a better or

more appropriate shelterThe mansion which General Washington occupied

is still standingand his apartments have since been tenanted by

several eminent men. Governor Everettwhile a professor in the

Universityresided there. So at an after period did Mr. Sparkswhose

invaluable labors have connected his name with the immortality of

Washington. And at this very time a venerable friend and contemporary of

your Grandfatherafter long pilgrimages beyond the seahas set up his

staff of rest at Washington's headquarters.''

"You mean Professor LongfellowGrandfather" said Laurence."Ohhow I

should love to see the author of those beautiful Voices of the Night!"

"We will visit him next summer" answered Grandfather"andtake Clara

and little Alice with us--and Charleytooif he will be quiet."





WHEN Grandfather resumed his narrative the next eveninghe told the

children that he had some difficulty in tracing the movements of the

chair during a short period after General Washington's departure from


Within a few monthshoweverit made its appearance at a shop in

Bostonbefore the door of which was seen a striped pole. In the

interior was displayed a stuffed alligatora rattlesnake's skina

bundle of Indian arrowsan old-fashioned matchlock guna walking-stick

of Governor Winthrop'sa wig of old Cotton Mather'sand a colored

print of the Boston massacre. In shortit was a barber's shopkept by

a Mr. Piercewho prided himself on having shaved General Washington

Old Putand many other famous persons

"This was not a very dignified situation for our venerable chair"

continued Grandfather; "butyou knowthere is no better place for news

than a barber's shop. All the events of the Revolutionary War were heard

of there sooner than anywhere else. People used to sit in the chair

reading the newspaperor talkingand waiting to be shavedwhile Mr.

Piercewith his scissors and razorwas at work upon the heads or chins

of his other customers."

"I am sorry the chair could not betake itself to some more suitable

place of refuge" said Laurence.

"It was old nowand must have longed for quiet. Besidesafter it had

held Washington in its armsit ought not to have been compelled to

receive all the world. It should have been put into the pulpit of the

Old South Churchor some other consecrated place."

"Perhaps so" answered Grandfather. "But the chairin thecourse of its

varied existencehad grown so accustomed to general intercourse with

societythat I doubt whether it would have contented itself in the

pulpit of the Old South. There it would have stood solitaryor with no

livelier companion than the silent organin the opposite gallerysix

days out of seven. I incline to think that it had seldom been situated

more to its mind than on the sanded floor of the snug little barber's


Then Grandfather amused his children and himself with fancying all the

different sorts of people who had occupied our chair while they awaited

the leisure Of the barber.

There was the old clergymansuch as Dr. Chaunceywearing a white wig

which the barber took from his head and placed upon a wig-block. Half an

hourperhapswas spent in combing and powdering this reverend

appendage to a clerical skull. Theretoowere officers of the

Continental armywho required their hair to be pomatumed and plastered

so as to give them a bold and martial aspect. Thereonce in a while

was seen the thincare-wornmelancholy visage of an old torywith a

Wig thatin times long pasthad perhaps figured at a Province House

ball. And therenot unfrequentlysat the rough captain of a privateer

just returned from a successful cruisein which he had captured half a

dozen richly laden vessels belonging to King George's subjects. And

sometimes a rosy little school-boy climbed into our chairand sat

staringwith wide-open eyesat the alligatorthe rattlesnakeand the

other curiosities of the barber's shop. His mother had sent himwith

sixpence in his handto get his glossy curls cropped off. The incidents

of the Revolution plentifully supplied the barber's customers with

topics of conversation. They talked sorrowfully of the death of General

Montgomery and the failure of our troops to take Quebec; for the New-

Englanders were now as anxious to get Canada from the English as they

had formerly been to conquer it from the French.

"But very soon" said Grandfather"came news fromPhiladelphiathe

most important that America had ever heard of. On the 4th of July1776

Congress had signed the Declaration of Independence. The thirteen

colonies were now free and independent States. Dark as our prospects

werethe inhabitants welcomed these glorious tidingsand resolved to

perish rather than again bear the yoke of England."

"And I would perishtoo!" cried Charley.

"It was a great day--a glorious deed!" said Laurencecoloringhigh

with enthusiasm. "AndGrandfatherI love to think that the sages in

Congress showed themselves as bold and true as the soldiers in the

field; for it must have required more courage to sign the Declaration of

Independence than to fight the enemy in battle."

Grandfather acquiesced in Laurence's view of the matter. He then touched

briefly and hastily upon the prominent events of the Revolution. The

thunderstorm of war had now rolled southwardand did not again burst

upon Massachusettswhere its first fury had been felt. But she

contributed her full share. So the success of the contest. Wherever a

battle was fought--whether at Long IslandWhite PlainsTrenton

PrincetonBrandywineor Germantown--some of her brave sons were found

slain upon the field.

In October1777General Burgoyne surrendered his armyat Saratogato

the American generalGates. The captured troops were sent to

Massachusetts. Not long afterwards Dr. Franklin and other American

commissioners made a treaty at Parisby which France bound herself to

assist our countrymen. The gallant Lafayette was already fighting for

our freedom by the side of Washington. In 1778 a French fleetcommanded

by Count d'Estaingspent a considerable time in Boston harbor. It marks

the vicissitudes of human affairsthat the Frenchour ancient enemies

should come hither as comrades and brethrenand that kindred England

should be our foe.

"While the war was raging in the Middle and Southern States"proceeded

Grandfather"Massachusetts had leisure to settle a new constitution of

government instead of the royal charter. This was done in 1780. In the

same year John Hancockwho had been president of Congresswas chosen

governor of the State. He was the first whom the people had elected

since the days of old Simon Bradstreet."

"ButGrandfatherwho had been governor since the British were driven

away?" inquired Laurence. "General Gage and Sir William Howe werethe

last whom you have told us of."

"There had been no governor for the last four years" replied

Grandfather. "Massachusetts had been ruled by the Legislatureto whom

the people paid obedience of their own accord. It is one of the most

remarkable circumstances in our historythatwhen the charter

government was overthrown by the warno anarchy nor the slightest

confusion ensuedThis was a great honor to the people. But now Hancock

was proclaimed governor by sound of trumpet; and there was again a

settled government."

Grandfather again adverted to the progress of the war. In 1781 General

Greene drove the British from the Southern States. In October of the

same year General Washington compelled Lord Cornwallis to surrender his

armyat Yorktownin Virginia. This was the last great event of the

Revolutionary contest. King George and his ministers perceived that all

the might of England could not compel America to renew her allegiance to

the crown. After a great deal of discussiona treaty of peace was

signed in September1783.

"Nowat last" said Grandfather"after weary years of warthe

regiments of Massachusetts returned in peace to their families. Now the

stately and dignified leaderssuch as General Lincoln and General Knox

with their powdered hair and their uniforms of blue and buffwere seen

moving about the streets."

"And little boys ran after themI suppose" remarked Charley;"and the

grown people bowed respectfully."

"They deserved respect; for they were good men as well as brave"

answered Grandfather. "Nowtoothe inferior officers and privates came

home to seek some peaceful occupation. Their friends remembered them as

slender and smooth-checked young men; but they returned with the erect

and rigid mien of disciplined soldiers. Some hobbled on crutches and

wooden legs; others had received woundswhich were still rankling in

their breasts. Manyalas! had fallen in battleand perhaps were left

unburied on the bloody field."

"The country must have been sick of war" observed Laurence.

"One would have thought so" said Grandfather. "Yet only twoor three

years elapsed before the folly of some misguided men caused another

mustering of soldiers. This affair was called Shays's warbecause a

Captain Shays was the chief leader of the insurgents."

"Oh Grandfatherdon't let there be another war!" cried littleAlice


Grandfather comforted his dear little girl by assuring her that there

was no great mischief done. Shays's war happened in the latter part of

1786 and the beginning of the following year. Its principal cause was

the badness of times. The State of Massachusettsin its public

capacitywas very much in debt. So likewise were many of the people. An

insurrection took placethe object of which seems to have been to

interrupt the course of law and get rid of debts and taxes.

James Bowdoina good and able manwas now governor of Massachusetts.

He sent General Lincolnat the head of four thousand mento put down

the insurrection. This generalwho had fought through several hard

campaigns in the Revolutionmanaged matters like an old soldierand

totally defeated the rebels at the expense of very little blood.

"There is but one more public event to be recorded in the history of our

chair" proceeded Grandfather. "In the year 1794 Samuel Adams was

elected governor of Massachusetts. I have told you what a distinguished

patriot he wasand how much he resembled the stern old Puritans. Could

the ancient freemen of Massachusetts who lived in the days of the first

charter have arisen from their gravesthey would probably have voted

for Samuel Adams to be governor."

"WellGrandfatherI hope he sat in our chair" said Clara.

"He did" replied Grandfather. "He had long been in the habitof

visiting the barber's shopwhere our venerable chairphilosophically

forgetful of its former dignitieshad now spent nearly eighteen not

uncomfortable years. Such a remarkable piece of furnitureso evidently

a relic of long-departed timescould not escape the notice of Samuel

Adams. He made minute researches into its historyand ascertained what

a succession of excellent and famous people had occupied it."

"How did he find it out?" asked Charley; "for I suppose thechair could

not tell its own history."

"There used to be a vast collection of ancient letters and other

documents in the tower of the Old South Church" answered Grandfather.

"Perhaps the history of our chair was contained among these. At all

eventsSamuel Adams appears to have been well acquainted with it. When

he became governorhe felt that he could have no more honorable seat

than that which had been the ancient chair of state. He therefore

purchased it for a trifleand filled it worthily for three years as

governor of Massachusetts." "And what next?" asked Charley.

"That is all" said Grandfatherheaving a sigh; for he could nothelp

being a little sad at the thought that his stories must close here.

"Samuel Adams died in 1803at the age of above threescore and ten. He

was a great patriotbut a poor man. At his death he left scarcely

property enough to pay the expenses of his funeral. This precious chair

among his other effectswas sold at auction; and your Grandfatherwho

was then in the strength of his yearsbecame the purchaser."

Laurencewith a mind full of thoughts that struggled for expression

but could find nonelooked steadfastly at the chair.

He had now learned all its historyyet was not satisfied.

"Ohhow I wish that the chair could speak!" cried he. "Afterits long

intercourse with mankind--after looking upon the world for ages--what

lessons of golden wisdom it might utter! It might teach a private person

how to lead a good and happy lifeor a statesman how to make his

country prosperous."





GRANDFATHER was struck by Laurence's idea that the historic chair should

utter a voiceand thus pour forth the collected wisdom of two

centuries. The old gentleman had once possessed no inconsiderable share

of fancy; and even now its fading sunshine occasionally glimmered among

his more sombre reflections.

As the history of his chair had exhausted all his factsGrandfather

determined to have recourse to fable. Soafter warning the children

that they must not mistake this story for a true onehe related what we

shall call Grandfather's Dream.

Laurence and Clarawhere were you last night? Where were youCharley

and dear little Alice? You had all gone to restand left old

Grandfather to meditate alone in his great chair. The lamp had grown so

dim that its light hardly illuminated the alabaster shade. The wood-fire

had crumbled into heavy embersamong which the little flames danced

and quiveredand sported about like fairies.

And here sat Grandfather all by himself. He knew that it was bedtime;

yet he could not help longing to hear your merry voicesor to hold a

comfortable chat with some old friend; because then his pillow would be

visited by pleasant dreams. Butas neither children nor friends were at

handGrandfather leaned back in the great chair and closed his eyes

for the sake of meditating more profoundly.

Andwhen Grandfather's meditations had grown very profound indeedhe

fancied that he heard a sound over his headas if somebody were

preparing to speak.

"Hem!" it saidin a dryhusky tone. "H-e-m! Hem!"

As Grandfather did not know that any person was in the roomhe started

up in great surpriseand peeped hither and thitherbehind the chair

and into the recess by the firesideand at the dark nook yonder near

the bookcase. Nobody could be seen.

"Poh!" said Grandfather to himself"I must have beendreaming."

Butjust as he was going to resume his seatGrandfather happened to

look at the great chair. The rays of firelight were flickering upon it

in such a manner that it really seemed as if its oaken frame were all

alive. What! did it not move its elbow? Theretoo! It certainly lifted

one of its ponderous fore legsas if it had a notion of drawing itself

a little nearer to the fire. Meanwhile the lion's head nodded at

Grandfather with as polite and sociable a look as a lion's visage

carved in oakcould possibly be expected to assume. Wellthis is


"Good eveningmy old friend" said the dry and husky voicenow a

little clearer than before. "We have been intimately acquainted so long

that I think it high time we have a chat together."

Grandfather was looking straight at the lion's headand could not be

mistaken in supposing that it moved its lips. So here the mystery was

all explained.

"I was not aware" said Grandfatherwith a civil salutation to his

oaken companion"that you possessed the faculty of speech. Otherwise I

should often have been glad to converse with such a solidusefuland

substantial if not brilliant member of society."

"Oh!" replied the ancient chairin a quiet and easy tonefor ithad

now cleared its throat of the dust of ages"I am naturally a silent and

incommunicative sort of character. Once or twice in the course of a

century I unclose my lips. When the gentle Lady Arbella departed this

life I uttered a groan. When the honest mint-master weighed his plump

daughter against the pine-tree shillings I chuckled audibly at the joke.

When old Simon Bradstreet took the place of the tyrant Andros I joined

in the general huzzaand capered on my wooden legs for joy. To be sure

the by-standers were so fully occupied with their own feelings that my

sympathy was quite unnoticed."

"And have you often held a private chat with your friends?" asked


"Not often" answered the chair. "I once talked with SirWilliam Phips

and communicated my ideas about the witchcraft delusion. Cotton Mather

had several conversations with meand derived great benefit from my

historical reminiscences. In the days of the Stamp Act I whispered in

the ear of Hutchinsonbidding him to remember what stock his countrymen

were descended ofand to think whether the spirit of their forefathers

had utterly departed from them. The last man whom I favored with a

colloquy was that stout old republicanSamuel Adams."

"And how happens it" inquired Grandfather"that there is norecord nor

tradition of your conversational abilities? It is an uncommon thing to

meet with a chair that can talk."

"Whyto tell you the truth" said the chairgiving itself a hitch

nearer to the hearth"I am not apt to choose the most suitable moments

for unclosing my lips. Sometimes I have inconsiderately begun to speak

when my occupantlolling back in my armswas inclined to take an

after-dinner nap. Or perhaps the impulse to talk may be felt at

midnightwhen the lamp burns dim and the fire crumbles into decayand

the studious or thoughtful man finds that his brain is in a mist.

Oftenest I have unwisely uttered my wisdom in the ears of sick persons

when the inquietude of fever made them toss about upon my cushion. And

so it happensthat though my words make a pretty strong impression at

the momentyet my auditors invariably remember them only as a dream. I

should not wonder if youmy excellent friendwere to do the same to-

morrow morning."

"Nor I either" thought Grandfather to himself. Howeverhe thankedthis

respectable old chair for beginning the conversationand begged to know

whether it had anything particular to communicate.

"I have been listening attentively to your narrative of myadventures"

replied the chair; "and it must be owned that your correctness entitles

you to be held up as a pattern to biographers. Neverthelessthere are a

few omissions which I should be glad to see supplied. For instanceyou

make no mention of the good knight Sir Richard Saltonstallnor of the

famous Hugh Petersnor of those old regicide judgesWhalleyGoffe

and Dixwell. Yet I have borne the weight of all those distinguished

characters at one time or another."

Grandfather promised amendment if ever he should have an opportunity to

repeat his narrative. The good old chairwhich still seemed to retain a

due regard for outward appearancethen reminded him how long a time had

passed since it had been provided with a new cushion. It likewise

expressed the opinion that the oaken figures on its back would show to

much better advantage by the aid of a little varnish.

"And I have had a complaint in this joint" continued the chair

endeavoring to lift one of its legs"ever since Charley trundled his

wheelbarrow against me."

"It shall be attended to" said Grandfather.

"And nowvenerable chairI have a favor to solicit. During an

existence of more than two centuries you have had a familiar intercourse

with men who were esteemed the wisest of their day. Doubtlesswith your

capacious understandingyou have treasured up many an invaluable lesson

of wisdom. You certainly have had time enough to guess the riddle of

life. Tell uspoor mortalsthenhow we may be happy."

The lion's head fixed its eyes thoughtfully upon the fireand the whole

chair assumed an aspect of deep meditation. Finally it beckoned to

Grandfather with its elbowand made a step sideways towards himas if

it had a very important secret to communicate.

"As long as I have stood in the midst of human affairs" said thechair

with a very oracular enunciation"I have constantly observed that

JusticeTruthand Love are the chief ingredients of every happy life."

"JusticeTruthand Love!" exclaimed Grandfather. "We neednot exist

two centuries to find out that these qualities are essential to our

happiness. This is no secret. Every human being is born with the

instinctive knowledge of it."

"Ah!" cried the chairdrawing back in surprise. "From what Ihave

observed of the dealings of man with manand nation with nationI

never should have suspected that they knew this all-important secret.

Andwith this eternal lesson written in your souldo you ask me to

sift new wisdom for you out of my petty existence of two or three


"Butmy dear chair "--said Grandfather.

"Not a word more" interrupted the chair; "here I close mylips for the

next hundred years. At the end of that periodif I shall have

discovered any new precepts of happiness better than what Heaven has

already taught youthey shall assuredly be given to the world."

In the energy of its utterance the oaken chair seemed to stamp its foot

and trod (we hope unintentionally) upon Grandfather's toe. The old

gentleman startedand found that he had been asleep in the great chair

and that his heavy walking-stick had fallen down across his foot.

"Grandfather" cried little Aliceclapping her hand" youmust dream a

new dream every night about our chair!"

Laurenceand Claraand Charley said the same. But the good old

gentleman shook his headand declared that here ended the historyreal

or fabulousof GRANDFATHER'S CHAIR.






BOSTONAug. 301765.

MY DEAR SIRI came from my house at Miltonthe 26 in the morning.

After dinner it was whispered in town there would be a mob at nightand

that PaxtonHallowellthe custom-houseand admiralty officers' houses

would be attacked; but my friends assured me that the rabble were

satisfied with the insult I had received and that I was become rather

popular. In the eveningwhilst I was at supper and my children round

mesomebody ran in and said the mob were coming. I directed my children

to fly to a secure placeand shut up my house as I had done before

intending not to quit it; but my eldest daughter repented her leaving

mehastened backand protested she would not quit the house unless I

did. I could n't stand against thisand withdrew with her to a

neighboring housewhere I had been but a few minutes before the hellish

crew fell upon my house with the rage of devilsand in a moment with

axes split down the doors and entered. My son being in the great entry

heard them cry: "Damn himhe is upstairswe'll have him." Someran

immediately as high as the top of the houseothers filled the rooms

below and cellarsand others remained without the house to be employed


Messages soon came one after another to the house where I wasto inform

me the mob were coming in pursuit of meand I was obliged to retire

through yards and gardens to a house more remotewhere I remained until

4 o'clockby which time one of the best finished houses in the Province

had nothing remaining but the bare walls and floors. Not contented with

tearing off all the wainscot and hangingsand splitting the doors to

piecesthey beat down the partition walls; and although that alone cost

them near two hoursthey cut down the cupola or lanthornand they

began to take the slate and boards from the roofand were prevented

only by the approaching daylight from a total demolition of the

building. The garden. house was 1ait flatand all my treesetc.broke

down to the ground.

Such ruin was never seen in America. Besides my plate and family

pictureshousehold furniture of every kindmy ownmy children'sand

servants' apparelthey carried off about £900 sterling in moneyand

emptied the house of everything whatsoeverexcept a part of the kitchen

furniturenot leaving a single book or paper in itand have scattered

or destroyed all the manuscripts and other papers I had been collecting

for thirty years togetherbesides a great number of public papers in my

custody. The evening being warmI had undressed me and put on a thin

camlet surtout over my waistcoat. The next morningthe weather being

changedI had not clothes enough in my possession to defend me from the

coldand was obliged to borrow from my friends. Many articles of

clothing and a good part of my plate have since been picked up in

different quarters of the townlint the furniture in general was cut to

pieces before it was thrown out of the houseand most of the beds cut

openand the feathers thrown out of the windows. The next eveningI

intended with my children to Miltonbut meeting two or three small

parties of the ruffianswho I suppose had concealed themselves in the

countryand my coachman hearing one of them say"There he is!" my

daughters were terrified and said they should never be safeand I was

forced to shelter them that night at the Castle.

The encouragers of the first mob never intended matters should go this

lengthand the people in general expressed the utter detestation of

this unparalleled outrageand I wish they could be convinced what

infinite hazard there is of the most terrible consequences from such

demonswhen they are let loose in a government where there is not

constant authority at hand sufficient to suppress them. I am told the

government here will make me a compensation for my own and my family's

losswhich I think cannot be much less than £3000 sterling. I am not

sure that they will. If they should notit will be too heavy for me

and I must humbly apply to his majesty in whose service I am a sufferer;

but thisand a much greater sum would be an insufficient compensation

for the constant distress and anxiety of mind I have felt for some time

pastand must feel for months to come. You cannot conceive the wretched

state we are in. Such is the resentment of the people against the Stamp-

Dutythat there can be no dependence upon the General Court to take any

steps to enforceor rather adviseto the payment of it. On the other

handsuch will be the effects of not submitting to itthat all trade

must ceaseall courts falland all authority be at an end. Must not

the ministry be excessively embarrassed? On the one handit will be

saidif concessions are madethe Parliament endanger the loss of their

authority over the Colony: on the other handif external forces should

be usedthere seems to be danger of a total lasting alienation of

affection. Is there no alternative? May the infinitely wise God direct