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By Daniel Defoe


That homely proverbused on so many occasions in Englandviz.
That what is bred in the bone will not go out of the flesh,was
never more verified than in the story of my Life. Any one would
think that after thirty-five years' afflictionand a variety of
unhappy circumstanceswhich few menif anyever went through
beforeand after near seven years of peace and enjoyment in the
fulness of all things; grown oldand whenif everit might be
allowed me to have had experience of every state of middle life
and to know which was most adapted to make a man completely happy;
I sayafter all thisany one would have thought that the native
propensity to rambling which I gave an account of in my first
setting out in the world to have been so predominant in my
thoughtsshould be worn outand I mightat sixty one years of
agehave been a little inclined to stay at homeand have done
venturing life and fortune any more.

Nayfartherthe common motive of foreign adventures was taken
away in mefor I had no fortune to make; I had nothing to seek:
if I had gained ten thousand pounds I had been no richer; for I had
already sufficient for meand for those I had to leave it to; and
what I had was visibly increasing; forhaving no great familyI
could not spend the income of what I had unless I would set up for
an expensive way of livingsuch as a great familyservants
equipagegaietyand the likewhich were things I had no notion
ofor inclination to; so that I had nothingindeedto do but to
sit stilland fully enjoy what I had gotand see it increase
daily upon my hands. Yet all these things had no effect upon me
or at least not enough to resist the strong inclination I had to go
abroad againwhich hung about me like a chronic distemper. In
particularthe desire of seeing my new plantation in the island
and the colony I left thereran in my head continually. I dreamed
of it all nightand my imagination ran upon it all day: it was
uppermost in all my thoughtsand my fancy worked so steadily and
strongly upon it that I talked of it in my sleep; in shortnothing
could remove it out of my mind: it even broke so violently into
all my discourses that it made my conversation tiresomefor I
could talk of nothing else; all my discourse ran into iteven to
impertinence; and I saw it myself.

I have often heard persons of good judgment say that all the stir
that people make in the world about ghosts and apparitions is owing
to the strength of imaginationand the powerful operation of fancy
in their minds; that there is no such thing as a spirit appearing
or a ghost walking; that people's poring affectionately upon the
past conversation of their deceased friends so realises it to them
that they are capable of fancyingupon some extraordinary
circumstancesthat they see themtalk to themand are answered

by themwhenin truththere is nothing but shadow and vapour in
the thingand they really know nothing of the matter.

For my partI know not to this hour whether there are any such
things as real apparitionsspectresor walking of people after
they are dead; or whether there is anything in the stories they
tell us of that kind more than the product of vapourssick minds
and wandering fancies: but this I knowthat my imagination worked
up to such a heightand brought me into such excess of vapoursor
what else I may call itthat I actually supposed myself often upon
the spotat my old castlebehind the trees; saw my old Spaniard
Friday's fatherand the reprobate sailors I left upon the island;
nayI fancied I talked with themand looked at them steadily
though I was broad awakeas at persons just before me; and this I
did till I often frightened myself with the images my fancy
represented to me. One timein my sleepI had the villainy of
the three pirate sailors so lively related to me by the first
Spaniardand Friday's fatherthat it was surprising: they told
me how they barbarously attempted to murder all the Spaniardsand
that they set fire to the provisions they had laid upon purpose
to distress and starve them; things that I had never heard ofand
thatindeedwere never all of them true in fact: but it was so
warm in my imaginationand so realised to methatto the hour I
saw themI could not be persuaded but that it was or would be
true; also how I resented itwhen the Spaniard complained to me;
and how I brought them to justicetried themand ordered them all
three to be hanged. What there was really in this shall be seen in
its place; for however I came to form such things in my dreamand
what secret converse of spirits injected ityet there wasI say
much of it true. I own that this dream had nothing in it literally
and specifically true; but the general part was so true--the base;
villainous behaviour of these three hardened rogues was suchand
had been so much worse than all I can describethat the dream had
too much similitude of the fact; and as I would afterwards have
punished them severelysoif I had hanged them allI had been
much in the rightand even should have been justified both by the
laws of God and man.

But to return to my story. In this kind of temper I lived some
years; I had no enjoyment of my lifeno pleasant hoursno
agreeable diversion but what had something or other of this in it;
so that my wifewho saw my mind wholly bent upon ittold me very
seriously one night that she believed there was some secret
powerful impulse of Providence upon mewhich had determined me to
go thither again; and that she found nothing hindered me going but
my being engaged to a wife and children. She told me that it was
true she could not think of parting with me: but as she was
assured that if she was dead it would be the first thing I would
dosoas it seemed to her that the thing was determined above
she would not be the only obstruction; forif I thought fit and
resolved to go--[Here she found me very intent upon her wordsand
that I looked very earnestly at herso that it a little disordered
herand she stopped. I asked her why she did not go onand say
out what she was going to say? But I perceived that her heart was
too fulland some tears stood in her eyes.] "Speak outmy dear
said I; are you willing I should go?"--"No says she, very
affectionately, I am far from willing; but if you are resolved to
go says she, rather than I would be the only hindranceI will
go with you: for though I think it a most preposterous thing for
one of your yearsand in your conditionyetif it must be said
she, again weeping, I would not leave you; for if it be of Heaven
you must do itthere is no resisting it; and if Heaven make it
your duty to goHe will also make it mine to go with youor
otherwise dispose of methat I may not obstruct it."

This affectionate behaviour of my wife's brought me a little out of
the vapoursand I began to consider what I was doing; I corrected
my wandering fancyand began to argue with myself sedately what
business I had after threescore yearsand after such a life of
tedious sufferings and disastersand closed in so happy and easy a
manner; Isaywhat business had I to rush into new hazardsand
put myself upon adventures fit only for youth and poverty to run

With those thoughts I considered my new engagement; that I had a
wifeone child bornand my wife then great with child of another;
that I had all the world could give meand had no need to seek
hazard for gain; that I was declining in yearsand ought to think
rather of leaving what I had gained than of seeking to increase it;
that as to what my wife had said of its being an impulse from
Heavenand that it should be my duty to goI had no notion of
that; soafter many of these cogitationsI struggled with the
power of my imaginationreasoned myself out of itas I believe
people may always do in like cases if they will: in a wordI
conquered itcomposed myself with such arguments as occurred to my
thoughtsand which my present condition furnished me plentifully
with; and particularlyas the most effectual methodI resolved to
divert myself with other thingsand to engage in some business
that might effectually tie me up from any more excursions of this
kind; for I found that thing return upon me chiefly when I was
idleand had nothing to donor anything of moment immediately
before me. To this purposeI bought a little farm in the county
of Bedfordand resolved to remove myself thither. I had a little
convenient house upon itand the land about itI foundwas
capable of great improvement; and it was many ways suited to my
inclinationwhich delighted in cultivatingmanagingplanting
and improving of land; and particularlybeing an inland countryI
was removed from conversing among sailors and things relating to
the remote parts of the world. I went down to my farmsettled my
familybought ploughsharrowsa cartwaggon-horsescowsand
sheepandsetting seriously to workbecame in one half-year a
mere country gentleman. My thoughts were entirely taken up in
managing my servantscultivating the groundenclosingplanting
&c.; and I livedas I thoughtthe most agreeable life that nature
was capable of directingor that a man always bred to misfortunes
was capable of retreating to.

I farmed upon my own land; I had no rent to paywas limited by no
articles; I could pull up or cut down as I pleased; what I planted
was for myselfand what I improved was for my family; and having
thus left off the thoughts of wanderingI had not the least
discomfort in any part of life as to this world. Now I thought
indeedthat I enjoyed the middle state of life which my father so
earnestly recommended to meand lived a kind of heavenly life
something like what is described by the poetupon the subject of a
country life:

Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pain, and youth no snare.

But in the middle of all this felicityone blow from unseen
Providence unhinged me at once; and not only made a breach upon me
inevitable and incurablebut drove meby its consequencesinto a
deep relapse of the wandering dispositionwhichas I may say
being born in my very bloodsoon recovered its hold of me; and
like the returns of a violent distempercame on with an

irresistible force upon me. This blow was the loss of my wife. It
is not my business here to write an elegy upon my wifegive a
character of her particular virtuesand make my court to the sex
by the flattery of a funeral sermon. She wasin a few wordsthe
stay of all my affairs; the centre of all my enterprises; the
engine thatby her prudencereduced me to that happy compass I
was infrom the most extravagant and ruinous project that filled
my headand did more to guide my rambling genius than a mother's
tearsa father's instructionsa friend's counselor all my own
reasoning powers could do. I was happy in listening to herand in
being moved by her entreaties; and to the last degree desolate and
dislocated in the world by the loss of her.

When she was gonethe world looked awkwardly round me. I was as
much a stranger in itin my thoughtsas I was in the Brazils
when I first went on shore there; and as much aloneexcept for the
assistance of servantsas I was in my island. I knew neither what
to think nor what to do. I saw the world busy around me: one part
labouring for breadanother part squandering in vile excesses or
empty pleasuresbut equally miserable because the end they
proposed still fled from them; for the men of pleasure every day
surfeited of their viceand heaped up work for sorrow and
repentance; and the men of labour spent their strength in daily
struggling for bread to maintain the vital strength they laboured
with: so living in a daily circulation of sorrowliving but to
workand working but to liveas if daily bread were the only end
of wearisome lifeand a wearisome life the only occasion of daily

This put me in mind of the life I lived in my kingdomthe island;
where I suffered no more corn to growbecause I did not want it;
and bred no more goatsbecause I had no more use for them; where
the money lay in the drawer till it grew mouldyand had scarce the
favour to be looked upon in twenty years. All these thingshad I
improved them as I ought to have doneand as reason and religion
had dictated to mewould have taught me to search farther than
human enjoyments for a full felicity; and that there was something
which certainly was the reason and end of life superior to all
these thingsand which was either to be possessedor at least
hoped foron this side of the grave.

But my sage counsellor was gone; I was like a ship without a pilot
that could only run afore the wind. My thoughts ran all away again
into the old affair; my head was quite turned with the whimsies of
foreign adventures; and all the pleasantinnocent amusements of my
farmmy gardenmy cattleand my familywhich before entirely
possessed mewere nothing to mehad no relishand were like
music to one that has no earor food to one that has no taste. In
a wordI resolved to leave off housekeepinglet my farmand
return to London; and in a few months after I did so.

When I came to LondonI was still as uneasy as I was before; I had
no relish for the placeno employment in itnothing to do but to
saunter about like an idle personof whom it may be said he is
perfectly useless in God's creationand it is not one farthing's
matter to the rest of his kind whether he be dead or alive. This
also was the thing whichof all circumstances of lifewas the
most my aversionwho had been all my days used to an active life;
and I would often say to myselfA state of idleness is the very
dregs of life;andindeedI thought I was much more suitably
employed when I was twenty-six days making a deal board.

It was now the beginning of the year 1693when my nephewwhomas
I have observed beforeI had brought up to the seaand had made

him commander of a shipwas come home from a short voyage to
Bilbaobeing the first he had made. He came to meand told me
that some merchants of his acquaintance had been proposing to him
to go a voyage for them to the East Indiesand to Chinaas
private traders. "And nowuncle says he, if you will go to sea
with meI will engage to land you upon your old habitation in the
island; for we are to touch at the Brazils."

Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a future stateand of
the existence of an invisible worldthan the concurrence of second
causes with the idea of things which we form in our minds
perfectly reservedand not communicated to any in the world.

My nephew knew nothing how far my distemper of wandering was
returned upon meand I knew nothing of what he had in his thought
to saywhen that very morningbefore he came to meI hadin a
great deal of confusion of thoughtand revolving every part of my
circumstances in my mindcome to this resolutionthat I would go
to Lisbonand consult with my old sea-captain; and if it was
rational and practicableI would go and see the island againand
what was become of my people there. I had pleased myself with the
thoughts of peopling the placeand carrying inhabitants from
hencegetting a patent for the possession and I know not what;
whenin the middle of all thisin comes my nephewas I have
saidwith his project of carrying me thither in his way to the
East Indies.

I paused a while at his wordsand looking steadily at himWhat
devil,said Isent you on this unlucky errand?My nephew
stared as if he had been frightened at first; but perceiving that I
was not much displeased at the proposalhe recovered himself. "I
hope it may not be an unlucky proposalsir says he. I daresay
you would be pleased to see your new colony therewhere you once
reigned with more felicity than most of your brother monarchs in
the world." In a wordthe scheme hit so exactly with my temper
that is to saythe prepossession I was underand of which I have
said so muchthat I told himin a few wordsif he agreed with
the merchantsI would go with him; but I told him I would not
promise to go any further than my own island. "Whysir says he,
you don't want to be left there againI hope?" "But said I,
can you not take me up again on your return?" He told me it would
not be possible to do so; that the merchants would never allow him
to come that way with a laden ship of such valueit being a
month's sail out of his wayand might be three or four. "Besides
sirif I should miscarry said he, and not return at allthen
you would be just reduced to the condition you were in before."

This was very rational; but we both found out a remedy for it
which was to carry a framed sloop on board the shipwhichbeing
taken in piecesmightby the help of some carpenterswhom we
agreed to carry with usbe set up again in the islandand
finished fit to go to sea in a few days. I was not long resolving
for indeed the importunities of my nephew joined so effectually
with my inclination that nothing could oppose me; on the other
handmy wife being deadnone concerned themselves so much for me
as to persuade me one way or the otherexcept my ancient good
friend the widowwho earnestly struggled with me to consider my
yearsmy easy circumstancesand the needless hazards of a long
voyage; and above allmy young children. But it was all to no
purposeI had an irresistible desire for the voyage; and I told
her I thought there was something so uncommon in the impressions I
had upon my mindthat it would be a kind of resisting Providence
if I should attempt to stay at home; after which she ceased her
expostulationsand joined with menot only in making provision

for my voyagebut also in settling my family affairs for my
absenceand providing for the education of my children. In order
to do thisI made my willand settled the estate I had in such a
manner for my childrenand placed in such handsthat I was
perfectly easy and satisfied they would have justice done them
whatever might befall me; and for their educationI left it wholly
to the widowwith a sufficient maintenance to herself for her
care: all which she richly deserved; for no mother could have
taken more care in their educationor understood it better; and as
she lived till I came homeI also lived to thank her for it.

My nephew was ready to sail about the beginning of January 1694-5;
and Iwith my man Fridaywent on boardin the Downsthe 8th;
havingbesides that sloop which I mentioned abovea very
considerable cargo of all kinds of necessary things for my colony
whichif I did not find in good conditionI resolved to leave so.

FirstI carried with me some servants whom I purposed to place
there as inhabitantsor at least to set on work there upon my
account while I stayedand either to leave them there or carry
them forwardas they should appear willing; particularlyI
carried two carpentersa smithand a very handyingenious
fellowwho was a cooper by tradeand was also a general mechanic;
for he was dexterous at making wheels and hand-mills to grind corn
was a good turner and a good pot-maker; he also made anything that
was proper to make of earth or of wood: in a wordwe called him
our Jack-of-all-trades. With these I carried a tailorwho had
offered himself to go a passenger to the East Indies with my
nephewbut afterwards consented to stay on our new plantationand
who proved a most necessary handy fellow as could be desired in
many other businesses besides that of his trade; foras I observed
formerlynecessity arms us for all employments.

My cargoas near as I can recollectfor I have not kept account
of the particularsconsisted of a sufficient quantity of linen
and some English thin stuffsfor clothing the Spaniards that I
expected to find there; and enough of themas by my calculation
might comfortably supply them for seven years; if I remember right
the materials I carried for clothing themwith gloveshats
shoesstockingsand all such things as they could want for
wearingamounted to about two hundred poundsincluding some beds
beddingand household stuffparticularly kitchen utensilswith
potskettlespewterbrass&c.; and near a hundred pounds more
in ironworknailstools of every kindstapleshookshinges
and every necessary thing I could think of.

I carried also a hundred spare armsmusketsand fusees; besides
some pistolsa considerable quantity of shot of all sizesthree
or four tons of leadand two pieces of brass cannon; andbecause
I knew not what time and what extremities I was providing forI
carried a hundred barrels of powderbesides swordscutlassesand
the iron part of some pikes and halberds. In shortwe had a large
magazine of all sorts of store; and I made my nephew carry two
small quarter-deck guns more than he wanted for his shipto leave
behind if there was occasion; so that when we came there we might
build a fort and man it against all sorts of enemies. IndeedI at
first thought there would be need enough for alland much moreif
we hoped to maintain our possession of the islandas shall be seen
in the course of that story.

I had not such bad luck in this voyage as I had been used to meet
withand therefore shall have the less occasion to interrupt the
readerwho perhaps may be impatient to hear how matters went with
my colony; yet some odd accidentscross winds and bad weather

happened on this first setting outwhich made the voyage longer
than I expected it at first; and Iwho had never made but one
voyagemy first voyage to Guineain which I might be said to come
back againas the voyage was at first designedbegan to think the
same ill fate attended meand that I was born to be never
contented with being on shoreand yet to be always unfortunate at
sea. Contrary winds first put us to the northwardand we were
obliged to put in at Galwayin Irelandwhere we lay wind-bound
two-and-twenty days; but we had this satisfaction with the
disasterthat provisions were here exceeding cheapand in the
utmost plenty; so that while we lay here we never touched the
ship's storesbut rather added to them. HerealsoI took in
several live hogsand two cows with their calveswhich I
resolvedif I had a good passageto put on shore in my island;
but we found occasion to dispose otherwise of them.

We set out on the 5th of February from Irelandand had a very fair
gale of wind for some days. As I rememberit might be about the
20th of February in the evening latewhen the matehaving the
watchcame into the round-house and told us he saw a flash of
fireand heard a gun fired; and while he was telling us of ita
boy came in and told us the boatswain heard another. This made us
all run out upon the quarter-deckwhere for a while we heard
nothing; but in a few minutes we saw a very great lightand found
that there was some very terrible fire at a distance; immediately
we had recourse to our reckoningsin which we all agreed that
there could be no land that way in which the fire showed itself
nonot for five hundred leaguesfor it appeared at WNW. Upon
thiswe concluded it must be some ship on fire at sea; and asby
our hearing the noise of guns just beforewe concluded that it
could not be far offwe stood directly towards itand were
presently satisfied we should discover itbecause the further we
sailedthe greater the light appeared; thoughthe weather being
hazywe could not perceive anything but the light for a while. In
about half-an-hour's sailingthe wind being fair for usthough
not much of itand the weather clearing up a littlewe could
plainly discern that it was a great ship on fire in the middle of
the sea.

I was most sensibly touched with this disasterthough not at all
acquainted with the persons engaged in it; I presently recollected
my former circumstancesand what condition I was in when taken up
by the Portuguese captain; and how much more deplorable the
circumstances of the poor creatures belonging to that ship must be
if they had no other ship in company with them. Upon this I
immediately ordered that five guns should be firedone soon after
anotherthatif possiblewe might give notice to them that there
was help for them at hand and that they might endeavour to save
themselves in their boat; for though we could see the flames of the
shipyet theyit being nightcould see nothing of us.

We lay by some time upon thisonly driving as the burning ship
drovewaiting for daylight; whenon a suddento our great
terrorthough we had reason to expect itthe ship blew up in the
air; and in a few minutes all the fire was outthat is to saythe
rest of the ship sunk. This was a terribleand indeed an
afflicting sightfor the sake of the poor menwhoI concluded
must be either all destroyed in the shipor be in the utmost
distress in their boatin the middle of the ocean; whichat
presentas it was darkI could not see. Howeverto direct them
as well as I couldI caused lights to be hung out in all parts of
the ship where we couldand which we had lanterns forand kept
firing guns all the night longletting them know by this that
there was a ship not far off.

About eight o'clock in the morning we discovered the ship's boats
by the help of our perspective glassesand found there were two of
themboth thronged with peopleand deep in the water. We
perceived they rowedthe wind being against them; that they saw
our shipand did their utmost to make us see them. We immediately
spread our ancientto let them know we saw themand hung a waft
outas a signal for them to come on boardand then made more
sailstanding directly to them. In little more than half-an-hour
we came up with them; and took them all inbeing no less than
sixty-four menwomenand children; for there were a great many

Upon inquiry we found it was a French merchant ship of threehundred
tonshome-bound from Quebec. The master gave us a long
account of the distress of his ship; how the fire began in the
steerage by the negligence of the steersmanwhichon his crying
out for helpwasas everybody thoughtentirely put out; but they
soon found that some sparks of the first fire had got into some
part of the ship so difficult to come at that they could not
effectually quench it; and afterwards getting in between the
timbersand within the ceiling of the shipit proceeded into the
holdand mastered all the skill and all the application they were
able to exert.

They had no more to do then but to get into their boatswhichto
their great comfortwere pretty large; being their long-boatand
a great shallopbesides a small skiffwhich was of no great
service to themother than to get some fresh water and provisions
into herafter they had secured their lives from the fire. They
hadindeedsmall hopes of their lives by getting into these boats
at that distance from any land; onlyas they saidthat they thus
escaped from the fireand there was a possibility that some ship
might happen to be at seaand might take them in. They had sails
oarsand a compass; and had as much provision and water aswith
sparing it so as to be next door to starvingmight support them
about twelve daysin whichif they had no bad weather and no
contrary windsthe captain said he hoped he might get to the banks
of Newfoundlandand might perhaps take some fishto sustain them
till they might go on shore. But there were so many chances
against them in all these casessuch as stormsto overset and
founder them; rains and coldto benumb and perish their limbs;
contrary windsto keep them out and starve them; that it must have
been next to miraculous if they had escaped.

In the midst of their consternationevery one being hopeless and
ready to despairthe captainwith tears in his eyestold me they
were on a sudden surprised with the joy of hearing a gun fireand
after that four more: these were the five guns which I caused to
be fired at first seeing the light. This revived their heartsand
gave them the noticewhichas aboveI desired it shouldthat
there was a ship at hand for their help. It was upon the hearing
of these guns that they took down their masts and sails: the sound
coming from the windwardthey resolved to lie by till morning.
Some time after thishearing no more gunsthey fired three
musketsone a considerable while after another; but thesethe
wind being contrarywe never heard. Some time after that again
they were still more agreeably surprised with seeing our lights
and hearing the gunswhichas I have saidI caused to be fired
all the rest of the night. This set them to work with their oars
to keep their boats aheadat least that we might the sooner come
up with them; and at lastto their inexpressible joythey found
we saw them.

It is impossible for me to express the several gesturesthe
strange ecstasiesthe variety of postures which these poor
delivered people ran intoto express the joy of their souls at so
unexpected a deliverance. Grief and fear are easily described:
sighstearsgroansand a very few motions of the head and hands
make up the sum of its variety; but an excess of joya surprise of
joyhas a thousand extravagances in it. There were some in tears;
some raging and tearing themselvesas if they had been in the
greatest agonies of sorrow; some stark raving and downright
lunatic; some ran about the ship stamping with their feetothers
wringing their hands; some were dancingsome singingsome
laughingmore cryingmany quite dumbnot able to speak a word;
others sick and vomiting; several swooning and ready to faint; and
a few were crossing themselves and giving God thanks.

I would not wrong them either; there might be many that were
thankful afterwards; but the passion was too strong for them at
firstand they were not able to master it: then were thrown into
ecstasiesand a kind of frenzyand it was but a very few that
were composed and serious in their joy. Perhaps alsothe case may
have some addition to it from the particular circumstance of that
nation they belonged to: I mean the Frenchwhose temper is
allowed to be more volatilemore passionateand more sprightly
and their spirits more fluid than in other nations. I am not
philosopher enough to determine the cause; but nothing I had ever
seen before came up to it. The ecstasies poor Fridaymy trusty
savagewas in when he found his father in the boat came the
nearest to it; and the surprise of the master and his two
companionswhom I delivered from the villains that set them on
shore in the islandcame a little way towards it; but nothing was
to compare to thiseither that I saw in Fridayor anywhere else
in my life.

It is further observablethat these extravagances did not show
themselves in that different manner I have mentionedin different
persons only; but all the variety would appearin a short
succession of momentsin one and the same person. A man that we
saw this minute dumbandas it werestupid and confoundedwould
the next minute be dancing and hallooing like an antic; and the
next moment be tearing his hairor pulling his clothes to pieces
and stamping them under his feet like a madman; in a few moments
after that we would have him all in tearsthen sickswooning
andhad not immediate help been hadhe would in a few moments
have been dead. Thus it wasnot with one or twoor ten or
twentybut with the greatest part of them; andif I remember
rightour surgeon was obliged to let blood of about thirty

There were two priests among them: one an old manand the other a
young man; and that which was strangest wasthe oldest man was the
worst. As soon as he set his foot on board our shipand saw
himself safehe dropped down stone dead to all appearance. Not
the least sign of life could be perceived in him; our surgeon
immediately applied proper remedies to recover himand was the
only man in the ship that believed he was not dead. At length he
opened a vein in his armhaving first chafed and rubbed the part
so as to warm it as much as possible. Upon this the bloodwhich
only dropped at firstflowing freelyin three minutes after the
man opened his eyes; a quarter of an hour after that he spokegrew
betterand after the blood was stoppedhe walked abouttold us
he was perfectly welland took a dram of cordial which the surgeon
gave him. About a quarter of an hour after this they came running
into the cabin to the surgeonwho was bleeding a Frenchwoman that
had faintedand told him the priest was gone stark mad. It seems

he had begun to revolve the change of his circumstances in his
mindand again this put him into an ecstasy of joy. His spirits
whirled about faster than the vessels could convey themthe blood
grew hot and feverishand the man was as fit for Bedlam as any
creature that ever was in it. The surgeon would not bleed him
again in that conditionbut gave him something to doze and put him
to sleep; whichafter some timeoperated upon himand he awoke
next morning perfectly composed and well. The younger priest
behaved with great command of his passionsand was really an
example of a seriouswell-governed mind. At his first coming on
board the ship he threw himself flat on his faceprostrating
himself in thankfulness for his deliverancein which I unhappily
and unseasonably disturbed himreally thinking he had been in a
swoon; but he spoke calmlythanked metold me he was giving God
thanks for his deliverancebegged me to leave him a few moments
and thatnext to his Makerhe would give me thanks also. I was
heartily sorry that I disturbed himand not only left himbut
kept others from interrupting him also. He continued in that
posture about three minutesor little moreafter I left himthen
came to meas he had said he wouldand with a great deal of
seriousness and affectionbut with tears in his eyesthanked me
that hadunder Godgiven him and so many miserable creatures
their lives. I told him I had no need to tell him to thank God for
itrather than mefor I had seen that he had done that already;
but I added that it was nothing but what reason and humanity
dictated to all menand that we had as much reason as he to give
thanks to Godwho had blessed us so far as to make us the
instruments of His mercy to so many of His creatures. After this
the young priest applied himself to his countrymenand laboured to
compose them: he persuadedentreatedarguedreasoned with them
and did his utmost to keep them within the exercise of their
reason; and with some he had successthough others were for a time
out of all government of themselves.

I cannot help committing this to writingas perhaps it may be
useful to those into whose hands it may fallfor guiding
themselves in the extravagances of their passions; for if an excess
of joy can carry men out to such a length beyond the reach of their
reasonwhat will not the extravagances of angerrageand a
provoked mind carry us to? Andindeedhere I saw reason for
keeping an exceeding watch over our passions of every kindas well
those of joy and satisfaction as those of sorrow and anger.

We were somewhat disordered by these extravagances among our new
guests for the first day; but after they had retired to lodgings
provided for them as well as our ship would allowand had slept
heartily--as most of them didbeing fatigued and frightened--they
were quite another sort of people the next day. Nothing of good
mannersor civil acknowledgments for the kindness shown themwas
wanting; the Frenchit is knownare naturally apt enough to
exceed that way. The captain and one of the priests came to me the
next dayand desired to speak with me and my nephew; the commander
began to consult with us what should be done with them; and first
they told us we had saved their livesso all they had was little
enough for a return to us for that kindness received. The captain
said they had saved some money and some things of value in their
boatscaught hastily out of the flamesand if we would accept it
they were ordered to make an offer of it all to us; they only
desired to be set on shore somewhere in our waywhereif
possiblethey might get a passage to France. My nephew wished to
accept their money at first wordand to consider what to do with
them afterwards; but I overruled him in that partfor I knew what
it was to be set on shore in a strange country; and if the
Portuguese captain that took me up at sea had served me soand

taken all I had for my deliveranceI must have been starvedor
have been as much a slave at the Brazils as I had been at Barbary
the mere being sold to a Mahometan excepted; and perhaps a
Portuguese is not a much better master than a Turkif not in some
cases much worse.

I therefore told the French captain that we had taken them up in
their distressit was truebut that it was our duty to do soas
we were fellow-creatures; and we would desire to be so delivered if
we were in the like or any other extremity; that we had done
nothing for them but what we believed they would have done for us
if we had been in their case and they in ours; but that we took
them up to save themnot to plunder them; and it would be a most
barbarous thing to take that little from them which they had saved
out of the fireand then set them on shore and leave them; that
this would be first to save them from deathand then kill them
ourselves: save them from drowningand abandon them to starving;
and therefore I would not let the least thing be taken from them.
As to setting them on shoreI told them indeed that was an
exceeding difficulty to usfor that the ship was bound to the East
Indies; and though we were driven out of our course to the westward
a very great wayand perhaps were directed by Heaven on purpose
for their deliveranceyet it was impossible for us wilfully to
change our voyage on their particular account; nor could my nephew
the captainanswer it to the freighterswith whom he was under
charter to pursue his voyage by way of Brazil; and all I knew we
could do for them was to put ourselves in the way of meeting with
other ships homeward bound from the West Indiesand get them a
passageif possibleto England or France.

The first part of the proposal was so generous and kind they could
not but be very thankful for it; but they were in very great
consternationespecially the passengersat the notion of being
carried away to the East Indies; they then entreated me that as I
was driven so far to the westward before I met with themI would
at least keep on the same course to the banks of Newfoundland
where it was probable I might meet with some ship or sloop that
they might hire to carry them back to Canada.

I thought this was but a reasonable request on their partand
therefore I inclined to agree to it; for indeed I considered that
to carry this whole company to the East Indies would not only be an
intolerable severity upon the poor peoplebut would be ruining our
whole voyage by devouring all our provisions; so I thought it no
breach of charter-partybut what an unforeseen accident made
absolutely necessary to usand in which no one could say we were
to blame; for the laws of God and nature would have forbid that we
should refuse to take up two boats full of people in such a
distressed condition; and the nature of the thingas well
respecting ourselves as the poor peopleobliged us to set them on
shore somewhere or other for their deliverance. So I consented
that we would carry them to Newfoundlandif wind and weather would
permit: and if notI would carry them to Martinicoin the West

The wind continued fresh easterlybut the weather pretty good; and
as the winds had continued in the points between NE. and SE. a long
timewe missed several opportunities of sending them to France;
for we met several ships bound to Europewhereof two were French
from St. Christopher'sbut they had been so long beating up
against the wind that they durst take in no passengersfor fear of
wanting provisions for the voyageas well for themselves as for
those they should take in; so we were obliged to go on. It was
about a week after this that we made the banks of Newfoundland;

whereto shorten my storywe put all our French people on board a
barkwhich they hired at sea thereto put them on shoreand
afterwards to carry them to Franceif they could get provisions to
victual themselves with. When I say all the French went on shore
I should remember that the young priest I spoke ofhearing we were
bound to the East Indiesdesired to go the voyage with usand to
be set on shore on the coast of Coromandel; which I readily agreed
tofor I wonderfully liked the manand had very good reasonas
will appear afterwards; also four of the seamen entered themselves
on our shipand proved very useful fellows.

From hence we directed our course for the West Indiessteering
away S. and S. by E. for about twenty days togethersometimes
little or no wind at all; when we met with another subject for our
humanity to work uponalmost as deplorable as that before.


It was in the latitude of 27 degrees 5 minutes N.on the 19th day
of March 1694-95when we spied a sailour course SE. and by S.
We soon perceived it was a large vesseland that she bore up to
usbut could not at first know what to make of hertillafter
coming a little nearerwe found she had lost her main-topmast
fore-mastand bowsprit; and presently she fired a gun as a signal
of distress. The weather was pretty goodwind at NNW. a fresh
galeand we soon came to speak with her. We found her a ship of
Bristolbound home from Barbadoesbut had been blown out of the
road at Barbadoes a few days before she was ready to sailby a
terrible hurricanewhile the captain and chief mate were both gone
on shore; so thatbesides the terror of the stormthey were in an
indifferent case for good mariners to bring the ship home. They
had been already nine weeks at seaand had met with another
terrible stormafter the hurricane was overwhich had blown them
quite out of their knowledge to the westwardand in which they
lost their masts. They told us they expected to have seen the
Bahama Islandsbut were then driven away again to the south-east
by a strong gale of wind at NNW.the same that blew now: and
having no sails to work the ship with but a main courseand a kind
of square sail upon a jury fore-mastwhich they had set upthey
could not lie near the windbut were endeavouring to stand away
for the Canaries.

But that which was worst of all wasthat they were almost starved
for want of provisionsbesides the fatigues they had undergone;
their bread and flesh were quite gone--they had not one ounce left
in the shipand had had none for eleven days. The only relief
they had wastheir water was not all spentand they had about
half a barrel of flour left; they had sugar enough; some succades
or sweetmeatsthey had at firstbut these were all devoured; and
they had seven casks of rum. There was a youth and his mother and
a maid-servant on boardwho were passengersand thinking the ship
was ready to sailunhappily came on board the evening before the
hurricane began; and having no provisions of their own leftthey
were in a more deplorable condition than the rest: for the seamen
being reduced to such an extreme necessity themselveshad no
compassionwe may be surefor the poor passengers; and they were
indeedin such a condition that their misery is very hard to

I had perhaps not known this partif my curiosity had not led me

the weather being fair and the wind abatedto go on board the
ship. The second matewho upon this occasion commanded the ship
had been on board our shipand he told me they had three
passengers in the great cabin that were in a deplorable condition.
Nay,says heI believe they are dead, for I have heard nothing
of them for above two days; and I was afraid to inquire after
them,said hefor I had nothing to relieve them with.We
immediately applied ourselves to give them what relief we could
spare; and indeed I had so far overruled things with my nephew
that I would have victualled them though we had gone away to
Virginiaor any other part of the coast of Americato have
supplied ourselves; but there was no necessity for that.

But now they were in a new danger; for they were afraid of eating
too mucheven of that little we gave them. The mateor
commanderbrought six men with him in his boat; but these poor
wretches looked like skeletonsand were so weak that they could
hardly sit to their oars. The mate himself was very illand half
starved; for he declared he had reserved nothing from the menand
went share and share alike with them in every bit they ate. I
cautioned him to eat sparinglyand set meat before him
immediatelybut he had not eaten three mouthfuls before he began
to be sick and out of order; so he stopped a whileand our surgeon
mixed him up something with some brothwhich he said would be to
him both food and physic; and after he had taken it he grew better.
In the meantime I forgot not the men. I ordered victuals to be
given themand the poor creatures rather devoured than ate it:
they were so exceedingly hungry that they were in a manner
ravenousand had no command of themselves; and two of them ate
with so much greediness that they were in danger of their lives the
next morning. The sight of these people's distress was very moving
to meand brought to mind what I had a terrible prospect of at my
first coming on shore in my islandwhere I had not the least
mouthful of foodor any prospect of procuring any; besides the
hourly apprehensions I had of being made the food of other
creatures. But all the while the mate was thus relating to me the
miserable condition of the ship's companyI could not put out of
my thought the story he had told me of the three poor creatures in
the great cabinviz. the motherher sonand the maid-servant
whom he had heard nothing of for two or three daysand whomhe
seemed to confessthey had wholly neglectedtheir own extremities
being so great; by which I understood that they had really given
them no food at alland that therefore they must be perishedand
be all lying deadperhapson the floor or deck of the cabin.

As I therefore kept the matewhom we then called captainon board
with his mento refresh themso I also forgot not the starving
crew that were left on boardbut ordered my own boat to go on
board the shipandwith my mate and twelve mento carry them a
sack of breadand four or five pieces of beef to boil. Our
surgeon charged the men to cause the meat to be boiled while they
stayedand to keep guard in the cook-roomto prevent the men
taking it to eat rawor taking it out of the pot before it was
well boiledand then to give every man but a very little at a
time: and by this caution he preserved the menwho would
otherwise have killed themselves with that very food that was given
them on purpose to save their lives.

At the same time I ordered the mate to go into the great cabinand
see what condition the poor passengers were in; and if they were
aliveto comfort themand give them what refreshment was proper:
and the surgeon gave him a large pitcherwith some of the prepared
broth which he had given the mate that was on boardand which he
did not question would restore them gradually. I was not satisfied

with this; butas I said abovehaving a great mind to see the
scene of misery which I knew the ship itself would present me with
in a more lively manner than I could have it by reportI took the
captain of the shipas we now called himwith meand went
myselfa little afterin their boat.

I found the poor men on board almost in a tumult to get the
victuals out of the boiler before it was ready; but my mate
observed his ordersand kept a good guard at the cook-room door
and the man he placed thereafter using all possible persuasion to
have patiencekept them off by force; howeverhe caused some
biscuit-cakes to be dipped in the potand softened with the liquor
of the meatwhich they called brewisand gave them every one some
to stay their stomachsand told them it was for their own safety
that he was obliged to give them but little at a time. But it was
all in vain; and had I not come on boardand their own commander
and officers with meand with good wordsand some threats also of
giving them no moreI believe they would have broken into the
cook-room by forceand torn the meat out of the furnace--for words
are indeed of very small force to a hungry belly; howeverwe
pacified themand fed them gradually and cautiously at firstand
the next time gave them moreand at last filled their belliesand
the men did well enough.

But the misery of the poor passengers in the cabin was of another
natureand far beyond the rest; for asfirstthe ship's company
had so little for themselvesit was but too true that they had at
first kept them very lowand at last totally neglected them: so
that for six or seven days it might be said they had really no food
at alland for several days before very little. The poor mother
whoas the men reportedwas a woman of sense and good breeding
had spared all she could so affectionately for her sonthat at
last she entirely sank under it; and when the mate of our ship went
inshe sat upon the floor on deckwith her back up against the
sidesbetween two chairswhich were lashed fastand her head
sunk between her shoulders like a corpsethough not quite dead.
My mate said all he could to revive and encourage herand with a
spoon put some broth into her mouth. She opened her lipsand
lifted up one handbut could not speak: yet she understood what
he saidand made signs to himintimatingthat it was too late
for herbut pointed to her childas if she would have said they
should take care of him. Howeverthe matewho was exceedingly
moved at the sightendeavoured to get some of the broth into her
mouthandas he saidgot two or three spoonfuls down--though I
question whether he could be sure of it or not; but it was too
lateand she died the same night.

The youthwho was preserved at the price of his most affectionate
mother's lifewas not so far gone; yet he lay in a cabin bedas
one stretched outwith hardly any life left in him. He had a
piece of an old glove in his mouthhaving eaten up the rest of it;
howeverbeing youngand having more strength than his motherthe
mate got something down his throatand he began sensibly to
revive; though by giving himsome time afterbut two or three
spoonfuls extraordinaryhe was very sickand brought it up again.

But the next care was the poor maid: she lay all along upon the
deckhard by her mistressand just like one that had fallen down
in a fit of apoplexyand struggled for life. Her limbs were
distorted; one of her hands was clasped round the frame of the
chairand she gripped it so hard that we could not easily make her
let it go; her other arm lay over her headand her feet lay both
togetherset fast against the frame of the cabin table: in short
she lay just like one in the agonies of deathand yet she was

alive too. The poor creature was not only starved with hungerand
terrified with the thoughts of deathbutas the men told us
afterwardswas broken-hearted for her mistresswhom she saw dying
for two or three days beforeand whom she loved most tenderly. We
knew not what to do with this poor girl; for when our surgeonwho
was a man of very great knowledge and experiencehadwith great
applicationrecovered her as to lifehe had her upon his hands
still; for she was little less than distracted for a considerable
time after.

Whoever shall read these memorandums must be desired to consider
that visits at sea are not like a journey into the countrywhere
sometimes people stay a week or a fortnight at a place. Our
business was to relieve this distressed ship's crewbut not lie by
for them; and though they were willing to steer the same course
with us for some daysyet we could carry no sail to keep pace with
a ship that had no masts. Howeveras their captain begged of us
to help him to set up a main-topmastand a kind of a topmast to
his jury fore-mastwe didas it werelie by him for three or
four days; and thenhaving given him five barrels of beefa
barrel of porktwo hogsheads of biscuitand a proportion of peas
flourand what other things we could spare; and taking three casks
of sugarsome rumand some pieces of eight from them for
satisfactionwe left themtaking on board with usat their own
earnest requestthe youth and the maidand all their goods.

The young lad was about seventeen years of agea prettywellbred
modestand sensible youthgreatly dejected with the loss of
his motherand also at having lost his father but a few months
beforeat Barbadoes. He begged of the surgeon to speak to me to
take him out of the ship; for he said the cruel fellows had
murdered his mother: and indeed so they hadthat is to say
passively; for they might have spared a small sustenance to the
poor helpless widowthough it had been but just enough to keep her
alive; but hunger knows no friendno relationno justiceno
rightand therefore is remorselessand capable of no compassion.

The surgeon told him how far we were goingand that it would carry
him away from all his friendsand put himperhapsin as bad
circumstances almost as those we found him inthat is to say
starving in the world. He said it mattered not whither he wentif
he was but delivered from the terrible crew that he was among; that
the captain (by which he meant mefor he could know nothing of my
nephew) had saved his lifeand he was sure would not hurt him; and
as for the maidhe was sureif she came to herselfshe would be
very thankful for itlet us carry them where we would. The
surgeon represented the case so affectionately to me that I
yieldedand we took them both on boardwith all their goods
except eleven hogsheads of sugarwhich could not be removed or
come at; and as the youth had a bill of lading for themI made his
commander sign a writingobliging himself to goas soon as he
came to Bristolto one Mr. Rogersa merchant thereto whom the
youth said he was relatedand to deliver a letter which I wrote to
himand all the goods he had belonging to the deceased widow;
whichI supposewas not donefor I could never learn that the
ship came to Bristolbut wasas is most probablelost at sea
being in so disabled a conditionand so far from any landthat I
am of opinion the first storm she met with afterwards she might
founderfor she was leakyand had damage in her hold when we met
with her.

I was now in the latitude of 19 degrees 32 minutesand had
hitherto a tolerable voyage as to weatherthough at first the
winds had been contrary. I shall trouble nobody with the little

incidents of windweathercurrents&c.on the rest of our
voyage; but to shorten my storyshall observe that I came to my
old habitationthe islandon the 10th of April 1695. It was with
no small difficulty that I found the place; for as I came to it and
went to it before on the south and east side of the islandcoming
from the Brazilsso nowcoming in between the main and the
islandand having no chart for the coastnor any landmarkI did
not know it when I saw itorknow whether I saw it or not. We
beat about a great whileand went on shore on several islands in
the mouth of the great river Orinocobut none for my purpose; only
this I learned by my coasting the shorethat I was under one great
mistake beforeviz. that the continent which I thought I saw from
the island I lived in was really no continentbut a long island
or rather a ridge of islandsreaching from one to the other side
of the extended mouth of that great river; and that the savages who
came to my island were not properly those which we call Caribbees
but islandersand other barbarians of the same kindwho inhabited
nearer to our side than the rest.

In shortI visited several of these islands to no purpose; some I
found were inhabitedand some were not; on one of them I found
some Spaniardsand thought they had lived there; but speaking with
themfound they had a sloop lying in a small creek hard byand
came thither to make saltand to catch some pearl-mussels if they
could; but that they belonged to the Isle de Trinidadwhich lay
farther northin the latitude of 10 and 11 degrees.

Thus coasting from one island to anothersometimes with the ship
sometimes with the Frenchman's shallopwhich we had found a
convenient boatand therefore kept her with their very good will
at length I came fair on the south side of my islandand presently
knew the very countenance of the place: so I brought the ship safe
to an anchorbroadside with the little creek where my old
habitation was. As soon as I saw the place I called for Friday
and asked him if he knew where he was? He looked about a little
and presently clapping his handscriedOh yes, Oh there, Oh yes,
Oh there!pointing to our old habitationand fell dancing and
capering like a mad fellow; and I had much ado to keep him from
jumping into the sea to swim ashore to the place.

Well, Friday,says Ido you think we shall find anybody here or
no? and do you think we shall see your father?The fellow stood
mute as a stock a good while; but when I named his fatherthe poor
affectionate creature looked dejectedand I could see the tears
run down his face very plentifully. "What is the matterFriday?
are you troubled because you may see your father?" "Nono says
he, shaking his head, no see him more: nonever more see him
again." "Why soFriday? how do you know that?" "Oh noOh no
says Friday, he long ago dielong ago; he much old man." "Well
wellFridayyou don't know; but shall we see any one elsethen?"
The fellowit seemshad better eyes than Iand he points to the
hill just above my old house; and though we lay half a league off
he cries outWe see! we see! yes, we see much man there, and
there, and there.I lookedbut I saw nobodynonot with a
perspective glasswhich wasI supposebecause I could not hit
the place: for the fellow was rightas I found upon inquiry the
next day; and there were five or six men all togetherwho stood to
look at the shipnot knowing what to think of us.

As soon as Friday told me he saw peopleI caused the English
ancient to be spreadand fired three gunsto give them notice we
were friends; and in about a quarter of an hour after we perceived
a smoke arise from the side of the creek; so I immediately ordered
the boat outtaking Friday with meand hanging out a white flag

I went directly on shoretaking with me the young friar I
mentionedto whom I had told the story of my living thereand the
manner of itand every particular both of myself and those I left
thereand who was on that account extremely desirous to go with
me. We hadbesidesabout sixteen men well armedif we had found
any new guests there which we did not know of; but we had no need
of weapons.

As we went on shore upon the tide of floodnear high waterwe
rowed directly into the creek; and the first man I fixed my eye
upon was the Spaniard whose life I had savedand whom I knew by
his face perfectly well: as to his habitI shall describe it
afterwards. I ordered nobody to go on shore at first but myself;
but there was no keeping Friday in the boatfor the affectionate
creature had spied his father at a distancea good way off the
SpaniardswhereindeedI saw nothing of him; and if they had not
let him go ashorehe would have jumped into the sea. He was no
sooner on shorebut he flew away to his father like an arrow out
of a bow. It would have made any man shed tearsin spite of the
firmest resolutionto have seen the first transports of this poor
fellow's joy when he came to his father: how he embraced him
kissed himstroked his facetook him up in his armsset him down
upon a treeand lay down by him; then stood and looked at himas
any one would look at a strange picturefor a quarter of an hour
together; then lay down on the groundand stroked his legsand
kissed themand then got up again and stared at him; one would
have thought the fellow bewitched. But it would have made a dog
laugh the next day to see how his passion ran out another way: in
the morning he walked along the shore with his father several
hoursalways leading him by the handas if he had been a lady;
and every now and then he would come to the boat to fetch something
or other for himeither a lump of sugara drama biscuitor
something or other that was good. In the afternoon his frolics ran
another way; for then he would set the old man down upon the
groundand dance about himand make a thousand antic gestures;
and all the while he did this he would be talking to himand
telling him one story or another of his travelsand of what had
happened to him abroad to divert him. In shortif the same filial
affection was to be found in Christians to their parents in our
part of the worldone would be tempted to say there would hardly
have been any need of the fifth commandment.

But this is a digression: I return to my landing. It would be
needless to take notice of all the ceremonies and civilities that
the Spaniards received me with. The first Spaniardwhomas I
saidI knew very wellwas he whose life I had saved. He came
towards the boatattended by one morecarrying a flag of truce
also; and he not only did not know me at firstbut he had no
thoughtsno notion of its being me that was cometill I spoke to
him. "Seignior said I, in Portuguese, do you not know me?" At
which he spoke not a wordbut giving his musket to the man that
was with himthrew his arms abroadsaying something in Spanish
that I did not perfectly hearcame forward and embraced me
telling me he was inexcusable not to know that face again that he
had once seenas of an angel from heaven sent to save his life; he
said abundance of very handsome thingsas a well-bred Spaniard
always knows howand thenbeckoning to the person that attended
himbade him go and call out his comrades. He then asked me if I
would walk to my old habitationwhere he would give me possession
of my own house againand where I should see they had made but
mean improvements. I walked along with himbutalas! I could no
more find the place than if I had never been there; for they had
planted so many treesand placed them in such a positionso thick
and close to one anotherand in ten years' time they were grown so

bigthat the place was inaccessibleexcept by such windings and
blind ways as they themselves onlywho made themcould find.

I asked them what put them upon all these fortifications; he told
me I would say there was need enough of it when they had given me
an account how they had passed their time since their arriving in
the islandespecially after they had the misfortune to find that I
was gone. He told me he could not but have some pleasure in my
good fortunewhen he heard that I was gone in a good shipand to
my satisfaction; and that he had oftentimes a strong persuasion
that one time or other he should see me againbut nothing that
ever befell him in his lifehe saidwas so surprising and
afflicting to him at first as the disappointment he was under when
he came back to the island and found I was not there.

As to the three barbarians (so he called them) that were left
behindand of whomhe saidhe had a long story to tell methe
Spaniards all thought themselves much better among the savages
only that their number was so small: "And says he, had they
been strong enoughwe had been all long ago in purgatory;" and
with that he crossed himself on the breast. "Butsir says he,
I hope you will not be displeased when I shall tell you how
forced by necessitywe were obliged for our own preservation to
disarm themand make them our subjectsas they would not be
content with being moderately our mastersbut would be our
murderers." I answered I was afraid of it when I left them there
and nothing troubled me at my parting from the island but that they
were not come backthat I might have put them in possession of
everything firstand left the others in a state of subjectionas
they deserved; but if they had reduced them to it I was very glad
and should be very far from finding any fault with it; for I knew
they were a parcel of refractoryungoverned villainsand were fit
for any manner of mischief.

While I was saying thisthe man came whom he had sent backand
with him eleven more. In the dress they were in it was impossible
to guess what nation they were of; but he made all clearboth to
them and to me. Firsthe turned to meand pointing to them
saidThese, sir, are some of the gentlemen who owe their lives to
you;and then turning to themand pointing to mehe let them
know who I was; upon which they all came upone by onenot as if
they had been sailorsand ordinary fellowsand the likebut
really as if they had been ambassadors or noblemenand I a monarch
or great conqueror: their behaviour wasto the last degree
obliging and courteousand yet mixed with a manlymajestic
gravitywhich very well became them; andin shortthey had so
much more manners than Ithat I scarce knew how to receive their
civilitiesmuch less how to return them in kind.

The history of their coming toand conduct inthe island after my
going away is so very remarkableand has so many incidents which
the former part of my relation will help to understandand which
will in most of the particularsrefer to the account I have
already giventhat I cannot but commit themwith great delight
to the reading of those that come after me.

In order to do this as intelligibly as I canI must go back to the
circumstances in which I left the islandand the persons on itof
whom I am to speak. And firstit is necessary to repeat that I
had sent away Friday's father and the Spaniard (the two whose lives
I had rescued from the savages) in a large canoe to the mainas I
then thought itto fetch over the Spaniard's companions that he
left behind himin order to save them from the like calamity that
he had been inand in order to succour them for the present; and

thatif possiblewe might together find some way for our
deliverance afterwards. When I sent them away I had no visible
appearance ofor the least room to hope formy own deliverance
any more than I had twenty years before--much less had I any
foreknowledge of what afterwards happenedI meanof an English
ship coming on shore there to fetch me off; and it could not be but
a very great surprise to themwhen they came backnot only to
find that I was gonebut to find three strangers left on the spot
possessed of all that I had left behind mewhich would otherwise
have been their own.

The first thinghoweverwhich I inquired intothat I might begin
where I left offwas of their own part; and I desired the Spaniard
would give me a particular account of his voyage back to his
countrymen with the boatwhen I sent him to fetch them over. He
told me there was little variety in that partfor nothing
remarkable happened to them on the wayhaving had very calm
weather and a smooth sea. As for his countrymenit could not be
doubtedhe saidbut that they were overjoyed to see him (it seems
he was the principal man among themthe captain of the vessel they
had been shipwrecked in having been dead some time): they werehe
saidthe more surprised to see himbecause they knew that he was
fallen into the hands of the savageswhothey were satisfied
would devour him as they did all the rest of their prisoners; that
when he told them the story of his deliveranceand in what manner
he was furnished for carrying them awayit was like a dream to
themand their astonishmenthe saidwas somewhat like that of
Joseph's brethren when he told them who he wasand the story of
his exaltation in Pharaoh's court; but when he showed them the
armsthe powderthe ballthe provisions that he brought them for
their journey or voyagethey were restored to themselvestook a
just share of the joy of their deliveranceand immediately
prepared to come away with him.

Their first business was to get canoes; and in this they were
obliged not to stick so much upon the honesty of itbut to
trespass upon their friendly savagesand to borrow two large
canoesor periaguason pretence of going out a-fishingor for
pleasure. In these they came away the next morning. It seems they
wanted no time to get themselves ready; for they had neither
clothes nor provisionsnor anything in the world but what they had
on themand a few roots to eatof which they used to make their
bread. They were in all three weeks absent; and in that time
unluckily for themI had the occasion offered for my escapeas I
mentioned in the other partand to get off from the island
leaving three of the most impudenthardenedungoverned
disagreeable villains behind me that any man could desire to meet
with--to the poor Spaniards' great grief and disappointment.

The only just thing the rogues did wasthat when the Spaniards
came ashorethey gave my letter to themand gave them provisions
and other reliefas I had ordered them to do; also they gave them
the long paper of directions which I had left with themcontaining
the particular methods which I took for managing every part of my
life there; the way I baked my breadbred up tame goatsand
planted my corn; how I cured my grapesmade my potsandin a
wordeverything I did. All this being written downthey gave to
the Spaniards (two of them understood English well enough): nor
did they refuse to accommodate the Spaniards with anything else
for they agreed very well for some time. They gave them an equal
admission into the house or caveand they began to live very
sociably; and the head Spaniardwho had seen pretty much of my
methodstogether with Friday's fathermanaged all their affairs;
but as for the Englishmenthey did nothing but ramble about the

islandshoot parrotsand catch tortoises; and when they came home
at nightthe Spaniards provided their suppers for them.

The Spaniards would have been satisfied with this had the others
but let them alonewhichhoweverthey could not find in their
hearts to do long: butlike the dog in the mangerthey would not
eat themselvesneither would they let the others eat. The
differencesneverthelesswere at first but trivialand such as
are not worth relatingbut at last it broke out into open war:
and it began with all the rudeness and insolence that can be
imagined--without reasonwithout provocationcontrary to nature
and indeed to common sense; and thoughit is truethe first
relation of it came from the Spaniards themselveswhom I may call
the accusersyet when I came to examine the fellows they could not
deny a word of it.

But before I come to the particulars of this partI must supply a
defect in my former relation; and this wasI forgot to set down
among the restthat just as we were weighing the anchor to set
sailthere happened a little quarrel on board of our shipwhich I
was once afraid would have turned to a second mutiny; nor was it
appeased till the captainrousing up his courageand taking us
all to his assistanceparted them by forceand making two of the
most refractory fellows prisonershe laid them in irons: and as
they had been active in the former disordersand let fall some
uglydangerous words the second timehe threatened to carry them
in irons to Englandand have them hanged there for mutiny and
running away with the ship. Thisit seemsthough the captain did
not intend to do itfrightened some other men in the ship; and
some of them had put it into the head of the rest that the captain
only gave them good words for the presenttill they should come to
same English portand that then they should be all put into gaol
and tried for their lives. The mate got intelligence of thisand
acquainted us with itupon which it was desired that Iwho still
passed for a great man among themshould go down with the mate and
satisfy the menand tell them that they might be assuredif they
behaved well the rest of the voyageall they had done for the time
past should be pardoned. So I wentand after passing my honour's
word to them they appeared easyand the more so when I caused the
two men that were in irons to be released and forgiven.

But this mutiny had brought us to an anchor for that night; the
wind also falling calm next morningwe found that our two men who
had been laid in irons had stolen each of them a musket and some
other weapons (what powder or shot they had we knew not)and had
taken the ship's pinnacewhich was not yet hauled upand run away
with her to their companions in roguery on shore. As soon as we
found thisI ordered the long-boat on shorewith twelve men and
the mateand away they went to seek the rogues; but they could
neither find them nor any of the restfor they all fled into the
woods when they saw the boat coming on shore. The mate was once
resolvedin justice to their rogueryto have destroyed their
plantationsburned all their household stuff and furnitureand
left them to shift without it; but having no ordershe let it all
aloneleft everything as he found itand bringing the pinnace
waycame on board without them. These two men made their number
five; but the other three villains were so much more wicked than
theythat after they had been two or three days together they
turned the two newcomers out of doors to shift for themselvesand
would have nothing to do with them; nor could they for a good while
be persuaded to give them any food: as for the Spaniardsthey
were not yet come.

When the Spaniards came first on shorethe business began to go

forward: the Spaniards would have persuaded the three English
brutes to have taken in their countrymen againthatas they said
they might be all one family; but they would not hear of itso the
two poor fellows lived by themselves; and finding nothing but
industry and application would make them live comfortablythey
pitched their tents on the north shore of the islandbut a little
more to the westto be out of danger of the savageswho always
landed on the east parts of the island. Here they built them two
hutsone to lodge inand the other to lay up their magazines and
stores in; and the Spaniards having given them some corn for seed
and some of the peas which I had left themthey dugplantedand
enclosedafter the pattern I had set for them alland began to
live pretty well. Their first crop of corn was on the ground; and
though it was but a little bit of land which they had dug up at
firsthaving had but a little timeyet it was enough to relieve
themand find them with bread and other eatables; and one of the
fellows being the cook's mate of the shipwas very ready at making
souppuddingsand such other preparations as the rice and the
milkand such little flesh as they gotfurnished him to do.

They were going on in this little thriving position when the three
unnatural roguestheir own countrymen tooin mere humourand to
insult themcame and bullied themand told them the island was
theirs: that the governormeaning mehad given them the
possession of itand nobody else had any right to it; and that
they should build no houses upon their ground unless they would pay
rent for them. The two menthinking they were jesting at first
asked them to come in and sit downand see what fine houses they
were that they had builtand to tell them what rent they demanded;
and one of them merrily said if they were the ground-landlordshe
hoped if they built tenements upon their landand made
improvementsthey wouldaccording to the custom of landlords
grant a long lease: and desired they would get a scrivener to draw
the writings. One of the threecursing and ragingtold them they
should see they were not in jest; and going to a little place at a
distancewhere the honest men had made a fire to dress their
victualshe takes a firebrandand claps it to the outside of
their hutand set it on fire: indeedit would have been all
burned down in a few minutes if one of the two had not run to the
fellowthrust him awayand trod the fire out with his feetand
that not without some difficulty too.

The fellow was in such a rage at the honest man's thrusting him
awaythat he returned upon himwith a pole he had in his hand
and had not the man avoided the blow very nimblyand run into the
huthe had ended his days at once. His comradeseeing the danger
they were both inran after himand immediately they came both
out with their musketsand the man that was first struck at with
the pole knocked the fellow down that began the quarrel with the
stock of his musketand that before the other two could come to
help him; and thenseeing the rest come at themthey stood
togetherand presenting the other ends of their pieces to them
bade them stand off.

The others had firearms with them too; but one of the two honest
menbolder than his comradeand made desperate by his danger
told them if they offered to move hand or foot they were dead men
and boldly commanded them to lay down their arms. They did not
indeedlay down their armsbut seeing him so resoluteit brought
them to a parleyand they consented to take their wounded man with
them and be gone: andindeedit seems the fellow was wounded
sufficiently with the blow. Howeverthey were much in the wrong
since they had the advantagethat they did not disarm them
effectuallyas they might have doneand have gone immediately to

the Spaniardsand given them an account how the rogues had treated
them; for the three villains studied nothing but revengeand every
day gave them some intimation that they did so.


But not to crowd this part with an account of the lesser part of
the rogueries with which they plagued them continuallynight and
dayit forced the two men to such a desperation that they resolved
to fight them all threethe first time they had a fair
opportunity. In order to do this they resolved to go to the castle
(as they called my old dwelling)where the three rogues and the
Spaniards all lived together at that timeintending to have a fair
battleand the Spaniards should stand by to see fair play: so
they got up in the morning before dayand came to the placeand
called the Englishmen by their names telling a Spaniard that
answered that they wanted to speak with them.

It happened that the day before two of the Spaniardshaving been
in the woodshad seen one of the two Englishmenwhomfor
distinctionI called the honest menand he had made a sad
complaint to the Spaniards of the barbarous usage they had met with
from their three countrymenand how they had ruined their
plantationand destroyed their cornthat they had laboured so
hard to bring forwardand killed the milch-goat and their three
kidswhich was all they had provided for their sustenanceand
that if he and his friendsmeaning the Spaniardsdid not assist
them againthey should be starved. When the Spaniards came home
at nightand they were all at supperone of them took the freedom
to reprove the three Englishmenthough in very gentle and mannerly
termsand asked them how they could be so cruelthey being
harmlessinoffensive fellows: that they were putting themselves
in a way to subsist by their labourand that it had cost them a
great deal of pains to bring things to such perfection as they were
then in.

One of the Englishmen returned very brisklyWhat had they to do
there? that they came on shore without leave; and that they should
not plant or build upon the island; it was none of their ground.
Why,says the Spaniardvery calmlySeignior Inglese, they must
not starve.The Englishman repliedlike a rough tarpaulinThey
might starve; they should not plant nor build in that place.But
what must they do then, seignior?said the Spaniard. Another of
the brutes returnedDo? they should be servants, and work for
them.But how can you expect that of them?says the Spaniard;
they are not bought with your money; you have no right to make
them servants.The Englishman answeredThe island was theirs;
the governor had given it to them, and no man had anything to do
there but themselves;and with that he swore that he would go and
burn all their new huts; they should build none upon their land.
Why, seignior,says the Spaniardby the same rule, we must be
your servants, too.Ay,returned the bold dogand so you
shall, too, before we have done with you;mixing two or three
oaths in the proper intervals of his speech. The Spaniard only
smiled at thatand made him no answer. Howeverthis little
discourse had heated them; and starting upone says to the other.
(I think it was he they called Will Atkins)Come, Jack, let's go
and have t'other brush with them; we'll demolish their castle, I'll
warrant you; they shall plant no colony in our dominions.

Upon this they were all trooping awaywith every man a guna
pistoland a swordand muttered some insolent things among
themselves of what they would do to the Spaniardstoowhen
opportunity offered; but the Spaniardsit seemsdid not so
perfectly understand them as to know all the particularsonly that
in general they threatened them hard for taking the two
Englishmen's part. Whither they wentor how they bestowed their
time that eveningthe Spaniards said they did not know; but it
seems they wandered about the country part of the nightand them
lying down in the place which I used to call my bowerthey were
weary and overslept themselves. The case was this: they had
resolved to stay till midnightand so take the two poor men when
they were asleepand as they acknowledged afterwardsintended to
set fire to their huts while they were in themand either burn
them there or murder them as they came out. As malice seldom
sleeps very soundit was very strange they should not have been
kept awake. Howeveras the two men had also a design upon them
as I have saidthough a much fairer one than that of burning and
murderingit happenedand very luckily for them allthat they
were up and gone abroad before the bloody-minded rogues came to
their huts.

When they came thereand found the men goneAtkinswho it seems
was the forwardest mancalled out to his comradeHa, Jack,
here's the nest, but the birds are flown.They mused a whileto
think what should be the occasion of their being gone abroad so
soonand suggested presently that the Spaniards had given them
notice of it; and with that they shook handsand swore to one
another that they would be revenged of the Spaniards. As soon as
they had made this bloody bargain they fell to work with the poor
men's habitation; they did not set fireindeedto anythingbut
they pulled down both their housesand left not the least stick
standingor scarce any sign on the ground where they stood; they
tore all their household stuff in piecesand threw everything
about in such a mannerthat the poor men afterwards found some of
their things a mile off. When they had done thisthey pulled up
all the young trees which the poor men had planted; broke down an
enclosure they had made to secure their cattle and their corn; and
in a wordsacked and plundered everything as completely as a horde
of Tartars would have done.

The two men were at this juncture gone to find them outand had
resolved to fight them wherever they had beenthough they were but
two to three; so thathad they metthere certainly would have
been blood shed among themfor they were all very stoutresolute
fellowsto give them their due.

But Providence took more care to keep them asunder than they
themselves could do to meet; foras if they had dogged one
anotherwhen the three were gone thitherthe two were here; and
afterwardswhen the two went back to find themthe three were
come to the old habitation again: we shall see their different
conduct presently. When the three came back like furious
creaturesflushed with the rage which the work they had been about
had put them intothey came up to the Spaniardsand told them
what they had doneby way of scoff and bravado; and one of them
stepping up to one of the Spaniardsas if they had been a couple
of boys at playtakes hold of his hat as it was upon his headand
giving it a twirl aboutfleering in his facesays to himAnd
you, Seignior Jack Spaniard, shall have the same sauce if you do
not mend your manners.The Spaniardwhothough a quiet civil
manwas as brave a man as could beand withal a strongwell-made
manlooked at him for a good whileand thenhaving no weapon in
his handstepped gravely up to himandwith one blow of his

fistknocked him downas an ox is felled with a pole-axe; at
which one of the roguesas insolent as the firstfired his pistol
at the Spaniard immediately; he missed his bodyindeedfor the
bullets went through his hairbut one of them touched the tip of
his earand he bled pretty much. The blood made the Spaniard
believe he was more hurt than he really wasand that put him into
some heatfor before he acted all in a perfect calm; but now
resolving to go through with his workhe stoopedand taking the
fellow's musket whom he had knocked downwas just going to shoot
the man who had fired at himwhen the rest of the Spaniardsbeing
in the cavecame outand calling to him not to shootthey
stepped insecured the other twoand took their arms from them.

When they were thus disarmedand found they had made all the
Spaniards their enemiesas well as their own countrymenthey
began to cooland giving the Spaniards better wordswould have
their arms again; but the Spaniardsconsidering the feud that was
between them and the other two Englishmenand that it would be the
best method they could take to keep them from killing one another
told them they would do them no harmand if they would live
peaceablythey would be very willing to assist and associate with
them as they did before; but that they could not think of giving
them their arms againwhile they appeared so resolved to do
mischief with them to their own countrymenand had even threatened
them all to make them their servants.

The rogues were now quite deaf to all reasonand being refused
their armsthey raved away like madmenthreatening what they
would dothough they had no firearms. But the Spaniards
despising their threateningtold them they should take care how
they offered any injury to their plantation or cattle; for if they
did they would shoot them as they would ravenous beastswherever
they found them; and if they fell into their hands alivethey
should certainly be hanged. Howeverthis was far from cooling
thembut away they wentraging and swearing like furies. As soon
as they were gonethe two men came backin passion and rage
enough alsothough of another kind; for having been at their
plantationand finding it all demolished and destroyedas above
mentionedit will easily be supposed they had provocation enough.
They could scarce have room to tell their talethe Spaniards were
so eager to tell them theirs: and it was strange enough to find
that three men should thus bully nineteenand receive no
punishment at all.

The Spaniardsindeeddespised themand especiallyhaving thus
disarmed themmade light of their threatenings; but the two
Englishmen resolved to have their remedy against themwhat pains
soever it cost to find them out. But the Spaniards interposed here
tooand told them that as they had disarmed themthey could not
consent that they (the two) should pursue them with firearmsand
perhaps kill them. "But said the grave Spaniard, who was their
governor, we will endeavour to make them do you justiceif you
will leave it to us: for there is no doubt but they will come to
us againwhen their passion is overbeing not able to subsist
without our assistance. We promise you to make no peace with them
without having full satisfaction for you; and upon this condition
we hope you will promise to use no violence with themother than
in your own defence." The two Englishmen yielded to this very
awkwardlyand with great reluctance; but the Spaniards protested
that they did it only to keep them from bloodshedand to make them
all easy at last. "For said they, we are not so many of us;
here is room enough for us alland it is a great pity that we
should not be all good friends." At length they did consentand
waited for the issue of the thingliving for some days with the

Spaniards; for their own habitation was destroyed.

In about five days' time the vagrantstired with wanderingand
almost starved with hungerhaving chiefly lived on turtles' eggs
all that whilecame back to the grove; and finding my Spaniard
whoas I have saidwas the governorand two more with him
walking by the side of the creekthey came up in a very
submissivehumble mannerand begged to be received again into the
society. The Spaniards used them civillybut told them they had
acted so unnaturally to their countrymenand so very grossly to
themselvesthat they could not come to any conclusion without
consulting the two Englishmen and the rest; buthoweverthey
would go to them and discourse about itand they should know in
half-an-hour. It may be guessed that they were very hard put to
it; foras they were to wait this half-hour for an answerthey
begged they would send them out some bread in the meantimewhich
they didsending at the same time a large piece of goat's flesh
and a boiled parrotwhich they ate very eagerly.

After half-an-hour's consultation they were called inand a long
debate ensuedtheir two countrymen charging them with the ruin of
all their labourand a design to murder them; all which they owned
beforeand therefore could not deny now. Upon the wholethe
Spaniards acted the moderators between them; and as they had
obliged the two Englishmen not to hurt the three while they were
naked and unarmedso they now obliged the three to go and rebuild
their fellows' two hutsone to be of the same and the other of
larger dimensions than they were before; to fence their ground
againplant trees in the room of those pulled updig up the land
again for planting cornandin a wordto restore everything to
the same state as they found itthat isas near as they could.

Wellthey submitted to all this; and as they had plenty of
provisions given them all the whilethey grew very orderlyand
the whole society began to live pleasantly and agreeably together
again; only that these three fellows could never be persuaded to
work--I mean for themselves--except now and then a littlejust as
they pleased. Howeverthe Spaniards told them plainly that if
they would but live sociably and friendly togetherand study the
good of the whole plantationthey would be content to work for
themand let them walk about and be as idle as they pleased; and
thushaving lived pretty well together for a month or twothe
Spaniards let them have arms againand gave them liberty to go
abroad with them as before.

It was not above a week after they had these armsand went abroad
before the ungrateful creatures began to be as insolent and
troublesome as ever. Howeveran accident happened presently upon
thiswhich endangered the safety of them alland they were
obliged to lay by all private resentmentsand look to the
preservation of their lives.

It happened one night that the governorthe Spaniard whose life I
had savedwho was now the governor of the restfound himself very
uneasy in the nightand could by no means get any sleep: he was
perfectly well in bodyonly found his thoughts tumultuous; his
mind ran upon men fighting and killing one another; but he was
broad awakeand could not by any means get any sleep; in shorthe
lay a great whilebut growing more and more uneasyhe resolved to
rise. As they laybeing so many of themon goat-skins laid thick
upon such couches and pads as they made for themselvesso they had
little to dowhen they were willing to risebut to get upon their
feetand perhaps put on a coatsuch as it wasand their pumps
and they were ready for going any way that their thoughts guided

them. Being thus got uphe looked out; but being darkhe could
see little or nothingand besidesthe trees which I had planted
and which were now grown tallintercepted his sightso that he
could only look upand see that it was a starlight nightand
hearing no noisehe returned and lay down again; but to no
purpose; he could not compose himself to anything like rest; but
his thoughts were to the last degree uneasyand he knew not for
what. Having made some noise with rising and walking aboutgoing
out and coming inanother of them wakedand asked who it was that
was up. The governor told him how it had been with him. "Say you
so?" says the other Spaniard; "such things are not to be slighted
I assure you; there is certainly some mischief working near us;"
and presently he asked himWhere are the Englishmen?They are
all in their huts,says hesafe enough.It seems the Spaniards
had kept possession of the main apartmentand had made a place for
the three Englishmenwhosince their last mutinywere always
quartered by themselvesand could not come at the rest. "Well
says the Spaniard, there is something in itI am persuadedfrom
my own experience. I am satisfied that our spirits embodied have a
converse with and receive intelligence from the spirits unembodied
and inhabiting the invisible world; and this friendly notice is
given for our advantageif we knew how to make use of it. Come
let us go and look abroad; and if we find nothing at all in it to
justify the troubleI'll tell you a story to the purposethat
shall convince you of the justice of my proposing it."

They went out presently to go up to the top of the hillwhere I
used to go; but they being strongand a good companynor alone
as I wasused none of my cautions to go up by the ladderand
pulling it up after themto go up a second stage to the topbut
were going round through the grove unwarilywhen they were
surprised with seeing a light as of firea very little way from
themand hearing the voices of mennot of one or twobut of a
great number.

Among the precautions I used to take on the savages landing on the
islandit was my constant care to prevent them making the least
discovery of there being any inhabitant upon the place: and when
by any occasion they came to know itthey felt it so effectually
that they that got away were scarce able to give any account of it;
for we disappeared as soon as possiblenor did ever any that had
seen me escape to tell any one elseexcept it was the three
savages in our last encounter who jumped into the boat; of whomI
mentionedI was afraid they should go home and bring more help.
Whether it was the consequence of the escape of those men that so
great a number came now togetheror whether they came ignorantly
and by accidenton their usual bloody errandthe Spaniards could
not understand; but whatever it wasit was their business either
to have concealed themselves or not to have seen them at allmuch
less to have let the savages have seen there were any inhabitants
in the place; or to have fallen upon them so effectually as not a
man of them should have escapedwhich could only have been by
getting in between them and their boats; but this presence of mind
was wanting to themwhich was the ruin of their tranquillity for a
great while.

We need not doubt but that the governor and the man with him
surprised with this sightran back immediately and raised their
fellowsgiving them an account of the imminent danger they were
all inand they again as readily took the alarm; but it was
impossible to persuade them to stay close within where they were
but they must all run out to see how things stood. While it was
darkindeedthey were safeand they had opportunity enough for
some hours to view the savages by the light of three fires they had

made at a distance from one another; what they were doing they knew
notneither did they know what to do themselves. Forfirstthe
enemy were too many; and secondlythey did not keep togetherbut
were divided into several partiesand were on shore in several

The Spaniards were in no small consternation at this sight; andas
they found that the fellows went straggling all over the shore
they made no doubt butfirst or lastsome of them would chop in
upon their habitationor upon some other place where they would
see the token of inhabitants; and they were in great perplexity
also for fear of their flock of goatswhichif they should be
destroyedwould have been little less than starving them. So the
first thing they resolved upon was to despatch three men away
before it was lighttwo Spaniards and one Englishmanto drive
away all the goats to the great valley where the cave wasandif
need wereto drive them into the very cave itself. Could they
have seen the savages all together in one bodyand at a distance
from their canoesthey were resolvedif there had been a hundred
of themto attack them; but that could not be donefor they were
some of them two miles off from the otherandas it appeared
afterwardswere of two different nations.

After having mused a great while on the course they should take
they resolved at lastwhile it was still darkto send the old
savageFriday's fatherout as a spyto learnif possible
something concerning themas what they came forwhat they
intended to doand the like. The old man readily undertook it;
and stripping himself quite nakedas most of the savages were
away he went. After he had been gone an hour or twohe brings
word that he had been among them undiscoveredthat he found they
were two partiesand of two several nationswho had war with one
anotherand had a great battle in their own country; and that both
sides having had several prisoners taken in the fightthey were
by mere chancelanded all on the same islandfor the devouring
their prisoners and making merry; but their coming so by chance to
the same place had spoiled all their mirth--that they were in a
great rage at one anotherand were so near that he believed they
would fight again as soon as daylight began to appear; but he did
not perceive that they had any notion of anybody being on the
island but themselves. He had hardly made an end of telling his
storywhen they could perceiveby the unusual noise they made
that the two little armies were engaged in a bloody fight.
Friday's father used all the arguments he could to persuade our
people to lie closeand not be seen; he told them their safety
consisted in itand that they had nothing to do but lie stilland
the savages would kill one another to their handsand then the
rest would go away; and it was so to a tittle. But it was
impossible to prevailespecially upon the Englishmen; their
curiosity was so importunate that they must run out and see the
battle. Howeverthey used some caution too: they did not go
openlyjust by their own dwellingbut went farther into the
woodsand placed themselves to advantagewhere they might
securely see them manage the fightandas they thoughtnot be
seen by them; but the savages did see themas we shall find

The battle was very fierceandif I might believe the Englishmen
one of them said he could perceive that some of them were men of
great braveryof invincible spiritand of great policy in guiding
the fight. The battlethey saidheld two hours before they could
guess which party would be beaten; but then that party which was
nearest our people's habitation began to appear weakestand after
some time more some of them began to fly; and this put our men

again into a great consternationlest any one of those that fled
should run into the grove before their dwelling for shelterand
thereby involuntarily discover the place; and thatby consequence
the pursuers would also do the like in search of them. Upon this
they resolved that they would stand armed within the walland
whoever came into the grovethey resolved to sally out over the
wall and kill themso thatif possiblenot one should return to
give an account of it; they ordered also that it should be done
with their swordsor by knocking them down with the stocks of
their musketsbut not by shooting themfor fear of raising an
alarm by the noise.

As they expected it fell out; three of the routed army fled for
lifeand crossing the creekran directly into the placenot in
the least knowing whither they wentbut running as into a thick
wood for shelter. The scout they kept to look abroad gave notice
of this withinwith this comforting additionthat the conquerors
had not pursued themor seen which way they were gone; upon this
the Spanish governora man of humanitywould not suffer them to
kill the three fugitivesbut sending three men out by the top of
the hillordered them to go roundcome in behind themand
surprise and take them prisonerswhich was done. The residue of
the conquered people fled to their canoesand got off to sea; the
victors retiredmade no pursuitor very littlebut drawing
themselves into a body togethergave two great screaming shouts
most likely by way of triumphand so the fight ended; the same
dayabout three o'clock in the afternoonthey also marched to
their canoes. And thus the Spaniards had the island again free to
themselvestheir fright was overand they saw no savages for
several years after.

After they were all gonethe Spaniards came out of their denand
viewing the field of battlethey found about two-and-thirty men
dead on the spot; some were killed with long arrowswhich were
found sticking in their bodies; but most of them were killed with
great wooden swordssixteen or seventeen of which they found in
the field of battleand as many bowswith a great many arrows.
These swords were strangeunwieldy thingsand they must be very
strong men that used them; most of those that were killed with them
had their heads smashed to piecesas we may sayoras we call it
in Englishtheir brains knocked outand several their arms and
legs broken; so that it is evident they fight with inexpressible
rage and fury. We found not one man that was not stone dead; for
either they stay by their enemy till they have killed himor they
carry all the wounded men that are not quite dead away with them.

This deliverance tamed our ill-disposed Englishmen for a great
while; the sight had filled them with horrorand the consequences
appeared terrible to the last degreeespecially upon supposing
that some time or other they should fall into the hands of those
creatureswho would not only kill them as enemiesbut for food
as we kill our cattle; and they professed to me that the thoughts
of being eaten up like beef and muttonthough it was supposed it
was not to be till they were deadhad something in it so horrible
that it nauseated their very stomachsmade them sick when they
thought of itand filled their minds with such unusual terror
that they were not themselves for some weeks after. Thisas I
saidtamed even the three English brutes I have been speaking of;
and for a great while after they were tractableand went about the
common business of the whole society well enough--plantedsowed
reapedand began to be all naturalised to the country. But some
time after this they fell into such simple measures again as
brought them into a great deal of trouble.

They had taken three prisonersas I observed; and these three
being stout young fellowsthey made them servantsand taught them
to work for themand as slaves they did well enough; but they did
not take their measures as I did by my man Fridayviz. to begin
with them upon the principle of having saved their livesand then
instruct them in the rational principles of life; much less did
they think of teaching them religionor attempt civilising and
reducing them by kind usage and affectionate arguments. As they
gave them their food every dayso they gave them their work too
and kept them fully employed in drudgery enough; but they failed in
this by itthat they never had them to assist them and fight for
them as I had my man Fridaywho was as true to me as the very
flesh upon my bones.

But to come to the family part. Being all now good friends--for
common dangeras I said abovehad effectually reconciled them-they
began to consider their general circumstances; and the first
thing that came under consideration was whetherseeing the savages
particularly haunted that side of the islandand that there were
more remote and retired parts of it equally adapted to their way of
livingand manifestly to their advantagethey should not rather
move their habitationand plant in some more proper place for
their safetyand especially for the security of their cattle and

Upon thisafter long debateit was concluded that they would not
remove their habitation; because thatsome time or otherthey
thought they might hear from their governor againmeaning me; and
if I should send any one to seek themI should be sure to direct
them to that sidewhereif they should find the place demolished
they would conclude the savages had killed us alland we were
goneand so our supply would go too. But as to their corn and
cattlethey agreed to remove them into the valley where my cave
waswhere the land was as proper for bothand where indeed there
was land enough. Howeverupon second thoughts they altered one
part of their resolution tooand resolved only to remove part of
their cattle thitherand part of their corn there; so that if one
part was destroyed the other might be saved. And one part of
prudence they luckily used: they never trusted those three savages
which they had taken prisoners with knowing anything of the
plantation they had made in that valleyor of any cattle they had
theremuch less of the cave at that placewhich they keptin
case of necessityas a safe retreat; and thither they carried also
the two barrels of powder which I had sent them at my coming away.
They resolvedhowevernot to change their habitation; yetas I
had carefully covered it first with a wall or fortificationand
then with a grove of treesand as they were now fully convinced
their safety consisted entirely in their being concealedthey set
to work to cover and conceal the place yet more effectually than
before. For this purposeas I planted treesor rather thrust in
stakeswhich in time all grew up to be treesfor some good
distance before the entrance into my apartmentsthey went on in
the same mannerand filled up the rest of that whole space of
ground from the trees I had set quite down to the side of the
creekwhere I landed my floatsand even into the very ooze where
the tide flowednot so much as leaving any place to landor any
sign that there had been any landing thereabouts: these stakes
also being of a wood very forward to growthey took care to have
them generally much larger and taller than those which I had
planted. As they grew apacethey planted them so very thick and
close togetherthat when they had been three or four years grown
there was no piercing with the eye any considerable way into the
plantation. As for that part which I had plantedthe trees were
grown as thick as a man's thighand among them they had placed so

many other short onesand so thickthat it stood like a palisado
a quarter of a mile thickand it was next to impossible to
penetrate itfor a little dog could hardly get between the trees
they stood so close.

But this was not all; for they did the same by all the ground to
the right hand and to the leftand round even to the side of the
hillleaving no waynot so much as for themselvesto come out
but by the ladder placed up to the side of the hilland then
lifted upand placed again from the first stage up to the top: so
that when the ladder was taken downnothing but what had wings or
witchcraft to assist it could come at them. This was excellently
well contrived: nor was it less than what they afterwards found
occasion forwhich served to convince methat as human prudence
has the authority of Providence to justify itso it has doubtless
the direction of Providence to set it to work; and if we listened
carefully to the voice of itI am persuaded we might prevent many
of the disasters which our lives are nowby our own negligence
subjected to.

They lived two years after this in perfect retirementand had no
more visits from the savages. They hadindeedan alarm given
them one morningwhich put them into a great consternation; for
some of the Spaniards being out early one morning on the west side
or end of the island (which was that end where I never wentfor
fear of being discovered)they were surprised with seeing about
twenty canoes of Indians just coming on shore. They made the best
of their way home in hurry enough; and giving the alarm to their
comradesthey kept close all that day and the nextgoing out only
at night to make their observation: but they had the good luck to
be undiscoveredfor wherever the savages wentthey did not land
that time on the islandbut pursued some other design.


And now they had another broil with the three Englishmen; one of
whoma most turbulent fellowbeing in a rage at one of the three
captive slavesbecause the fellow had not done something right
which he bade him doand seemed a little untractable in his
showing himdrew a hatchet out of a frog-belt which he wore by his
sideand fell upon the poor savagenot to correct himbut to
kill him. One of the Spaniards who was byseeing him give the
fellow a barbarous cut with the hatchetwhich he aimed at his
headbut stuck into his shoulderso that he thought he had cut
the poor creature's arm offran to himand entreating him not to
murder the poor manplaced himself between him and the savageto
prevent the mischief. The fellowbeing enraged the more at this
struck at the Spaniard with his hatchetand swore he would serve
him as he intended to serve the savage; which the Spaniard
perceivingavoided the blowand with a shovelwhich he had in
his hand (for they were all working in the field about their corn
land)knocked the brute down. Another of the Englishmenrunning
up at the same time to help his comradeknocked the Spaniard down;
and then two Spaniards more came in to help their manand a third
Englishman fell in upon them. They had none of them any firearms
or any other weapons but hatchets and other toolsexcept this
third Englishman; he had one of my rusty cutlasseswith which he
made at the two last Spaniardsand wounded them both. This fray
set the whole family in an uproarand more help coming in they
took the three Englishmen prisoners. The next question waswhat

should be done with them? They had been so often mutinousand
were so very furiousso desperateand so idle withalthey knew
not what course to take with themfor they were mischievous to the
highest degreeand cared not what hurt they did to any man; so
thatin shortit was not safe to live with them.

The Spaniard who was governor told themin so many wordsthat if
they had been of his own country he would have hanged them; for all
laws and all governors were to preserve societyand those who were
dangerous to the society ought to be expelled out of it; but as
they were Englishmenand that it was to the generous kindness of
an Englishman that they all owed their preservation and
deliverancehe would use them with all possible lenityand would
leave them to the judgment of the other two Englishmenwho were
their countrymen. One of the two honest Englishmen stood upand
said they desired it might not be left to them. "For says he, I
am sure we ought to sentence them to the gallows;" and with that he
gives an account how Will Atkinsone of the threehad proposed to
have all the five Englishmen join together and murder all the
Spaniards when they were in their sleep.

When the Spanish governor heard thishe calls to Will Atkins
How, Seignior Atkins, would you murder us all? What have you to
say to that?The hardened villain was so far from denying it
that he said it was trueand swore they would do it still before
they had done with them. "Wellbut Seignior Atkins says the
Spaniard, what have we done to you that you will kill us? What
would you get by killing us? And what must we do to prevent you
killing us? Must we kill youor you kill us? Why will you put us
to the necessity of thisSeignior Atkins?" says the Spaniard very
calmlyand smiling. Seignior Atkins was in such a rage at the
Spaniard's making a jest of itthathad he not been held by three
menand withal had no weapon near himit was thought he would
have attempted to kill the Spaniard in the middle of all the
company. This hare-brained carriage obliged them to consider
seriously what was to be done. The two Englishmen and the Spaniard
who saved the poor savage were of the opinion that they should hang
one of the three for an example to the restand that particularly
it should be he that had twice attempted to commit murder with his
hatchet; indeedthere was some reason to believe he had done it
for the poor savage was in such a miserable condition with the
wound he had received that it was thought he could not live. But
the governor Spaniard still said No; it was an Englishman that had
saved all their livesand he would never consent to put an
Englishman to deaththough he had murdered half of them; nayhe
said if he had been killed himself by an Englishmanand had time
left to speakit should be that they should pardon him.

This was so positively insisted on by the governor Spaniardthat
there was no gainsaying it; and as merciful counsels are most apt
to prevail where they are so earnestly pressedso they all came
into it. But then it was to be considered what should be done to
keep them from doing the mischief they designed; for all agreed
governor and allthat means were to be used for preserving the
society from danger. After a long debateit was agreed that they
should be disarmedand not permitted to have either gunpowder
shotswordor any weapon; that they should be turned out of the
societyand left to live where they would and how they wouldby
themselves; but that none of the resteither Spaniards or English
should hold any kind of converse with themor have anything to do
with them; that they should be forbid to come within a certain
distance of the place where the rest dwelt; and if they offered to
commit any disorderso as to spoilburnkillor destroy any of
the cornplantingsbuildingsfencesor cattle belonging to the

societythey should die without mercyand they would shoot them
wherever they could find them.

The humane governormusing upon the sentenceconsidered a little
upon it; and turning to the two honest EnglishmensaidHold; you
must reflect that it will be long ere they can raise corn and
cattle of their own, and they must not starve; we must therefore
allow them provisions.So he caused to be addedthat they should
have a proportion of corn given them to last them eight monthsand
for seed to sowby which time they might be supposed to raise some
of their own; that they should have six milch-goatsfour he-goats
and six kids given themas well for present subsistence as for a
store; and that they should have tools given them for their work in
the fieldsbut they should have none of these tools or provisions
unless they would swear solemnly that they would not hurt or injure
any of the Spaniards with themor of their fellow-Englishmen.

Thus they dismissed them the societyand turned them out to shift
for themselves. They went away sullen and refractoryas neither
content to go away nor to stay: butas there was no remedythey
wentpretending to go and choose a place where they would settle
themselves; and some provisions were given thembut no weapons.
About four or five days afterthey came again for some victuals
and gave the governor an account where they had pitched their
tentsand marked themselves out a habitation and plantation; and
it was a very convenient place indeedon the remotest part of the
islandNE.much about the place where I providentially landed in
my first voyagewhen I was driven out to sea in my foolish attempt
to sail round the island.

Here they built themselves two handsome hutsand contrived them in
a manner like my first habitationbeing close under the side of a
hillhaving some trees already growing on three sides of itso
that by planting others it would be very easily covered from the
sightunless narrowly searched for. They desired some dried goatskins
for beds and coveringwhich were given them; and upon giving
their words that they would not disturb the restor injure any of
their plantationsthey gave them hatchetsand what other tools
they could spare; some peasbarleyand ricefor sowing; andin
a wordanything they wantedexcept arms and ammunition.

They lived in this separate condition about six monthsand had got
in their first harvestthough the quantity was but smallthe
parcel of land they had planted being but little. Indeedhaving
all their plantation to formthey had a great deal of work upon
their hands; and when they came to make boards and potsand such
thingsthey were quite out of their elementand could make
nothing of it; therefore when the rainy season came onfor want of
a cave in the earththey could not keep their grain dryand it
was in great danger of spoiling. This humbled them much: so they
came and begged the Spaniards to help themwhich they very readily
did; and in four days worked a great hole in the side of the hill
for thembig enough to secure their corn and other things from the
rain: but it was a poor place at best compared to mineand
especially as mine was thenfor the Spaniards had greatly enlarged
itand made several new apartments in it.

About three quarters of a year after this separationa new frolic
took these rogueswhichtogether with the former villainy they
had committedbrought mischief enough upon themand had very near
been the ruin of the whole colony. The three new associates began
it seemsto be weary of the laborious life they ledand that
without hope of bettering their circumstances: and a whim took
them that they would make a voyage to the continentfrom whence

the savages cameand would try if they could seize upon some
prisoners among the natives thereand bring them homeso as to
make them do the laborious part of the work for them.

The project was not so preposterousif they had gone no further.
But they did nothingand proposed nothingbut had either mischief
in the designor mischief in the event. And if I may give my
opinionthey seemed to be under a blast from Heaven: for if we
will not allow a visible curse to pursue visible crimeshow shall
we reconcile the events of things with the divine justice? It was
certainly an apparent vengeance on their crime of mutiny and piracy
that brought them to the state they were in; and they showed not
the least remorse for the crimebut added new villanies to it
such as the piece of monstrous cruelty of wounding a poor slave
because he did notor perhaps could notunderstand to do what he
was directedand to wound him in such a manner as made him a
cripple all his lifeand in a place where no surgeon or medicine
could be had for his cure; andwhat was still worsethe
intentional murderfor such to be sure it wasas was afterwards
the formed design they all laid to murder the Spaniards in cold
bloodand in their sleep.

The three fellows came down to the Spaniards one morningand in
very humble terms desired to be admitted to speak with them. The
Spaniards very readily heard what they had to saywhich was this:
that they were tired of living in the manner they didand that
they were not handy enough to make the necessaries they wantedand
that having no helpthey found they should be starved; but if the
Spaniards would give them leave to take one of the canoes which
they came over inand give them arms and ammunition proportioned
to their defencethey would go over to the mainand seek their
fortunesand so deliver them from the trouble of supplying them
with any other provisions.

The Spaniards were glad enough to get rid of thembut very
honestly represented to them the certain destruction they were
running into; told them they had suffered such hardships upon that
very spotthat they couldwithout any spirit of prophecytell
them they would be starved or murderedand bade them consider of
it. The men replied audaciouslythey should be starved if they
stayed herefor they could not workand would not workand they
could but be starved abroad; and if they were murderedthere was
an end of them; they had no wives or children to cry after them;
andin shortinsisted importunately upon their demanddeclaring
they would gowhether they gave them any arms or not.

The Spaniards told themwith great kindnessthat if they were
resolved to go they should not go like naked menand be in no
condition to defend themselves; and that though they could ill
spare firearmsnot having enough for themselvesyet they would
let them have two musketsa pistoland a cutlassand each man a
hatchetwhich they thought was sufficient for them. In a word
they accepted the offer; and having baked bread enough to serve
them a month given themand as much goats' flesh as they could eat
while it was sweetwith a great basket of dried grapesa pot of
fresh waterand a young kid alivethey boldly set out in the
canoe for a voyage over the seawhere it was at least forty miles
broad. The boatindeedwas a large oneand would very well have
carried fifteen or twenty menand therefore was rather too big for
them to manage; but as they had a fair breeze and flood-tide with
themthey did well enough. They had made a mast of a long pole
and a sail of four large goat-skins driedwhich they had sewed or
laced together; and away they went merrily together. The Spaniards
called after them "Bon voyajo;" and no man ever thought of seeing

them any more.

The Spaniards were often saying to one anotherand to the two
honest Englishmen who remained behindhow quietly and comfortably
they livednow these three turbulent fellows were gone. As for
their coming againthat was the remotest thing from their thoughts
that could be imagined; whenbeholdafter two-and-twenty days'
absenceone of the Englishmen being abroad upon his planting work
sees three strange men coming towards him at a distancewith guns
upon their shoulders.

Away runs the Englishmanfrightened and amazedas if he was
bewitchedto the governor Spaniardand tells him they were all
undonefor there were strangers upon the islandbut he could not
tell who they were. The Spaniardpausing a whilesays to him
How do you mean--you cannot tell who? They are the savages, to be
sure.No, no,says the Englishmanthey are men in clothes,
with arms.Nay, then,says the Spaniardwhy are you so
concerned! If they are not savages they must be friends; for there
is no Christian nation upon earth but will do us good rather than
harm.While they were debating thuscame up the three
Englishmenand standing without the woodwhich was new planted
hallooed to them. They presently knew their voicesand so all the
wonder ceased. But now the admiration was turned upon another
question--What could be the matterand what made them come back

It was not long before they brought the men inand inquiring where
they had beenand what they had been doingthey gave them a full
account of their voyage in a few words: that they reached the land
in less than two daysbut finding the people alarmed at their
comingand preparing with bows and arrows to fight themthey
durst not go onshorebut sailed on to the northward six or seven
hourstill they came to a great openingby which they perceived
that the land they saw from our island was not the mainbut an
island: that upon entering that opening of the sea they saw
another island on the right hand northand several more west; and
being resolved to land somewherethey put over to one of the
islands which lay westand went boldly on shore; that they found
the people very courteous and friendly to them; and they gave them
several roots and some dried fishand appeared very sociable; and
that the womenas well as the menwere very forward to supply
them with anything they could get for them to eatand brought it
to them a great wayon their heads. They continued here for four
daysand inquired as well as they could of them by signswhat
nations were this wayand that wayand were told of several
fierce and terrible people that lived almost every waywhoas
they made known by signs to themused to eat men; butas for
themselvesthey said they never ate men or womenexcept only such
as they took in the wars; and then they owned they made a great
feastand ate their prisoners.

The Englishmen inquired when they had had a feast of that kind; and
they told them about two moons agopointing to the moon and to two
fingers; and that their great king had two hundred prisoners now
which he had taken in his warand they were feeding them to make
them fat for the next feast. The Englishmen seemed mighty desirous
of seeing those prisoners; but the others mistaking themthought
they were desirous to have some of them to carry away for their own
eating. So they beckoned to thempointing to the setting of the
sunand then to the rising; which was to signify that the next
morning at sunrising they would bring some for them; and
accordingly the next morning they brought down five women and
eleven menand gave them to the Englishmen to carry with them on

their voyagejust as we would bring so many cows and oxen down to
a seaport town to victual a ship.

As brutish and barbarous as these fellows were at hometheir
stomachs turned at this sightand they did not know what to do.
To refuse the prisoners would have been the highest affront to the
savage gentry that could be offered themand what to do with them
they knew not. Howeverafter some debatethey resolved to accept
of them: andin returnthey gave the savages that brought them
one of their hatchetsan old keya knifeand six or seven of
their bullets; whichthough they did not understand their use
they seemed particularly pleased with; and then tying the poor
creatures' hands behind themthey dragged the prisoners into the
boat for our men.

The Englishmen were obliged to come away as soon as they had them
or else they that gave them this noble present would certainly have
expected that they should have gone to work with themhave killed
two or three of them the next morningand perhaps have invited the
donors to dinner. But having taken their leavewith all the
respect and thanks that could well pass between peoplewhere on
either side they understood not one word they could saythey put
off with their boatand came back towards the first island; where
when they arrivedthey set eight of their prisoners at liberty
there being too many of them for their occasion. In their voyage
they endeavoured to have some communication with their prisoners;
but it was impossible to make them understand anything. Nothing
they could say to themor give themor do for thembut was
looked upon as going to murder them. They first of all unbound
them; but the poor creatures screamed at thatespecially the
womenas if they had just felt the knife at their throats; for
they immediately concluded they were unbound on purpose to be
killed. If they gave them thing to eatit was the same thing;
they then concluded it was for fear they should sink in fleshand
so not be fat enough to kill. If they looked at one of them more
particularlythe party presently concluded it was to see whether
he or she was fattestand fittest to kill first; nayafter they
had brought them quite overand began to use them kindlyand
treat them wellstill they expected every day to make a dinner or
supper for their new masters.

When the three wanderers had give this unaccountable history or
journal of their voyagethe Spaniard asked them where their new
family was; and being told that they had brought them on shoreand
put them into one of their hutsand were come up to beg some
victuals for themthey (the Spaniards) and the other two
Englishmenthat is to saythe whole colonyresolved to go all
down to the place and see them; and did soand Friday's father
with them. When they came into the hutthere they satall bound;
for when they had brought them on shore they bound their hands that
they might not take the boat and make their escape; thereI say
they satall of them stark naked. Firstthere were three comely
fellowswell shapedwith straight limbsabout thirty to thirtyfive
years of age; and five womenwhereof two might be from thirty
to fortytwo more about four or five and twenty; and the fiftha
tallcomely maidenabout seventeen. The women were wellfavoured
agreeable personsboth in shape and featuresonly
tawny; and two of themhad they been perfect whitewould have
passed for very handsome womeneven in Londonhaving pleasant
countenancesand of a very modest behaviour; especially when they
came afterwards to be clothed and dressedthough that dress was
very indifferentit must be confessed.

The sightyou may be surewas something uncouth to our Spaniards

who wereto give them a just charactermen of the most calm
sedate tempersand perfect good humourthat ever I met with:
andin particularof the utmost modesty: I saythe sight was
very uncouthto see three naked men and five naked womenall
together boundand in the most miserable circumstances that human
nature could be supposed to beviz. to be expecting every moment
to be dragged out and have their brains knocked outand then to be
eaten up like a calf that is killed for a dainty.

The first thing they did was to cause the old IndianFriday's
fatherto go inand see first if he knew any of themand then if
he understood any of their speech. As soon as the old man came in
he looked seriously at thembut knew none of them; neither could
any of them understand a word he saidor a sign he could make
except one of the women. Howeverthis was enough to answer the
endwhich was to satisfy them that the men into whose hands they
were fallen were Christians; that they abhorred eating men or
women; and that they might be sure they would not be killed. As
soon as they were assured of thisthey discovered such a joyand
by such awkward gesturesseveral waysas is hard to describe; for
it seems they were of several nations. The woman who was their
interpreter was bidin the next placeto ask them if they were
willing to be servantsand to work for the men who had brought
them awayto save their lives; at which they all fell a-dancing;
and presently one fell to taking up thisand another that
anything that lay nextto carry on their shouldersto intimate
they were willing to work.

The governorwho found that the having women among them would
presently be attended with some inconvenienceand might occasion
some strifeand perhaps bloodasked the three men what they
intended to do with these womenand how they intended to use them
whether as servants or as wives? One of the Englishmen answered
very boldly and readilythat they would use them as both; to which
the governor said: "I am not going to restrain you from it--you
are your own masters as to that; but this I think is but justfor
avoiding disorders and quarrels among youand I desire it of you
for that reason onlyviz. that you will all engagethat if any of
you take any of these women as a wifehe shall take but one; and
that having taken onenone else shall touch her; for though we
cannot marry any one of youyet it is but reasonable thatwhile
you stay herethe woman any of you takes shall be maintained by
the man that takes herand should be his wife--I mean says he,
while he continues hereand that none else shall have anything to
do with her." All this appeared so justthat every one agreed to
it without any difficulty.

Then the Englishmen asked the Spaniards if they designed to take
any of them? But every one of them answered "No." Some of them
said they had wives in Spainand the others did not like women
that were not Christians; and all together declared that they would
not touch one of themwhich was an instance of such virtue as I
have not met with in all my travels. On the other handthe five
Englishmen took them every one a wifethat is to saya temporary
wife; and so they set up a new form of living; for the Spaniards
and Friday's father lived in my old habitationwhich they had
enlarged exceedingly within. The three servants which were taken
in the last battle of the savages lived with them; and these
carried on the main part of the colonysupplied all the rest with
foodand assisted them in anything as they couldor as they found
necessity required.

But the wonder of the story washow five such refractoryillmatched
fellows should agree about these womenand that some two

of them should not choose the same womanespecially seeing two or
three of them werewithout comparisonmore agreeable than the
others; but they took a good way enough to prevent quarrelling
among themselvesfor they set the five women by themselves in one
of their hutsand they went all into the other hutand drew lots
among them who should choose first.

Him that drew to choose first went away by himself to the hut where
the poor naked creatures wereand fetched out her he chose; and it
was worth observingthat he that chose first took her that was
reckoned the homeliest and oldest of the fivewhich made mirth
enough amongst the rest; and even the Spaniards laughed at it; but
the fellow considered better than any of themthat it was
application and business they were to expect assistance inas much
as in anything else; and she proved the best wife of all the

When the poor women saw themselves set in a row thusand fetched
out one by onethe terrors of their condition returned upon them
againand they firmly believed they were now going to be devoured.
Accordinglywhen the English sailor came in and fetched out one of
themthe rest set up a most lamentable cryand hung about her
and took their leave of her with such agonies and affection as
would have grieved the hardest heart in the world: nor was it
possible for the Englishmen to satisfy them that they were not to
be immediately murderedtill they fetched the old manFriday's
fatherwho immediately let them know that the five menwho were
to fetch them out one by onehad chosen them for their wives.
When they had doneand the fright the women were in was a little
overthe men went to workand the Spaniards came and helped them:
and in a few hours they had built them every one a new hut or tent
for their lodging apart; for those they had already were crowded
with their toolshousehold stuffand provisions. The three
wicked ones had pitched farthest offand the two honest ones
nearerbut both on the north shore of the islandso that they
continued separated as before; and thus my island was peopled in
three placesandas I might saythree towns were begun to be

And here it is very well worth observing thatas it often happens
in the world (what the wise ends in God's providence arein such a
disposition of thingsI cannot say)the two honest fellows had
the two worst wives; and the three reprobatesthat were scarce
worth hangingthat were fit for nothingand neither seemed born
to do themselves good nor any one elsehad three clevercareful
and ingenious wives; not that the first two were bad wives as to
their temper or humourfor all the five were most willingquiet
passiveand subjected creaturesrather like slaves than wives;
but my meaning isthey were not alike capableingeniousor
industriousor alike cleanly and neat. Another observation I must
maketo the honour of a diligent application on one handand to
the disgrace of a slothfulnegligentidle temper on the other
that when I came to the placeand viewed the several improvements
plantingsand management of the several little coloniesthe two
men had so far out-gone the threethat there was no comparison.
They hadindeedboth of them as much ground laid out for corn as
they wantedand the reason wasbecauseaccording to my rule
nature dictated that it was to no purpose to sow more corn than
they wanted; but the difference of the cultivationof the
plantingof the fencesand indeedof everything elsewas easy
to be seen at first view.

The two men had innumerable young trees planted about their huts
so thatwhen you came to the placenothing was to be seen but a

wood; and though they had twice had their plantation demolished
once by their own countrymenand once by the enemyas shall be
shown in its placeyet they had restored all againand everything
was thriving and flourishing about them; they had grapes planted in
orderand managed like a vineyardthough they had themselves
never seen anything of that kind; and by their good ordering their
vinestheir grapes were as good again as any of the others. They
had also found themselves out a retreat in the thickest part of the
woodswherethough there was not a natural caveas I had found
yet they made one with incessant labour of their handsand where
when the mischief which followed happenedthey secured their wives
and children so as they could never be found; they havingby
sticking innumerable stakes and poles of the wood whichas I said
grew so readilymade the grove impassableexcept in some places
when they climbed up to get over the outside partand then went on
by ways of their own leaving.

As to the three reprobatesas I justly call themthough they were
much civilised by their settlement compared to what they were
beforeand were not so quarrelsomehaving not the same
opportunity; yet one of the certain companions of a profligate mind
never left themand that was their idleness. It is truethey
planted corn and made fences; but Solomon's words were never better
verified than in themI went by the vineyard of the slothful, and
it was all overgrown with thorns: for when the Spaniards came to
view their crop they could not see it in some places for weedsthe
hedge had several gaps in itwhere the wild goats had got in and
eaten up the corn; perhaps here and there a dead bush was crammed
into stop them out for the presentbut it was only shutting the
stable-door after the steed was stolen. Whereaswhen they looked
on the colony of the other twothere was the very face of industry
and success upon all they did; there was not a weed to be seen in
all their cornor a gap in any of their hedges; and theyon the
other handverified Solomon's words in another placethat the
diligent hand maketh rich; for everything grew and thrivedand
they had plenty within and without; they had more tame cattle than
the othersmore utensils and necessaries within doorsand yet
more pleasure and diversion too.

It is truethe wives of the three were very handy and cleanly
within doors; and having learned the English ways of dressingand
cooking from one of the other Englishmenwhoas I saidwas a
cook's mate on board the shipthey dressed their husbands'
victuals very nicely and well; whereas the others could not be
brought to understand it; but then the husbandwhoas I sayhad
been cook's matedid it himself. But as for the husbands of the
three wivesthey loitered aboutfetched turtles' eggsand caught
fish and birds: in a wordanything but labour; and they fared
accordingly. The diligent lived well and comfortablyand the
slothful hard and beggarly; and soI believegenerally speaking
it is all over the world.

But I now come to a scene different from all that had happened
beforeeither to them or to me; and the origin of the story was
this: Early one morning there came on shore five or six canoes of
Indians or savagescall them which you pleaseand there is no
room to doubt they came upon the old errand of feeding upon their
slaves; but that part was now so familiar to the Spaniardsand to
our men toothat they did not concern themselves about itas I
did: but having been made sensibleby their experiencethat
their only business was to lie concealedand that if they were not
seen by any of the savages they would go off again quietlywhen
their business was donehaving as yet not the least notion of
there being any inhabitants in the island; I sayhaving been made

sensible of thisthey had nothing to do but to give notice to all
the three plantations to keep within doorsand not show
themselvesonly placing a scout in a proper placeto give notice
when the boats went to sea again.

This waswithout doubtvery right; but a disaster spoiled all
these measuresand made it known among the savages that there were
inhabitants there; which wasin the endthe desolation of almost
the whole colony. After the canoes with the savages were gone off
the Spaniards peeped abroad again; and some of them had the
curiosity to go to the place where they had beento see what they
had been doing. Hereto their great surprisethey found three
savages left behindand lying fast asleep upon the ground. It was
supposed they had either been so gorged with their inhuman feast
thatlike beaststhey were fallen asleepand would not stir when
the others wentor they had wandered into the woodsand did not
come back in time to be taken in.

The Spaniards were greatly surprised at this sight and perfectly at
a loss what to do. The Spaniard governoras it happenedwas with
themand his advice was askedbut he professed he knew not what
to do. As for slavesthey had enough already; and as to killing
themthere were none of them inclined to do that: the Spaniard
governor told me they could not think of shedding innocent blood;
for as to themthe poor creatures had done them no wronginvaded
none of their propertyand they thought they had no just quarrel
against themto take away their lives. And here I mustin
justice to these Spaniardsobserve thatlet the accounts of
Spanish cruelty in Mexico and Peru be what they willI never met
with seventeen men of any nation whatsoeverin any foreign
countrywho were so universally modesttemperatevirtuousso
very good-humouredand so courteousas these Spaniards: and as
to crueltythey had nothing of it in their very nature; no
inhumanityno barbarityno outrageous passions; and yet all of
them men of great courage and spirit. Their temper and calmness
had appeared in their bearing the insufferable usage of the three
Englishmen; and their justice and humanity appeared now in the case
of the savages above. After some consultation they resolved upon
this; that they would lie still a while longertillif possible
these three men might be gone. But then the governor recollected
that the three savages had no boat; and if they were left to rove
about the islandthey would certainly discover that there were
inhabitants in it; and so they should be undone that way. Upon
thisthey went back againand there lay the fellows fast asleep
stilland so they resolved to awaken themand take them
prisoners; and they did so. The poor fellows were strangely
frightened when they were seized upon and bound; and afraidlike
the womenthat they should be murdered and eaten: for it seems
those people think all the world does as they doin eating men's
flesh; but they were soon made easy as to thatand away they
carried them.

It was very happy for them that they did not carry them home to the
castleI mean to my palace under the hill; but they carried them
first to the bowerwhere was the chief of their country worksuch
as the keeping the goatsthe planting the corn&c.; and afterward
they carried them to the habitation of the two Englishmen. Here
they were set to workthough it was not much they had for them to
do; and whether it was by negligence in guarding themor that they
thought the fellows could not mend themselvesI know notbut one
of them ran awayandtaking to the woodsthey could never hear
of him any more. They had good reason to believe he got home again
soon after in some other boats or canoes of savages who came on
shore three or four weeks afterwardsand whocarrying on their

revels as usualwent off in two days' time. This thought
terrified them exceedingly; for they concludedand that not
without good cause indeedthat if this fellow came home safe among
his comradeshe would certainly give them an account that there
were people in the islandand also how few and weak they were; for
this savageas observed beforehad never been toldand it was
very happy he had nothow many there were or where they lived; nor
had he ever seen or heard the fire of any of their gunsmuch less
had they shown him any of their other retired places; such as the
cave in the valleyor the new retreat which the two Englishmen had
madeand the like.

The first testimony they had that this fellow had given
intelligence of them wasthat about two mouths after this six
canoes of savageswith about seveneightor ten men in a canoe
came rowing along the north side of the islandwhere they never
used to come beforeand landedabout an hour after sunriseat a
convenient placeabout a mile from the habitation of the two
Englishmenwhere this escaped man had been kept. As the chief
Spaniard saidhad they been all there the damage would not have
been so muchfor not a man of them would have escaped; but the
case differed now very muchfor two men to fifty was too much
odds. The two men had the happiness to discover them about a
league offso that it was above an hour before they landed; and as
they landed a mile from their hutsit was some time before they
could come at them. Nowhaving great reason to believe that they
were betrayedthe first thing they did was to bind the two slaves
which were leftand cause two of the three men whom they brought
with the women (whoit seemsproved very faithful to them) to
lead themwith their two wivesand whatever they could carry away
with themto their retired places in the woodswhich I have
spoken of aboveand there to bind the two fellows hand and foot
till they heard farther. In the next placeseeing the savages
were all come on shoreand that they had bent their course
directly that waythey opened the fences where the milch cows were
keptand drove them all out; leaving their goats to straggle in
the woodswhither they pleasedthat the savages might think they
were all bred wild; but the rogue who came with them was too
cunning for thatand gave them an account of it allfor they went
directly to the place.

When the two poor frightened men had secured their wives and goods
they sent the other slave they had of the three who came with the
womenand who was at their place by accidentaway to the
Spaniards with all speedto give them the alarmand desire speedy
helpandin the meantimethey took their arms and what
ammunition they hadand retreated towards the place in the wood
where their wives were sent; keeping at a distanceyet so that
they might seeif possiblewhich way the savages took. They had
not gone far but that from a rising ground they could see the
little army of their enemies come on directly to their habitation
andin a moment morecould see all their huts and household stuff
flaming up togetherto their great grief and mortification; for
this was a great loss to themirretrievableindeedfor some
time. They kept their station for a whiletill they found the
savageslike wild beastsspread themselves all over the place
rummaging every wayand every place they could think ofin search
of prey; and in particular for the peopleof whom now it plainly
appeared they had intelligence.

The two Englishmen seeing thisthinking themselves not secure
where they stoodbecause it was likely some of the wild people
might come that wayand they might come too many togetherthought
it proper to make another retreat about half a mile farther;

believingas it afterwards happenedthat the further they
strolledthe fewer would be together. Their next halt was at the
entrance into a very thick-grown part of the woodsand where an
old trunk of a tree stoodwhich was hollow and very large; and in
this tree they both took their standingresolving to see there
what might offer. They had not stood there long before two of the
savages appeared running directly that wayas if they had already
had notice where they stoodand were coming up to attack them; and
a little way farther they espied three more coming after themand
five more beyond themall coming the same way; besides whichthey
saw seven or eight more at a distancerunning another way; for in
a wordthey ran every waylike sportsmen beating for their game.

The poor men were now in great perplexity whether they should stand
and keep their posture or fly; but after a very short debate with
themselvesthey considered that if the savages ranged the country
thus before help camethey might perhaps find their retreat in the
woodsand then all would be lost; so they resolved to stand them
thereand if they were too many to deal withthen they would get
up to the top of the treefrom whence they doubted not to defend
themselvesfire exceptedas long as their ammunition lasted
though all the savages that were landedwhich was near fiftywere
to attack them.

Having resolved upon thisthey next considered whether they should
fire at the first twoor wait for the threeand so take the
middle partyby which the two and the five that followed would be
separated; at length they resolved to let the first two pass by
unless they should spy them the treeand come to attack them. The
first two savages confirmed them also in this resolutionby
turning a little from them towards another part of the wood; but
the threeand the five after themcame forward directly to the
treeas if they had known the Englishmen were there. Seeing them
come so straight towards themthey resolved to take them in a line
as they came: and as they resolved to fire but one at a time
perhaps the first shot might hit them all three; for which purpose
the man who was to fire put three or four small bullets into his
piece; and having a fair loopholeas it werefrom a broken hole
in the treehe took a sure aimwithout being seenwaiting till
they were within about thirty yards of the treeso that he could
not miss.

While they were thus waitingand the savages came onthey plainly
saw that one of the three was the runaway savage that had escaped
from them; and they both knew him distinctlyand resolved thatif
possiblehe should not escapethough they should both fire; so
the other stood ready with his piecethat if he did not drop at
the first shothe should be sure to have a second. But the first
was too good a marksman to miss his aim; for as the savages kept
near one anothera little behind in a linehe firedand hit two
of them directly; the foremost was killed outrightbeing shot in
the head; the secondwhich was the runaway Indianwas shot
through the bodyand fellbut was not quite dead; and the third
had a little scratch in the shoulderperhaps by the same ball that
went through the body of the second; and being dreadfully
frightenedthough not so much hurtsat down upon the ground
screaming and yelling in a hideous manner.

The five that were behindmore frightened with the noise than
sensible of the dangerstood still at first; for the woods made
the sound a thousand times bigger than it really wasthe echoes
rattling from one side to anotherand the fowls rising from all
partsscreamingand every sort making a different noise
according to their kind; just as it was when I fired the first gun

that perhaps was ever shot off in the island.

Howeverall being silent againand they not knowing what the
matter wascame on unconcernedtill they came to the place where
their companions lay in a condition miserable enough. Here the
poor ignorant creaturesnot sensible that they were within reach
of the same mischiefstood all together over the wounded man
talkingandas may be supposedinquiring of him how he came to
be hurt; and whoit is very rational to believetold them that a
flash of fire firstand immediately after that thunder from their
godshad killed those two and wounded him. ThisI sayis
rational; for nothing is more certain than thatas they saw no man
near themso they had never heard a gun in all their livesnor so
much as heard of a gun; neither knew they anything of killing and
wounding at a distance with fire and bullets: if they hadone
might reasonably believe they would not have stood so unconcerned
to view the fate of their fellowswithout some apprehensions of
their own.

Our two menas they confessed to mewere grieved to be obliged to
kill so many poor creatureswho had no notion of their danger;
yethaving them all thus in their powerand the first having
loaded his piece againresolved to let fly both together among
them; and singling outby agreementwhich to aim atthey shot
togetherand killedor very much woundedfour of them; the
fifthfrightened even to deaththough not hurtfell with the
rest; so that our menseeing them all fall togetherthought they
had killed them all.

The belief that the savages were all killed made our two men come
boldly out from the tree before they had charged their gunswhich
was a wrong step; and they were under some surprise when they came
to the placeand found no less than four of them aliveand of
them two very little hurtand one not at all. This obliged them
to fall upon them with the stocks of their muskets; and first they
made sure of the runaway savagethat had been the cause of all the
mischiefand of another that was hurt in the kneeand put them
out of their pain; then the man that was not hurt at all came and
kneeled down to themwith his two hands held upand made piteous
moans to themby gestures and signsfor his lifebut could not
say one word to them that they could understand. Howeverthey
made signs to him to sit down at the foot of a tree hard by; and
one of the Englishmenwith a piece of rope-yarnwhich he had by
great chance in his pockettied his two hands behind himand
there they left him; and with what speed they could made after the
other twowhich were gone beforefearing theyor any more of
themshould find way to their covered place in the woodswhere
their wivesand the few goods they had leftlay. They came once
in sight of the two menbut it was at a great distance; however
they had the satisfaction to see them cross over a valley towards
the seaquite the contrary way from that which led to their
retreatwhich they were afraid of; and being satisfied with that
they went back to the tree where they left their prisonerwhoas
they supposedwas delivered by his comradesfor he was goneand
the two pieces of rope-yarn with which they had bound him lay just
at the foot of the tree.

They were now in as great concern as beforenot knowing what
course to takeor how near the enemy might beor in what number;
so they resolved to go away to the place where their wives wereto
see if all was well thereand to make them easy. These were in
fright enoughto be sure; for though the savages were their own
countrymenyet they were most terribly afraid of themand perhaps
the more for the knowledge they had of them. When they came there

they found the savages had been in the woodand very near that
placebut had not found it; for it was indeed inaccessiblefrom
the trees standing so thickunless the persons seeking it had been
directed by those that knew itwhich these did not: they found
thereforeeverything very safeonly the women in a terrible
fright. While they were here they had the comfort to have seven of
the Spaniards come to their assistance; the other tenwith their
servantsand Friday's fatherwere gone in a body to defend their
bowerand the corn and cattle that were kept therein case the
savages should have roved over to that side of the countrybut
they did not spread so far. With the seven Spaniards came one of
the three savageswhoas I saidwere their prisoners formerly;
and with them also came the savage whom the Englishmen had left
bound hand and foot at the tree; for it seems they came that way
saw the slaughter of the seven menand unbound the eighthand
brought him along with them; wherehoweverthey were obliged to
bind againas they had the two others who were left when the third
ran away.

The prisoners now began to be a burden to them; and they were so
afraid of their escapingthat they were once resolving to kill
them allbelieving they were under an absolute necessity to do so
for their own preservation. Howeverthe chief of the Spaniards
would not consent to itbut orderedfor the presentthat they
should be sent out of the way to my old cave in the valleyand be
kept therewith two Spaniards to guard themand have food for
their subsistencewhich was done; and they were bound there hand
and foot for that night.

When the Spaniards camethe two Englishmen were so encouraged
that they could not satisfy themselves to stay any longer there;
but taking five of the Spaniardsand themselveswith four muskets
and a pistol among themand two stout quarter-stavesaway they
went in quest of the savages. And first they came to the tree
where the men lay that had been killed; but it was easy to see that
some more of the savages had been therefor they had attempted to
carry their dead men awayand had dragged two of them a good way
but had given it over. From thence they advanced to the first
rising groundwhere they had stood and seen their camp destroyed
and where they had the mortification still to see some of the
smoke; but neither could they here see any of the savages. They
then resolvedthough with all possible cautionto go forward
towards their ruined plantation; buta little before they came
thithercoming in sight of the sea-shorethey saw plainly the
savages all embarked again in their canoesin order to be gone.
They seemed sorry at first that there was no way to come at them
to give them a parting blow; butupon the wholethey were very
well satisfied to be rid of them.

The poor Englishmen being now twice ruinedand all their
improvements destroyedthe rest all agreed to come and help them
to rebuildand assist them with needful supplies. Their three
countrymenwho were not yet noted for having the least inclination
to do any goodyet as soon as they heard of it (for theyliving
remote eastwardknew nothing of the matter till all was over)
came and offered their help and assistanceand didvery friendly
work for several days to restore their habitation and make
necessaries for them. And thus in a little time they were set upon
their legs again.

About two days after this they had the farther satisfaction of
seeing three of the savages' canoes come driving on shoreandat
some distance from themtwo drowned menby which they had reason
to believe that they had met with a storm at seawhich had overset

some of them; for it had blown very hard the night after they went
off. Howeveras some might miscarrysoon the other hand
enough of them escaped to inform the restas well of what they had
done as of what had happened to them; and to whet them on to
another enterprise of the same naturewhich theyit seems
resolved to attemptwith sufficient force to carry all before
them; for except what the first man had told them of inhabitants
they could say little of it of their own knowledgefor they never
saw one man; and the fellow being killed that had affirmed itthey
had no other witness to confirm it tothem.


It was five or six months after this before they heard any more of
the savagesin which time our men were in hopes they had either
forgot their former bad luckor given over hopes of better; when
on a suddenthey were invaded with a most formidable fleet of no
less than eight-and-twenty canoesfull of savagesarmed with bows
and arrowsgreat clubswooden swordsand such like engines of
war; and they brought such numbers with themthatin shortit
put all our people into the utmost consternation.

As they came on shore in the eveningand at the easternmost side
of the islandour men had that night to consult and consider what
to do. In the first placeknowing that their being entirely
concealed was their only safety before and would be much more so
nowwhile the number of their enemies would be so greatthey
resolvedfirst of allto take down the huts which were built for
the two Englishmenand drive away their goats to the old cave;
because they supposed the savages would go directly thitheras
soon as it was dayto play the old game over againthough they
did not now land within two leagues of it. In the next placethey
drove away all the flocks of goats they had at the old boweras I
called itwhich belonged to the Spaniards; andin shortleft as
little appearance of inhabitants anywhere as was possible; and the
next morning early they posted themselveswith all their forceat
the plantation of the two mento wait for their coming. As they
guessedso it happened: these new invadersleaving their canoes
at the east end of the islandcame ranging along the shore
directly towards the placeto the number of two hundred and fifty
as near as our men could judge. Our army was but small indeed;
butthat which was worsethey had not arms for all their number.
The whole accountit seemsstood thus: firstas to men
seventeen Spaniardsfive Englishmenold Fridaythe three slaves
taken with the womenwho proved very faithfuland three other
slaveswho lived with the Spaniards. To arm thesethey had
eleven musketsfive pistolsthree fowling-piecesfive muskets or
fowling-pieces which were taken by me from the mutinous seamen whom
I reducedtwo swordsand three old halberds.

To their slaves they did not give either musket or fusee; but they
had each a halberdor a long stafflike a quarter-staffwith a
great spike of iron fastened into each end of itand by his side a
hatchet; also every one of our men had a hatchet. Two of the women
could not be prevailed upon but they would come into the fightand
they had bows and arrowswhich the Spaniards had taken from the
savages when the first action happenedwhich I have spoken of
where the Indians fought with one another; and the women had
hatchets too.

The chief Spaniardwhom I described so oftencommanded the whole;
and Will Atkinswhothough a dreadful fellow for wickednesswas
a most daringbold fellowcommanded under him. The savages came
forward like lions; and our menwhich was the worst of their fate
had no advantage in their situation; only that Will Atkinswho now
proved a most useful fellowwith six menwas planted just behind
a small thicket of bushes as an advanced guardwith orders to let
the first of them pass by and then fire into the middle of them
and as soon as he had firedto make his retreat as nimbly as he
could round a part of the woodand so come in behind the
Spaniardswhere they stoodhaving a thicket of trees before them.

When the savages came onthey ran straggling about every way in
heapsout of all manner of orderand Will Atkins let about fifty
of them pass by him; then seeing the rest come in a very thick
thronghe orders three of his men to firehaving loaded their
muskets with six or seven bullets apieceabout as big as large
pistol-bullets. How many they killed or wounded they knew notbut
the consternation and surprise was inexpressible among the savages;
they were frightened to the last degree to hear such a dreadful
noiseand see their men killedand others hurtbut see nobody
that did it; whenin the middle of their frightWill Atkins and
his other three let fly again among the thickest of them; and in
less than a minute the first threebeing loaded againgave them a
third volley.

Had Will Atkins and his men retired immediatelyas soon as they
had firedas they were ordered to door had the rest of the body
been at hand to have poured in their shot continuallythe savages
had been effectually routed; for the terror that was among them
came principally from thisthat they were killed by the gods with
thunder and lightningand could see nobody that hurt them. But
Will Atkinsstaying to load againdiscovered the cheat: some of
the savages who were at a distance spying themcame upon them
behind; and though Atkins and his men fired at them alsotwo or
three timesand killed above twentyretiring as fast as they
couldyet they wounded Atkins himselfand killed one of his
fellow-Englishmen with their arrowsas they did afterwards one
Spaniardand one of the Indian slaves who came with the women.
This slave was a most gallant fellowand fought most desperately
killing five of them with his own handhaving no weapon but one of
the armed staves and a hatchet.

Our men being thus hard laid atAtkins woundedand two other men
killedretreated to a rising ground in the wood; and the
Spaniardsafter firing three volleys upon themretreated also;
for their number was so greatand they were so desperatethat
though above fifty of them were killedand more than as many
woundedyet they came on in the teeth of our menfearless of
dangerand shot their arrows like a cloud; and it was observed
that their wounded menwho were not quite disabledwere made
outrageous by their woundsand fought like madmen.

When our men retreatedthey left the Spaniard and the Englishman
that were killed behind them: and the savageswhen they came up
to themkilled them over again in a wretched mannerbreaking
their armslegsand headswith their clubs and wooden swords
like true savages; but finding our men were gonethey did not seem
inclined to pursue thembut drew themselves up in a ringwhich
isit seemstheir customand shouted twicein token of their
victory; after whichthey had the mortification to see several of
their wounded men falldying with the mere loss of blood.

The Spaniard governor having drawn his little body up together upon

a rising groundAtkinsthough he was woundedwould have had them
march and charge again all together at once: but the Spaniard
repliedSeignior Atkins, you see how their wounded men fight; let
them alone till morning; all the wounded men will be stiff and sore
with their wounds, and faint with the loss of blood; and so we
shall have the fewer to engage.This advice was good: but Will
Atkins replied merrilyThat is true, seignior, and so shall I
too; and that is the reason I would go on while I am warm.Well,
Seignior Atkins,says the Spaniardyou have behaved gallantly,
and done your part; we will fight for you if you cannot come on;
but I think it best to stay till morning:so they waited.

But as it was a clear moonlight nightand they found the savages
in great disorder about their dead and wounded menand a great
noise and hurry among them where they laythey afterwards resolved
to fall upon them in the nightespecially if they could come to
give them but one volley before they were discoveredwhich they
had a fair opportunity to do; for one of the Englishmen in whose
quarter it was where the fight beganled them round between the
woods and the seaside westwardand then turning short souththey
came so near where the thickest of them laythat before they were
seen or heard eight of them fired in among themand did dreadful
execution upon them; in half a minute more eight others fired after
thempouring in their small shot in such a quantity that abundance
were killed and wounded; and all this while they were not able to
see who hurt themor which way to fly.

The Spaniards charged again with the utmost expeditionand then
divided themselves into three bodiesand resolved to fall in among
them all together. They had in each body eight personsthat is to
saytwenty-two men and the two womenwhoby the wayfought
desperately. They divided the firearms equally in each partyas
well as the halberds and staves. They would have had the women
kept backbut they said they were resolved to die with their
husbands. Having thus formed their little armythey marched out
from among the treesand came up to the teeth of the enemy
shouting and hallooing as loud as they could; the savages stood all
togetherbut were in the utmost confusionhearing the noise of
our men shouting from three quarters together. They would have
fought if they had seen us; for as soon as we came near enough to
be seensome arrows were shotand poor old Friday was wounded
though not dangerously. But our men gave them no timebut running
up to themfired among them three waysand then fell in with the
butt-ends of their musketstheir swordsarmed stavesand
hatchetsand laid about them so well thatin a wordthey set up
a dismal screaming and howlingflying to save their lives which
way soever they could.

Our men were tired with the executionand killed or mortally
wounded in the two fights about one hundred and eighty of them; the
restbeing frightened out of their witsscoured through the woods
and over the hillswith all the speed that fear and nimble feet
could help them to; and as we did not trouble ourselves much to
pursue themthey got all together to the seasidewhere they
landedand where their canoes lay. But their disaster was not at
an end yet; for it blew a terrible storm of wind that evening from
the seaso that it was impossible for them to go off; naythe
storm continuing all nightwhen the tide came up their canoes were
most of them driven by the surge of the sea so high upon the shore
that it required infinite toil to get them off; and some of them
were even dashed to pieces against the beach. Our menthough glad
of their victoryyet got little rest that night; but having
refreshed themselves as well as they couldthey resolved to march
to that part of the island where the savages were fledand see

what posture they were in. This necessarily led them over the
place where the fight had beenand where they found several of the
poor creatures not quite deadand yet past recovering life; a
sight disagreeable enough to generous mindsfor a truly great man
though obliged by the law of battle to destroy his enemytakes no
delight in his misery. Howeverthere was no need to give any
orders in this case; for their own savageswho were their
servantsdespatched these poor creatures with their hatchets.

At length they came in view of the place where the more miserable
remains of the savages' army laywhere there appeared about a
hundred still; their posture was generally sitting upon the ground
with their knees up towards their mouthand the head put between
the two handsleaning down upon the knees. When our men came
within two musket-shots of themthe Spaniard governor ordered two
muskets to be fired without ballto alarm them; this he didthat
by their countenance he might know what to expectwhether they
were still in heart to fightor were so heartily beaten as to be
discouragedand so he might manage accordingly. This stratagem
took: for as soon as the savages heard the first gunand saw the
flash of the secondthey started up upon their feet in the
greatest consternation imaginable; and as our men advanced swiftly
towards themthey all ran screaming and yelling awaywith a kind
of howling noisewhich our men did not understandand had never
heard before; and thus they ran up the hills into the country.

At first our men had much rather the weather had been calmand
they had all gone away to sea: but they did not then consider that
this might probably have been the occasion of their coming again in
such multitudes as not to be resistedorat leastto come so
many and so often as would quite desolate the islandand starve
them. Will Atkinsthereforewho notwithstanding his wound kept
always with themproved the best counsellor in this case: his
advice wasto take the advantage that offeredand step in between
them and their boatsand so deprive them of the capacity of ever
returning any more to plague the island. They consulted long about
this; and some were against it for fear of making the wretches fly
to the woods and live there desperateand so they should have them
to hunt like wild beastsbe afraid to stir out about their
businessand have their plantations continually rifledall their
tame goats destroyedandin shortbe reduced to a life of
continual distress.

Will Atkins told them they had better have to do with a hundred men
than with a hundred nations; thatas they must destroy their
boatsso they must destroy the menor be all of them destroyed
themselves. In a wordhe showed them the necessity of it so
plainly that they all came into it; so they went to work
immediately with the boatsand getting some dry wood together from
a dead treethey tried to set some of them on firebut they were
so wet that they would not burn; howeverthe fire so burned the
upper part that it soon made them unfit for use at sea.

When the Indians saw what they were aboutsome of them came
running out of the woodsand coming as near as they could to our
menkneeled down and criedOa, Oa, Waramokoa,and some other
words of their languagewhich none of the others understood
anything of; but as they made pitiful gestures and strange noises
it was easy to understand they begged to have their boats spared
and that they would be goneand never come there again. But our
men were now satisfied that they had no way to preserve themselves
or to save their colonybut effectually to prevent any of these
people from ever going home again; depending upon thisthat if
even so much as one of them got back into their country to tell the

storythe colony was undone; so thatletting them know that they
should not have any mercythey fell to work with their canoesand
destroyed every one that the storm had not destroyed before; at the
sight of whichthe savages raised a hideous cry in the woods
which our people heard plain enoughafter which they ran about the
island like distracted menso thatin a wordour men did not
really know what at first to do with them. Nor did the Spaniards
with all their prudenceconsider that while they made those people
thus desperatethey ought to have kept a good guard at the same
time upon their plantations; for though it is true they had driven
away their cattleand the Indians did not find out their main
retreatI mean my old castle at the hillnor the cave in the
valleyyet they found out my plantation at the bowerand pulled
it all to piecesand all the fences and planting about it; trod
all the corn under foottore up the vines and grapesbeing just
then almost ripeand did our men inestimable damagethough to
themselves not one farthing's worth of service.

Though our men were able to fight them upon all occasionsyet they
were in no condition to pursue themor hunt them up and down; for
as they were too nimble of foot for our people when they found them
singleso our men durst not go abroad singlefor fear of being
surrounded with their numbers. The best was they had no weapons;
for though they had bowsthey had no arrows leftnor any
materials to make any; nor had they any edge-tool among them. The
extremity and distress they were reduced to was greatand indeed
deplorable; butat the same timeour men were also brought to
very bad circumstances by themfor though their retreats were
preservedyet their provision was destroyedand their harvest
spoiledand what to door which way to turn themselvesthey knew
not. The only refuge they had now was the stock of cattle they had
in the valley by the caveand some little corn which grew there
and the plantation of the three Englishmen. Will Atkins and his
comrades were now reduced to two; one of them being killed by an
arrowwhich struck him on the side of his headjust under the
templeso that he never spoke more; and it was very remarkable
that this was the same barbarous fellow that cut the poor savage
slave with his hatchetand who afterwards intended to have
murdered the Spaniards.

I looked upon their case to have been worse at this time than mine
was at any timeafter I first discovered the grains of barley and
riceand got into the manner of planting and raising my cornand
my tame cattle; for now they hadas I may saya hundred wolves
upon the islandwhich would devour everything they could come at
yet could be hardly come at themselves.

When they saw what their circumstances werethe first thing they
concluded wasthat they wouldif possibledrive the savages up
to the farther part of the islandsouth-westthat if any more
came on shore they might not find one another; thenthat they
would daily hunt and harass themand kill as many of them as they
could come attill they had reduced their number; and if they
could at last tame themand bring them to anythingthey would
give them cornand teach them how to plantand live upon their
daily labour. In order to do thisthey so followed themand so
terrified them with their gunsthat in a few daysif any of them
fired a gun at an Indianif he did not hit himyet he would fall
down for fear. So dreadfully frightened were they that they kept
out of sight farther and farther; till at last our men followed
themand almost every day killing or wounding some of themthey
kept up in the woods or hollow places so muchthat it reduced them
to the utmost misery for want of food; and many were afterwards
found dead in the woodswithout any hurtabsolutely starved to


When our men found thisit made their hearts relentand pity
moved themespecially the generous-minded Spaniard governor; and
he proposedif possibleto take one of them alive and bring him
to understand what they meantso far as to be able to act as
interpreterand go among them and see if they might be brought to
some conditions that might be depended uponto save their lives
and do us no harm.

It was some while before any of them could be taken; but being weak
and half-starvedone of them was at last surprised and made a
prisoner. He was sullen at firstand would neither eat nor drink;
but finding himself kindly usedand victuals given to himand no
violence offered himhe at last grew tractableand came to
himself. They often brought old Friday to talk to himwho always
told him how kind the others would be to them all; that they would
not only save their livesbut give them part of the island to live
inprovided they would give satisfaction that they would keep in
their own boundsand not come beyond it to injure or prejudice
others; and that they should have corn given them to plant and make
it grow for their breadand some bread given them for their
present subsistence; and old Friday bade the fellow go and talk
with the rest of his countrymenand see what they said to it;
assuring them thatif they did not agree immediatelythey should
be all destroyed.

The poor wretchesthoroughly humbledand reduced in number to
about thirty-sevenclosed with the proposal at the first offer
and begged to have some food given them; upon which twelve
Spaniards and two Englishmenwell armedwith three Indian slaves
and old Fridaymarched to the place where they were. The three
Indian slaves carried them a large quantity of breadsome rice
boiled up to cakes and dried in the sunand three live goats; and
they were ordered to go to the side of a hillwhere they sat down
ate their provisions very thankfullyand were the most faithful
fellows to their words that could be thought of; forexcept when
they came to beg victuals and directionsthey never came out of
their bounds; and there they lived when I came to the island and I
went to see them. They had taught them both to plant cornmake
breadbreed tame goatsand milk them: they wanted nothing but
wives in order for them soon to become a nation. They were
confined to a neck of landsurrounded with high rocks behind them
and lying plain towards the sea before themon the south-east
corner of the island. They had land enoughand it was very good
and fruitful; about a mile and a half broadand three or four
miles in length. Our men taught them to make wooden spadessuch
as I made for myselfand gave among them twelve hatchets and three
or four knives; and there they livedthe most subjectedinnocent
creatures that ever were heard of.

After this the colony enjoyed a perfect tranquillity with respect
to the savagestill I came to revisit themwhich was about two
years after; not but thatnow and thensome canoes of savages
came on shore for their triumphalunnatural feasts; but as they
were of several nationsand perhaps had never heard of those that
came beforeor the reason of itthey did not make any search or
inquiry after their countrymen; and if they hadit would have been
very hard to have found them out.

ThusI thinkI have given a full account of all that happened to
them till my returnat least that was worth notice. The Indians
were wonderfully civilised by themand they frequently went among
them; but they forbidon pain of deathany one of the Indians

coming to thembecause they would not have their settlement
betrayed again. One thing was very remarkableviz. that they
taught the savages to make wicker-workor basketsbut they soon
outdid their masters: for they made abundance of ingenious things
in wicker-workparticularly basketssievesbird-cages
cupboards&c.; as also chairsstoolsbedscouchesbeing very
ingenious at such work when they were once put in the way of it.

My coming was a particular relief to these peoplebecause we
furnished them with knivesscissorsspadesshovelspick-axes
and all things of that kind which they could want. With the help
of those tools they were so very handy that they came at last to
build up their huts or houses very handsomelyraddling or working
it up like basket-work all the way round. This piece of ingenuity
although it looked very oddwas an exceeding good fenceas well
against heat as against all sorts of vermin; and our men were so
taken with it that they got the Indians to come and do the like for
them; so that when I came to see the two Englishmen's colonies
they looked at a distance as if they all lived like bees in a hive.

As for Will Atkinswho was now become a very industrioususeful
and sober fellowhe had made himself such a tent of basket-work as
I believe was never seen; it was one hundred and twenty paces round
on the outsideas I measured by my steps; the walls were as close
worked as a basketin panels or squares of thirty-two in number
and very strongstanding about seven feet high; in the middle was
another not above twenty-two paces roundbut built strongerbeing
octagon in its formand in the eight corners stood eight very
strong posts; round the top of which he laid strong piecesknit
together with wooden pinsfrom which he raised a pyramid for a
handsome roof of eight raftersjoined together very wellthough
he had no nailsand only a few iron spikeswhich he made himself
tooout of the old iron that I had left there. Indeedthis
fellow showed abundance of ingenuity in several things which he had
no knowledge of: he made him a forgewith a pair of wooden
bellows to blow the fire; he made himself charcoal for his work;
and he formed out of the iron crows a middling good anvil to hammer
upon: in this manner he made many thingsbut especially hooks
staplesand spikesbolts and hinges. But to return to the house:
after he had pitched the roof of his innermost tenthe worked it
up between the rafters with basket-workso firmand thatched that
over again so ingeniously with rice-strawand over that a large
leaf of a treewhich covered the topthat his house was as dry as
if it had been tiled or slated. He ownedindeedthat the savages
had made the basket-work for him. The outer circuit was covered as
a lean-to all round this inner apartmentand long rafters lay from
the thirty-two angles to the top posts of the inner housebeing
about twenty feet distantso that there was a space like a walk
within the outer wicker-walland without the innernear twenty
feet wide.

The inner place he partitioned off with the same wickerworkbut
much fairerand divided into six apartmentsso that he had six
rooms on a floorand out of every one of these there was a door:
first into the entryor coming into the main tentanother door
into the main tentand another door into the space or walk that
was round it; so that walk was also divided into six equal parts
which served not only for a retreatbut to store up any
necessaries which the family had occasion for. These six spaces
not taking up the whole circumferencewhat other apartments the
outer circle had were thus ordered: As soon as you were in at the
door of the outer circle you had a short passage straight before
you to the door of the inner house; but on either side was a wicker
partition and a door in itby which you went first into a large

room or storehousetwenty feet wide and about thirty feet long
and through that into another not quite so long; so that in the
outer circle were ten handsome roomssix of which were only to be
come at through the apartments of the inner tentand served as
closets or retiring rooms to the respective chambers of the inner
circle; and four large warehousesor barnsor what you please to
call themwhich went through one anothertwo on either hand of
the passagethat led through the outer door to the inner tent.
Such a piece of basket-workI believewas never seen in the
worldnor a house or tent so neatly contrivedmuch less so built.
In this great bee-hive lived the three familiesthat is to say
Will Atkins and his companion; the third was killedbut his wife
remained with three childrenand the other two were not at all
backward to give the widow her full share of everythingI mean as
to their cornmilkgrapes&c.and when they killed a kidor
found a turtle on the shore; so that they all lived well enough;
though it was true they were not so industrious as the other two
as has been observed already.

One thinghowevercannot be omittedviz. that as for religionI
do not know that there was anything of that kind among them; they
oftenindeedput one another in mind that there was a Godby the
very common method of seamenswearing by His name: nor were their
poor ignorant savage wives much better for having been married to
Christiansas we must call them; for as they knew very little of
God themselvesso they were utterly incapable of entering into any
discourse with their wives about a Godor to talk anything to them
concerning religion.

The utmost of all the improvement which I can say the wives had
made from them wasthat they had taught them to speak English
pretty well; and most of their childrenwho were near twenty in
allwere taught to speak English toofrom their first learning to
speakthough they at first spoke it in a very broken mannerlike
their mothers. None of these children were above six years old
when I came thitherfor it was not much above seven years since
they had fetched these five savage ladies over; they had all
childrenmore or less: the mothers were all a good sort of wellgoverned
quietlaborious womenmodest and decenthelpful to one
anothermighty observantand subject to their masters (I cannot
call them husbands)and lacked nothing but to be well instructed
in the Christian religionand to be legally married; both of which
were happily brought about afterwards by my meansor at least in
consequence of my coming among them.


Having thus given an account of the colony in generaland pretty
much of my runagate EnglishmenI must say something of the
Spaniardswho were the main body of the familyand in whose story
there are some incidents also remarkable enough.

I had a great many discourses with them about their circumstances
when they were among the savages. They told me readily that they
had no instances to give of their application or ingenuity in that
country; that they were a poormiserabledejected handful of
people; that even if means had been put into their handsyet they
had so abandoned themselves to despairand were so sunk under the
weight of their misfortunethat they thought of nothing but
starving. One of thema grave and sensible mantold me he was

convinced they were in the wrong; that it was not the part of wise
men to give themselves up to their miserybut always to take hold
of the helps which reason offeredas well for present support as
for future deliverance: he told me that grief was the most
senselessinsignificant passion in the worldfor that it regarded
only things pastwhich were generally impossible to be recalled or
to be remediedbut had no views of things to comeand had no
share in anything that looked like deliverancebut rather added to
the affliction than proposed a remedy; and upon this he repeated a
Spanish proverbwhichthough I cannot repeat in the same words
that he spoke it inyet I remember I made it into an English
proverb of my ownthus:-

In trouble to be troubled,
Is to have your trouble doubled.

He then ran on in remarks upon all the little improvements I had
made in my solitude: my unwearied applicationas he called it;
and how I had made a conditionwhich in its circumstances was at
first much worse than theirsa thousand times more happy than
theirs waseven now when they were all together. He told me it
was remarkable that Englishmen had a greater presence of mind in
their distress than any people that ever he met with; that their
unhappy nation and the Portuguese were the worst men in the world
to struggle with misfortunes; for that their first step in dangers
after the common efforts were overwas to despairlie down under
itand diewithout rousing their thoughts up to proper remedies
for escape.

I told him their case and mine differed exceedingly; that they were
cast upon the shore without necessarieswithout supply of foodor
present sustenance till they could provide for it; thatit was
trueI had this further disadvantage and discomfortthat I was
alone; but then the supplies I had providentially thrown into my
handsby the unexpected driving of the ship on the shorewas such
a help as would have encouraged any creature in the world to have
applied himself as I had done. "Seignior says the Spaniard, had
we poor Spaniards been in your casewe should never have got half
those things out of the shipas you did: nay says he, we
should never have found means to have got a raft to carry themor
to have got the raft on shore without boat or sail: and how much
less should we have done if any of us had been alone!" WellI
desired him to abate his complimentsand go on with the history of
their coming on shorewhere they landed. He told me they
unhappily landed at a place where there were people without
provisions; whereashad they had the common sense to put off to
sea againand gone to another island a little furtherthey had
found provisionsthough without people: there being an island
that wayas they had been toldwhere there were provisions
though no people--that is to saythat the Spaniards of Trinidad
had frequently been thereand had filled the island with goats and
hogs at several timeswhere they had bred in such multitudesand
where turtle and sea-fowls were in such plentythat they could
have been in no want of fleshthough they had found no bread;
whereashere they were only sustained with a few roots and herbs
which they understood notand which had no substance in themand
which the inhabitants gave them sparingly enough; and they could
treat them no betterunless they would turn cannibals and eat
men's flesh.

They gave me an account how many ways they strove to civilise the
savages they were withand to teach them rational customs in the

ordinary way of livingbut in vain; and how they retorted upon
them as unjust that they who came there for assistance and support
should attempt to set up for instructors to those that gave them
food; intimatingit seemsthat none should set up for the
instructors of others but those who could live without them. They
gave me dismal accounts of the extremities they were driven to; how
sometimes they were many days without any food at allthe island
they were upon being inhabited by a sort of savages that lived more
indolentand for that reason were less supplied with the
necessaries of lifethan they had reason to believe others were in
the same part of the world; and yet they found that these savages
were less ravenous and voracious than those who had better supplies
of food. Alsothey addedthey could not but see with what
demonstrations of wisdom and goodness the governing providence of
God directs the events of things in this worldwhichthey said
appeared in their circumstances: for ifpressed by the hardships
they were underand the barrenness of the country where they were
they had searched after a better to live inthey had then been out
of the way of the relief that happened to them by my means.

They then gave me an account how the savages whom they lived
amongst expected them to go out with them into their wars; andit
was truethat as they had firearms with themhad they not had the
disaster to lose their ammunitionthey could have been serviceable
not only to their friendsbut have made themselves terrible both
to friends and enemies; but being without powder and shotand yet
in a condition that they could not in reason decline to go out with
their landlords to their wars; so when they came into the field of
battle they were in a worse condition than the savages themselves
for they had neither bows nor arrowsnor could they use those the
savages gave them. So they could do nothing but stand still and be
wounded with arrowstill they came up to the teeth of the enemy;
and thenindeedthe three halberds they had were of use to them;
and they would often drive a whole little army before them with
those halberdsand sharpened sticks put into the muzzles of their
muskets. But for all this they were sometimes surrounded with
multitudesand in great danger from their arrowstill at last
they found the way to make themselves large targets of woodwhich
they covered with skins of wild beastswhose names they knew not
and these covered them from the arrows of the savages: that
notwithstanding thesethey were sometimes in great danger; and
five of them were once knocked down together with the clubs of the
savageswhich was the time when one of them was taken prisoner-that
is to saythe Spaniard whom I relieved. At first they
thought he had been killed; but when they afterwards heard he was
taken prisonerthey were under the greatest grief imaginableand
would willingly have all ventured their lives to have rescued him.

They told me that when they were so knocked downthe rest of their
company rescued themand stood over them fighting till they were
come to themselvesall but him whom they thought had been dead;
and then they made their way with their halberds and pieces
standing close together in a linethrough a body of above a
thousand savagesbeating down all that came in their waygot the
victory over their enemiesbut to their great sorrowbecause it
was with the loss of their friendwhom the other party finding
alivecarried off with some othersas I gave an account before.
They describedmost affectionatelyhow they were surprised with
joy at the return of their friend and companion in miserywho they
thought had been devoured by wild beasts of the worst kind--wild
men; and yethow more and more they were surprised with the
account he gave them of his errandand that there was a Christian
in any place nearmuch more one that was ableand had humanity
enoughto contribute to their deliverance.

They described how they were astonished at the sight of the relief
I sent themand at the appearance of loaves of bread--things they
had not seen since their coming to that miserable place; how often
they crossed it and blessed it as bread sent from heaven; and what
a reviving cordial it was to their spirits to taste itas also the
other things I had sent for their supply; andafter allthey
would have told me something of the joy they were in at the sight
of a boat and pilotsto carry them away to the person and place
from whence all these new comforts came. But it was impossible to
express it by wordsfor their excessive joy naturally driving them
to unbecoming extravagancesthey had no way to describe them but
by telling me they bordered upon lunacyhaving no way to give vent
to their passions suitable to the sense that was upon them; that in
some it worked one way and in some another; and that some of them
through a surprise of joywould burst into tearsothers be stark
madand others immediately faint. This discourse extremely
affected meand called to my mind Friday's ecstasy when he met his
fatherand the poor people's ecstasy when I took them up at sea
after their ship was on fire; the joy of the mate of the ship when
he found himself delivered in the place where he expected to
perish; and my own joywhenafter twenty-eight years' captivity
I found a good ship ready to carry me to my own country. All these
things made me more sensible of the relation of these poor menand
more affected with it.

Having thus given a view of the state of things as I found themI
must relate the heads of what I did for these peopleand the
condition in which I left them. It was their opinionand mine
toothat they would be troubled no more with the savagesor if
they werethey would be able to cut them offif they were twice
as many as before; so they had no concern about that. Then I
entered into a serious discourse with the Spaniardwhom I call
governorabout their stay in the island; for as I was not come to
carry any of them offso it would not be just to carry off some
and leave otherswhoperhapswould be unwilling to stay if their
strength was diminished. On the other handI told them I came to
establish them therenot to remove them; and then I let them know
that I had brought with me relief of sundry kinds for them; that I
had been at a great charge to supply them with all things
necessaryas well for their convenience as their defence; and that
I had such and such particular persons with meas well to increase
and recruit their numberas by the particular necessary
employments which they were bred tobeing artificersto assist
them in those things in which at present they were in want.

They were all together when I talked thus to them; and before I
delivered to them the stores I had broughtI asked themone by
oneif they had entirely forgot and buried the first animosities
that had been among themand would shake hands with one another
and engage in a strict friendship and union of interestthat so
there might be no more misunderstandings and jealousies.

Will Atkinswith abundance of frankness and good humoursaid they
had met with affliction enough to make them all soberand enemies
enough to make them all friends; thatfor his parthe would live
and die with themand was so far from designing anything against
the Spaniardsthat he owned they had done nothing to him but what
his own mad humour made necessaryand what he would have doneand
perhaps worsein their case; and that he would ask them pardonif
I desired itfor the foolish and brutish things he had done to
themand was very willing and desirous of living in terms of
entire friendship and union with themand would do anything that
lay in his power to convince them of it; and as for going to

Englandhe cared not if he did not go thither these twenty years.

The Spaniards said they hadindeedat first disarmed and excluded
Will Atkins and his two countrymen for their ill conductas they
had let me knowand they appealed to me for the necessity they
were under to do so; but that Will Atkins had behaved himself so
bravely in the great fight they had with the savagesand on
several occasions sinceand had showed himself so faithful toand
concerned forthe general interest of them allthat they had
forgotten all that was pastand thought he merited as much to be
trusted with arms and supplied with necessaries as any of them;
that they had testified their satisfaction in him by committing the
command to him next to the governor himself; and as they had entire
confidence in him and all his countrymenso they acknowledged they
had merited that confidence by all the methods that honest men
could merit to be valued and trusted; and they most heartily
embraced the occasion of giving me this assurancethat they would
never have any interest separate from one another.

Upon these frank and open declarations of friendshipwe appointed
the next day to dine all together; andindeedwe made a splendid
feast. I caused the ship's cook and his mate to come on shore and
dress our dinnerand the old cook's mate we had on shore assisted.
We brought on shore six pieces of good beef and four pieces of
porkout of the ship's provisionswith our punch-bowl and
materials to fill it; and in particular I gave them ten bottles of
French claretand ten bottles of English beer; things that neither
the Spaniards nor the English had tasted for many yearsand which
it may be supposed they were very glad of. The Spaniards added to
our feast five whole kidswhich the cooks roasted; and three of
them were sentcovered up closeon board the ship to the seamen
that they might feast on fresh meat from on shoreas we did with
their salt meat from on board.

After this feastat which we were very innocently merryI brought
my cargo of goods; whereinthat there might be no dispute about
dividingI showed them that there was a sufficiency for them all
desiring that they might all take an equal quantitywhen made up
of the goods that were for wearing. AsfirstI distributed linen
sufficient to make every one of them four shirtsandat the
Spaniard's requestafterwards made them up six; these were
exceeding comfortable to themhaving been what they had long since
forgot the use ofor what it was to wear them. I allotted the
thin English stuffswhich I mentioned beforeto make every one a
light coatlike a frockwhich I judged fittest for the heat of
the seasoncool and loose; and ordered that whenever they decayed
they should make moreas they thought fit; the like for pumps
shoesstockingshats&c. I cannot express what pleasure sat
upon the countenances of all these poor men when they saw the care
I had taken of themand how well I had furnished them. They told
me I was a father to them; and that having such a correspondent as
I was in so remote a part of the worldit would make them forget
that they were left in a desolate place; and they all voluntarily
engaged to me not to leave the place without my consent.

Then I presented to them the people I had brought with me
particularly the tailorthe smithand the two carpentersall of
them most necessary people; butabove allmy general artificer
than whom they could not name anything that was more useful to
them; and the tailorto show his concern for themwent to work
immediatelyandwith my leavemade them every one a shirtthe
first thing he did; andwhat was still morehe taught the women
not only how to sew and stitchand use the needlebut made them
assist to make the shirts for their husbandsand for all the rest.

As to the carpentersI scarce need mention how useful they were;
for they took to pieces all my clumsyunhandy thingsand made
clever convenient tablesstoolsbedsteadscupboardslockers
shelvesand everything they wanted of that kind. But to let them
see how nature made artificers at firstI carried the carpenters
to see Will Atkins' basket-houseas I called it; and they both
owned they never saw an instance of such natural ingenuity before
nor anything so regular and so handily builtat least of its kind;
and one of themwhen he saw itafter musing a good whileturning
about to meI am sure,says hethat man has no need of us; you
need do nothing but give him tools.

Then I brought them out all my store of toolsand gave every man a
digging-spadea shoveland a rakefor we had no barrows or
ploughs; and to every separate place a pickaxea crowa broad
axeand a saw; always appointingthat as often as any were broken
or worn outthey should be supplied without grudging out of the
general stores that I left behind. Nailsstapleshinges
hammerschiselsknivesscissorsand all sorts of ironworkthey
had without reserveas they required; for no man would take more
than he wantedand he must be a fool that would waste or spoil
them on any account whatever; and for the use of the smith I left
two tons of unwrought iron for a supply.

My magazine of powder and arms which I brought them was sucheven
to profusionthat they could not but rejoice at them; for now they
could march as I used to dowith a musket upon each shoulderif
there was occasion; and were able to fight a thousand savagesif
they had but some little advantages of situationwhich also they
could not missif they had occasion.

I carried on shore with me the young man whose mother was starved
to deathand the maid also; she was a soberwell-educated
religious young womanand behaved so inoffensively that every one
gave her a good word; she hadindeedan unhappy life with us
there being no woman in the ship but herselfbut she bore it with
patience. After a whileseeing things so well orderedand in so
fine a way of thriving upon my islandand considering that they
had neither business nor acquaintance in the East Indiesor reason
for taking so long a voyageboth of them came to me and desired I
would give them leave to remain on the islandand be entered among
my familyas they called it. I agreed to this readily; and they
had a little plot of ground allotted to themwhere they had three
tents or houses set upsurrounded with a basket-workpalisadoed
like Atkins'sadjoining to his plantation. Their tents were
contrived so that they had each of them a room apart to lodge in
and a middle tent like a great storehouse to lay their goods in
and to eat and to drink in. And now the other two Englishmen
removed their habitation to the same place; and so the island was
divided into three coloniesand no more--viz. the Spaniardswith
old Friday and the first servantsat my habitation under the hill
which wasin a wordthe capital cityand where they had so
enlarged and extended their worksas well under as on the outside
of the hillthat they livedthough perfectly concealedyet full
at large. Never was there such a little city in a woodand so
hidin any part of the world; for I verify believe that a thousand
men might have ranged the island a monthandif they had not
known there was such a thingand looked on purpose for itthey
would not have found it. Indeed the trees stood so thick and so
closeand grew so fast woven one into anotherthat nothing but
cutting them down first could discover the placeexcept the only
two narrow entrances where they went in and out could be found
which was not very easy; one of them was close down at the water's
edgeon the side of the creekand it was afterwards above two

hundred yards to the place; and the other was up a ladder at twice
as I have already described it; and they had also a large wood
thickly plantedon the top of the hillcontaining above an acre
which grew apaceand concealed the place from all discovery there
with only one narrow place between two treesnot easily to be
discoveredto enter on that side.

The other colony was that of Will Atkinswhere there were four
families of EnglishmenI mean those I had left therewith their
wives and children; three savages that were slavesthe widow and
children of the Englishman that was killedthe young man and the
maidandby the waywe made a wife of her before we went away.
There were besides the two carpenters and the tailorwhom I
brought with me for them: also the smithwho was a very necessary
man to themespecially as a gunsmithto take care of their arms;
and my other manwhom I called Jack-of-all-tradeswho was in
himself as good almost as twenty men; for he was not only a very
ingenious fellowbut a very merry fellowand before I went away
we married him to the honest maid that came with the youth in the
ship I mentioned before.

And now I speak of marryingit brings me naturally to say
something of the French ecclesiastic that I had brought with me out
of the ship's crew whom I took up at sea. It is true this man was
a Romanand perhaps it may give offence to some hereafter if I
leave anything extraordinary upon record of a man whombefore I
beginI must (to set him out in just colours) represent in terms
very much to his disadvantagein the account of Protestants; as
firstthat he was a Papist; secondlya Popish priest; and
thirdlya French Popish priest. But justice demands of me to give
him a due character; and I must sayhe was a gravesoberpious
and most religious person; exact in his lifeextensive in his
charityand exemplary in almost everything he did. What then can
any one say against being very sensible of the value of such a man
notwithstanding his profession? though it may be my opinion
perhapsas well as the opinion of others who shall read thisthat
he was mistaken.

The first hour that I began to converse with him after he had
agreed to go with me to the East IndiesI found reason to delight
exceedingly in his conversation; and he first began with me about
religion in the most obliging manner imaginable. "Sir says he,
you have not only under God" (and at that he crossed his breast)
saved my life, but you have admitted me to go this voyage in your
ship, and by your obliging civility have taken me into your family,
giving me an opportunity of free conversation. Now, sir, you see
by my habit what my profession is, and I guess by your nation what
yours is; I may think it is my duty, and doubtless it is so, to use
my utmost endeavours, on all occasions, to bring all the souls I
can to the knowledge of the truth, and to embrace the Catholic
doctrine; but as I am here under your permission, and in your
family, I am bound, in justice to your kindness as well as in
decency and good manners, to be under your government; and
therefore I shall not, without your leave, enter into any debate on
the points of religion in which we may not agree, further than you
shall give me leave.

I told him his carriage was so modest that I could not but
acknowledge it; that it was true we were such people as they call
hereticsbut that he was not the first Catholic I had conversed
with without falling into inconveniencesor carrying the questions
to any height in debate; that he should not find himself the worse
used for being of a different opinion from usand if we did not
converse without any dislike on either sideit should be his

faultnot ours.

He replied that he thought all our conversation might be easily
separated from disputes; that it was not his business to cap
principles with every man he conversed with; and that he rather
desired me to converse with him as a gentleman than as a
religionist; and thatif I would give him leave at any time to
discourse upon religious subjectshe would readily comply with it
and that he did not doubt but I would allow him also to defend his
own opinions as well as he could; but that without my leave he
would not break in upon me with any such thing. He told me
furtherthat he would not cease to do all that became himin his
office as a priestas well as a private Christianto procure the
good of the shipand the safety of all that was in her; and
thoughperhapswe would not join with himand he could not pray
with ushe hoped he might pray for uswhich he would do upon all
occasions. In this manner we conversed; and as he was of the most
obliginggentlemanlike behaviourso he wasif I may be allowed
to say soa man of good senseandas I believeof great

He gave me a most diverting account of his lifeand of the many
extraordinary events of it; of many adventures which had befallen
him in the few years that he had been abroad in the world; and
particularlyit was very remarkablethat in the voyage he was now
engaged in he had had the misfortune to be five times shipped and
unshippedand never to go to the place whither any of the ships he
was in were at first designed. That his first intent was to have
gone to Martinicoand that he went on board a ship bound thither
at St. Malo; but being forced into Lisbon by bad weatherthe ship
received some damage by running aground in the mouth of the river
Tagusand was obliged to unload her cargo there; but finding a
Portuguese ship there bound for the Madeirasand ready to sail
and supposing he should meet with a ship there bound to Martinico
he went on boardin order to sail to the Madeiras; but the master
of the Portuguese ship being but an indifferent marinerhad been
out of his reckoningand they drove to Fayal; wherehoweverhe
happened to find a very good market for his cargowhich was corn
and therefore resolved not to go to the Madeirasbut to load salt
at the Isle of Mayand to go away to Newfoundland. He had no
remedy in this exigence but to go with the shipand had a pretty
good voyage as far as the Banks (so they call the place where they
catch the fish)wheremeeting with a French ship bound from
France to Quebecand from thence to Martinicoto carry
provisionshe thought he should have an opportunity to complete
his first designbut when he came to Quebecthe master of the
ship diedand the vessel proceeded no further; so the next voyage
he shipped himself for Francein the ship that was burned when we
took them up at seaand then shipped with us for the East Indies
as I have already said. Thus he had been disappointed in five
voyages; allas I may call itin one voyagebesides what I shall
have occasion to mention further of him.

But I shall not make digression into other men's stories which have
no relation to my own; so I return to what concerns our affair in
the island. He came to me one morning (for he lodged among us all
the while we were upon the island)and it happened to be just when
I was going to visit the Englishmen's colonyat the furthest part
of the island; I sayhe came to meand told mewith a very grave
countenancethat he had for two or three days desired an
opportunity of some discourse with mewhich he hoped would not be
displeasing to mebecause he thought it might in some measure
correspond with my general designwhich was the prosperity of my
new colonyand perhaps might put itat least more than he yet

thought it wasin the way of God's blessing.

I looked a little surprised at the last of his discourseand
turning a little shortHow, sir,said Ican it be said that we
are not in the way of God's blessing, after such visible
assistances and deliverances as we have seen here, and of which I
have given you a large account?If you had pleased, sir,said
hewith a world of modestyand yet great readinessto have
heard me, you would have found no room to have been displeased,
much less to think so hard of me, that I should suggest that you
have not had wonderful assistances and deliverances; and I hope, on
your behalf, that you are in the way of God's blessing, and your
design is exceeding good, and will prosper. But, sir, though it
were more so than is even possible to you, yet there may be some
among you that are not equally right in their actions: and you
know that in the story of the children of Israel, one Achan in the
camp removed God's blessing from them, and turned His hand so
against them, that six-and-thirty of them, though not concerned in
the crime, were the objects of divine vengeance, and bore the
weight of that punishment.

I was sensibly touched with this discourseand told him his
inference was so justand the whole design seemed so sincereand
was really so religious in its own naturethat I was very sorry I
had interrupted himand begged him to go on; andin the meantime
because it seemed that what we had both to say might take up some
timeI told him I was going to the Englishmen's plantationsand
asked him to go with meand we might discourse of it by the way.
He told me he would the more willingly wait on me thitherbecause
there partly the thing was acted which he desired to speak to me
about; so we walked onand I pressed him to be free and plain with
me in what he had to say.

Why, then, sir,said hebe pleased to give me leave to lay down
a few propositions, as the foundation of what I have to say, that
we may not differ in the general principles, though we may be of
some differing opinions in the practice of particulars. First,
sir, though we differ in some of the doctrinal articles of religion
(and it is very unhappy it is so, especially in the case before us,
as I shall show afterwards), yet there are some general principles
in which we both agree--that there is a God; and that this God
having given us some stated general rules for our service and
obedience, we ought not willingly and knowingly to offend Him,
either by neglecting to do what He has commanded, or by doing what
He has expressly forbidden. And let our different religions be
what they will, this general principle is readily owned by us all,
that the blessing of God does not ordinarily follow presumptuous
sinning against His command; and every good Christian will be
affectionately concerned to prevent any that are under his care
living in a total neglect of God and His commands. It is not your
men being Protestants, whatever my opinion may be of such, that
discharges me from being concerned for their souls, and from
endeavouring, if it lies before me, that they should live in as
little distance from enmity with their Maker as possible,
especially if you give me leave to meddle so far in your circuit.

I could not yet imagine what he aimed atand told him I granted
all he had saidand thanked him that he would so far concern
himself for us: and begged he would explain the particulars of
what he had observedthat like Joshuato take his own parableI
might put away the accursed thing from us.

Why, then, sir,says heI will take the liberty you give me;
and there are three things, which, if I am right, must stand in the

way of God's blessing upon your endeavours here, and which I should
rejoice, for your sake and their own, to see removed. And, sir, I
promise myself that you will fully agree with me in them all, as
soon as I name them; especially because I shall convince you, that
every one of them may, with great ease, and very much to your
satisfaction, be remedied. First, sir,says heyou have here
four Englishmen, who have fetched women from among the savages, and
have taken them as their wives, and have had many children by them
all, and yet are not married to them after any stated legal manner,
as the laws of God and man require. To this, sir, I know, you will
object that there was no clergyman or priest of any kind to perform
the ceremony; nor any pen and ink, or paper, to write down a
contract of marriage, and have it signed between them. And I know
also, sir, what the Spaniard governor has told you, I mean of the
agreement that he obliged them to make when they took those women,
viz. that they should choose them out by consent, and keep
separately to them; which, by the way, is nothing of a marriage, no
agreement with the women as wives, but only an agreement among
themselves, to keep them from quarrelling. But, sir, the essence
of the sacrament of matrimony(so he called itbeing a Roman)
consists not only in the mutual consent of the parties to take one
another as man and wife, but in the formal and legal obligation
that there is in the contract to compel the man and woman, at all
times, to own and acknowledge each other; obliging the man to
abstain from all other women, to engage in no other contract while
these subsist; and, on all occasions, as ability allows, to provide
honestly for them and their children; and to oblige the women to
the same or like conditions, on their side. Now, sir,says he
these men may, when they please, or when occasion presents,
abandon these women, disown their children, leave them to perish,
and take other women, and marry them while these are living;and
here he addedwith some warmthHow, sir, is God honoured in this
unlawful liberty? And how shall a blessing succeed your endeavours
in this place, however good in themselves, and however sincere in
your design, while these men, who at present are your subjects,
under your absolute government and dominion, are allowed by you to
live in open adultery?

I confess I was struck with the thing itselfbut much more with
the convincing arguments he supported it with; but I thought to
have got off my young priest by telling him that all that part was
done when I was not there: and that they had lived so many years
with them nowthat if it was adulteryit was past remedy; nothing
could be done in it now.

Sir,says heasking your pardon for such freedom, you are right
in this, that, it being done in your absence, you could not be
charged with that part of the crime; but, I beseech you, flatter
not yourself that you are not, therefore, under an obligation to do
your utmost now to put an end to it. You should legally and
effectually marry them; and as, sir, my way of marrying may not be
easy to reconcile them to, though it will be effectual, even by
your own laws, so your way may be as well before God, and as valid
among men. I mean by a written contract signed by both man and
woman, and by all the witnesses present, which all the laws of
Europe would decree to be valid.

I was amazed to see so much true pietyand so much sincerity of
zealbesides the unusual impartiality in his discourse as to his
own party or churchand such true warmth for preserving people
that he had no knowledge of or relation to from transgressing the
laws of God. But recollecting what he had said of marrying them by
a written contractwhich I knew he would stand toI returned it
back upon himand told him I granted all that he had said to be

justand on his part very kind; that I would discourse with the
men upon the point nowwhen I came to them; and I knew no reason
why they should scruple to let him marry them allwhich I knew
well enough would be granted to be as authentic and valid in
England as if they were married by one of our own clergymen.

I then pressed him to tell me what was the second complaint which
he had to makeacknowledging that I was very much his debtor for
the firstand thanking him heartily for it. He told me he would
use the same freedom and plainness in the secondand hoped I would
take it as well; and this wasthat notwithstanding these English
subjects of mineas he called themhad lived with these women
almost seven yearshad taught them to speak Englishand even to
read itand that they wereas he perceivedwomen of tolerable
understandingand capable of instructionyet they had notto
this hourtaught them anything of the Christian religion--nonot
so much as to know there was a Godor a worshipor in what manner
God was to be servedor that their own idolatryand worshipping
they knew not whomwas false and absurd. This he said was an
unaccountable neglectand what God would certainly call them to
account forand perhaps at last take the work out of their hands.
He spoke this very affectionately and warmly.

I am persuaded,says hehad those men lived in the savage
country whence their wives came, the savages would have taken more
pains to have brought them to be idolaters, and to worship the
devil, than any of these men, so far as I can see, have taken with
them to teach the knowledge of the true God. Now, sir,said he
though I do not acknowledge your religion, or you mine, yet we
would be glad to see the devil's servants and the subjects of his
kingdom taught to know religion; and that they might, at least,
hear of God and a Redeemer, and the resurrection, and of a future
state--things which we all believe; that they might, at least, be
so much nearer coming into the bosom of the true Church than they
are now in the public profession of idolatry and devil-worship.

I could hold no longer: I took him in my arms and embraced him
eagerly. "How far said I to him, have I been from understanding
the most essential part of a Christianviz. to love the interest
of the Christian Churchand the good of other men's souls! I
scarce have known what belongs to the being a Christian."--"Oh
sir! do not say so replied he; this thing is not your fault."-"
No said I; but why did I never lay it to heart as well as
you?"--"It is not too late yet said he; be not too forward to
condemn yourself."--"But what can be done now?" said I: "you see I
am going away."--"Will you give me leave to talk with these poor
men about it?"--"Yeswith all my heart said I: and oblige them
to give heed to what you say too."--"As to that said he, we must
leave them to the mercy of Christ; but it is your business to
assist themencourage themand instruct them; and if you give me
leaveand God His blessingI do not doubt but the poor ignorant
souls shall be brought home to the great circle of Christianityif
not into the particular faith we all embraceand that even while
you stay here." Upon this I saidI shall not only give you
leave, but give you a thousand thanks for it.

I now pressed him for the third article in which we were to blame.
Why, really,says heit is of the same nature. It is about
your poor savages, who are, as I may say, your conquered subjects.
It is a maxim, sir, that is or ought to be received among all
Christians, of what church or pretended church soever, that the
Christian knowledge ought to be propagated by all possible means
and on all possible occasions. It is on this principle that our
Church sends missionaries into Persia, India, and China; and that

our clergy, even of the superior sort, willingly engage in the most
hazardous voyages, and the most dangerous residence amongst
murderers and barbarians, to teach them the knowledge of the true
God, and to bring them over to embrace the Christian faith. Now,
sir, you have such an opportunity here to have six or seven and
thirty poor savages brought over from a state of idolatry to the
knowledge of God, their Maker and Redeemer, that I wonder how you
can pass such an occasion of doing good, which is really worth the
expense of a man's whole life.

I was now struck dumb indeedand had not one word to say. I had
here the spirit of true Christian zeal for God and religion before
me. As for meI had not so much as entertained a thought of this
in my heart beforeand I believe I should not have thought of it;
for I looked upon these savages as slavesand people whomhad we
not had any work for them to dowe would have used as suchor
would have been glad to have transported them to any part of the
world; for our business was to get rid of themand we would all
have been satisfied if they had been sent to any countryso they
had never seen their own. I was confounded at his discourseand
knew not what answer to make him.

He looked earnestly at meseeing my confusion. "Sir says he, I
shall be very sorry if what I have said gives you any offence."-"
Nono said I, I am offended with nobody but myself; but I am
perfectly confoundednot only to think that I should never take
any notice of this beforebut with reflecting what notice I am
able to take of it now. You knowsir said I, what
circumstances I am in; I am bound to the East Indies in a ship
freighted by merchantsand to whom it would be an insufferable
piece of injustice to detain their ship herethe men lying all
this while at victuals and wages on the owners' account. It is
trueI agreed to be allowed twelve days hereand if I stay more
I must pay three pounds sterling per diem demurrage; nor can I stay
upon demurrage above eight days moreand I have been here thirteen
already; so that I am perfectly unable to engage in this work
unless I would suffer myself to be left behind here again; in which
caseif this single ship should miscarry in any part of her
voyageI should be just in the same condition that I was left in
here at firstand from which I have been so wonderfully
delivered." He owned the case was very hard upon me as to my
voyage; but laid it home upon my conscience whether the blessing of
saving thirty-seven souls was not worth venturing all I had in the
world for. I was not so sensible of that as he was. I replied to
him thus: "Whysirit is a valuable thingindeedto be an
instrument in God's hand to convert thirty-seven heathens to the
knowledge of Christ: but as you are an ecclesiasticand are given
over to the workso it seems so naturally to fall in the way of
your profession; how is itthenthat you do not rather offer
yourself to undertake it than to press me to do it?"

Upon this he faced about just before meas he walked alongand
putting me to a full stopmade me a very low bow. "I most
heartily thank God and yousir said he, for giving me so
evident a call to so blessed a work; and if you think yourself
discharged from itand desire me to undertake itI will most
readily do itand think it a happy reward for all the hazards and
difficulties of such a brokendisappointed voyage as I have met
withthat I am dropped at last into so glorious a work."

I discovered a kind of rapture in his face while he spoke this to
me; his eyes sparkled like fire; his face glowedand his colour
came and went; in a wordhe was fired with the joy of being
embarked in such a work. I paused a considerable while before I

could tell what to say to him; for I was really surprised to find a
man of such sincerityand who seemed possessed of a zeal beyond
the ordinary rate of men. But after I had considered it a whileI
asked him seriously if he was in earnestand that he would
ventureon the single consideration of an attempt to convert those
poor peopleto be locked up in an unplanted island for perhaps his
lifeand at last might not know whether he should be able to do
them good or not? He turned short upon meand asked me what I
called a venture? "Praysir said he, what do you think I
consented to go in your ship to the East Indies for?"--"ay said
I, that I know notunless it was to preach to the Indians."-"
Doubtless it was said he; and do you thinkif I can convert
these thirty-seven men to the faith of Jesus Christit is not
worth my timethough I should never be fetched off the island
again?--nayis it not infinitely of more worth to save so many
souls than my life isor the life of twenty more of the same
profession? Yessir says he, I would give God thanks all my
days if I could be made the happy instrument of saving the souls of
those poor menthough I were never to get my foot off this island
or see my native country any more. But since you will honour me
with putting me into this workfor which I will pray for you all
the days of my lifeI have one humble petition to you besides."-"
What is that?" said I.--"Why says he, it isthat you will
leave your man Friday with meto be my interpreter to themand to
assist me; for without some help I cannot speak to themor they to

I was sensibly touched at his requesting Fridaybecause I could
not think of parting with himand that for many reasons: he had
been the companion of my travels; he was not only faithful to me
but sincerely affectionate to the last degree; and I had resolved
to do something considerable for him if he out-lived meas it was
probable he would. Then I knew thatas I had bred Friday up to be
a Protestantit would quite confound him to bring him to embrace
another religion; and he would neverwhile his eyes were open
believe that his old master was a hereticand would be damned; and
this might in the end ruin the poor fellow's principlesand so
turn him back again to his first idolatry. Howevera sudden
thought relieved me in this straitand it was this: I told him I
could not say that I was willing to part with Friday on any account
whateverthough a work that to him was of more value than his life
ought to be of much more value than the keeping or parting with a
servant. On the other handI was persuaded that Friday would by
no means agree to part with me; and I could not force him to it
without his consentwithout manifest injustice; because I had
promised I would never send him awayand he had promised and
engaged that he would never leave meunless I sent him away.

He seemed very much concerned at itfor he had no rational access
to these poor peopleseeing he did not understand one word of
their languagenor they one of his. To remove this difficultyI
told him Friday's father had learned Spanishwhich I found he also
understoodand he should serve him as an interpreter. So he was
much better satisfiedand nothing could persuade him but he would
stay and endeavour to convert them; but Providence gave another
very happy turn to all this.

I come back now to the first part of his objections. When we came
to the EnglishmenI sent for them all togetherand after some
account given them of what I had done for themviz. what necessary
things I had provided for themand how they were distributed
which they were very sensible ofand very thankful forI began to
talk to them of the scandalous life they ledand gave them a full
account of the notice the clergyman had taken of it; and arguing

how unchristian and irreligious a life it wasI first asked them
if they were married men or bachelors? They soon explained their
condition to meand showed that two of them were widowersand the
other three were single menor bachelors. I asked them with what
conscience they could take these womenand call them their wives
and have so many children by themand not be lawfully married to
them? They all gave me the answer I expectedviz. that there was
nobody to marry them; that they agreed before the governor to keep
them as their wivesand to maintain them and own them as their
wives; and they thoughtas things stood with themthey were as
legally married as if they had been married by a parson and with
all the formalities in the world.

I told them that no doubt they were married in the sight of God
and were bound in conscience to keep them as their wives; but that
the laws of men being otherwisethey might desert the poor women
and children hereafter; and that their wivesbeing poor desolate
womenfriendless and moneylesswould have no way to help
themselves. I therefore told them that unless I was assured of
their honest intentI could do nothing for thembut would take
care that what I did should be for the women and children without
them; and thatunless they would give me some assurances that they
would marry the womenI could not think it was convenient they
should continue together as man and wife; for that it was both
scandalous to men and offensive to Godwho they could not think
would bless them if they went on thus.

All this went on as I expected; and they told meespecially Will
Atkinswho now seemed to speak for the restthat they loved their
wives as well as if they had been born in their own native country
and would not leave them on any account whatever; and they did
verily believe that their wives were as virtuous and as modestand
didto the utmost of their skillas much for them and for their
childrenas any woman could possibly do: and they would not part
with them on any account. Will Atkinsfor his own particular
added that if any man would take him awayand offer to carry him
home to Englandand make him captain of the best man-of-war in the
navyhe would not go with him if he might not carry his wife and
children with him; and if there was a clergyman in the shiphe
would be married to her now with all his heart.

This was just as I would have it. The priest was not with me at
that momentbut he was not far off; so to try him furtherI told
him I had a clergyman with meandif he was sincereI would have
him married next morningand bade him consider of itand talk
with the rest. He saidas for himselfhe need not consider of it
at allfor he was very ready to do itand was glad I had a
minister with meand he believed they would be all willing also.
I then told him that my friendthe ministerwas a Frenchmanand
could not speak Englishbut I would act the clerk between them.
He never so much as asked me whether he was a Papist or Protestant
which wasindeedwhat I was afraid of. We then partedand I
went back to my clergymanand Will Atkins went in to talk with his
companions. I desired the French gentleman not to say anything to
them till the business was thoroughly ripe; and I told him what
answer the men had given me.

Before I went from their quarter they all came to me and told me
they had been considering what I had said; that they were glad to
hear I had a clergyman in my companyand they were very willing to
give me the satisfaction I desiredand to be formally married as
soon as I pleased; for they were far from desiring to part with
their wivesand that they meant nothing but what was very honest
when they chose them. So I appointed them to meet me the next

morning; andin the meantimethey should let their wives know the
meaning of the marriage law; and that it was not only to prevent
any scandalbut also to oblige them that they should not forsake
themwhatever might happen.

The women were easily made sensible of the meaning of the thing
and were very well satisfied with itasindeedthey had reason
to be: so they failed not to attend all together at my apartment
next morningwhere I brought out my clergyman; and though he had
not on a minister's gownafter the manner of Englandor the habit
of a priestafter the manner of Franceyet having a black vest
something like a cassockwith a sash round ithe did not look
very unlike a minister; and as for his languageI was his
interpreter. But the seriousness of his behaviour to themand the
scruples he made of marrying the womenbecause they were not
baptized and professed Christiansgave them an exceeding reverence
for his person; and there was no needafter thatto inquire
whether he was a clergyman or not. IndeedI was afraid his
scruples would have been carried so far as that he would not have
married them at all; naynotwithstanding all I was able to say to
himhe resisted methough modestlyyet very steadilyand at
last refused absolutely to marry themunless he had first talked
with the men and the women too; and though at first I was a little
backward to ityet at last I agreed to it with a good will
perceiving the sincerity of his design.

When he came to them he let them know that I had acquainted him
with their circumstancesand with the present design; that he was
very willing to perform that part of his functionand marry them
as I had desired; but that before he could do ithe must take the
liberty to talk with them. He told them that in the sight of all
indifferent menand in the sense of the laws of societythey had
lived all this while in a state of sin; and that it was true that
nothing but the consenting to marryor effectually separating them
from one anothercould now put an end to it; but there was a
difficulty in ittoowith respect to the laws of Christian
matrimonywhich he was not fully satisfied aboutthat of marrying
one that is a professed Christian to a savagean idolaterand a
heathen--one that is not baptized; and yet that he did not see that
there was time left to endeavour to persuade the women to be
baptizedor to profess the name of Christwhom they hadhe
doubtedheard nothing ofand without which they could not be
baptized. He told them he doubted they were but indifferent
Christians themselves; that they had but little knowledge of God or
of His waysandthereforehe could not expect that they had said
much to their wives on that head yet; but that unless they would
promise him to use their endeavours with their wives to persuade
them to become Christiansand wouldas well as they could
instruct them in the knowledge and belief of God that made them
and to worship Jesus Christ that redeemed themhe could not marry
them; for he would have no hand in joining Christians with savages
nor was it consistent with the principles of the Christian
religionand wasindeedexpressly forbidden in God's law.

They heard all this very attentivelyand I delivered it very
faithfully to them from his mouthas near his own words as I
could; only sometimes adding something of my ownto convince them
how just it wasand that I was of his mind; and I always very
carefully distinguished between what I said from myself and what
were the clergyman's words. They told me it was very true what the
gentleman saidthat they were very indifferent Christians
themselvesand that they had never talked to their wives about
religion. "Lordsir says Will Atkins, how should we teach them
religion? Whywe know nothing ourselves; and besidessir said

he, should we talk to them of God and Jesus Christand heaven and
hellit would make them laugh at usand ask us what we believe
ourselves. And if we should tell them that we believe all the
things we speak of to themsuch as of good people going to heaven
and wicked people to the devilthey would ask us where we intend
to go ourselvesthat believe all thisand are such wicked fellows
as we indeed are? Whysir; 'tis enough to give them a surfeit of
religion at first hearing; folks must have some religion themselves
before they begin to teach other people."--"Will Atkins said I to
him, though I am afraid that what you say has too much truth in
ityet can you not tell your wife she is in the wrong; that there
is a God and a religion better than her own; that her gods are
idols; that they can neither hear nor speak; that there is a great
Being that made all thingsand that can destroy all that He has
made; that He rewards the good and punishes the bad; and that we
are to be judged by Him at last for all we do here? You are not so
ignorant but even nature itself will teach you that all this is
true; and I am satisfied you know it all to be trueand believe it
yourself."--"That is truesir said Atkins; but with what face
can I say anything to my wife of all thiswhen she will tell me
immediately it cannot be true?"--"Not true!" said I; "what do you
mean by that?"--"Whysir said he, she will tell me it cannot be
true that this God I shall tell her of can be justor can punish
or rewardsince I am not punished and sent to the devilthat have
been such a wicked creature as she knows I have beeneven to her
and to everybody else; and that I should be suffered to livethat
have been always acting so contrary to what I must tell her is
goodand to what I ought to have done."--"WhytrulyAtkins
said I, I am afraid thou speakest too much truth;" and with that I
informed the clergyman of what Atkins had saidfor he was
impatient to know. "Oh said the priest, tell him there is one
thing will make him the best minister in the world to his wifeand
that is repentance; for none teach repentance like true penitents.
He wants nothing but to repentand then he will be so much the
better qualified to instruct his wife; he will then be able to tell
her that there is not only a Godand that He is the just rewarder
of good and evilbut that He is a merciful Beingand with
infinite goodness and long-suffering forbears to punish those that
offend; waiting to be graciousand willing not the death of a
sinnerbut rather that he should return and live; and even
reserves damnation to the general day of retribution; that it is a
clear evidence of God and of a future state that righteous men
receive not their rewardor wicked men their punishmenttill they
come into another world; and this will lead him to teach his wife
the doctrine of the resurrection and of the last judgment. Let him
but repent himselfhe will be an excellent preacher of repentance
to his wife."

I repeated all this to Atkinswho looked very serious all the
whileandas we could easily perceivewas more than ordinarily
affected with it; when being eagerand hardly suffering me to make
an endI know all this, master,says heand a great deal more;
but I have not the impudence to talk thus to my wife, when God and
my conscience know, and my wife will be an undeniable evidence
against me, that I have lived as if I had never heard of a God or
future state, or anything about it; and to talk of my repenting,
alas!(and with that he fetched a deep sighand I could see that
the tears stood in his eyes) "'tis past all that with me."--"Past
itAtkins?" said I: "what dost thou mean by that?"--"I know well
enough what I mean says he; I mean 'tis too lateand that is
too true."

I told the clergymanword for wordwhat he saidand this
affectionate man could not refrain from tears; butrecovering

himselfsaid to meAsk him but one question. Is he easy that it
is too late; or is he troubled, and wishes it were not so?I put
the question fairly to Atkins; and he answered with a great deal of
passionHow could any man be easy in a condition that must
certainly end in eternal destruction? that he was far from being
easy; but that, on the contrary, he believed it would one time or
other ruin him.--"What do you mean by that?" said I.--"Why he
said, he believed he should one time or other cut his throatto
put an end to the terror of it."

The clergyman shook his headwith great concern in his facewhen
I told him all this; but turning quick to me upon itsaysIf
that be his case, we may assure him it is not too late; Christ will
give him repentance. But pray,says heexplain this to him:
that as no man is saved but by Christ, and the merit of His passion
procuring divine mercy for him, how can it be too late for any man
to receive mercy? Does he think he is able to sin beyond the power
or reach of divine mercy? Pray tell him there may be a time when
provoked mercy will no longer strive, and when God may refuse to
hear, but that it is never too late for men to ask mercy; and we,
that are Christ's servants, are commanded to preach mercy at all
times, in the name of Jesus Christ, to all those that sincerely
repent: so that it is never too late to repent.

I told Atkins all thisand he heard me with great earnestness; but
it seemed as if he turned off the discourse to the restfor he
said to me he would go and have some talk with his wife; so he went
out a whileand we talked to the rest. I perceived they were all
stupidly ignorant as to matters of religionas much as I was when
I went rambling away from my father; yet there were none of them
backward to hear what had been said; and all of them seriously
promised that they would talk with their wives about itand do
their endeavours to persuade them to turn Christians.

The clergyman smiled upon me when I reported what answer they gave
but said nothing a good while; but at lastshaking his headWe
that are Christ's servants,says hecan go no further than to
exhort and instruct: and when men comply, submit to the reproof,
and promise what we ask, 'tis all we can do; we are bound to accept
their good words; but believe me, sir,said hewhatever you may
have known of the life of that man you call Will Atkin's, I believe
he is the only sincere convert among them: I will not despair of
the rest; but that man is apparently struck with the sense of his
past life, and I doubt not, when he comes to talk of religion to
his wife, he will talk himself effectually into it: for attempting
to teach others is sometimes the best way of teaching ourselves.
If that poor Atkins begins but once to talk seriously of Jesus
Christ to his wife, he will assuredly talk himself into a thorough
convert, make himself a penitent, and who knows what may follow.

Upon this discoursehoweverand their promisingas aboveto
endeavour to persuade their wives to embrace Christianityhe
married the two other couple; but Will Atkins and his wife were not
yet come in. After thismy clergymanwaiting a whilewas
curious to know where Atkins was goneand turning to mesaidI
entreat you, sir, let us walk out of your labyrinth here and look;
I daresay we shall find this poor man somewhere or other talking
seriously to his wife, and teaching her already something of
religion.I began to be of the same mind; so we went out
togetherand I carried him a way which none knew but myselfand
where the trees were so very thick that it was not easy to see
through the thicket of leavesand far harder to see in than to see
out: whencoming to the edge of the woodI saw Atkins and his
tawny wife sitting under the shade of a bushvery eager in

discourse: I stopped short till my clergyman came up to meand
then having showed him where they werewe stood and looked very
steadily at them a good while. We observed him very earnest with
herpointing up to the sunand to every quarter of the heavens
and then down to the earththen out to the seathen to himself
then to herto the woodsto the trees. "Now says the
clergyman, you see my words are made goodthe man preaches to
her; mark him nowhe is telling her that our God has made him
herand the heavensthe earththe seathe woodsthe trees
&c."--"I believe he is said I. Immediately we perceived Will
Atkins start upon his feet, fall down on his knees, and lift up
both his hands. We supposed he said something, but we could not
hear him; it was too far for that. He did not continue kneeling
half a minute, but comes and sits down again by his wife, and talks
to her again; we perceived then the woman very attentive, but
whether she said anything to him we could not tell. While the poor
fellow was upon his knees I could see the tears run plentifully
down my clergyman's cheeks, and I could hardly forbear myself; but
it was a great affliction to us both that we were not near enough
to hear anything that passed between them. Well, however, we could
come no nearer for fear of disturbing them: so we resolved to see
an end of this piece of still conversation, and it spoke loud
enough to us without the help of voice. He sat down again, as I
have said, close by her, and talked again earnestly to her, and two
or three times we could see him embrace her most passionately;
another time we saw him take out his handkerchief and wipe her
eyes, and then kiss her again with a kind of transport very
unusual; and after several of these things, we saw him on a sudden
jump up again, and lend her his hand to help her up, when
immediately leading her by the hand a step or two, they both
kneeled down together, and continued so about two minutes.

My friend could bear it no longer, but cries out aloud, St. Paul!
St. Paul! behold he prayeth." I was afraid Atkins would hear him
therefore I entreated him to withhold himself a whilethat we
might see an end of the scenewhich to meI must confesswas the
most affecting that ever I saw in my life. Wellhe strove with
himself for a whilebut was in such raptures to think that the
poor heathen woman was become a Christianthat he was not able to
contain himself; he wept several timesthen throwing up his hands
and crossing his breastsaid over several things ejaculatoryand
by the way of giving God thanks for so miraculous a testimony of
the success of our endeavours. Some he spoke softlyand I could
not well hear others; some things he said in Latinsome in French;
then two or three times the tears would interrupt himthat he
could not speak at all; but I begged that he would contain himself
and let us more narrowly and fully observe what was before us
which he did for a timethe scene not being near ended yet; for
after the poor man and his wife were risen again from their knees
we observed he stood talking still eagerly to herand we observed
her motionthat she was greatly affected with what he saidby her
frequently lifting up her handslaying her hand to her breastand
such other postures as express the greatest seriousness and
attention; this continued about half a quarter of an hourand then
they walked awayso we could see no more of them in that

I took this interval to say to the clergymanfirstthat I was
glad to see the particulars we had both been witnesses to; that
though I was hard enough of belief in such casesyet that I began
to think it was all very sincere hereboth in the man and his
wifehowever ignorant they might both beand I hoped such a
beginning would yet have a more happy end. "Butmy friend added
I, will you give me leave to start one difficulty here? I cannot

tell how to object the least thing against that affectionate
concern which you show for the turning of the poor people from
their paganism to the Christian religion; but how does this comfort
youwhile these people arein your accountout of the pale of
the Catholic Churchwithout which you believe there is no
salvation? so that you esteem these but hereticsas effectually
lost as the pagans themselves."

To this he answeredwith abundance of candourthus: "SirI am a
Catholic of the Roman Churchand a priest of the order of St.
Benedictand I embrace all the principles of the Roman faith; but
yetif you will believe meand that I do not speak in compliment
to youor in respect to my circumstances and your civilities; I
say neverthelessI do not look upon youwho call yourselves
reformedwithout some charity. I dare not say (though I know it
is our opinion in general) that you cannot be saved; I will by no
means limit the mercy of Christ so far as think that He cannot
receive you into the bosom of His Churchin a manner to us
unperceivable; and I hope you have the same charity for us: I pray
daily for you being all restored to Christ's Churchby whatsoever
method Hewho is all-wiseis pleased to direct. In the meantime
surely you will allow it consists with me as a Roman to distinguish
far between a Protestant and a pagan; between one that calls on
Jesus Christthough in a way which I do not think is according to
the true faithand a savage or a barbarianthat knows no Godno
Christno Redeemer; and if you are not within the pale of the
Catholic Churchwe hope you are nearer being restored to it than
those who know nothing of God or of His Church: and I rejoice
thereforewhen I see this poor manwho you say has been a
profligateand almost a murderer kneel down and pray to Jesus
Christas we suppose he didthough not fully enlightened;
believing that Godfrom whom every such work proceedswill
sensibly touch his heartand bring him to the further knowledge of
that truth in His own time; and if God shall influence this poor
man to convert and instruct the ignorant savagehis wifeI can
never believe that he shall be cast away himself. And have I not
reasonthento rejoicethe nearer any are brought to the
knowledge of Christthough they may not be brought quite home into
the bosom of the Catholic Church just at the time when I desire it
leaving it to the goodness of Christ to perfect His work in His own
timeand in his own way? CertainlyI would rejoice if all the
savages in America were broughtlike this poor womanto pray to
Godthough they were all to be Protestants at firstrather than
they should continue pagans or heathens; firmly believingthat He
that had bestowed the first light on them would farther illuminate
them with a beam of His heavenly graceand bring them into the
pale of His Church when He should see good."


I was astonished at the sincerity and temper of this pious Papist
as much as I was oppressed by the power of his reasoning; and it
presently occurred to my thoughtsthat if such a temper was
universalwe might be all Catholic Christianswhatever Church or
particular profession we joined in; that a spirit of charity would
soon work us all up into right principles; and as he thought that
the like charity would make us all Catholicsso I told him I
believedhad all the members of his Church the like moderation
they would soon all be Protestants. And there we left that part;

for we never disputed at all. HoweverI talked to him another
wayand taking him by the handMy friend,says II wish all
the clergy of the Romish Church were blessed with such moderation,
and had an equal share of your charity. I am entirely of your
opinion; but I must tell you that if you should preach such
doctrine in Spain or Italy, they would put you into the
Inquisition.--"It may be so said he; I know not what they would
do in Spain or Italy; but I will not say they would be the better
Christians for that severity; for I am sure there is no heresy in
abounding with charity."

Wellas Will Atkins and his wife were goneour business there was
overso we went back our own way; and when we came backwe found
them waiting to be called in. Observing thisI asked my clergyman
if we should discover to him that we had seen him under the bush or
not; and it was his opinion we should notbut that we should talk
to him firstand hear what he would say to us; so we called him in
alonenobody being in the place but ourselvesand I began by
asking him some particulars about his parentage and education. He
told me frankly enough that his father was a clergyman who would
have taught him wellbut that heWill Atkinsdespised all
instruction and correction; and by his brutish conduct cut the
thread of all his father's comforts and shortened his daysfor
that he broke his heart by the most ungratefulunnatural return
for the most affectionate treatment a father ever gave.

In what he said there seemed so much sincerity of repentancethat
it painfully affected me. I could not but reflect that Itoohad
shortened the life of a goodtender father by my bad conduct and
obstinate self-will. I wasindeedso surprised with what he had
told methat I thoughtinstead of my going about to teach and
instruct himthe man was made a teacher and instructor to me in a
most unexpected manner.

I laid all this before the young clergymanwho was greatly
affected with itand said to meDid I not say, sir, that when
this man was converted he would preach to us all? I tell you, sir,
if this one man be made a true penitent, there will be no need of
me; he will make Christians of all in the island.--But having a
little composed myselfI renewed my discourse with Will Atkins.
But, Will,said Ihow comes the sense of this matter to touch
you just now?

W.A.--Siryou have set me about a work that has struck a dart
though my very soul; I have been talking about God and religion to
my wifein orderas you directed meto make a Christian of her
and she has preached such a sermon to me as I shall never forget
while I live.

R.C.--Nonoit is not your wife has preached to you; but when you
were moving religious arguments to herconscience has flung them
back upon you.

W.A.--Aysirwith such force as is not to be resisted.

R.C.--PrayWilllet us know what passed between you and your
wife; for I know something of it already.

W.A.--Sirit is impossible to give you a full account of it; I am
too full to hold itand yet have no tongue to express it; but let
her have said what she willthough I cannot give you an account of
itthis I can tell youthat I have resolved to amend and reform
my life.

R.C.--But tell us some of it: how did you beginWill? For this
has been an extraordinary casethat is certain. She has preached
a sermonindeedif she has wrought this upon you.

W.A.--WhyI first told her the nature of our laws about marriage
and what the reasons were that men and women were obliged to enter
into such compacts as it was neither in the power of one nor other
to break; that otherwiseorder and justice could not be
maintainedand men would run from their wivesand abandon their
childrenmix confusedly with one anotherand neither families be
kept entirenor inheritances be settled by legal descent.

R.C.--You talk like a civilianWill. Could you make her
understand what you meant by inheritance and families? They know
no such things among the savagesbut marry anyhowwithout regard
to relationconsanguinityor family; brother and sisternayas
I have been toldeven the father and the daughterand the son and
the mother.

W.A.--I believesiryou are misinformedand my wife assures me
of the contraryand that they abhor it; perhapsfor any further
relationsthey may not be so exact as we are; but she tells me
never in the near relationship you speak of.

R.C.--Wellwhat did she say to what you told her?

W.A.--She said she liked it very wellas it was much better than
in her country.

R.C.--But did you tell her what marriage was?

W.A.--Ayaythere began our dialogue. I asked her if she would
be married to me our way. She asked me what way that was; I told
her marriage was appointed by God; and here we had a strange talk
togetherindeedas ever man and wife hadI believe.

N.B.--This dialogue between Will Atkins and his wifewhich I took
down in writing just after he told it mewas as follows:-

Wife.--Appointed by your God!--Whyhave you a God in your country?

W.A.--Yesmy dearGod is in every country.

Wife.--No your God in my country; my country have the great old
Benamuckee God.

W.A.--ChildI am very unfit to show you who God is; God is in
heaven and made the heaven and the earththe seaand all that in
them is.

Wife.--No makee de earth; no you God makee all earth; no makee my

[Will Atkins laughed a little at her expression of God not making
her country.]

Wife.--No laugh; why laugh me? This no ting to laugh.

[He was justly reproved by his wifefor she was more serious than
he at first.]

W.A.--That's trueindeed; I will not laugh any moremy dear.

Wife.--Why you say you God makee all?

W.A.--Yeschildour God made the whole worldand youand me
and all things; for He is the only true Godand there is no God
but Him. He lives for ever in heaven.

Wife.--Why you no tell me long ago?

W.A.--That's trueindeed; but I have been a wicked wretchand
have not only forgotten to acquaint thee with anything beforebut
have lived without God in the world myself.

Wife.--Whathave you a great God in your countryyou no know Him?
No say O to Him? No do good ting for Him? That no possible.

W.A.--It is true; thoughfor all thatwe live as if there was no
God in heavenor that He had no power on earth.

Wife.--But why God let you do so? Why He no makee you good live?

W.A.--It is all our own fault.

Wife.--But you say me He is greatmuch greathave much great
power; can makee kill when He will: why He no makee kill when you
no serve Him? no say O to Him? no be good mans?

W.A.--That is trueHe might strike me dead; and I ought to expect
itfor I have been a wicked wretchthat is true; but God is
mercifuland does not deal with us as we deserve.

Wife.--But then do you not tell God thankee for that too?

W. A.--NoindeedI have not thanked God for His mercyany more
than I have feared God from His power.
Wife.--Then you God no God; me no thinkbelieve He be such one
great much powerstrong: no makee kill youthough you make Him
much angry.

W.A.--Whatwill my wicked life hinder you from believing in God?
What a dreadful creature am I! and what a sad truth is itthat the
horrid lives of Christians hinder the conversion of heathens!

Wife.--How me tink you have great much God up there [she points up
to heaven]and yet no do wellno do good ting? Can He tell?
Sure He no tell what you do?

W.A.--YesyesHe knows and sees all things; He hears us speak
sees what we doknows what we think though we do not speak.

Wife.--What! He no hear you curseswearspeak de great damn?

W.A.--YesyesHe hears it all.

Wife.--Where be then the much great power strong?

W.A.--He is mercifulthat is all we can say for it; and this
proves Him to be the true God; He is Godand not manand
therefore we are not consumed.

[Here Will Atkins told us he was struck with horror to think how he
could tell his wife so clearly that God seesand hearsand knows
the secret thoughts of the heartand all that we doand yet that
he had dared to do all the vile things he had done.]

Wife.--Merciful! What you call dat?

W.A.--He is our Father and Makerand He pities and spares us.

Wife.--So then He never makee killnever angry when you do wicked;
then He no good Himselfor no great able.

W.A.--Yesyesmy dearHe is infinitely good and infinitely
greatand able to punish too; and sometimesto show His justice
and vengeanceHe lets fly His anger to destroy sinners and make
examples; many are cut off in their sins.

Wife.--But no makee kill you yet; then He tell youmaybethat He
no makee you kill: so you makee the bargain with Himyou do bad
thingHe no be angry at you when He be angry at other mans.

W.A.--Noindeedmy sins are all presumptions upon His goodness;
and He would be infinitely just if He destroyed meas He has done
other men.

Wife.--Welland yet no killno makee you dead: what you say to
Him for that? You no tell Him thankee for all that too?

W.A.--I am an unthankfulungrateful dogthat is true.

Wife.--Why He no makee you much good better? you say He makee you.

W.A.--He made me as He made all the world: it is I have deformed
myself and abused His goodnessand made myself an abominable

Wife.--I wish you makee God know me. I no makee Him angry--I no do
bad wicked thing.

[Here Will Atkins said his heart sunk within him to hear a poor
untaught creature desire to be taught to know Godand he such a
wicked wretchthat he could not say one word to her about Godbut
what the reproach of his own carriage would make most irrational to
her to believe; naythat already she had told him that she could
not believe in Godbecause hethat was so wickedwas not

W.A.--My dearyou meanyou wish I could teach you to know God
not God to know you; for He knows you alreadyand every thought in
your heart.

Wife.--WhythenHe know what I say to you now: He know me wish
to know Him. How shall me know who makee me?

W.A.--Poor creatureHe must teach thee: I cannot teach thee. I
will pray to Him to teach thee to know Himand forgive methat am
unworthy to teach thee.

[The poor fellow was in such an agony at her desiring him to make
her know Godand her wishing to know Himthat he said he fell
down on his knees before herand prayed to God to enlighten her
mind with the saving knowledge of Jesus Christand to pardon his
sinsand accept of his being the unworthy instrument of
instructing her in the principles of religion: after which he sat
down by her againand their dialogue went on. This was the time
when we saw him kneel down and hold up his hands.]

Wife.--What you put down the knee for? What you hold up the hand
for? What you say? Who you speak to? What is all that?

W.A.--My dearI bow my knees in token of my submission to Him that
made me: I said O to Himas you call itand as your old men do
to their idol Benamuckee; that isI prayed to Him.

Wife.--What say you O to Him for?

W.A.--I prayed to Him to open your eyes and your understanding
that you may know Himand be accepted by Him.

Wife.--Can He do that too?

W.A.--YesHe can: He can do all things.

Wife.--But now He hear what you say?

W.A.--YesHe has bid us pray to Himand promised to hear us.

Wife.--Bid you pray? When He bid you? How He bid you? What you
hear Him speak?

W.A.--Nowe do not hear Him speak; but He has revealed Himself
many ways to us.

[Here he was at a great loss to make her understand that God has
revealed Himself to us by His wordand what His word was; but at
last he told it to her thus.]

W.A.--God has spoken to some good men in former dayseven from
heavenby plain words; and God has inspired good men by His
Spirit; and they have written all His laws down in a book.

Wife.--Me no understand that; where is book?

W.A.--Alas! my poor creatureI have not this book; but I hope I
shall one time or other get it for youand help you to read it.

[Here he embraced her with great affectionbut with inexpressible
grief that he had not a Bible.]

Wife.--But how you makee me know that God teachee them to write
that book?

W.A.--By the same rule that we know Him to be God.

Wife.--What rule? What way you know Him?

W.A.--Because He teaches and commands nothing but what is good
righteousand holyand tends to make us perfectly goodas well
as perfectly happy; and because He forbids and commands us to avoid
all that is wickedthat is evil in itselfor evil in its

Wife.--That me would understandthat me fain see; if He teachee
all good thingHe makee all good thingHe give all thingHe hear
me when I say O to Himas you do just now; He makee me good if I
wish to be good; He spare meno makee kill mewhen I no be good:
all this you say He doyet He be great God; me takethink
believe Him to be great God; me say O to Him with youmy dear.

Here the poor man could forbear no longerbut raised her upmade
her kneel by himand he prayed to God aloud to instruct her in the
knowledge of Himselfby His Spirit; and that by some good
providenceif possibleshe mightsome time or othercome to

have a Biblethat she might read the word of Godand be taught by
it to know Him. This was the time that we saw him lift her up by
the handand saw him kneel down by heras above.

They had several other discoursesit seemsafter this; and
particularly she made him promise thatsince he confessed his own
life had been a wickedabominable course of provocations against
Godthat he would reform itand not make God angry any morelest
He should make him deadas she called itand then she would be
left aloneand never be taught to know this God better; and lest
he should be miserableas he had told her wicked men would be
after death.

This was a strange accountand very affecting to us bothbut
particularly to the young clergyman; he wasindeedwonderfully
surprised with itbut under the greatest affliction imaginable
that he could not talk to herthat he could not speak English to
make her understand him; and as she spoke but very broken English
he could not understand her; howeverhe turned himself to meand
told me that he believed that there must be more to do with this
woman than to marry her. I did not understand him at first; but at
length he explained himselfviz. that she ought to be baptized. I
agreed with him in that part readilyand wished it to be done
presently. "Nono; holdsir says he; though I would have her
be baptizedby all meansfor I must observe that Will Atkinsher
husbandhas indeed brought herin a wonderful mannerto be
willing to embrace a religious lifeand has given her just ideas
of the being of a God; of His powerjusticeand mercy: yet I
desire to know of him if he has said anything to her of Jesus
Christand of the salvation of sinners; of the nature of faith in
Himand redemption by Him; of the Holy Spiritthe resurrection
the last judgmentand the future state."

I called Will Atkins againand asked him; but the poor fellow fell
immediately into tearsand told us he had said something to her of
all those thingsbut that he was himself so wicked a creatureand
his own conscience so reproached him with his horridungodly life
that he trembled at the apprehensions that her knowledge of him
should lessen the attention she should give to those thingsand
make her rather contemn religion than receive it; but he was
assuredhe saidthat her mind was so disposed to receive due
impressions of all those thingsand that if I would but discourse
with hershe would make it appear to my satisfaction that my
labour would not be lost upon her.

Accordingly I called her inand placing myself as interpreter
between my religious priest and the womanI entreated him to begin
with her; but sure such a sermon was never preached by a Popish
priest in these latter ages of the world; and as I told himI
thought he had all the zealall the knowledgeall the sincerity
of a Christianwithout the error of a Roman Catholic; and that I
took him to be such a clergyman as the Roman bishops were before
the Church of Rome assumed spiritual sovereignty over the
consciences of men. In a wordhe brought the poor woman to
embrace the knowledge of Christand of redemption by Himnot with
wonder and astonishment onlyas she did the first notions of a
Godbut with joy and faith; with an affectionand a surprising
degree of understandingscarce to be imaginedmuch less to be
expressed; andat her own requestshe was baptized.

When he was preparing to baptize herI entreated him that he would
perform that office with some cautionthat the man might not
perceive he was of the Roman Churchif possiblebecause of other
ill consequences which might attend a difference among us in that

very religion which we were instructing the other in. He told me
that as he had no consecrated chapelnor proper things for the
officeI should see he would do it in a manner that I should not
know by it that he was a Roman Catholic myselfif I had not known
it before; and so he did; for saying only some words over to
himself in Latinwhich I could not understandhe poured a whole
dishful of water upon the woman's headpronouncing in Frenchvery
loudMary(which was the name her husband desired me to give
herfor I was her godfather)I baptize thee in the name of the
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost;so that none could
know anything by it what religion he was of. He gave the
benediction afterwards in Latinbut either Will Atkins did not
know but it was Frenchor else did not take notice of it at that

As soon as this was over we married them; and after the marriage
was overhe turned to Will Atkinsand in a very affectionate
manner exhorted himnot only to persevere in that good disposition
he was inbut to support the convictions that were upon him by a
resolution to reform his life: told him it was in vain to say he
repented if he did not forsake his crimes; represented to him how
God had honoured him with being the instrument of bringing his wife
to the knowledge of the Christian religionand that he should be
careful he did not dishonour the grace of God; and that if he did
he would see the heathen a better Christian than himself; the
savage convertedand the instrument cast away. He said a great
many good things to them both; and thenrecommending them to God's
goodnessgave them the benediction againI repeating everything
to them in English; and thus ended the ceremony. I think it was
the most pleasant and agreeable day to me that ever I passed in my
whole life. But my clergyman had not done yet: his thoughts hung
continually upon the conversion of the thirty-seven savagesand
fain be would have stayed upon the island to have undertaken it;
but I convinced himfirstthat his undertaking was impracticable
in itself; andsecondlythat perhaps I would put it into a way of
being done in his absence to his satisfaction.

Having thus brought the affairs of the island to a narrow compass
I was preparing to go on board the shipwhen the young man I had
taken out of the famished ship's company came to meand told me he
understood I had a clergyman with meand that I had caused the
Englishmen to be married to the savages; that he had a match too
which he desired might be finished before I wentbetween two
Christianswhich he hoped would not be disagreeable to me.

I knew this must be the young woman who was his mother's servant
for there was no other Christian woman on the island: so I began
to persuade him not to do anything of that kind rashlyor because
be found himself in this solitary circumstance. I represented to
him that he had some considerable substance in the worldand good
friendsas I understood by himselfand the maid also; that the
maid was not only poorand a servantbut was unequal to himshe
being six or seven and twenty years oldand he not above seventeen
or eighteen; that he might very probablywith my assistancemake
a remove from this wildernessand come into his own country again;
and that then it would be a thousand to one but he would repent his
choiceand the dislike of that circumstance might be
disadvantageous to both. I was going to say morebut he
interrupted mesmilingand told mewith a great deal of modesty
that I mistook in my guesses--that he had nothing of that kind in
his thoughts; and he was very glad to hear that I had an intent of
putting them in a way to see their own country again; and nothing
should have made him think of staying therebut that the voyage I
was going was so exceeding long and hazardousand would carry him

quite out of the reach of all his friends; that he had nothing to
desire of me but that I would settle him in some little property in
the island where he wasgive him a servant or twoand some few
necessariesand he would live here like a planterwaiting the
good time whenif ever I returned to EnglandI would redeem him.
He hoped I would not be unmindful of him when I came to England:
that he would give me some letters to his friends in Londonto let
them know how good I had been to himand in what part of the world
and what circumstances I had left him in: and he promised me that
whenever I redeemed himthe plantationand all the improvements
he had made upon itlet the value be what it wouldshould be
wholly mine.

His discourse was very prettily deliveredconsidering his youth
and was the more agreeable to mebecause he told me positively the
match was not for himself. I gave him all possible assurances that
if I lived to come safe to EnglandI would deliver his letters
and do his business effectually; and that he might depend I should
never forget the circumstances I had left him in. But still I was
impatient to know who was the person to be married; upon which he
told me it was my Jack-of-all-trades and his maid Susan. I was
most agreeably surprised when he named the match; forindeedI
thought it very suitable. The character of that man I have given
already; and as for the maidshe was a very honestmodestsober
and religious young woman: had a very good share of sensewas
agreeable enough in her personspoke very handsomely and to the
purposealways with decency and good mannersand was neither too
backward to speak when requisitenor impertinently forward when it
was not her business; very handy and housewifelyand an excellent
manager; fitindeedto have been governess to the whole island;
and she knew very well how to behave in every respect.

The match being proposed in this mannerwe married them the same
day; and as I was father at the altarand gave her awayso I gave
her a portion; for I appointed her and her husband a handsome large
space of ground for their plantation; and indeed this matchand
the proposal the young gentleman made to give him a small property
in the islandput me upon parcelling it out amongst themthat
they might not quarrel afterwards about their situation.

This sharing out the land to them I left to Will Atkinswho was
now grown a sobergravemanaging fellowperfectly reformed
exceedingly pious and religious; andas far as I may be allowed to
speak positively in such a caseI verily believe he was a true
penitent. He divided things so justlyand so much to every one's
satisfactionthat they only desired one general writing under my
hand for the wholewhich I caused to be drawn upand signed and
sealedsetting out the bounds and situation of every man's
plantationand testifying that I gave them thereby severally a
right to the whole possession and inheritance of the respective
plantations or farmswith their improvementsto them and their
heirsreserving all the rest of the island as my own propertyand
a certain rent for every particular plantation after eleven years
if Ior any one from meor in my namecame to demand it
producing an attested copy of the same writing. As to the
government and laws among themI told them I was not capable of
giving them better rules than they were able to give themselves;
only I made them promise me to live in love and good neighbourhood
with one another; and so I prepared to leave them.

One thing I must not omitand that isthat being now settled in a
kind of commonwealth among themselvesand having much business in
handit was odd to have seven-and-thirty Indians live in a nook of
the islandindependentandindeedunemployed; for except the

providing themselves foodwhich they had difficulty enough to do
sometimesthey had no manner of business or property to manage. I
proposedthereforeto the governor Spaniard that he should go to
themwith Friday's fatherand propose to them to removeand
either plant for themselvesor be taken into their several
families as servants to be maintained for their labourbut without
being absolute slaves; for I would not permit them to make them
slaves by forceby any means; because they had their liberty given
them by capitulationas it were articles of surrenderwhich they
ought not to break.

They most willingly embraced the proposaland came all very
cheerfully along with him: so we allotted them land and
plantationswhich three or four accepted ofbut all the rest
chose to be employed as servants in the several families we had
settled. Thus my colony was in a manner settled as follows: The
Spaniards possessed my original habitationwhich was the capital
cityand extended their plantations all along the side of the
brookwhich made the creek that I have so often describedas far
as my bower; and as they increased their cultureit went always
eastward. The English lived in the north-east partwhere Will
Atkins and his comrades beganand came on southward and southwest
towards the back part of the Spaniards; and every plantation
had a great addition of land to take inif they found occasionso
that they need not jostle one another for want of room. All the
east end of the island was left uninhabitedthat if any of the
savages should come on shore there only for their customary
barbaritiesthey might come and go; if they disturbed nobody
nobody would disturb them: and no doubt but they were often
ashoreand went away again; for I never heard that the planters
were ever attacked or disturbed any more.


It now came into my thoughts that I had hinted to my friend the
clergyman that the work of converting the savages might perhaps be
set on foot in his absence to his satisfactionand I told him that
now I thought that it was put in a fair way; for the savagesbeing
thus divided among the Christiansif they would but every one of
them do their part with those which came under their handsI hoped
it might have a very good effect.

He agreed presently in thatif they did their part. "But how
says he, shall we obtain that of them?" I told him we would call
them all togetherand leave it in charge with themor go to them
one by onewhich he thought best; so we divided it--he to speak to
the Spaniardswho were all Papistsand I to speak to the English
who were all Protestants; and we recommended it earnestly to them
and made them promise that they would never make any distinction of
Papist or Protestant in their exhorting the savages to turn
Christiansbut teach them the general knowledge of the true God
and of their Saviour Jesus Christ; and they likewise promised us
that they would never have any differences or disputes one with
another about religion.

When I came to Will Atkins's houseI found that the young woman I
have mentioned aboveand Will Atkins's wifewere become
intimates; and this prudentreligious young woman had perfected
the work Will Atkins had begun; and though it was not above four
days after what I have relatedyet the new-baptized savage woman

was made such a Christian as I have seldom heard of in all my
observation or conversation in the world. It came next into my
mindin the morning before I went to themthat amongst all the
needful things I had to leave with them I had not left them a
Biblein which I showed myself less considering for them than my
good friend the widow was for me when she sent me the cargo of a
hundred pounds from Lisbonwhere she packed up three Bibles and a
Prayer-book. Howeverthe good woman's charity had a greater
extent than ever she imaginedfor they were reserved for the
comfort and instruction of those that made much better use of them
than I had done.

I took one of the Bibles in my pocketand when I came to Will
Atkins's tentor houseand found the young woman and Atkins's
baptized wife had been discoursing of religion together--for Will
Atkins told it me with a great deal of joy--I asked if they were
together nowand he saidYes; so I went into the houseand he
with meand we found them together very earnest in discourse.
Oh, sir,says Will Atkinswhen God has sinners to reconcile to
Himself, and aliens to bring home, He never wants a messenger; my
wife has got a new instructor: I knew I was unworthy, as I was
incapable of that work; that young woman has been sent hither from
heaven--she is enough to convert a whole island of savages.The
young woman blushedand rose up to go awaybut I desired her to
sit-still; I told her she had a good work upon her handsand I
hoped God would bless her in it.

We talked a littleand I did not perceive that they had any book
among themthough I did not ask; but I put my hand into my pocket
and pulled out my Bible. "Here said I to Atkins, I have brought
you an assistant that perhaps you had not before." The man was so
confounded that he was not able to speak for some time; but
recovering himselfhe takes it with both his handsand turning to
his wifeHere, my dear,says hedid not I tell you our God,
though He lives above, could hear what we have said? Here's the
book I prayed for when you and I kneeled down under the bush; now
God has heard us and sent it.When he had said sothe man fell
into such passionate transportsthat between the joy of having it
and giving God thanks for itthe tears ran down his face like a
child that was crying.

The woman was surprisedand was like to have run into a mistake
that none of us were aware of; for she firmly believed God had sent
the book upon her husband's petition. It is true that
providentially it was soand might be taken so in a consequent
sense; but I believe it would have been no difficult matter at that
time to have persuaded the poor woman to have believed that an
express messenger came from heaven on purpose to bring that
individual book. But it was too serious a matter to suffer any
delusion to take placeso I turned to the young womanand told
her we did not desire to impose upon the new convert in her first
and more ignorant understanding of thingsand begged her to
explain to her that God may be very properly said to answer our
petitionswhenin the course of His providencesuch things are
in a particular manner brought to pass as we petitioned for; but we
did not expect returns from heaven in a miraculous and particular
mannerand it is a mercy that it is not so.

This the young woman did afterwards effectuallyso that there was
no priestcraft used here; and I should have thought it one of the
most unjustifiable frauds in the world to have had it so. But the
effect upon Will Atkins is really not to be expressed; and there
we may be surewas no delusion. Sure no man was ever more
thankful in the world for anything of its kind than he was for the

BiblenorI believenever any man was glad of a Bible from a
better principle; and though he had been a most profligate
creatureheadstrongfuriousand desperately wickedyet this man
is a standing rule to us all for the well instructing children
viz. that parents should never give over to teach and instructnor
ever despair of the success of their endeavourslet the children
be ever so refractoryor to appearance insensible to instruction;
for if ever God in His providence touches the conscience of such
the force of their education turns upon themand the early
instruction of parents is not lostthough it may have been many
years laid asleepbut some time or other they may find the benefit
of it. Thus it was with this poor man: however ignorant he was of
religion and Christian knowledgehe found he had some to do with
now more ignorant than himselfand that the least part of the
instruction of his good father that now came to his mind was of use
to him.

Among the restit occurred to himhe saidhow his father used to
insist so much on the inexpressible value of the Bibleand the
privilege and blessing of it to nationsfamiliesand persons; but
he never entertained the least notion of the worth of it till now
whenbeing to talk to heathenssavagesand barbarianshe wanted
the help of the written oracle for his assistance. The young woman
was glad of it also for the present occasionthough she had one
and so had the youthon board our ship among their goodswhich
were not yet brought on shore. And nowhaving said so many things
of this young womanI cannot omit telling one story more of her
and myselfwhich has something in it very instructive and

I have related to what extremity the poor young woman was reduced;
how her mistress was starved to deathand died on board that
unhappy ship we met at seaand how the whole ship's company was
reduced to the last extremity. The gentlewomanand her sonand
this maidwere first hardly used as to provisionsand at last
totally neglected and starved--that is to saybrought to the last
extremity of hunger. One daybeing discoursing with her on the
extremities they sufferedI asked her if she could describeby
what she had feltwhat it was to starveand how it appeared? She
said she believed she couldand told her tale very distinctly

First, we had for some days fared exceedingly hard, and suffered
very great hunger; but at last we were wholly without food of any
kind except sugar, and a little wine and water. The first day
after I had received no food at all, I found myself towards
evening, empty and sick at the stomach, and nearer night much
inclined to yawning and sleep. I lay down on the couch in the
great cabin to sleep, and slept about three hours, and awaked a
little refreshed, having taken a glass of wine when I lay down;
after being about three hours awake, it being about five o'clock in
the morning, I found myself empty, and my stomach sickish, and lay
down again, but could not sleep at all, being very faint and ill;
and thus I continued all the second day with a strange variety-first
hungry, then sick again, with retchings to vomit. The second
night, being obliged to go to bed again without any food more than
a draught of fresh water, and being asleep, I dreamed I was at
Barbadoes, and that the market was mightily stocked with
provisions; that I bought some for my mistress, and went and dined
very heartily. I thought my stomach was full after this, as it
would have been after a good dinner; but when I awaked I was
exceedingly sunk in my spirits to find myself in the extremity of
family. The last glass of wine we had I drank, and put sugar in
it, because of its having some spirit to supply nourishment; but

there being no substance in the stomach for the digesting office to
work upon, I found the only effect of the wine was to raise
disagreeable fumes from the stomach into the head; and I lay, as
they told me, stupid and senseless, as one drunk, for some time.
The third day, in the morning, after a night of strange, confused,
and inconsistent dreams, and rather dozing than sleeping, I awaked
ravenous and furious with hunger; and I question, had not my
understanding returned and conquered it, whether if I had been a
mother, and had had a little child with me, its life would have
been safe or not. This lasted about three hours, during which time
I was twice raging mad as any creature in Bedlam, as my young
master told me, and as he can now inform you.

In one of these fits of lunacy or distraction I fell down and
struck my face against the corner of a pallet-bedin which my
mistress layand with the blow the blood gushed out of my nose;
and the cabin-boy bringing me a little basinI sat down and bled
into it a great deal; and as the blood came from me I came to
myselfand the violence of the flame or fever I was in abatedand
so did the ravenous part of the hunger. Then I grew sickand
retched to vomitbut could notfor I had nothing in my stomach to
bring up. After I had bled some time I swoonedand they all
believed I was dead; but I came to myself soon afterand then had
a most dreadful pain in my stomach not to be described--not like
the colicbut a gnawingeager pain for food; and towards night it
went off with a kind of earnest wishing or longing for food. I
took another draught of water with sugar in it; but my stomach
loathed the sugar and brought it all up again; then I took a
draught of water without sugarand that stayed with me; and I laid
me down upon the bedpraying most heartily that it would please
God to take me away; and composing my mind in hopes of itI
slumbered a whileand then wakingthought myself dyingbeing
light with vapours from an empty stomach. I recommended my soul
then to Godand then earnestly wished that somebody would throw me
into the into the sea.

All this while my mistress lay by me, just, as I thought,
expiring, but she bore it with much more patience than I, and gave
the last bit of bread she had left to her child, my young master,
who would not have taken it, but she obliged him to eat it; and I
believe it saved his life. Towards the morning I slept again, and
when I awoke I fell into a violent passion of crying, and after
that had a second fit of violent hunger. I got up ravenous, and in
a most dreadful condition; and once or twice I was going to bite my
own arm. At last I saw the basin in which was the blood I had bled
at my nose the day before: I ran to it, and swallowed it with such
haste, and such a greedy appetite, as if I wondered nobody had
taken it before, and afraid it should be taken from me now. After
it was down, though the thoughts of it filled me with horror, yet
it checked the fit of hunger, and I took another draught of water,
and was composed and refreshed for some hours after. This was the
fourth day; and this I kept up till towards night, when, within the
compass of three hours, I had all the several circumstances over
again, one after another, viz. sick, sleepy, eagerly hungry, pain
in the stomach, then ravenous again, then sick, then lunatic, then
crying, then ravenous again, and so every quarter of an hour, and
my strength wasted exceedingly; at night I lay me down, having no
comfort but in the hope that I should die before morning.

All this night I had no sleep; but the hunger was now turned into
a disease; and I had a terrible colic and gripingby wind instead
of food having found its way into the bowels; and in this condition
I lay till morningwhen I was surprised by the cries and
lamentations of my young masterwho called out to me that his

mother was dead. I lifted myself up a littlefor I had not
strength to risebut found she was not deadthough she was able
to give very little signs of life. I had then such convulsions in
my stomachfor want of some sustenanceas I cannot describe; with
such frequent throes and pangs of appetite as nothing but the
tortures of death can imitate; and in this condition I was when I
heard the seamen above cry out'A sail! a sail!' and halloo and
jump about as if they were distracted. I was not able to get off
from the bedand my mistress much less; and my young master was so
sick that I thought he had been expiring; so we could not open the
cabin dooror get any account what it was that occasioned such
confusion; nor had we had any conversation with the ship's company
for twelve daysthey having told us that they had not a mouthful
of anything to eat in the ship; and this they told us afterwards-they
thought we had been dead. It was this dreadful condition we
were in when you were sent to save our lives; and how you found us
siryou know as well as Iand better too."

This was her own relationand is such a distinct account of
starving to deathasI confessI never met withand was
exceeding instructive to me. I am the rather apt to believe it to
be a true accountbecause the youth gave me an account of a good
part of it; though I must ownnot so distinct and so feeling as
the maid; and the ratherbecause it seems his mother fed him at
the price of her own life: but the poor maidwhose constitution
was stronger than that of her mistresswho was in yearsand a
weakly woman toomight struggle harder with it; nevertheless she
might be supposed to feel the extremity something sooner than her
mistresswho might be allowed to keep the last bit something
longer than she parted with any to relieve her maid. No question
as the case is here relatedif our ship or some other had not so
providentially met thembut a few days more would have ended all
their lives. I now return to my disposition of things among the
people. Andfirstit is to be observed herethat for many
reasons I did not think fit to let them know anything of the sloop
I had framedand which I thought of setting up among them; for I
foundat least at my first comingsuch seeds of division among
themthat I saw plainlyhad I set up the sloopand left it among
themthey wouldupon every light disgusthave separatedand
gone away from one another; or perhaps have turned piratesand so
made the island a den of thievesinstead of a plantation of sober
and religious peopleas I intended it; nor did I leave the two
pieces of brass cannon that I had on boardor the extra two
quarter-deck guns that my nephew had providedfor the same reason.
I thought it was enough to qualify them for a defensive war against
any that should invade thembut not to set them up for an
offensive waror to go abroad to attack others; whichin the end
would only bring ruin and destruction upon them. I reserved the
sloopthereforeand the gunsfor their service another wayas I
shall observe in its place.

Having now done with the islandI left them all in good
circumstances and in a flourishing conditionand went on board my
ship again on the 6th of Mayhaving been about twenty-five days
among them: and as they were all resolved to stay upon the island
till I came to remove themI promised to send them further relief
from the Brazilsif I could possibly find an opportunity. I
particularly promised to send them some cattlesuch as sheep
hogsand cows: as to the two cows and calves which I brought from
Englandwe had been obligedby the length of our voyageto kill
them at seafor want of hay to feed them.

The next daygiving them a salute of five guns at partingwe set
sailand arrived at the bay of All Saints in the Brazils in about

twenty-two daysmeeting nothing remarkable in our passage but
this: that about three days after we had sailedbeing becalmed
and the current setting strong to the ENE.runningas it were
into a bay or gulf on the land sidewe were driven something out
of our courseand once or twice our men cried outLand to the
eastward!but whether it was the continent or islands we could not
tell by any means. But the third daytowards eveningthe sea
smoothand the weather calmwe saw the sea as it were covered
towards the land with something very black; not being able to
discover what it was till after some timeour chief mategoing up
the main shrouds a little wayand looking at them with a
perspectivecried out it was an army. I could not imagine what he
meant by an armyand thwarted him a little hastily. "Naysir
says he, don't be angryfor 'tis an armyand a fleet too: for I
believe there are a thousand canoesand you may see them paddle
alongfor they are coming towards us apace."

I was a little surprised thenindeedand so was my nephew the
captain; for he had heard such terrible stories of them in the
islandand having never been in those seas beforethat he could
not tell what to think of itbut saidtwo or three timeswe
should all be devoured. I must confessconsidering we were
becalmedand the current set strong towards the shoreI liked it
the worse; howeverI bade them not be afraidbut bring the ship
to an anchor as soon as we came so near as to know that we must
engage them. The weather continued calmand they came on apace
towards usso I gave orders to come to an anchorand furl all our
sails; as for the savagesI told them they had nothing to fear but
fireand therefore they should get their boats outand fasten
themone close by the head and the other by the sternand man
them both welland wait the issue in that posture: this I did
that the men in the boats might he ready with sheets and buckets to
put out any fire these savages might endeavour to fix to the
outside of the ship.

In this posture we lay by for themand in a little while they came
up with us; but never was such a horrid sight seen by Christians;
though my mate was much mistaken in his calculation of their
numberyet when they came up we reckoned about a hundred and
twenty-six canoes; some of them had sixteen or seventeen men in
themand some moreand the least six or seven. When they came
nearer to usthey seemed to be struck with wonder and
astonishmentas at a sight which doubtless they had never seen
before; nor could they at firstas we afterwards understoodknow
what to make of us; they came boldly uphoweververy near to us
and seemed to go about to row round us; but we called to our men in
the boats not to let them come too near them. This very order
brought us to an engagement with themwithout our designing it;
for five or six of the large canoes came so near our long-boat
that our men beckoned with their hands to keep them backwhich
they understood very welland went back: but at their retreat
about fifty arrows came on board us from those boatsand one of
our men in the long-boat was very much wounded. HoweverI called
to them not to fire by any means; but we handed down some deal
boards into the boatand the carpenter presently set up a kind of
fencelike waste boardsto cover them from the arrows of the
savagesif they should shoot again.

About half-an-hour afterwards they all came up in a body astern of
usand so near that we could easily discern what they werethough
we could not tell their design; and I easily found they were some
of my old friendsthe same sort of savages that I had been used to
engage with. In a short time more they rowed a little farther out
to seatill they came directly broadside with usand then rowed

down straight upon ustill they came so near that they could hear
us speak; upon thisI ordered all my men to keep closelest they
should shoot any more arrowsand made all our guns ready; but
being so near as to be within hearingI made Friday go out upon
the deckand call out aloud to them in his languageto know what
they meant. Whether they understood him or notthat I knew not;
but as soon as he had called to themsix of themwho were in the
foremost or nighest boat to usturned their canoes from usand
stooping downshowed us their naked backs; whether this was a
defiance or challenge we knew notor whether it was done in mere
contemptor as a signal to the rest; but immediately Friday cried
out they were going to shootandunhappily for himpoor fellow
they let fly about three hundred of their arrowsand to my
inexpressible griefkilled poor Fridayno other man being in
their sight. The poor fellow was shot with no less than three
arrowsand about three more fell very near him; such unlucky
marksmen they were!

I was so annoyed at the loss of my old trusty servant and
companionthat I immediately ordered five guns to be loaded with
small shotand four with greatand gave them such a broadside as
they had never heard in their lives before. They were not above
half a cable's length off when we fired; and our gunners took their
aim so wellthat three or four of their canoes were oversetas we
had reason to believeby one shot only. The ill manners of
turning up their bare backs to us gave us no great offence; neither
did I know for certain whether that which would pass for the
greatest contempt among us might be understood so by them or not;
thereforein returnI had only resolved to have fired four or
five guns at them with powder onlywhich I knew would frighten
them sufficiently: but when they shot at us directly with all the
fury they were capable ofand especially as they had killed my
poor Fridaywhom I so entirely loved and valuedand whoindeed
so well deserved itI thought myself not only justifiable before
God and manbut would have been very glad if I could have overset
every canoe thereand drowned every one of them.

I can neither tell how many we killed nor how many we wounded at
this broadsidebut sure such a fright and hurry never were seen
among such a multitude; there were thirteen or fourteen of their
canoes split and overset in alland the men all set a-swimming:
the restfrightened out of their witsscoured away as fast as
they couldtaking but little care to save those whose boats were
split or spoiled with our shot; so I suppose that many of them were
lost; and our men took up one poor fellow swimming for his life
above an hour after they were all gone. The small shot from our
cannon must needs kill and wound a great many; butin shortwe
never knew how it went with themfor they fled so fastthat in
three hours or thereabouts we could not see above three or four
straggling canoesnor did we ever see the rest any more; for a
breeze of wind springing up the same eveningwe weighed and set
sail for the Brazils.

We had a prisonerindeedbut the creature was so sullen that he
would neither eat nor speakand we all fancied he would starve
himself to death. But I took a way to cure him: for I had made
them take him and turn him into the long-boatand make him believe
they would toss him into the sea againand so leave him where they
found himif he would not speak; nor would that dobut they
really did throw him into the seaand came away from him. Then he
followed themfor he swam like a corkand called to them in his
tonguethough they knew not one word of what he said; however at
last they took him in again.and then he began to he more
tractable: nor did I ever design they should drown him.

We were now under sail againbut I was the most disconsolate
creature alive for want of my man Fridayand would have been very
glad to have gone back to the islandto have taken one of the rest
from thence for my occasionbut it could not be: so we went on.
We had one prisoneras I have saidand it was a long time before
we could make him understand anything; but in time our men taught
him some Englishand he began to be a little tractable.
Afterwardswe inquired what country he came from; but could make
nothing of what he said; for his speech was so oddall gutturals
and he spoke in the throat in such a hollowodd mannerthat we
could never form a word after him; and we were all of opinion that
they might speak that language as well if they were gagged as
otherwise; nor could we perceive that they had any occasion either
for teethtonguelipsor palatebut formed their words just as
a hunting-horn forms a tune with an open throat. He told us
howeversome time afterwhen we had taught him to speak a little
Englishthat they were going with their kings to fight a great
battle. When he said kingswe asked him how many kings? He said
they were five nation (we could not make him understand the plural
's)and that they all joined to go against two nation. We asked
him what made them come up to us? He saidTo makee te great
wonder look.Here it is to be observed that all those nativesas
also those of Africa when they learn Englishalways add two e's at
the end of the words where we use one; and they place the accent
upon themas makeetakeeand the like; nayI could hardly make
Friday leave it offthough at last he did.

And now I name the poor fellow once moreI must take my last leave
of him. Poor honest Friday! We buried him with all the decency
and solemnity possibleby putting him into a coffinand throwing
him into the sea; and I caused them to fire eleven guns for him.
So ended the life of the most gratefulfaithfulhonestand most
affectionate servant that ever man had.

We went now away with a fair wind for Brazil; and in about twelve
days' time we made landin the latitude of five degrees south of
the linebeing the north-easternmost land of all that part of
America. We kept on S. by sight of the shore four days
when we made Cape St. Augustineand in three days came to an
anchor off the bay of All Saintsthe old place of my deliverance
from whence came both my good and evil fate. Never ship came to
this port that had less business than I hadand yet it was with
great difficulty that we were admitted to hold the least
correspondence on shore: not my partner himselfwho was alive
and made a great figure among themnot my two merchant-trustees
not the fame of my wonderful preservation in the islandcould
obtain me that favour. My partnerhoweverremembering that I had
given five hundred moidores to the prior of the monastery of the
Augustinesand two hundred and seventy-two to the poorwent to
the monasteryand obliged the prior that then was to go to the
governorand get leave for me personallywith the captain and one
morebesides eight seamento come on shoreand no more; and this
upon conditionabsolutely capitulated forthat we should not
offer to land any goods out of the shipor to carry any person
away without licence. They were so strict with us as to landing
any goodsthat it was with extreme difficulty that I got on shore
three bales of English goodssuch as fine broadclothsstuffsand
some linenwhich I had brought for a present to my partner.

He was a very generousopen-hearted manalthough he beganlike
mewith little at first. Though he knew not that I had the least
design of giving him anythinghe sent me on board a present of
fresh provisionswineand sweetmeatsworth about thirty

moidoresincluding some tobaccoand three or four fine medals of
gold: but I was even with him in my presentwhichas I have
saidconsisted of fine broadclothEnglish stuffslaceand fine
holland; alsoI delivered him about the value of one hundred
pounds sterling in the same goodsfor other uses; and I obliged
him to set up the sloopwhich I had brought with me from England
as I have saidfor the use of my colonyin order to send the
refreshments I intended to my plantation.

Accordinglyhe got handsand finished the sloop in a very few
daysfor she was already framed; and I gave the master of her such
instructions that he could not miss the place; nor did heas I had
an account from my partner afterwards. I got him soon loaded with
the small cargo I sent them; and one of our seamenthat had been
on shore with me thereoffered to go with the sloop and settle
thereupon my letter to the governor Spaniard to allot him a
sufficient quantity of land for a plantationand on my giving him
some clothes and tools for his planting workwhich he said he
understoodhaving been an old planter at Marylandand a buccaneer
into the bargain. I encouraged the fellow by granting all he
desired; andas an additionI gave him the savage whom we had
taken prisoner of war to be his slaveand ordered the governor
Spaniard to give him his share of everything he wanted with the

When we came to fit this man outmy old partner told me there was
a certain very honest fellowa Brazil planter of his acquaintance
who had fallen into the displeasure of the Church. "I know not
what the matter is with him says he, buton my conscienceI
think he is a heretic in his heartand he has been obliged to
conceal himself for fear of the Inquisition." He then told me that
he would be very glad of such an opportunity to make his escape
with his wife and two daughters; and if I would let them go to my
islandand allot them a plantationhe would give them a small
stock to begin with--for the officers of the Inquisition had seized
all his effects and estateand he had nothing left but a little
household stuff and two slaves; "and adds he, though I hate his
principlesyet I would not have him fall into their handsfor he
will be assuredly burned alive if he does." I granted this
presentlyand joined my Englishman with them: and we concealed
the manand his wife and daughterson board our shiptill the
sloop put out to go to sea; and then having put all their goods on
board some time beforewe put them on board the sloop after she
was got out of the bay. Our seaman was mightily pleased with this
new partner; and their stocksindeedwere much alikerich in
toolsin preparationsand a farm--but nothing to begin with
except as above: howeverthey carried over with them what was
worth all the restsome materials for planting sugar-caneswith
some plants of caneswhich heI mean the Brazil planter
understood very well.

Among the rest of the supplies sent to my tenants in the islandI
sent them by the sloop three milch cows and five calves; about
twenty-two hogsamong them three sows; two maresand a stonehorse.
For my Spaniardsaccording to my promiseI engaged three
Brazil women to goand recommended it to them to marry themand
use them kindly. I could have procured more womenbut I
remembered that the poor persecuted man had two daughtersand that
there were but five of the Spaniards that wanted partners; the rest
had wives of their ownthough in another country. All this cargo
arrived safeandas you may easily supposewas very welcome to
my old inhabitantswho were nowwith this additionbetween sixty
and seventy peoplebesides little childrenof which there were a
great many. I found letters at London from them allby way of

Lisbonwhen I came back to England.

I have now done with the islandand all manner of discourse about
it: and whoever reads the rest of my memorandums would do well to
turn his thoughts entirely from itand expect to read of the
follies of an old mannot warned by his own harmsmuch less by
those of other mento beware; not cooled by almost forty years'
miseries and disappointments--not satisfied with prosperity beyond
expectationnor made cautious by afflictions and distress beyond


I had no more business to go to the East Indies than a man at full
liberty has to go to the turnkey at Newgateand desire him to lock
him up among the prisoners thereand starve him. Had I taken a
small vessel from England and gone directly to the island; had I
loaded heras I did the other vesselwith all the necessaries for
the plantation and for my people; taken a patent from the
government here to have secured my propertyin subjection only to
that of England; had I carried over cannon and ammunitionservants
and people to plantand taken possession of the placefortified
and strengthened it in the name of Englandand increased it with
peopleas I might easily have done; had I then settled myself
thereand sent the ship back laden with good riceas I might also
have done in six months' timeand ordered my friends to have
fitted her out again for our supply--had I done thisand stayed
there myselfI had at least acted like a man of common sense. But
I was possessed of a wandering spiritand scorned all advantages:
I pleased myself with being the patron of the people I placed
thereand doing for them in a kind of haughtymajestic waylike
an old patriarchal monarchproviding for them as if I had been
father of the whole familyas well as of the plantation. But I
never so much as pretended to plant in the name of any government
or nationor to acknowledge any princeor to call my people
subjects to any one nation more than another; nayI never so much
as gave the place a namebut left it as I found itbelonging to
nobodyand the people under no discipline or government but my
ownwhothough I had influence over them as a father and
benefactorhad no authority or power to act or command one way or
otherfurther than voluntary consent moved them to comply. Yet
even thishad I stayed therewould have done well enough; but as
I rambled from themand came there no morethe last letters I had
from any of them were by my partner's meanswho afterwards sent
another sloop to the placeand who sent me wordthough I had not
the letter till I got to Londonseveral years after it was
writtenthat they went on but poorly; were discontented with their
long stay there; that Will Atkins was dead; that five of the
Spaniards were come away; and though they had not been much
molested by the savagesyet they had had some skirmishes with
them; and that they begged of him to write to me to think of the
promise I had made to fetch them awaythat they might see their
country again before they died.

But I was gone a wildgoose chase indeedand they that will have
any more of me must be content to follow me into a new variety of
follieshardshipsand wild adventureswherein the justice of
Providence may be duly observed; and we may see how easily Heaven
can gorge us with our own desiresmake the strongest of our wishes
be our afflictionand punish us most severely with those very

things which we think it would be our utmost happiness to be
allowed to possess. Whether I had business or no businessaway I
went: it is no time now to enlarge upon the reason or absurdity of
my own conductbut to come to the history--I was embarked for the
voyageand the voyage I went.

I shall only add a word or two concerning my honest Popish
clergymanfor let their opinion of usand all other heretics in
generalas they call usbe as uncharitable as it mayI verily
believe this man was very sincereand wished the good of all men:
yet I believe he used reserve in many of his expressionsto
prevent giving me offence; for I scarce heard him once call on the
Blessed Virginor mention St. Jagoor his guardian angelthough
so common with the rest of them. HoweverI say I had not the
least doubt of his sincerity and pious intentions; and I am firmly
of opinionif the rest of the Popish missionaries were like him
they would strive to visit even the poor Tartars and Laplanders
where they have nothing to give themas well as covet to flock to
IndiaPersiaChina&c.the most wealthy of the heathen
countries; for if they expected to bring no gains to their Church
by itit may well be admired how they came to admit the Chinese
Confucius into the calendar of the Christian saints.

A ship being ready to sail for Lisbonmy pious priest asked me
leave to go thither; being stillas he observedbound never to
finish any voyage he began. How happy it had been for me if I had
gone with him. But it was too late now; all things Heaven appoints
for the best: had I gone with him I had never had so many things
to be thankful forand the reader had never heard of the second
part of the travels and adventures of Robinson Crusoe: so I must
here leave exclaiming at myselfand go on with my voyage. From
the Brazils we made directly over the Atlantic Sea to the Cape of
Good Hopeand had a tolerably good voyageour course generally
south-eastnow and then a stormand some contrary winds; but my
disasters at sea were at an end--my future rubs and cross events
were to befall me on shorethat it might appear the land was as
well prepared to be our scourge as the sea.

Our ship was on a trading voyageand had a supercargo on board
who was to direct all her motions after she arrived at the Cape
only being limited to a certain number of days for stayby
charter-partyat the several ports she was to go to. This was
none of my businessneither did I meddle with it; my nephewthe
captainand the supercargo adjusting all those things between them
as they thought fit. We stayed at the Cape no longer than was
needful to take in-fresh waterbut made the best of our way for
the coast of Coromandel. We wereindeedinformed that a French
man-of-warof fifty gunsand two large merchant shipswere gone
for the Indies; and as I knew we were at war with FranceI had
some apprehensions of them; but they went their own wayand we
heard no more of them.

I shall not pester the reader with a tedious description of places
journals of our voyagevariations of the compasslatitudes
trade-winds&c.; it is enough to name the ports and places which
we touched atand what occurred to us upon our passages from one
to another. We touched first at the island of Madagascarwhere
though the people are fierce and treacherousand very well armed
with lances and bowswhich they use with inconceivable dexterity
yet we fared very well with them a while. They treated us very
civilly; and for some trifles which we gave themsuch as knives
scissors&c.they brought us eleven good fat bullocksof a
middling sizewhich we took inpartly for fresh provisions for
our present spendingand the rest to salt for the ship's use.

We were obliged to stay here some time after we had furnished
ourselves with provisions; and Iwho was always too curious to
look into every nook of the world wherever I camewent on shore as
often as I could. It was on the east side of the island that we
went on shore one evening: and the peoplewhoby the wayare
very numerouscame thronging about usand stood gazing at us at a
distance. As we had traded freely with themand had been kindly
usedwe thought ourselves in no danger; but when we saw the
peoplewe cut three boughs out of a treeand stuck them up at a
distance from us; whichit seemsis a mark in that country not
only of a truce and friendshipbut when it is accepted the other
side set up three poles or boughswhich is a signal that they
accept the truce too; but then this is a known condition of the
trucethat you are not to pass beyond their three poles towards
themnor they to come past your three poles or boughs towards you;
so that you are perfectly secure within the three polesand all
the space between your poles and theirs is allowed like a market
for free conversetrafficand commerce. When you go there you
must not carry your weapons with you; and if they come into that
space they stick up their javelins and lances all at the first
polesand come on unarmed; but if any violence is offered them
and the truce thereby brokenaway they run to the polesand lay
hold of their weaponsand the truce is at an end.

It happened one eveningwhen we went on shorethat a greater
number of their people came down than usualbut all very friendly
and civil; and they brought several kinds of provisionsfor which
we satisfied them with such toys as we had; the women also brought
us milk and rootsand several things very acceptable to usand
all was quiet; and we made us a little tent or hut of some boughs
or treesand lay on shore all night. I know not what was the
occasionbut I was not so well satisfied to lie on shore as the
rest; and the boat riding at an anchor at about a stone's cast from
the landwith two men in her to take care of herI made one of
them come on shore; and getting some boughs of trees to cover us
also in the boatI spread the sail on the bottom of the boatand
lay under the cover of the branches of the trees all night in the

About two o'clock in the morning we heard one of our men making a
terrible noise on the shorecalling outfor God's saketo bring
the boat in and come and help themfor they were all like to be
murdered; and at the same time I heard the fire of five muskets
which was the number of guns they hadand that three times over;
for it seems the natives here were not so easily frightened with
guns as the savages were in Americawhere I had to do with them.
All this whileI knew not what was the matterbut rousing
immediately from sleep with the noiseI caused the boat to be
thrust inand resolved with three fusees we had on board to land
and assist our men. We got the boat soon to the shorebut our men
were in too much haste; for being come to the shorethey plunged
into the waterto get to the boat with all the expedition they
couldbeing pursued by between three and four hundred men. Our
men were but nine in alland only five of them had fusees with
them; the rest had pistols and swordsindeedbut they were of
small use to them.

We took up seven of our menand with difficulty enough toothree
of them being very ill wounded; and that which was still worse was
that while we stood in the boat to take our men inwe were in as
much danger as they were in on shore; for they poured their arrows
in upon us so thick that we were glad to barricade the side of the
boat up with the benchesand two or three loose boards whichto

our great satisfactionwe had by mere accident in the boat. And
yethad it been daylightthey areit seemssuch exact marksmen
that if they could have seen but the least part of any of usthey
would have been sure of us. We hadby the light of the moona
little sight of themas they stood pelting us from the shore with
darts and arrows; and having got ready our firearmswe gave them a
volley that we could hearby the cries of some of themhad
wounded several; howeverthey stood thus in battle array on the
shore till break of daywhich we supposed was that they might see
the better to take their aim at us.

In this condition we layand could not tell how to weigh our
anchoror set up our sailbecause we must needs stand up in the
boatand they were as sure to hit us as we were to hit a bird in a
tree with small shot. We made signals of distress to the shipand
though she rode a league offyet my nephewthe captainhearing
our firingand by glasses perceiving the posture we lay inand
that we fired towards the shorepretty well understood us; and
weighing anchor with all speedhe stood as near the shore as he
durst with the shipand then sent another boat with ten hands in
herto assist us. We called to them not to come too neartelling
them what condition we were in; howeverthey stood in near to us
and one of the men taking the end of a tow-line in his handand
keeping our boat between him and the enemyso that they could not
perfectly see himswam on board usand made fast the line to the
boat: upon which we slipped out a little cableand leaving our
anchor behindthey towed us out of reach of the arrows; we all the
while lying close behind the barricade we had made. As soon as we
were got from between the ship and the shorethat we could lay her
side to the shoreshe ran along just by themand poured in a
broadside among themloaded with pieces of iron and leadsmall
bulletsand such stuffbesides the great shotwhich made a
terrible havoc among them.

When we were got on board and out of dangerwe had time to examine
into the occasion of this fray; and indeed our supercargowho had
been often in those partsput me upon it; for he said he was sure
the inhabitants would not have touched us after we had made a
truceif we had not done something to provoke them to it. At
length it came out that an old womanwho had come to sell us some
milkhad brought it within our polesand a young woman with her
who also brought us some roots or herbs; and while the old woman
(whether she was mother to the young woman or no they could not
tell) was selling us the milkone of our men offered some rudeness
to the girl that was with herat which the old woman made a great
noise: howeverthe seaman would not quit his prizebut carried
her out of the old woman's sight among the treesit being almost
dark; the old woman went away without herandas we may suppose
made an outcry among the people she came from; whoupon notice
raised that great army upon us in three or four hoursand it was
great odds but we had all been destroyed.

One of our men was killed with a lance thrown at him just at the
beginning of the attackas he sallied out of the tent they had
made; the rest came off freeall but the fellow who was the
occasion of all the mischiefwho paid dear enough for his
brutalityfor we could not hear what became of him for a great
while. We lay upon the shore two days afterthough the wind
presentedand made signals for himand made our boat sail up
shore and down shore several leaguesbut in vain; so we were
obliged to give him over; and if he alone had suffered for itthe
loss had been less. I could not satisfy myselfhoweverwithout
venturing on shore once moreto try if I could learn anything of
him or them; it was the third night after the action that I had a

great mind to learnif I could by any meanswhat mischief we had
doneand how the game stood on the Indians' side. I was careful
to do it in the darklest we should be attacked again: but I
ought indeed to have been sure that the men I went with had been
under my commandbefore I engaged in a thing so hazardous and
mischievous as I was brought into by itwithout design.

We took twenty as stout fellows with us as any in the shipbesides
the supercargo and myselfand we landed two hours before midnight
at the same place where the Indians stood drawn up in the evening
before. I landed herebecause my designas I have saidwas
chiefly to see if they had quitted the fieldand if they had left
any marks behind them of the mischief we had done themand I
thought if we could surprise one or two of themperhaps we might
get our man againby way of exchange.

We landed without any noiseand divided our men into two bodies
whereof the boatswain commanded one and I the other. We neither
saw nor heard anybody stir when we landed: and we marched upone
body at a distance from anotherto the place. At first we could
see nothingit being very dark; till by-and-by our boatswainwho
led the first partystumbled and fell over a dead body. This made
them halt a while; for knowing by the circumstances that they were
at the place where the Indians had stoodthey waited for my coming
up there. We concluded to halt till the moon began to risewhich
we knew would be in less than an hourwhen we could easily discern
the havoc we had made among them. We told thirty-two bodies upon
the groundwhereof two were not quite dead; some had an arm and
some a leg shot offand one his head; those that were woundedwe
supposedthey had carried away. When we had madeas I thoughta
full discovery of all we could come to the knowledge ofI resolved
on going on board; but the boatswain and his party sent me word
that they were resolved to make a visit to the Indian townwhere
these dogsas they called themdweltand asked me to go along
with them; and if they could find themas they still fancied they
shouldthey did not doubt of getting a good booty; and it might be
they might find Tom Jeffry there: that was the man's name we had

Had they sent to ask my leave to goI knew well enough what answer
to have given them; for I should have commanded them instantly on
boardknowing it was not a hazard fit for us to runwho had a
ship and ship-loading in our chargeand a voyage to make which
depended very much upon the lives of the men; but as they sent me
word they were resolved to goand only asked me and my company to
go along with themI positively refused itand rose upfor I was
sitting on the groundin order to go to the boat. One or two of
the men began to importune me to go; and when I refusedbegan to
grumbleand say they were not under my commandand they would go.
Come, Jack,says one of the menwill you go with me? I'll go
for one.Jack said he would--and then another--andin a word
they all left me but onewhom I persuaded to stayand a boy left
in the boat. So the supercargo and Iwith the third manwent
back to the boatwhere we told them we would stay for themand
take care to take in as many of them as should be left; for I told
them it was a mad thing they were going aboutand supposed most of
them would have the fate of Tom Jeffry.

They told melike seamenthey would warrant it they would come
off againand they would take care&c.; so away they went. I
entreated them to consider the ship and the voyagethat their
lives were not their ownand that they were entrusted with the
voyagein some measure; that if they miscarriedthe ship might be
lost for want of their helpand that they could not answer for it

to God or man. But I might as well have talked to the mainmast of
the ship: they were mad upon their journey; only they gave me good
wordsand begged I would not be angry; that they did not doubt but
they would be back again in about an hour at furthest; for the
Indian townthey saidwas not above half-a mile offthough they
found it above two miles before they got to it.

Wellthey all went awayand though the attempt was desperateand
such as none but madmen would have gone aboutyetto give them
their duethey went about it as warily as boldly; they were
gallantly armedfor they had every man a fusee or musketa
bayonetand a pistol; some of them had broad cutlassessome of
them had hangersand the boatswain and two more had poleaxes;
besides all which they had among them thirteen hand grenadoes.
Bolder fellowsand better providednever went about any wicked
work in the world. When they went out their chief design was
plunderand they were in mighty hopes of finding gold there; but a
circumstance which none of them were aware of set them on fire with
revengeand made devils of them all.

When they came to the few Indian houses which they thought had been
the townwhich was not above half a mile offthey were under
great disappointmentfor there were not above twelve or thirteen
housesand where the town wasor how bigthey knew not. They
consultedthereforewhat to doand were some time before they
could resolve; for if they fell upon thesethey must cut all their
throats; and it was ten to one but some of them might escapeit
being in the nightthough the moon was up; and if one escapedhe
would run and raise all the townso they should have a whole army
upon them; on the other handif they went away and left those
untouchedfor the people were all asleepthey could not tell
which way to look for the town; howeverthe last was the best
adviceso they resolved to leave themand look for the town as
well as they could. They went on a little wayand found a cow
tied to a tree; thisthey presently concludedwould be a good
guide to them; forthey saidthe cow certainly belonged to the
town before themor the town behind themand if they untied her
they should see which way she went: if she went backthey had
nothing to say to her; but if she went forwardthey would follow
her. So they cut the cordwhich was made of twisted flagsand
the cow went on before themdirectly to the town; whichas they
reportedconsisted of above two hundred houses or hutsand in
some of these they found several families living together.

Here they found all in silenceas profoundly secure as sleep could
make them: and firstthey called another councilto consider
what they had to do; and presently resolved to divide themselves
into three bodiesand so set three houses on fire in three parts
of the town; and as the men came outto seize them and bind them
(if any resistedthey need not be asked what to do then)and so
to search the rest of the houses for plunder: but they resolved to
march silently first through the townand see what dimensions it
was ofand if they might venture upon it or no.

They did soand desperately resolved that they would venture upon
them: but while they were animating one another to the workthree
of themwho were a little before the restcalled out aloud to
themand told them that they had found--Tom Jeffry: they all ran
up to the placewhere they found the poor fellow hanging up naked
by one armand his throat cut. There was an Indian house just by
the treewhere they found sixteen or seventeen of the principal
Indianswho had been concerned in the fray with us beforeand two
or three of them wounded with our shot; and our men found they were
awakeand talking one to another in that housebut knew not their


The sight of their poor mangled comrade so enraged themas before
that they swore to one another that they would be revengedand
that not an Indian that came into their hands should have any
quarter; and to work they went immediatelyand yet not so madly as
might be expected from the rage and fury they were in. Their first
care was to get something that would soon take firebutafter a
little searchthey found that would be to no purpose; for most of
the houses were lowand thatched with flags and rushesof which
the country is full; so they presently made some wildfireas we
call itby wetting a little powder in the palm of their handsand
in a quarter of an hour they set the town on fire in four or five
placesand particularly that house where the Indians were not gone
to bed.

As soon as the fire begun to blazethe poor frightened creatures
began to rush out to save their livesbut met with their fate in
the attempt; and especially at the doorwhere they drove them
backthe boatswain himself killing one or two with his poleaxe.
The house being largeand many in ithe did not care to go in
but called for a hand grenadoand threw it among themwhich at
first frightened thembutwhen it burstmade such havoc among
them that they cried out in a hideous manner. In shortmost of
the Indians who were in the open part of the house were killed or
hurt with the grenadoexcept two or three more who pressed to the
doorwhich the boatswain and two more keptwith their bayonets on
the muzzles of their piecesand despatched all that came in their
way; but there was another apartment in the housewhere the prince
or kingor whatever he wasand several others were; and these
were kept in till the housewhich was by this time all in a light
flamefell in upon themand they were smothered together.

All this while they fired not a gunbecause they would not waken
the people faster than they could master them; but the fire began
to waken them fast enoughand our fellows were glad to keep a
little together in bodies; for the fire grew so ragingall the
houses being made of light combustible stuffthat they could
hardly bear the street between them. Their business was to follow
the firefor the surer execution: as fast as the fire either
forced the people out of those houses which were burningor
frightened them out of othersour people were ready at their doors
to knock them on the headstill calling and hallooing one to
another to remember Tom Jeffry.

While this was doingI must confess I was very uneasyand
especially when I saw the flames of the townwhichit being
nightseemed to be close by me. My nephewthe captainwho was
roused by his men seeing such a firewas very uneasynot knowing
what the matter wasor what danger I was inespecially hearing
the guns toofor by this time they began to use their firearms; a
thousand thoughts oppressed his mind concerning me and the
supercargowhat would become of us; and at lastthough he could
ill spare any more menyet not knowing what exigence we might be
inhe took another boatand with thirteen men and himself came
ashore to me.

He was surprised to see me and the supercargo in the boat with no
more than two men; and though he was glad that we were wellyet he
was in the same impatience with us to know what was doing; for the
noise continuedand the flame increased; in shortit was next to
an impossibility for any men in the world to restrain their
curiosity to know what had happenedor their concern for the
safety of the men: in a wordthe captain told me he would go and

help his menlet what would come. I argued with himas I did
before with the menthe safety of the shipthe danger of the
voyagethe interests of the owners and merchants&c.and told
him I and the two men would goand only see if we could at a
distance learn what was likely to be the eventand come back and
tell him. It was in vain to talk to my nephewas it was to talk
to the rest before; he would gohe said; and he only wished he had
left but ten men in the shipfor he could not think of having his
men lost for want of help: he had rather lose the shipthe
voyageand his lifeand all; and away he went.

I was no more able to stay behind now than I was to persuade them
not to go; so the captain ordered two men to row back the pinnace
and fetch twelve men moreleaving the long-boat at an anchor; and
thatwhen they came backsix men should keep the two boatsand
six more come after us; so that he left only sixteen men in the
ship: for the whole ship's company consisted of sixty-five men
whereof two were lost in the late quarrel which brought this
mischief on.

Being now on the marchwe felt little of the ground we trod on;
and being guided by the firewe kept no pathbut went directly to
the place of the flame. If the noise of the guns was surprising to
us beforethe cries of the poor people were now quite of another
natureand filled us with horror. I must confess I was never at
the sacking a cityor at the taking a town by storm. I had heard
of Oliver Cromwell taking Droghedain Irelandand killing man
womanand child; and I had read of Count Tilly sacking the city of
Magdeburg and cutting the throats of twenty-two thousand of all
sexes; but I never had an idea of the thing itself beforenor is
it possible to describe itor the horror that was upon our minds
at hearing it. Howeverwe went onand at length came to the
townthough there was no entering the streets of it for the fire.
The first object we met with was the ruins of a hut or houseor
rather the ashes of itfor the house was consumed; and just before
itplainly now to be seen by the light of the firelay four men
and three womenkilledandas we thoughtone or two more lay in
the heap among the fire; in shortthere were such instances of
ragealtogether barbarousand of a fury something beyond what was
humanthat we thought it impossible our men could be guilty of it;
orif they were the authors of itwe thought they ought to be
every one of them put to the worst of deaths. But this was not
all: we saw the fire increase forwardand the cry went on just as
the fire went on; so that we were in the utmost confusion. We
advanced a little way fartherand beholdto our astonishment
three naked womenand crying in a most dreadful mannercame
flying as if they had wingsand after them sixteen or seventeen
mennativesin the same terror and consternationwith three of
our English butchers in the rearwhowhen they could not overtake
themfired in among themand one that was killed by their shot
fell down in our sight. When the rest saw usbelieving us to be
their enemiesand that we would murder them as well as those that
pursued themthey set up a most dreadful shriekespecially the
women; and two of them fell downas if already deadwith the

My very soul shrunk within meand my blood ran chill in my veins
when I saw this; andI believehad the three English sailors that
pursued them come onI had made our men kill them all; howeverwe
took some means to let the poor flying creatures know that we would
not hurt them; and immediately they came up to usand kneeling
downwith their hands lifted upmade piteous lamentation to us to
save themwhich we let them know we would: whereupon they crept
all together in a huddle close behind usas for protection. I

left my men drawn up togetherandcharging them to hurt nobody
butif possibleto get at some of our peopleand see what devil
it was possessed themand what they intended to doand to command
them off; assuring them that if they stayed till daylight they
would have a hundred thousand men about their ears: I say I left
themand went among those flying peopletaking only two of our
men with me; and there wasindeeda piteous spectacle among them.
Some of them had their feet terribly burned with trampling and
running through the fire; others their hands burned; one of the
women had fallen down in the fireand was very much burned before
she could get out again; and two or three of the men had cuts in
their backs and thighsfrom our men pursuing; and another was shot
through the body and died while I was there.

I would fain have learned what the occasion of all this was; but I
could not understand one word they said; thoughby signsI
perceived some of them knew not what was the occasion themselves.
I was so terrified in my thoughts at this outrageous attempt that I
could not stay therebut went back to my own menand resolved to
go into the middle of the townthrough the fireor whatever might
be in the wayand put an end to itcost what it would;
accordinglyas I came back to my menI told them my resolution
and commanded them to follow mewhenat the very momentcame
four of our menwith the boatswain at their headroving over
heaps of bodies they had killedall covered with blood and dust
as if they wanted more people to massacrewhen our men hallooed to
them as loud as they could halloo; and with much ado one of them
made them hearso that they knew who we wereand came up to us.

As soon as the boatswain saw ushe set up a halloo like a shout of
triumphfor havingas he thoughtmore help come; and without
waiting to hear meCaptain,says henoble captain! I am glad
you are come; we have not half done yet. Villainous hell-hound
dogs! I'll kill as many of them as poor Tom has hairs upon his
head: we have sworn to spare none of them; we'll root out the very
nation of them from the earth;and thus he ran onout of breath
toowith actionand would not give us leave to speak a word. At
lastraising my voice that I might silence him a little
Barbarous dog!said Iwhat are you doing! I won't have one
creature touched more, upon pain of death; I charge you, upon your
life, to stop your hands, and stand still here, or you are a dead
man this minute.--"Whysir says he, do you know what you do
or what they have done? If you want a reason for what we have
donecome hither;" and with that he showed me the poor fellow
hangingwith his throat cut.

I confess I was urged then myselfand at another time would have
been forward enough; but I thought they had carried their rage too
farand remembered Jacob's words to his sons Simeon and Levi:
Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it
was cruel.But I had now a new task upon my hands; for when the
men I had carried with me saw the sightas I had doneI had as
much to do to restrain them as I should have had with the others;
naymy nephew himself fell in with themand told mein their
hearingthat he was only concerned for fear of the men being
overpowered; and as to the peoplehe thought not one of them ought
to live; for they had all glutted themselves with the murder of the
poor manand that they ought to be used like murderers. Upon
these wordsaway ran eight of my menwith the boatswain and his
crewto complete their bloody work; and Iseeing it quite out of
my power to restrain themcame away pensive and sad; for I could
not bear the sightmuch less the horrible noise and cries of the
poor wretches that fell into their hands.

I got nobody to come back with me but the supercargo and two men
and with these walked back to the boat. It was a very great piece
of folly in meI confessto venture backas it werealone; for
as it began now to be almost dayand the alarm had run over the
countrythere stood about forty men armed with lances and boughs
at the little place where the twelve or thirteen houses stood
mentioned before: but by accident I missed the placeand came
directly to the seasideand by the time I got to the seaside it
was broad day: immediately I took the pinnace and went on board
and sent her back to assist the men in what might happen. I
observedabout the time that I came to the boat-sidethat the
fire was pretty well outand the noise abated; but in about halfan-
hour after I got on boardI heard a volley of our men's
firearmsand saw a great smoke. Thisas I understood afterwards
was our men falling upon the menwhoas I saidstood at the few
houses on the wayof whom they killed sixteen or seventeenand
set all the houses on firebut did not meddle with the women or

By the time the men got to the shore again with the pinnace our men
began to appear; they came dropping innot in two bodies as they
wentbut straggling here and there in such a mannerthat a small
force of resolute men might have cut them all off. But the dread
of them was upon the whole country; and the men were surprisedand
so frightenedthat I believe a hundred of them would have fled at
the sight of but five of our men. Nor in all this terrible action
was there a man that made any considerable defence: they were so
surprised between the terror of the fire and the sudden attack of
our men in the darkthat they knew not which way to turn
themselves; for if they fled one way they were met by one partyif
back again by anotherso that they were everywhere knocked down;
nor did any of our men receive the least hurtexcept one that
sprained his footand another that had one of his hands burned.


I was very angry with my nephewthe captainand indeed with all
the menbut with him in particularas well for his acting so out
of his duty as a commander of the shipand having the charge of
the voyage upon himas in his promptingrather than coolingthe
rage of his blind men in so bloody and cruel an enterprise. My
nephew answered me very respectfullybut told me that when he saw
the body of the poor seaman whom they had murdered in so cruel and
barbarous a mannerhe was not master of himselfneither could he
govern his passion; he owned he should not have done soas he was
commander of the ship; but as he was a manand nature moved him
he could not bear it. As for the rest of the menthey were not
subject to me at alland they knew it well enough; so they took no
notice of my dislike. The next day we set sailso we never heard
any more of it. Our men differed in the account of the number they
had killed; but according to the best of their accountsput all
togetherthey killed or destroyed about one hundred and fifty
peoplemenwomenand childrenand left not a house standing in
the town. As for the poor fellow Tom Jeffryas he was quite dead
(for his throat was so cut that his head was half off)it would do
him no service to bring him away; so they only took him down from
the treewhere he was hanging by one hand.

However just our men thought this actionI was against them in it
and I alwaysafter that timetold them God would blast the

voyage; for I looked upon all the blood they shed that night to be
murder in them. For though it is true that they had killed Tom
Jeffryyet Jeffry was the aggressorhad broken the truceand had
ill-used a young woman of theirswho came down to them innocently
and on the faith of the public capitulation.

The boatswain defended this quarrel when we were afterwards on
board. He said it was true that we seemed to break the trucebut
really had not; and that the war was begun the night before by the
natives themselveswho had shot at usand killed one of our men
without any just provocation; so that as we were in a capacity to
fight them nowwe might also be in a capacity to do ourselves
justice upon them in an extraordinary manner; that though the poor
man had taken a little liberty with the girlhe ought not to have
been murderedand that in such a villainous manner: and that they
did nothing but what was just and what the laws of God allowed to
be done to murderers. One would think this should have been enough
to have warned us against going on shore amongst the heathens and
barbarians; but it is impossible to make mankind wise but at their
own expenseand their experience seems to be always of most use to
them when it is dearest bought.

We were now bound to the Gulf of Persiaand from thence to the
coast of Coromandelonly to touch at Surat; but the chief of the
supercargo's design lay at the Bay of Bengalwhereif he missed
his business outward-boundhe was to go out to Chinaand return
to the coast as he came home. The first disaster that befell us
was in the Gulf of Persiawhere five of our menventuring on
shore on the Arabian side of the gulfwere surrounded by the
Arabiansand either all killed or carried away into slavery; the
rest of the boat's crew were not able to rescue themand had but
just time to get off their boat. I began to upbraid them with the
just retribution of Heaven in this case; but the boatswain very
warmly told mehe thought I went further in my censures than I
could show any warrant for in Scripture; and referred to Luke xiii.
4where our Saviour intimates that those men on whom the Tower of
Siloam fell were not sinners above all the Galileans; but that
which put me to silence in the case wasthat not one of these five
men who were now lost were of those who went on shore to the
massacre of Madagascarso I always called itthough our men could
not bear to hear the word MASSACRE with any patience.

But my frequent preaching to them on this subject had worse
consequences than I expected; and the boatswainwho had been the
head of the attemptcame up boldly to me one timeand told me he
found that I brought that affair continually upon the stage; that I
made unjust reflections upon itand had used the men very ill on
that accountand himself in particular; that as I was but a
passengerand had no command in the shipor concern in the
voyagethey were not obliged to bear it; that they did not know
but I might have some ill-design in my headand perhaps to call
them to an account for it when they came to England; and that
thereforeunless I would resolve to have done with itand also
not to concern myself any further with himor any of his affairs
he would leave the ship; for he did not think it safe to sail with
me among them.

I heard him patiently enough till he had doneand then told him
that I confessed I had all along opposed the massacre of
Madagascarand that I hadon all occasionsspoken my mind freely
about itthough not more upon him than any of the rest; that as to
having no command in the shipthat was true; nor did I exercise
any authorityonly took the liberty of speaking my mind in things
which publicly concerned us all; and what concern I had in the

voyage was none of his business; that I was a considerable owner in
the ship. In that claim I conceived I had a right to speak even
further than I had doneand would not be accountable to him or any
one elseand began to be a little warm with him. He made but
little reply to me at that timeand I thought the affair had been
over. We were at this time in the road at Bengal; and being
willing to see the placeI went on shore with the supercargo in
the ship's boat to divert myself; and towards evening was preparing
to go on boardwhen one of the men came to meand told me he
would not have me trouble myself to come down to the boatfor they
had orders not to carry me on board any more. Any one may guess
what a surprise I was in at so insolent a message; and I asked the
man who bade him deliver that message to me? He told me the

I immediately found out the supercargoand told him the story
adding that I foresaw there would be a mutiny in the ship; and
entreated him to go immediately on board and acquaint the captain
of it. But I might have spared this intelligencefor before I had
spoken to him on shore the matter was effected on board. The
boatswainthe gunnerthe carpenterand all the inferior
officersas soon as I was gone off in the boatcame upand
desired to speak with the captain; and then the boatswainmaking a
long harangueand repeating all he had said to metold the
captain that as I was now gone peaceably on shorethey were loath
to use any violence with mewhichif I had not gone on shore
they would otherwise have doneto oblige me to have gone. They
therefore thought fit to tell him that as they shipped themselves
to serve in the ship under his commandthey would perform it well
and faithfully; but if I would not quit the shipor the captain
oblige me to quit itthey would all leave the shipand sail no
further with him; and at that word ALL he turned his face towards
the main-mastwhich wasit seemsa signal agreed onwhen the
seamenbeing got together therecried outONE AND ALL! ONE AND

My nephewthe captainwas a man of spiritand of great presence
of mind; and though he was surprisedyet he told them calmly that
he would consider of the matterbut that he could do nothing in it
till he had spoken to me about it. He used some arguments with
themto show them the unreasonableness and injustice of the thing
but it was all in vain; they sworeand shook hands round before
his facethat they would all go on shore unless he would engage to
them not to suffer me to come any more on board the ship.

This was a hard article upon himwho knew his obligation to me
and did not know how I might take it. So he began to talk smartly
to them; told them that I was a very considerable owner of the
shipand that if ever they came to England again it would cost
them very dear; that the ship was mineand that he could not put
me out of it; and that he would rather lose the shipand the
voyage toothan disoblige me so much: so they might do as they
pleased. Howeverhe would go on shore and talk with meand
invited the boatswain to go with himand perhaps they might
accommodate the matter with me. But they all rejected the
proposaland said they would have nothing to do with me any more;
and if I came on board they would all go on shore. "Well said
the captain, if you are all of this mindlet me go on shore and
talk with him." So away he came to me with this accounta little
after the message had been brought to me from the coxswain.

I was very glad to see my nephewI must confess; for I was not
without apprehensions that they would confine him by violenceset
sailand run away with the ship; and then I had been stripped

naked in a remote countryhaving nothing to help myself; in short
I had been in a worse case than when I was alone in the island.
But they had not come to that lengthit seemsto my satisfaction;
and when my nephew told me what they had said to himand how they
had sworn and shook hands that they wouldone and allleave the
ship if I was suffered to come on boardI told him he should not
be concerned at it at allfor I would stay on shore. I only
desired he would take care and send me all my necessary things on
shoreand leave me a sufficient sum of moneyand I would find my
way to England as well as I could. This was a heavy piece of news
to my nephewbut there was no way to help it but to comply; soin
shorthe went on board the ship againand satisfied the men that
his uncle had yielded to their importunityand had sent for his
goods from on board the ship; so that the matter was over in a few
hoursthe men returned to their dutyand I began to consider what
course I should steer.

I was now alone in a most remote part of the worldfor I was near
three thousand leagues by sea farther off from England than I was
at my island; onlyit is trueI might travel here by land over
the Great Mogul's country to Suratmight go from thence to Bassora
by seaup the Gulf of Persiaand take the way of the caravans
over the desert of Arabiato Aleppo and Scanderoon; from thence by
sea again to Italyand so overland into France. I had another way
before mewhich was to wait for some English shipswhich were
coming to Bengal from Achinon the island of Sumatraand get
passage on board them from England. But as I came hither without
any concern with the East Indian Companyso it would be difficult
to go from hence without their licenceunless with great favour of
the captains of the shipsor the company's factors: and to both I
was an utter stranger.

Here I had the mortification to see the ship set sail without me;
howevermy nephew left me two servantsor rather one companion
and one servant; the first was clerk to the purserwhom he engaged
to go with meand the other was his own servant. I then took a
good lodging in the house of an Englishwomanwhere several
merchants lodgedsome Frenchtwo Italiansor rather Jewsand
one Englishman. Here I stayed above nine monthsconsidering what
course to take. I had some English goods with me of valueand a
considerable sum of money; my nephew furnishing me with a thousand
pieces of eightand a letter of credit for more if I had occasion
that I might not be straitenedwhatever might happen. I quickly
disposed of my goods to advantage; andas I originally intendedI
bought here some very good diamondswhichof all other things
were the most proper for me in my present circumstancesbecause I
could always carry my whole estate about me.

During my stay here many proposals were made for my return to
Englandbut none falling out to my mindthe English merchant who
lodged with meand whom I had contracted an intimate acquaintance
withcame to me one morningsaying: "CountrymanI have a
project to communicatewhichas it suits with my thoughtsmay
for aught I knowsuit with yours alsowhen you shall have
thoroughly considered it. Here we are postedyou by accident and
I by my own choicein a part of the world very remote from our own
country; but it is in a country whereby us who understand trade
and businessa great deal of money is to be got. If you will put
one thousand pounds to my one thousand poundswe will hire a ship
herethe first we can get to our minds. You shall be captain
I'll be merchantand we'll go a trading voyage to China; for what
should we stand still for? The whole world is in motion; why
should we be idle?"

I liked this proposal very well; and the more so because it seemed
to be expressed with so much goodwill. In my looseunhinged
circumstancesI was the fitter to embrace a proposal for tradeor
indeed anything else. I might perhaps say with some truththat if
trade was not my elementrambling was; and no proposal for seeing
any part of the world which I had never seen before could possibly
come amiss to me. It washoweversome time before we could get a
ship to our mindsand when we had got a vesselit was not easy to
get English sailors--that is to sayso many as were necessary to
govern the voyage and manage the sailors which we should pick up
there. After some time we got a matea boatswainand a gunner
English; a Dutch carpenterand three foremast men. With these we
found we could do well enoughhaving Indian seamensuch as they
wereto make up.

When all was ready we set sail for Achinin the island of Sumatra
and from thence to Siamwhere we exchanged some of our wares for
opium and some arrack; the first a commodity which bears a great
price among the Chineseand which at that time was much wanted
there. Then we went up to Saskanwere eight months outand on
our return to Bengal I was very well satisfied with my adventure.
Our people in England often admire how officerswhich the company
send into Indiaand the merchants which generally stay thereget
such very great estates as they doand sometimes come home worth
sixty or seventy thousand pounds at a time; but it is little matter
for wonderwhen we consider the innumerable ports and places where
they have a free commerce; indeedat the ports where the English
ships come there is such great and constant demands for the growth
of all other countriesthat there is a certain vent for the
returnsas well as a market abroad for the goods carried out.

I got so much money by my first adventureand such an insight into
the method of getting morethat had I been twenty years youngerI
should have been tempted to have stayed hereand sought no farther
for making my fortune; but what was all this to a man upwards of
threescorethat was rich enoughand came abroad more in obedience
to a restless desire of seeing the world than a covetous desire of
gaining by it? A restless desire it really wasfor when I was at
home I was restless to go abroad; and when I was abroad I was
restless to be at home. I saywhat was this gain to me? I was
rich enough alreadynor had I any uneasy desires about getting
more money; therefore the profit of the voyage to me was of no
great force for the prompting me forward to further undertakings.
HenceI thought that by this voyage I had made no progress at all
because I was come backas I might call itto the place from
whence I cameas to a home: whereasmy eyelike that which
Solomon speaks ofwas never satisfied with seeing. I was come
into a part of the world which I was never in beforeand that
partin particularwhich I heard much ofand was resolved to see
as much of it as I could: and then I thought I might say I had
seen all the world that was worth seeing.

But my fellow-traveller and I had different notions: I acknowledge
his were the more suited to the end of a merchant's life: who
when he is abroad upon adventuresis wise to stick to thatas the
best thing for himwhich he is likely to get the most money by.
On the other handmine was the notion of a madrambling boythat
never cares to see a thing twice over. But this was not all: I
had a kind of impatience upon me to be nearer homeand yet an
unsettled resolution which way to go. In the interval of these
consultationsmy friendwho was always upon the search for
businessproposed another voyage among the Spice Islandsto bring
home a loading of cloves from the Manillasor thereabouts.

We were not long in preparing for this voyage; the chief difficulty
was in bringing me to come into it. Howeverat lastnothing else
offeringand as sitting stillto me especiallywas the
unhappiest part of lifeI resolved on this voyage toowhich we
made very successfullytouching at Borneo and several other
islandsand came home in about five monthswhen we sold our
spiceswith very great profitto the Persian merchantswho
carried them away to the Gulf. My friendwhen we made up this
accountsmiled at me: "Wellnow said he, with a sort of
friendly rebuke on my indolent temper, is not this better than
walking about herelike a man with nothing to doand spending our
time in staring at the nonsense and ignorance of the Pagans?"-"
Whytruly said I, my friendI think it isand I begin to be
a convert to the principles of merchandising; but I must tell you
by the wayyou do not know what I am doing; for if I once conquer
my backwardnessand embark heartilyold as I amI shall harass
you up and down the world till I tire you; for I shall pursue it so
eagerlyI shall never let you lie still."


A little while after this there came in a Dutch ship from Batavia;
she was a coasternot an European traderof about two hundred
tons burden; the menas they pretendedhaving been so sickly that
the captain had not hands enough to go to sea withso he lay by at
Bengal; and havingit seemsgot money enoughor being willing
for other reasonsto go for Europehe gave public notice he would
sell his ship. This came to my ears before my new partner heard of
itand I had a great mind to buy it; so I went to him and told him
of it. He considered a whilefor he was no rash man neither; and
at last repliedShe is a little too big--however, we will have
her.Accordinglywe bought the shipand agreeing with the
masterwe paid for herand took possession. When we had done so
we resolved to engage the menif we couldto join with those we
hadfor the pursuing our business; buton a suddenthey having
received not their wagesbut their share of the moneyas we
afterwards learnednot one of them was to be found; we inquired
much about themand at length were told that they were all gone
together by land to Agrathe great city of the Mogul's residence
to proceed from thence to Suratand then go by sea to the Gulf of

Nothing had so much troubled me a good while as that I should miss
the opportunity of going with them; for such a rambleI thought
and in such company as would both have guarded and diverted me
would have suited mightily with my great design; and I should have
both seen the world and gone homeward too. But I was much better
satisfied a few days afterwhen I came to know what sort of
fellows they were; forin shorttheir history wasthat this man
they called captain was the gunner onlynot the commander; that
they had been a trading voyagein which they had been attacked on
shore by some of the Malayswho had killed the captain and three
of his men; and that after the captain was killedthese men
eleven in numberhaving resolved to run away with the ship
brought her to Bengalleaving the mate and five men more on shore.

Welllet them get the ship how they wouldwe came honestly by
heras we thoughtthough we did notI confessexamine into
things so exactly as we ought; for we never inquired anything of
the seamenwho would certainly have faltered in their accountand

contradicted one another. Somehow or other we should have had
reason to have suspectedthem; but the man showed us a bill of
sale for the shipto one Emanuel Clostershovenor some such name
for I suppose it was all a forgeryand called himself by that
nameand we could not contradict him: and withalhaving no
suspicion of the thingwe went through with our bargain. We
picked up some more English sailors here after thisand some
Dutchand now we resolved on a second voyage to the south-east for
cloves&c.--that is to sayamong the Philippine and Malacca
isles. In shortnot to fill up this part of my story with trifles
when what is to come is so remarkableI spentfrom first to last
six years in this countrytrading from port to portbackward and
forwardand with very good successand was now the last year with
my new partnergoing in the ship above mentionedon a voyage to
Chinabut designing first to go to Siam to buy rice.

In this voyagebeing by contrary winds obliged to beat up and down
a great while in the Straits of Malacca and among the islandswe
were no sooner got clear of those difficult seas than we found our
ship had sprung a leakbut could not discover where it was. This
forced us to make some port; and my partnerwho knew the country
better than I diddirected the captain to put into the river of
Cambodia; for I had made the English mateone Mr. Thompson
captainnot being willing to take the charge of the ship upon
myself. This river lies on the north side of the great bay or gulf
which goes up to Siam. While we were hereand going often on
shore for refreshmentthere comes to me one day an Englishmana
gunner's mate on board an English East India shipthen riding in
the same river. "Sir says he, addressing me, you are a stranger
to meand I to you; but I have something to tell you that very
nearly concerns you. I am moved by the imminent danger you are in
andfor aught I seeyou have no knowledge of it."--"I know no
danger I am in said I, but that my ship is leakyand I cannot
find it out; but I intend to lay her aground to-morrowto see if I
can find it."--"Butsir says he, leaky or not leakyyou will
be wiser than to lay your ship on shore to-morrow when you hear
what I have to say to you. Do you knowsir said he, the town
of Cambodia lies about fifteen leagues up the river; and there are
two large English ships about five leagues on this sideand three
Dutch?"--"Well said I, and what is that to me?"--"Whysir
said be, is it for a man that is upon such adventures as you are
to come into a portand not examine first what ships there are
thereand whether he is able to deal with them? I suppose you do
not think you are a match for them?" I could not conceive what he
meant; and I turned short upon himand said: "I wish you would
explain yourself; I cannot imagine what reason I have to be afraid
of any of the company's shipsor Dutch ships. I am no interloper.
What can they have to say to me?"--"Wellsir says he, with a
smile, if you think yourself secure you must take your chance; but
take my adviceif you do not put to sea immediatelyyou will the
very next tide be attacked by five longboats full of menand
perhaps if you are taken you will be hanged for a pirateand the
particulars be examined afterwards. I thoughtsir added he, I
should have met with a better reception than this for doing you a
piece of service of such importance."--"I can never be ungrateful
said I, for any serviceor to any man that offers me any
kindness; but it is past my comprehension what they should have
such a design upon me for: howeversince you say there is no time
to be lostand that there is some villainous design on hand
against meI will go on board this minuteand put to sea
immediatelyif my men can stop the leak; butsir said I, shall
I go away ignorant of the cause of all this? Can you give me no
further light into it?"

I can tell you but part of the story, sir,says he; "but I have a
Dutch seaman here with meand I believe I could persuade him to
tell you the rest; but there is scarce time for it. But the short
of the story is this--the first part of which I suppose you know
well enough--that you were with this ship at Sumatra; that there
your captain was murdered by the Malayswith three of his men; and
that youor some of those that were on board with youran away
with the shipand are since turned pirates. This is the sum of
the storyand you will all be seized as piratesI can assure you
and executed with very little ceremony; for you know merchant ships
show but little law to pirates if they get them into their power."-"
Now you speak plain English said I, and I thank you; and
though I know nothing that we have done like what you talk offor
I am sure we came honestly and fairly by the ship; yet seeing such
a work is doingas you sayand that you seem to mean honestlyI
will be upon my guard."--"Naysir says he, do not talk of being
upon your guard; the best defence is to be out of danger. If you
have any regard for your life and the lives of all your menput to
sea without fail at high-water; and as you have a whole tide before
youyou will be gone too far out before they can come down; for
they will come away at high-waterand as they have twenty miles to
comeyou will get near two hours of them by the difference of the
tidenot reckoning the length of the way: besidesas they are
only boatsand not shipsthey will not venture to follow you far
out to seaespecially if it blows."--"Well said I, you have
been very kind in this: what shall I do to make you amends?"-"
Sir says he, you may not be willing to make me any amends
because you may not be convinced of the truth of it. I will make
an offer to you: I have nineteen months' pay due to me on board
the ship -which I came out of England in; and the Dutchman that
is with me has seven months' pay due to him. If you will make good
our pay to us we will go along with you; if you find nothing more
in it we will desire no more; but if we do convince you that we
have saved your livesand the shipand the lives of all the men
in herwe will leave the rest to you."

I consented to this readilyand went immediately on boardand the
two men with me. As soon as I came to the ship's sidemy partner
who was on boardcame out on the quarter-deckand called to me
with a great deal of joyWe have stopped the leak--we have
stopped the leak!--"Say you so?" said I; "thank God; but weigh
anchorthenimmediately."--"Weigh!" says he; "what do you mean by
that? What is the matter?"--"Ask no questions said I; but set
all hands to workand weigh without losing a minute." He was
surprised; howeverhe called the captainand he immediately
ordered the anchor to be got up; and though the tide was not quite
downyet a little land-breeze blowingwe stood out to sea. Then
I called him into the cabinand told him the story; and we called
in the menand they told us the rest of it; but as it took up a
great deal of timebefore we had done a seaman comes to the cabin
doorand called out to us that the captain bade him tell us we
were chased by five sloopsor boatsfull of men. "Very well
said I, then it is apparent there is something in it." I then
ordered all our men to be called upand told them there was a
design to seize the shipand take us for piratesand asked them
if they would stand by usand by one another; the men answered
cheerfullyone and allthat they would live and die with us.
Then I asked the captain what way he thought best for us to manage
a fight with them; for resist them I was resolved we wouldand
that to the last drop. He said readilythat the way was to keep
them off with our great shot as long as we couldand then to use
our small armsto keep them from boarding us; but when neither of
these would do any longerwe would retire to our close quarters
for perhaps they had not materials to break open our bulkheadsor

get in upon us.

The gunner had in the meantime orders to bring two gunsto bear
fore and aftout of the steerageto clear the deckand load them
with musket-bulletsand small pieces of old ironand what came
next to hand. Thus we made ready for fight; but all this while we
kept out to seawith wind enoughand could see the boats at a
distancebeing five large longboatsfollowing us with all the
sail they could make.

Two of those boats (which by our glasses we could see were English)
outsailed the restwere near two leagues ahead of themand gained
upon us considerablyso that we found they would come up with us;
upon which we fired a gun without ballto intimate that they
should bring to: and we put out a flag of truceas a signal for
parley: but they came crowding after us till within shotwhen we
took in our white flagthey having made no answer to itand hung
out a red flagand fired at them with a shot. Notwithstanding
thisthey came on till they were near enough to call to them with
a speaking-trumpetbidding them keep off at their peril.

It was all one; they crowded after usand endeavoured to come
under our sternso as to board us on our quarter; upon which
seeing they were resolute for mischiefand depended upon the
strength that followed themI ordered to bring the ship toso
that they lay upon our broadside; when immediately we fired five
guns at themone of which had been levelled so true as to carry
away the stern of the hindermost boatand we then forced them to
take down their sailand to run all to the head of the boatto
keep her from sinking; so she lay byand had enough of it; but
seeing the foremost boat crowd on after uswe made ready to fire
at her in particular. While this was doing one of the three boats
that followed made up to the boat which we had disabledto relieve
herand we could see her take out the men. We then called again
to the foremost boatand offered a truceto parley againand to
know what her business was with us; but had no answeronly she
crowded close under our stern. Upon thisour gunner who was a
very dexterous fellow ran out his two case-gunsand fired again at
herbut the shot missingthe men in the boat shoutedwaved their
capsand came on. The gunnergetting quickly ready againfired
among them a second timeone shot of whichthough it missed the
boat itselfyet fell in among the menand we could easily see did
a great deal of mischief among them. We now wore the ship again
and brought our quarter to bear upon themand firing three guns
morewe found the boat was almost split to pieces; in particular
her rudder and a piece of her stern were shot quite away; so they
handed her sail immediatelyand were in great disorder. To
complete their misfortuneour gunner let fly two guns at them
again; where he hit them we could not tellbut we found the boat
was sinkingand some of the men already in the water: upon this
I immediately manned out our pinnacewith orders to pick up some
of the men if they couldand save them from drowningand
immediately come on board ship with thembecause we saw the rest
of the boats began to come up. Our men in the pinnace followed
their ordersand took up three menone of whom was just drowning
and it was a good while before we could recover him. As soon as
they were on board we crowded all the sail we could makeand stood
farther out to the sea; and we found that when the other boats came
up to the firstthey gave over their chase.

Being thus delivered from a danger whichthough I knew not the
reason of ityet seemed to be much greater than I apprehendedI
resolved that we should change our courseand not let any one know
whither we were going; so we stood out to sea eastwardquite out

of the course of all European shipswhether they were bound to
China or anywhere elsewithin the commerce of the European
nations. When we were at sea we began to consult with the two
seamenand inquire what the meaning of all this should be; and the
Dutchman confirmed the gunner's story about the false sale of the
ship and of the murder of the captainand also how that hethis
Dutchmanand four more got into the woodswhere they wandered
about a great whiletill at length he made his escapeand swam
off to a Dutch shipwhich was sailing near the shore in its way
from China.

He then told us that he went to Bataviawhere two of the seamen
belonging to the ship arrivedhaving deserted the rest in their
travelsand gave an account that the fellow who had run away with
the shipsold her at Bengal to a set of pirateswho were gone acruising
in herand that they had already taken an English ship
and two Dutch ships very richly laden. This latter part we found
to concern us directlythough we knew it to be false; yetas my
partner saidvery justlyif we had fallen into their handsand
they had had such a prepossession against us beforehandit had
been in vain for us to have defended ourselvesor to hope for any
good quarter at their hands; especially considering that our
accusers had been our judgesand that we could have expected
nothing from them but what rage would have dictatedand an
ungoverned passion have executed. Therefore it was his opinion we
should go directly back to Bengalfrom whence we camewithout
putting in at any port whatever--because where we could give a good
account of ourselvescould prove where we were when the ship put
inof whom we bought herand the like; and what was more than all
the restif we were put upon the necessity of bringing it before
the proper judgeswe should be sure to have some justiceand not
to be hanged first and judged afterwards.

I was some time of my partner's opinion; but after a little more
serious thinkingI told him I thought it was a very great hazard
for us to attempt returning to Bengalfor that we were on the
wrong side of the Straits of Malaccaand that if the alarm was
givenwe should be sure to be waylaid on every side--that if we
should be takenas it wererunning awaywe should even condemn
ourselvesand there would want no more evidence to destroy us. I
also asked the English sailor's opinionwho said he was of my
mindand that we certainly should be taken. This danger a little
startled my partner and all the ship's companyand we immediately
resolved to go away to the coast of Tonquinand so on to the coast
of China--and pursuing the first design as to tradefind some way
or other to dispose of the shipand come back in some of the
vessels of the country such as we could get. This was approved of
as the best method for our securityand accordingly we steered
away NNE.keeping above fifty leagues off from the usual course to
the eastward. Thishoweverput us to some inconvenience: for
firstthe windswhen we came that distance from the shoreseemed
to be more steadily against usblowing almost tradeas we call
itfrom the E. and that we were a long while upon our
voyageand we were but ill provided with victuals for so long a
run; and what was still worsethere was some danger that those
English and Dutch ships whose boats pursued uswhereof some were
bound that waymight have got in before usand if notsome other
ship bound to China might have information of us from themand
pursue us with the same vigour.

I must confess I was now very uneasyand thought myselfincluding
the late escape from the longboatsto have been in the most
dangerous condition that ever I was in through my past life; for
whatever ill circumstances I had been inI was never pursued for a

thief before; nor had I ever done anything that merited the name of
dishonest or fraudulentmuch less thievish. I had chiefly been my
own enemyoras I may rightly sayI had been nobody's enemy but
my own; but now I was woefully embarrassed: for though I was
perfectly innocentI was in no condition to make that innocence
appear; and if I had been takenit had been under a supposed guilt
of the worst kind. This made me very anxious to make an escape
though which way to do it I knew notor what port or place we
could go to. My partner endeavoured to encourage me by describing
the several ports of that coastand told me he would put in on the
coast of Cochin Chinaor the bay of Tonquinintending afterwards
to go to Macaowhere a great many European families residedand
particularly the missionary priestswho usually went thither in
order to their going forward to China.

Hither then we resolved to go; andaccordinglythough after a
tedious courseand very much straitened for provisionswe came
within sight of the coast very early in the morning; and upon
reflection on the past circumstances of danger we were inwe
resolved to put into a small riverwhichhoweverhad depth
enough of water for usand to see if we couldeither overland or
by the ship's pinnacecome to know what ships were in any port
thereabouts. This happy step wasindeedour deliverance: for
though we did not immediately see any European ships in the bay of
Tonquinyet the next morning there came into the bay two Dutch
ships; and a third without any colours spread outbut which we
believed to be a Dutchmanpassed by at about two leagues'
distancesteering for the coast of China; and in the afternoon
went by two English ships steering the same course; and thus we
thought we saw ourselves beset with enemies both one way and the
other. The place we were in was wild and barbarousthe people
thieves by occupation; and though it is true we had not much to
seek of themandexcept getting a few provisionscared not how
little we had to do with themyet it was with much difficulty that
we kept ourselves from being insulted by them several ways. We
were in a small river of this countrywithin a few leagues of its
utmost limits northward; and by our boat we coasted north-east to
the point of land which opens the great bay of Tonquin; and it was
in this beating up along the shore that we discovered we were
surrounded with enemies. The people we were among were the most
barbarous of all the inhabitants of the coast; and among other
customs they have this one: that if any vessel has the misfortune
to be shipwrecked upon their coastthey make the men all prisoners
or slaves; and it was not long before we found a spice of their
kindness this wayon the occasion following.

I have observed above that our ship sprung a leak at seaand that
we could not find it out; and it happened thatas I have saidit
was stopped unexpectedlyon the eve of our being pursued by the
Dutch and English ships in the bay of Siam; yetas we did not find
the ship so perfectly tight and sound as we desiredwe resolved
while we were at this place to lay her on shoreand clean her
bottomandif possibleto find out where the leaks were.
Accordinglyhaving lightened the shipand brought all our guns
and other movables to one sidewe tried to bring her downthat we
might come at her bottom; buton second thoughtswe did not care
to lay her on dry groundneither could we find out a proper place
for it.


The inhabitants came wondering down the shore to look at us; and
seeing the ship lie down on one side in such a mannerand heeling
in towards the shoreand not seeing our menwho were at work on
her bottom with stagesand with their boats on the off-sidethey
presently concluded that the ship was cast awayand lay fast on
the ground. On this supposition they came about us in two or three
hours' time with ten or twelve large boatshaving some of them
eightsome ten men in a boatintendingno doubtto have come on
board and plundered the shipand if they found us thereto have
carried us away for slaves.

When they came up to the shipand began to row round herthey
discovered us all hard at work on the outside of the ship's bottom
and sidewashingand gravingand stoppingas every seafaring
man knows how. They stood for a while gazing at usand wewho
were a little surprisedcould not imagine what their design was;
but being willing to be surewe took this opportunity to get some
of us into the shipand others to hand down arms and ammunition to
those that were at workto defend themselves with if there should
be occasion. And it was no more than need: for in less than a
quarter of an hour's consultationthey agreedit seemsthat the
ship was really a wreckand that we were all at work endeavouring
to save heror to save our lives by the help of our boats; and
when we handed our arms into the boatthey concludedby that act
that we were endeavouring to save some of our goods. Upon this
they took it for granted we all belonged to themand away they
came directly upon our menas if it had been in a line-of-battle.

Our menseeing so many of thembegan to be frightenedfor we lay
but in an ill posture to fightand cried out to us to know what
they should do. I immediately called to the men that worked upon
the stages to slip them downand get up the side into the ship
and bade those in the boat to row round and come on board. The few
who were on board worked with all the strength and hands we had to
bring the ship to rights; howeverneither the men upon the stages
nor those in the boats could do as they were ordered before the
Cochin Chinese were upon themwhen two of their boats boarded our
longboatand began to lay hold of the men as their prisoners.

The first man they laid hold of was an English seamana stout
strong fellowwho having a musket in his handnever offered to
fire itbut laid it down in the boatlike a foolas I thought;
but he understood his business better than I could teach himfor
he grappled the Paganand dragged him by main force out of their
boat into ourswheretaking him by the earshe beat his head so
against the boat's gunnel that the fellow died in his hands. In
the meantimea Dutchmanwho stood nexttook up the musketand
with the butt-end of it so laid about himthat he knocked down
five of them who attempted to enter the boat. But this was doing
little towards resisting thirty or forty menwhofearless because
ignorant of their dangerbegan to throw themselves into the
longboatwhere we had but five men in all to defend it; but the
following accidentwhich deserved our laughtergave our men a
complete victory.

Our carpenter being prepared to grave the outside of the shipas
well as to pay the seams where he had caulked her to stop the
leakshad got two kettles just let down into the boatone filled
with boiling pitchand the other with rosintallowand oiland
such stuff as the shipwrights use for that work; and the man that
attended the carpenter had a great iron ladle in his handwith
which he supplied the men that were at work with the hot stuff.
Two of the enemy's men entered the boat just where this fellow

stood in the foresheets; he immediately saluted them with a ladle
full of the stuffboiling hot which so burned and scalded them
being half-naked that they roared out like bullsandenraged with
the fireleaped both into the sea. The carpenter saw itand
cried outWell done, Jack! give them some more of it!and
stepping forward himselftakes one of the mopsand dipping it in
the pitch-pothe and his man threw it among them so plentifully
thatin shortof all the men in the three boatsthere was not
one that escaped being scalded in a most frightful mannerand made
such a howling and crying that I never heard a worse noise.

I was never better pleased with a victory in my life; not only as
it was a perfect surprise to meand that our danger was imminent
beforebut as we got this victory without any bloodshedexcept of
that man the seaman killed with his naked handsand which I was
very much concerned at. Although it maybe a just thingbecause
necessary (for there is no necessary wickedness in nature)yet I
thought it was a sad sort of lifewhen we must be always obliged
to be killing our fellow-creatures to preserve ourselves; and
indeedI think so still; and I would even now suffer a great deal
rather than I would take away the life even of the worst person
injuring me; and I believe all considering peoplewho know the
value of lifewould be of my opinionif they entered seriously
into the consideration of it.

All the while this was doingmy partner and Iwho managed the
rest of the men on boardhad with great dexterity brought the ship
almost to rightsand having got the guns into their places again
the gunner called to me to bid our boat get out of the wayfor he
would let fly among them. I called back again to himand bid him
not offer to firefor the carpenter would do the work without him;
but bid him heat another pitch-kettlewhich our cookwho was on
broadtook care of. Howeverthe enemy was so terrified with what
they had met with in their first attackthat they would not come
on again; and some of them who were farthest offseeing the ship
swimas it wereuprightbeganas we supposeto see their
mistakeand gave over the enterprisefinding it was not as they
expected. Thus we got clear of this merry fight; and having got
some rice and some roots and breadwith about sixteen hogson
board two days beforewe resolved to stay here no longerbut go
forwardwhatever came of it; for we made no doubt but we should be
surrounded the next day with rogues enoughperhaps more than our
pitch-kettle would dispose of for us. We therefore got all our
things on board the same eveningand the next morning were ready
to sail: in the meantimelying at anchor at some distance from
the shorewe were not so much concernedbeing now in a fighting
postureas well as in a sailing postureif any enemy had
presented. The next dayhaving finished our work within board
and finding our ship was perfectly healed of all her leakswe set
sail. We would have gone into the bay of Tonquinfor we wanted to
inform ourselves of what was to be known concerning the Dutch ships
that had been there; but we durst not stand in therebecause we
had seen several ships go inas we supposedbut a little before;
so we kept on NE. towards the island of Formosaas much afraid of
being seen by a Dutch or English merchant ship as a Dutch or
English merchant ship in the Mediterranean is of an Algerine manof-

When we were thus got to seawe kept on if we would go to
the Manillas or the Philippine Islands; and this we did that we
might not fall into the way of any of the European ships; and then
we steered northtill we came to the latitude of 22 degrees 30
secondsby which means we made the island of Formosa directly
where we came to an anchorin order to get water and fresh

provisionswhich the people therewho are very courteous in their
mannerssupplied us with willinglyand dealt very fairly and
punctually with us in all their agreements and bargains. This is
what we did not find among other peopleand may be owing to the
remains of Christianity which was once planted here by a Dutch
missionary of Protestantsand it is a testimony of what I have
often observedviz. that the Christian religion always civilises
the peopleand reforms their mannerswhere it is received
whether it works saving effects upon them or no.

From thence we sailed still northkeeping the coast of China at an
equal distancetill we knew we were beyond all the ports of China
where our European ships usually come; being resolvedif possible
not to fall into any of their handsespecially in this country
whereas our circumstances werewe could not fail of being
entirely ruined. Being now come to the latitude of 30 degreeswe
resolved to put into the first trading port we should come at; and
standing in for the shorea boat came of two leagues to us with an
old Portuguese pilot on boardwhoknowing us to be an European
shipcame to offer his servicewhichindeedwe were glad of and
took him on board; upon whichwithout asking us whither we would
gohe dismissed the boat he came inand sent it back. I thought
it was now so much in our choice to make the old man carry us
whither we wouldthat I began to talk to him about carrying us to
the Gulf of Nankinwhich is the most northern part of the coast of
China. The old man said he knew the Gulf of Nankin very well; but
smilingasked us what we would do there? I told him we would sell
our cargo and purchase China warescalicoesraw silkstea
wrought silks&c.; and so we would return by the same course we
came. He told us our best port would have been to put in at Macao
where we could not have failed of a market for our opium to our
satisfactionand might for our money have purchased all sorts of
China goods as cheap as we could at Nankin.

Not being able to put the old man out of his talkof which he was
very opinionated or conceitedI told him we were gentlemen as well
as merchantsand that we had a mind to go and see the great city
of Pekinand the famous court of the monarch of China. "Why
then says the old man, you should go to Ningpowhereby the
river which runs into the sea thereyou may go up within five
leagues of the great canal. This canal is a navigable stream
which goes through the heart of that vast empire of Chinacrosses
all the riverspasses some considerable hills by the help of
sluices and gatesand goes up to the city of Pekinbeing in
length near two hundred and seventy leagues."--"Well said I,
Seignior Portuguesebut that is not our business now; the great
question isif you can carry us up to the city of Nankinfrom
whence we can travel to Pekin afterwards?" He said he could do so
very welland that there was a great Dutch ship gone up that way
just before. This gave me a little shockfor a Dutch ship was now
our terrorand we had much rather have met the devilat least if
he had not come in too frightful a figure; and we depended upon it
that a Dutch ship would be our destructionfor we were in no
condition to fight them; all the ships they trade with into those
parts being of great burdenand of much greater force than we

The old man found me a little confusedand under some concern when
he named a Dutch shipand said to meSir, you need be under no
apprehensions of the Dutch; I suppose they are not now at war with
your nation?--"No said I, that's true; but I know not what
liberties men may take when they are out of the reach of the laws
of their own country."--"Why says he, you are no pirates; what
need you fear? They will not meddle with peaceable merchants

sure." These words put me into the greatest disorder and confusion
imaginable; nor was it possible for me to conceal it sobut the
old man easily perceived it.

Sir,says heI find you are in some disorder in your thoughts
at my talk: pray be pleased to go which way you think fit, and
depend upon it, I'll do you all the service I can.Upon this we
fell into further discoursein whichto my alarm and amazement
he spoke of the villainous doings of a certain pirate ship that had
long been the talk of mariners in those seas; no otherin a word
than the very ship he was now on board ofand which we had so
unluckily purchased. I presently saw there was no help for it but
to tell him the plain truthand explain all the danger and trouble
we had suffered through this misadventureandin particularour
earnest wish to be speedily quit of the ship altogether; for which
reason we had resolved to carry her up to Nankin.

The old man was amazed at this relationand told us we were in the
right to go away to the north; and thatif he might advise usit
should be to sell the ship in Chinawhich we might well doand
buyor build another in the country; adding that I should meet
with customers enough for the ship at Nankinthat a Chinese junk
would serve me very well to go back againand that he would
procure me people both to buy one and sell the other. "Wellbut
seignior said I, as you say they know the ship so wellI may
perhapsif I follow your measuresbe instrumental to bring some
honestinnocent men into a terrible broil; for wherever they find
the ship they will prove the guilt upon the menby proving this
was the ship."--"Why says the old man, I'll find out a way to
prevent that; for as I know all those commanders you speak of very
welland shall see them all as they pass byI will be sure to set
them to rights in the thingand let them know that they had been
so much in the wrong; that though the people who were on board at
first might run away with the shipyet it was not true that they
had turned pirates; and thatin particularthese were not the men
that first went off with the shipbut innocently bought her for
their trade; and I am persuaded they will so far believe me as at
least to act more cautiously for the time to come."

In about thirteen days' sail we came to an anchorat the southwest
point of the great Gulf of Nankin; where I learned by accident
that two Dutch ships were gone the length before meand that I
should certainly fall into their hands. I consulted my partner
again in this exigencyand he was as much at a loss as I was. I
then asked the old pilot if there was no creek or harbour which I
might put into and pursue my business with the Chinese privately
and be in no danger of the enemy. He told me if I would sail to
the southward about forty-two leaguesthere was a little port
called Quinchangwhere the fathers of the mission usually landed
from Macaoon their progress to teach the Christian religion to
the Chineseand where no European ships ever put in; and if I
thought to put in thereI might consider what further course to
take when I was on shore. He confessedhe saidit was not a
place for merchantsexcept that at some certain times they had a
kind of a fair therewhen the merchants from Japan came over
thither to buy Chinese merchandises. The name of the port I may
perhaps spell wronghaving lost thistogether with the names of
many other places set down in a little pocket-bookwhich was
spoiled by the water by an accident; but this I rememberthat the
Chinese merchants we corresponded with called it by a different
name from that which our Portuguese pilot gave itwho pronounced
it Quinchang. As we were unanimous in our resolution to go to this
placewe weighed the next dayhaving only gone twice on shore
where we wereto get fresh water; on both which occasions the

people of the country were very civiland brought abundance of
provisions to sell to us; but nothing without money.

We did not come to the other port (the wind being contrary) for
five days; but it was very much to our satisfactionand I was
thankful when I set my foot on shoreresolvingand my partner
toothat if it was possible to dispose of ourselves and effects
any other waythough not profitablywe would never more set foot
on board that unhappy vessel. IndeedI must acknowledgethat of
all the circumstances of life that ever I had any experience of
nothing makes mankind so completely miserable as that of being in
constant fear. Well does the Scripture sayThe fear of man
brings a snare; it is a life of deathand the mind is so entirely
oppressed by itthat it is capable of no relief.

Nor did it fail of its usual operations upon the fancyby
heightening every danger; representing the English and Dutch
captains to be men incapable of hearing reasonor of
distinguishing between honest men and rogues; or between a story
calculated for our own turnmade out of nothingon purpose to
deceiveand a truegenuine account of our whole voyageprogress
and design; for we might many ways have convinced any reasonable
creatures that we were not pirates; the goods we had on boardthe
course we steeredour frankly showing ourselvesand entering into
such and such ports; and even our very mannerthe force we had
the number of menthe few armsthe little ammunitionshort
provisions; all these would have served to convince any men that we
were no pirates. The opium and other goods we had on board would
make it appear the ship had been at Bengal. The Dutchmenwhoit
was saidhad the names of all the men that were in the shipmight
easily see that we were a mixture of EnglishPortugueseand
Indiansand but two Dutchmen on board. Theseand many other
particular circumstancesmight have made it evident to the
understanding of any commanderwhose hands we might fall into
that we were no pirates.

But fearthat blinduseless passionworked another wayand
threw us into the vapours; it bewildered our understandingsand
set the imagination at work to form a thousand terrible things that
perhaps might never happen. We first supposedas indeed everybody
had related to usthat the seamen on board the English and Dutch
shipsbut especially the Dutchwere so enraged at the name of a
pirateand especially at our beating off their boats and escaping
that they would not give themselves leave to inquire whether we
were pirates or nobut would execute us off-handwithout giving
us any room for a defence. We reflected that there really was so
much apparent evidence before themthat they would scarce inquire
after any more; asfirstthat the ship was certainly the same
and that some of the seamen among them knew herand had been on
board her; andsecondlythat when we had intelligence at the
river of Cambodia that they were coming down to examine uswe
fought their boats and fled. Therefore we made no doubt but they
were as fully satisfied of our being pirates as we were satisfied
of the contrary; andas I often saidI know not but I should have
been apt to have taken those circumstances for evidenceif the
tables were turnedand my case was theirs; and have made no
scruple of cutting all the crew to pieceswithout believingor
perhaps consideringwhat they might have to offer in their

But let that be how it willthese were our apprehensions; and both
my partner and I scarce slept a night without dreaming of halters
and yard-arms; of fightingand being taken; of killingand being
killed: and one night I was in such a fury in my dreamfancying

the Dutchmen had boarded usand I was knocking one of their seamen
downthat I struck my doubled fist against the side of the cabin I
lay in with such a force as wounded my hand grievouslybroke my
knucklesand cut and bruised the fleshso that it awaked me out
of my sleep. Another apprehension I had wasthe cruel usage we
might meet with from them if we fell into their hands; then the
story of Amboyna came into my headand how the Dutch might perhaps
torture usas they did our countrymen thereand make some of our
menby extremity of tortureconfess to crimes they never were
guilty ofor own themselves and all of us to be piratesand so
they would put us to death with a formal appearance of justice; and
that they might be tempted to do this for the gain of our ship and
cargoworth altogether four or five thousand pounds. We did not
consider that the captains of ships have no authority to act thus;
and if we had surrendered prisoners to themthey could not answer
the destroying usor torturing usbut would be accountable for it
when they came to their country. Howeverif they were to act thus
with uswhat advantage would it be to us that they should be
called to an account for it?--or if we were first to be murdered
what satisfaction would it be to us to have them punished when they
came home?

I cannot refrain taking notice here what reflections I now had upon
the vast variety of my particular circumstances; how hard I thought
it that Iwho had spent forty years in a life of continual
difficultiesand was at last comeas it wereto the port or
haven which all men drive atviz. to have rest and plentyshould
be a volunteer in new sorrows by my own unhappy choiceand that I
who had escaped so many dangers in my youthshould now come to be
hanged in my old ageand in so remote a placefor a crime which I
was not in the least inclined tomuch less guilty of. After these
thoughts something of religion would come in; and I would be
considering that this seemed to me to be a disposition of immediate
Providenceand I ought to look upon it and submit to it as such.
Foralthough I was innocent as to menI was far from being
innocent as to my Maker; and I ought to look in and examine what
other crimes in my life were most obvious to meand for which
Providence might justly inflict this punishment as a retribution;
and thus I ought to submit to thisjust as I would to a shipwreck
if it had pleased God to have brought such a disaster upon me.

In its turn natural courage would sometimes take its placeand
then I would be talking myself up to vigorous resolutions; that I
would not be taken to be barbarously used by a parcel of merciless
wretches in cold blood; that it were much better to have fallen
into the hands of the savagesthough I were sure they would feast
upon me when they had taken methan those who would perhaps glut
their rage upon me by inhuman tortures and barbarities; that in the
case of the savagesI always resolved to die fighting to the last
gaspand why should I not do so now? Whenever these thoughts
prevailedI was sure to put myself into a kind of fever with the
agitation of a supposed fight; my blood would boiland my eyes
sparkleas if I was engagedand I always resolved to take no
quarter at their hands; but even at lastif I could resist no
longerI would blow up the ship and all that was in herand leave
them but little booty to boast of.


The greater weight the anxieties and perplexities of these things

were to our thoughts while we were at seathe greater was our
satisfaction when we saw ourselves on shore; and my partner told me
he dreamed that he had a very heavy load upon his backwhich he
was to carry up a hilland found that he was not able to stand
longer under it; but that the Portuguese pilot came and took it off
his backand the hill disappearedthe ground before him appearing
all smooth and plain: and truly it was so; they were all like men
who had a load taken off their backs. For my part I had a weight
taken off from my heart that it was not able any longer to bear;
and as I said above we resolved to go no more to sea in that ship.
When we came on shorethe old pilotwho was now our friendgot
us a lodgingtogether with a warehouse for our goods; it was a
little hutwith a larger house adjoining to itbuilt and also
palisadoed round with canesto keep out pilferersof which there
were not a few in that country: howeverthe magistrates allowed
us a little guardand we had a soldier with a kind of half-pike
who stood sentinel at our doorto whom we allowed a pint of rice
and a piece of money about the value of three-pence per dayso
that our goods were kept very safe.

The fair or mart usually kept at this place had been over some
time; howeverwe found that there were three or four junks in the
riverand two ships from Japanwith goods which they had bought
in Chinaand were not gone awayhaving some Japanese merchants on

The first thing our old Portuguese pilot did for us was to get us
acquainted with three missionary Romish priests who were in the
townand who had been there some time converting the people to
Christianity; but we thought they made but poor work of itand
made them but sorry Christians when they had done. One of these
was a Frenchmanwhom they called Father Simon; another was a
Portuguese; and a third a Genoese. Father Simon was courteousand
very agreeable company; but the other two were more reserved
seemed rigid and austereand applied seriously to the work they
came aboutviz. to talk with and insinuate themselves among the
inhabitants wherever they had opportunity. We often ate and drank
with those men; and though I must confess the conversionas they
call itof the Chinese to Christianity is so far from the true
conversion required to bring heathen people to the faith of Christ
that it seems to amount to little more than letting them know the
name of Christand say some prayers to the Virgin Mary and her
Sonin a tongue which they understood notand to cross
themselvesand the like; yet it must be confessed that the
religionistswhom we call missionarieshave a firm belief that
these people will be savedand that they are the instruments of
it; and on this account they undergo not only the fatigue of the
voyageand the hazards of living in such placesbut oftentimes
death itselfand the most violent torturesfor the sake of this

Father Simon was appointedit seemsby order of the chief of the
missionto go up to Pekinand waited only for another priestwho
was ordered to come to him from Macaoto go along with him. We
scarce ever met together but he was inviting me to go that journey;
telling me how he would show me all the glorious things of that
mighty empireandamong the restPekinthe greatest city in the
world: "A city said he, that your London and our Paris put
together cannot be equal to." But as I looked on those things with
different eyes from other menso I shall give my opinion of them
in a few wordswhen I come in the course of my travels to speak
more particularly of them.

Dining with Father Simon one dayand being very merry togetherI

showed some little inclination to go with him; and he pressed me
and my partner very hard to consent. "Whyfather says my
partner, should you desire our company so much? you know we are
hereticsand you do not love usnor cannot keep us company with
any pleasure."--"Oh says he, you may perhaps be good Catholics
in time; my business here is to convert heathensand who knows but
I may convert you too?"--"Very wellfather said I, so you will
preach to us all the way?"--"I will not be troublesome to you
says he; our religion does not divest us of good manners; besides
we are here like countrymen; and so we arecompared to the place
we are in; and if you are Huguenotsand I a Catholicwe may all
be Christians at last; at leastwe are all gentlemenand we may
converse sowithout being uneasy to one another." I liked this
part of his discourse very welland it began to put me in mind of
my priest that I had left in the Brazils; but Father Simon did not
come up to his character by a great deal; for though this friar had
no appearance of a criminal levity in himyet he had not that fund
of Christian zealstrict pietyand sincere affection to religion
that my other good ecclesiastic had.

But to leave him a littlethough he never left usnor solicited
us to go with him; we had something else before us at firstfor we
had all this while our ship and our merchandise to dispose ofand
we began to be very doubtful what we should dofor we were now in
a place of very little business. Once I was about to venture to
sail for the river of Kilamand the city of Nankin; but Providence
seemed now more visiblyas I thoughtthan ever to concern itself
in our affairs; and I was encouragedfrom this very timeto think
I shouldone way or otherget out of this entangled circumstance
and be brought home to my own country againthough I had not the
least view of the manner. ProvidenceI saybegan here to clear
up our way a little; and the first thing that offered wasthat our
old Portuguese pilot brought a Japan merchant to uswho inquired
what goods we had: andin the first placehe bought all our
opiumand gave us a very good price for itpaying us in gold by
weightsome in small pieces of their own coinand some in small
wedgesof about ten or twelves ounces each. While we were dealing
with him for our opiumit came into my head that he might perhaps
deal for the ship tooand I ordered the interpreter to propose it
to him. He shrunk up his shoulders at it when it was first
proposed to him; but in a few days after he came to mewith one of
the missionary priests for his interpreterand told me he had a
proposal to make to mewhich was this: he had bought a great
quantity of our goodswhen he had no thoughts of proposals made to
him of buying the ship; and thatthereforehe had not money to
pay for the ship: but if I would let the same men who were in the
ship navigate herhe would hire the ship to go to Japan; and would
send them from thence to the Philippine Islands with another
loadingwhich he would pay the freight of before they went from
Japan: and that at their return he would buy the ship. I began to
listen to his proposaland so eager did my head still run upon
ramblingthat I could not but begin to entertain a notion of going
myself with himand so to set sail from the Philippine Islands
away to the South Seas; accordinglyI asked the Japanese merchant
if he would not hire us to the Philippine Islands and discharge us
there. He said Nohe could not do thatfor then he could not
have the return of his cargo; but he would discharge us in Japan
at the ship's return. Wellstill I was for taking him at that
proposaland going myself; but my partnerwiser than myself
persuaded me from itrepresenting the dangersas well of the seas
as of the Japanesewho are a falsecrueland treacherous people;
likewise those of the Spaniards at the Philippinesmore false
crueland treacherous than they.

But to bring this long turn of our affairs to a conclusion; the
first thing we had to do was to consult with the captain of the
shipand with his menand know if they were willing to go to
Japan. While I was doing thisthe young man whom my nephew had
left with me as my companion came upand told me that he thought
that voyage promised very fairand that there was a great prospect
of advantageand he would be very glad if I undertook it; but that
if I would notand would give him leavehe would go as a
merchantor as I pleased to order him; that if ever he came to
Englandand I was there and alivehe would render me a faithful
account of his successwhich should be as much mine as I pleased.
I was loath to part with him; but considering the prospect of
advantagewhich really was considerableand that he was a young
fellow likely to do well in itI inclined to let him go; but I
told him I would consult my partnerand give him an answer the
next day. I discoursed about it with my partnerwho thereupon
made a most generous offer: "You know it has been an unlucky
ship said he, and we both resolve not to go to sea in it again;
if your steward" (so he called my man) "will venture the voyageI
will leave my share of the vessel to himand let him make the best
of it; and if we live to meet in Englandand he meets with success
abroadhe shall account for one half of the profits of the ship's
freight to us; the other shall be his own."

If my partnerwho was no way concerned with my young manmade him
such an offerI could not do less than offer him the same; and all
the ship's company being willing to go with himwe made over half
the ship to him in propertyand took a writing from himobliging
him to account for the otherand away he went to Japan. The Japan
merchant proved a very punctualhonest man to him: protected him
at Japanand got him a licence to come on shorewhich the
Europeans in general have not lately obtained. He paid him his
freight very punctually; sent him to the Philippines loaded with
Japan and China waresand a supercargo of their ownwho
trafficking with the Spaniardsbrought back European goods again
and a great quantity of spices; and there he was not only paid his
freight very welland at a very good pricebut not being willing
to sell the shipthen the merchant furnished him goods on his own
account; and with some moneyand some spices of his own which he
brought with himhe went back to the Manillaswhere he sold his
cargo very well. Herehaving made a good acquaintance at Manilla
he got his ship made a free shipand the governor of Manilla hired
him to go to Acapulcoon the coast of Americaand gave him a
licence to land thereand to travel to Mexicoand to pass in any
Spanish ship to Europe with all his men. He made the voyage to
Acapulco very happilyand there he sold his ship: and having
there also obtained allowance to travel by land to Porto Bellohe
found means to get to Jamaicawith all his treasureand about
eight years after came to England exceeding rich.

But to return to our particular affairsbeing now to part with the
ship and ship's companyit came before usof courseto consider
what recompense we should give to the two men that gave us such
timely notice of the design against us in the river Cambodia. The
truth wasthey had done us a very considerable serviceand
deserved well at our hands; thoughby the waythey were a couple
of roguestoo; foras they believed the story of our being
piratesand that we had really run away with the shipthey came
down to usnot only to betray the design that was formed against
usbut to go to sea with us as pirates. One of them confessed
afterwards that nothing else but the hopes of going a-roguing
brought him to do it: howeverthe service they did us was not the
lessand thereforeas I had promised to be grateful to themI
first ordered the money to be paid them which they said was due to

them on board their respective ships: over and above thatI gave
each of them a small sum of money in goldwhich contented them
very well. I then made the Englishman gunner in the shipthe
gunner being now made second mate and purser; the Dutchman I made
boatswain; so they were both very well pleasedand proved very
serviceablebeing both able seamenand very stout fellows.

We were now on shore in China; if I thought myself banishedand
remote from my own country at Bengalwhere I had many ways to get
home for my moneywhat could I think of myself nowwhen I was
about a thousand leagues farther off from homeand destitute of
all manner of prospect of return? All we had for it was this:
that in about four months' time there was to be another fair at the
place where we wereand then we might be able to purchase various
manufactures of the countryand withal might possibly find some
Chinese junks from Tonquin for sailthat would carry us and our
goods whither we pleased. This I liked very welland resolved to
wait; besidesas our particular persons were not obnoxiousso if
any English or Dutch ships came thitherperhaps we might have an
opportunity to load our goodsand get passage to some other place
in India nearer home. Upon these hopes we resolved to continue
here; butto divert ourselveswe took two or three journeys into
the country.

Firstwe went ten days' journey to Nankina city well worth
seeing; they say it has a million of people in it: it is regularly
builtand the streets are all straightand cross one another in
direct lines. But when I come to compare the miserable people of
these countries with ourstheir fabricstheir manner of living
their governmenttheir religiontheir wealthand their gloryas
some call itI must confess that I scarcely think it worth my
while to mention them here. We wonder at the grandeurthe riches
the pompthe ceremoniesthe governmentthe manufacturesthe
commerceand conduct of these people; not that there is really any
matter for wonderbut becausehaving a true notion of the
barbarity of those countriesthe rudeness and the ignorance that
prevail therewe do not expect to find any such thing so far off.
Otherwisewhat are their buildings to the palaces and royal
buildings of Europe? What their trade to the universal commerce of
EnglandHollandFranceand Spain? What are their cities to
oursfor wealthstrengthgaiety of apparelrich furnitureand
infinite variety? What are their portssupplied with a few junks
and barksto our navigationour merchant fleetsour large and
powerful navies? Our city of London has more trade than half their
mighty empire: one EnglishDutchor French man-of-war of eighty
guns would be able to fight almost all the shipping belonging to
China: but the greatness of their wealththeir tradethe power
of their governmentand the strength of their armiesmay be a
little surprising to usbecauseas I have saidconsidering them
as a barbarous nation of paganslittle better than savageswe did
not expect such things among them. But all the forces of their
empirethough they were to bring two millions of men into the
field togetherwould be able to do nothing but ruin the country
and starve themselves; a million of their foot could not stand
before one embattled body of our infantryposted so as not to be
surroundedthough they were not to be one to twenty in number;
nayI do not boast if I say that thirty thousand German or English
footand ten thousand horsewell managedcould defeat all the
forces of China. Nor is there a fortified town in China that could
hold out one month against the batteries and attacks of an European
army. They have firearmsit is truebut they are awkward and
uncertain in their going off; and their powder has but little
strength. Their armies are badly disciplinedand want skill to
attackor temper to retreat; and thereforeI must confessit

seemed strange to mewhen I came homeand heard our people say
such fine things of the powerglorymagnificenceand trade of
the Chinese; becauseas far as I sawthey appeared to be a
contemptible herd or crowd of ignorantsordid slavessubjected to
a government qualified only to rule such a people; and were not its
distance inconceivablygreat from Muscovyand that empire in a
manner as rudeimpotentand ill governed as theythe Czar of
Muscovy might with ease drive them all out of their countryand
conquer them in one campaign; and had the Czar (who is now a
growing prince) fallen this wayinstead of attacking the warlike
Swedesand equally improved himself in the art of waras they say
he has done; and if none of the powers of Europe had envied or
interrupted himhe might by this time have been Emperor of China
instead of being beaten by the King of Sweden at Narvawhen the
latter was not one to six in number.

As their strength and their grandeurso their navigation
commerceand husbandry are very imperfectcompared to the same
things in Europe; alsoin their knowledgetheir learningand in
their skill in the sciencesthey are either very awkward or
defectivethough they have globes or spheresand a smattering of
the mathematicsand think they know more than all the world
besides. But they know little of the motions of the heavenly
bodies; and so grossly and absurdly ignorant are their common
peoplethat when the sun is eclipsedthey think a great dragon
has assaulted itand is going to run away with it; and they fall a
clattering with all the drums and kettles in the countryto fright
the monster awayjust as we do to hive a swarm of bees!

As this is the only excursion of the kind which I have made in all
the accounts I have given of my travelsso I shall make no more
such. It is none of my businessnor any part of my design; but to
give an account of my own adventures through a life of inimitable
wanderingsand a long variety of changeswhichperhapsfew that
come after me will have heard the like of: I shallthereforesay
very little of all the mighty placesdesert countriesand
numerous people I have yet to pass throughmore than relates to my
own storyand which my concern among them will make necessary.

I was nowas near as I can computein the heart of Chinaabout
thirty degrees north of the linefor we were returned from Nankin.
I had indeed a mind to see the city of Pekinwhich I had heard so
much ofand Father Simon importuned me daily to do it. At length
his time of going away being setand the other missionary who was
to go with him being arrived from Macaoit was necessary that we
should resolve either to go or not; so I referred it to my partner
and left it wholly to his choicewho at length resolved it in the
affirmativeand we prepared for our journey. We set out with very
good advantage as to finding the way; for we got leave to travel in
the retinue of one of their mandarinsa kind of viceroy or
principal magistrate in the province where they resideand who
take great state upon themtravelling with great attendanceand
great homage from the peoplewho are sometimes greatly
impoverished by thembeing obliged to furnish provisions for them
and all their attendants in their journeys. I particularly
observed in our travelling with his baggagethat though we
received sufficient provisions both for ourselves and our horses
from the countryas belonging to the mandarinyet we were obliged
to pay for everything we hadafter the market price of the
countryand the mandarin's steward collected it duly from us.
Thus our travelling in the retinue of the mandarinthough it was a
great act of kindnesswas not such a mighty favour to usbut was
a great advantage to himconsidering there were above thirty other
people travelled in the same manner besides usunder the

protection of his retinue; for the country furnished all the
provisions for nothing to himand yet he took our money for them.

We were twenty-five days travelling to Pekinthrough a country
exceeding populousbut I think badly cultivated; the husbandry
the economyand the way of living miserablethough they boast so
much of the industry of the people: I say miserableif compared
with our ownbut not so to these poor wretcheswho know no other.
The pride of the poor people is infinitely greatand exceeded by
nothing but their povertyin some partswhich adds to that which
I call their misery; and I must needs think the savages of America
live much more happy than the poorer sort of thesebecause as they
have nothingso they desire nothing; whereas these are proud and
insolent and in the main are in many parts mere beggars and
drudges. Their ostentation is inexpressible; andif they can
they love to keep multitudes of servants or slaveswhich is to the
last degree ridiculousas well as their contempt of all the world
but themselves.

I must confess I travelled more pleasantly afterwards in the
deserts and vast wildernesses of Grand Tartary than hereand yet
the roads here are well paved and well keptand very convenient
for travellers; but nothing was more awkward to me than to see such
a haughtyimperiousinsolent peoplein the midst of the grossest
simplicity and ignorance; and my friend Father Simon and I used to
be very merry upon these occasionsto see their beggarly pride.
For examplecoming by the house of a country gentlemanas Father
Simon called himabout ten leagues off the city of Nankinwe had
first of all the honour to ride with the master of the house about
two miles; the state he rode in was a perfect Don Quixotismbeing
a mixture of pomp and poverty. His habit was very proper for a
merry-andrewbeing a dirty calicowith hanging sleevestassels
and cuts and slashes almost on every side: it covered a taffety
vestso greasy as to testify that his honour must be a most
exquisite sloven. His horse was a poorstarvedhobbling
creatureand two slaves followed him on foot to drive the poor
creature along; he had a whip in his handand he belaboured the
beast as fast about the head as his slaves did about the tail; and
thus he rode by uswith about ten or twelve servantsgoing from
the city to his country seatabout half a league before us. We
travelled on gentlybut this figure of a gentleman rode away
before us; and as we stopped at a village about an hour to refresh
uswhen we came by the country seat of this great manwe saw him
in a little place before his dooreating a repast. It was a kind
of gardenbut he was easy to be seen; and we were given to
understand that the more we looked at him the better he would be
pleased. He sat under a treesomething like the palmettowhich
effectually shaded him over the headand on the south side; but
under the tree was placed a large umbrellawhich made that part
look well enough. He sat lolling back in a great elbow-chair
being a heavy corpulent manand had his meat brought him by two
women slaves. He had two moreone of whom fed the squire with a
spoonand the other held the dish with one handand scraped off
what he let fall upon his worship's beard and taffety vest.

Leaving the poor wretch to please himself with our looking at him
as if we admired his idle pompwe pursued our journey. Father
Simon had the curiosity to stay to inform himself what dainties the
country justice had to feed on in all his statewhich he had the
honour to taste ofand which wasI thinka mess of boiled rice
with a great piece of garlic in itand a little bag filled with
green pepperand another plant which they have theresomething
like our gingerbut smelling like muskand tasting like mustard;
all this was put togetherand a small piece of lean mutton boiled

in itand this was his worship's repast. Four or five servants
more attended at a distancewho we supposed were to eat of the
same after their master. As for our mandarin with whom we
travelledhe was respected as a kingsurrounded always with his
gentlemenand attended in all his appearances with such pompthat
I saw little of him but at a distance. I observed that there was
not a horse in his retinue but that our carrier's packhorses in
England seemed to me to look much better; though it was hard to
judge rightlyfor they were so covered with equipagemantles
trappings&c.that we could scarce see anything but their feet
and their heads as they went along.

I was now light-heartedand all my late trouble and perplexity
being overI had no anxious thoughts about mewhich made this
journey the pleasanter to me; in which no ill accident attended me
only in passing or fording a small rivermy horse fell and made me
free of the countryas they call it--that is to saythrew me in.
The place was not deepbut it wetted me all over. I mention it
because it spoiled my pocket-bookwherein I had set down the names
of several people and places which I had occasion to rememberand
which not taking due care ofthe leaves rottedand the words were
never after to be read.

At length we arrived at Pekin. I had nobody with me but the youth
whom my nephew had given me to attend me as a servant and who
proved very trusty and diligent; and my partner had nobody with him
but one servantwho was a kinsman. As for the Portuguese pilot
he being desirous to see the courtwe bore his charges for his
companyand for our use of him as an interpreterfor he
understood the language of the countryand spoke good French and a
little English. Indeedthis old man was most useful to us
everywhere; for we had not been above a week at Pekinwhen he came
laughing. "AhSeignior Inglese says he, I have something to
tell will make your heart glad."--"My heart glad says I; what
can that be? I don't know anything in this country can either give
me joy or grief to any great degree."--"Yesyes said the old
man, in broken English, make you gladme sorry."--"Why said I,
will it make you sorry?"--"Because said he, you have brought me
here twenty-five days' journeyand will leave me to go back alone;
and which way shall I get to my port afterwardswithout a ship
without a horsewithout pecune?" so he called moneybeing his
broken Latinof which he had abundance to make us merry with. In
shorthe told us there was a great caravan of Muscovite and Polish
merchants in the citypreparing to set out on their journey by
land to Muscovywithin four or five weeks; and he was sure we
would take the opportunity to go with themand leave him behind
to go back alone.

I confess I was greatly surprised with this good newsand had
scarce power to speak to him for some time; but at last I said to
himHow do you know this? are you sure it is true?--"Yes says
he; I met this morning in the street an old acquaintance of mine
an Armenianwho is among them. He came last from Astrakhanand
was designed to go to Tonquinwhere I formerly knew himbut has
altered his mindand is now resolved to go with the caravan to
Moscowand so down the river Volga to Astrakhan."--"Well
Seignior says I, do not be uneasy about being left to go back
alone; if this be a method for my return to Englandit shall be
your fault if you go back to Macao at all." We then went to
consult together what was to be done; and I asked my partner what
he thought of the pilot's newsand whether it would suit with his
affairs? He told me he would do just as I would; for he had
settled all his affairs so well at Bengaland left his effects in
such good handsthat as we had made a good voyageif he could

invest it in China silkswrought and rawhe would be content to
go to Englandand then make a voyage back to Bengal by the
Company's ships.

Having resolved upon thiswe agreed that if our Portuguese pilot
would go with uswe would bear his charges to Moscowor to
Englandif he pleased; norindeedwere we to be esteemed overgenerous
in that eitherif we had not rewarded him furtherthe
service he had done us being really worth more than that; for he
had not only been a pilot to us at seabut he had been like a
broker for us on shore; and his procuring for us a Japan merchant
was some hundreds of pounds in our pockets. Sobeing willing to
gratify himwhich was but doing him justiceand very willing also
to have him with us besidesfor he was a most necessary man on all
occasionswe agreed to give him a quantity of coined goldwhich
as I computed itwas worth one hundred and seventy-five pounds
sterlingbetween usand to bear all his chargesboth for himself
and horseexcept only a horse to carry his goods. Having settled
this between ourselveswe called him to let him know what we had
resolved. I told him he had complained of our being willing to let
him go back aloneand I was now about to tell him we designed he
should not go back at all. That as we had resolved to go to Europe
with the caravanwe were very willing he should go with us; and
that we called him to know his mind. He shook his head and said it
was a long journeyand that he had no pecune to carry him thither
or to subsist himself when he came there. We told him we believed
it was soand therefore we had resolved to do something for him
that should let him see how sensible we were of the service he had
done usand also how agreeable he was to us: and then I told him
what we had resolved to give him herewhich he might lay out as we
would do our own; and that as for his chargesif he would go with
us we would set him safe on shore (life and casualties excepted)
either in Muscovy or Englandas he would chooseat our own
chargeexcept only the carriage of his goods. He received the
proposal like a man transportedand told us he would go with us
over all the whole world; and so we all prepared for our journey.
Howeveras it was with usso it was with the other merchants:
they had many things to doand instead of being ready in five
weeksit was four months and some days before all things were got


It was the beginning of Februarynew stylewhen we set out from
Pekin. My partner and the old pilot had gone express back to the
port where we had first put into dispose of some goods which we
had left there; and Iwith a Chinese merchant whom I had some
knowledge of at Nankinand who came to Pekin on his own affairs
went to Nankinwhere I bought ninety pieces of fine damaskswith
about two hundred pieces of other very fine silk of several sorts
some mixed with goldand had all these brought to Pekin against my
partner's return. Besides thiswe bought a large quantity of raw
silkand some other goodsour cargo amountingin these goods
onlyto about three thousand five hundred pounds sterling; which
together with tea and some fine calicoesand three camels' loads
of nutmegs and clovesloaded in all eighteen camels for our share
besides those we rode upon; thesewith two or three spare horses
and two horses loaded with provisionsmade together twenty-six
camels and horses in our retinue.

The company was very greatandas near as I can remembermade
between three and four hundred horsesand upwards of one hundred
and twenty menvery well armed and provided for all events; for as
the Eastern caravans are subject to be attacked by the Arabsso
are these by the Tartars. The company consisted of people of
several nationsbut there were above sixty of them merchants or
inhabitants of Moscowthough of them some were Livonians; and to
our particular satisfactionfive of them were Scotswho appeared
also to be men of great experience in businessand of very good

When we had travelled one day's journeythe guideswho were five
in numbercalled all the passengersexcept the servantsto a
great councilas they called it. At this council every one
deposited a certain quantity of money to a common stockfor the
necessary expense of buying forage on the waywhere it was not
otherwise to be hadand for satisfying the guidesgetting horses
and the like. Heretoothey constituted the journeyas they
call itviz. they named captains and officers to draw us all up
and give the word of commandin case of an attackand give every
one their turn of command; nor was this forming us into order any
more than what we afterwards found needful on the way.

The road all on this side of the country is very populousand is
full of potters and earth-makers--that is to saypeoplethat
temper the earth for the China ware. As I was coming alongour
Portuguese pilotwho had always something or other to say to make
us merrytold me he would show me the greatest rarity in all the
countryand that I should have this to say of Chinaafter all the
ill-humoured things that I had said of itthat I had seen one
thing which was not to be seen in all the world beside. I was very
importunate to know what it was; at last he told me it was a
gentleman's house built with China ware. "Well says I, are not
the materials of their buildings the products of their own country
and so it is all China wareis it not?"--"Nono says he, I
mean it is a house all made of China waresuch as you call it in
Englandor as it is called in our countryporcelain."--"Well
says I, such a thing may be; how big is it? Can we carry it in a
box upon a camel? If we can we will buy it."--"Upon a camel!" says
the old pilotholding up both his hands; "whythere is a family
of thirty people lives in it."

I was then curiousindeedto see it; and when I came to itit
was nothing but this: it was a timber houseor a house builtas
we call it in Englandwith lath and plasterbut all this
plastering was really China ware--that is to sayit was plastered
with the earth that makes China ware. The outsidewhich the sun
shone hot uponwas glazedand looked very wellperfectly white
and painted with blue figuresas the large China ware in England
is paintedand hard as if it had been burnt. As to the inside
all the wallsinstead of wainscotwere lined with hardened and
painted tileslike the little square tiles we call galley-tiles in
Englandall made of the finest chinaand the figures exceeding
fine indeedwith extraordinary variety of coloursmixed with
goldmany tiles making but one figurebut joined so artificially
the mortar being made of the same earththat it was very hard to
see where the tiles met. The floors of the rooms were of the same
compositionand as hard as the earthen floors we have in use in
several parts of England; as hard as stoneand smoothbut not
burnt and paintedexcept some smaller roomslike closetswhich
were allas it werepaved with the same tile; the ceiling and all
the plastering work in the whole house were of the same earth; and
after allthe roof was covered with tiles of the samebut of a
deep shining black. This was a China warehouse indeedtruly and

literally to be called soand had I not been upon the journeyI
could have stayed some days to see and examine the particulars of
it. They told me there were fountains and fishponds in the garden
all paved on the bottom and sides with the same; and fine statues
set up in rows on the walksentirely formed of the porcelain
earthburnt whole.

As this is one of the singularities of Chinaso they may be
allowed to excel in it; but I am very sure they excel in their
accounts of it; for they told me such incredible things of their
performance in crockery-warefor such it isthat I care not to
relateas knowing it could not be true. They told mein
particularof one workman that made a ship with all its tackle and
masts and sails in earthenwarebig enough to carry fifty men. If
they had told me he launched itand made a voyage to Japan in it
I might have said something to it indeed; but as it wasI knew the
whole of the storywhich wasin shortthat the fellow lied: so
I smiledand said nothing to it. This odd sight kept me two hours
behind the caravanfor which the leader of it for the day fined me
about the value of three shillings; and told me if it had been
three days' journey without the wallas it was three days' within
he must have fined me four times as muchand made me ask pardon
the next council-day. I promised to be more orderly; andindeed
I found afterwards the orders made for keeping all together were
absolutely necessary for our common safety.

In two days more we passed the great China wallmade for a
fortification against the Tartars: and a very great work it is
going over hills and mountains in an endless trackwhere the rocks
are impassableand the precipices such as no enemy could possibly
enteror indeed climb upor whereif they didno wall could
hinder them. They tell us its length is near a thousand English
milesbut that the country is five hundred in a straight measured
linewhich the wall bounds without measuring the windings and
turnings it takes; it is about four fathoms highand as many thick
in some places.

I stood still an hour or thereabouts without trespassing on our
orders (for so long the caravan was in passing the gate)to look
at it on every sidenear and far off; I mean what was within my
view: and the guidewho had been extolling it for the wonder of
the worldwas mighty eager to hear my opinion of it. I told him
it was a most excellent thing to keep out the Tartars; which he
happened not to understand as I meant it and so took it for a
compliment; but the old pilot laughed! "OhSeignior Inglese
says he, you speak in colours."--"In colours!" said I; "what do
you mean by that?"--"Whyyou speak what looks white this way and
black that way--gay one way and dull another. You tell him it is a
good wall to keep out Tartars; you tell me by that it is good for
nothing but to keep out Tartars. I understand youSeignior
IngleseI understand you; but Seignior Chinese understood you his
own way."--"Well says I, do you think it would stand out an army
of our country peoplewith a good train of artillery; or our
engineerswith two companies of miners? Would not they batter it
down in ten daysthat an army might enter in battalia; or blow it
up in the airfoundation and allthat there should be no sign of
it left?"--"Ayay says he, I know that." The Chinese wanted
mightily to know what I said to the pilotand I gave him leave to
tell him a few days afterfor we were then almost out of their
countryand he was to leave us a little time after this; but when
he knew what I saidhe was dumb all the rest of the wayand we
heard no more of his fine story of the Chinese power and greatness
while he stayed.

After we passed this mighty nothingcalled a wallsomething like
the Picts' walls so famous in Northumberlandbuilt by the Romans
we began to find the country thinly inhabitedand the people
rather confined to live in fortified townsas being subject to the
inroads and depredations of the Tartarswho rob in great armies
and therefore are not to be resisted by the naked inhabitants of an
open country. And here I began to find the necessity of keeping
together in a caravan as we travelledfor we saw several troops of
Tartars roving about; but when I came to see them distinctlyI
wondered more that the Chinese empire could be conquered by such
contemptible fellows; for they are a mere horde of wild fellows
keeping no order and understanding no discipline or manner of it.
Their horses are poor lean creaturestaught nothingand fit for
nothing; and this we found the first day we saw themwhich was
after we entered the wilder part of the country. Our leader for
the day gave leave for about sixteen of us to go a hunting as they
call it; and what was this but a hunting of sheep!--howeverit may
be called hunting toofor these creatures are the wildest and
swiftest of foot that ever I saw of their kind! only they will not
run a great wayand you are sure of sport when you begin the
chasefor they appear generally thirty or forty in a flockand
like true sheepalways keep together when they fly.

In pursuit of this odd sort of game it was our hap to meet with
about forty Tartars: whether they were hunting muttonas we were
or whether they looked for another kind of preywe know not; but
as soon as they saw usone of them blew a hideous blast on a kind
of horn. This was to call their friends about themand in less
than ten minutes a troop of forty or fifty more appearedat about
a mile distance; but our work was over firstas it happened.

One of the Scots merchants of Moscow happened to be amongst us; and
as soon as he heard the hornhe told us that we had nothing to do
but to charge them without loss of time; and drawing us up in a
linehe asked if we were resolved. We told him we were ready to
follow him; so he rode directly towards them. They stood gazing at
us like a mere crowddrawn up in no sort of order at all; but as
soon as they saw us advancethey let fly their arrowswhich
missed usvery happily. Not that they mistook their aimbut
their distance; for their arrows all fell a little short of usbut
with so true an aimthat had we been about twenty yards nearer we
must have had several men woundedif not killed.

Immediately we haltedand though it was at a great distancewe
firedand sent them leaden bullets for wooden arrowsfollowing
our shot full gallopto fall in among them sword in hand--for so
our bold Scot that led us directed. He wasindeedbut a
merchantbut he behaved with such vigour and bravery on this
occasionand yet with such cool courage toothat I never saw any
man in action fitter for command. As soon as we came up to them we
fired our pistols in their faces and then drew; but they fled in
the greatest confusion imaginable. The only stand any of them made
was on our rightwhere three of them stoodandby signscalled
the rest to come back to themhaving a kind of scimitar in their
handsand their bows hanging to their backs. Our brave commander
without asking anybody to follow himgallops up close to themand
with his fusee knocks one of them off his horsekilled the second
with his pistoland the third ran away. Thus ended our fight; but
we had this misfortune attending itthat all our mutton we had in
chase got away. We had not a man killed or hurt; as for the
Tartarsthere were about five of them killed--how many were
wounded we knew not; but this we knewthat the other party were so
frightened with the noise of our guns that they fledand never
made any attempt upon us.

We were all this while in the Chinese dominionsand therefore the
Tartars were not so bold as afterwards; but in about five days we
entered a vast wild desertwhich held us three days' and nights'
march; and we were obliged to carry our water with us in great
leathern bottlesand to encamp all nightjust as I have heard
they do in the desert of Arabia. I asked our guides whose dominion
this was inand they told me this was a kind of border that might
be called no man's landbeing a part of Great Karakathyor Grand
Tartary: thathoweverit was all reckoned as belonging to China
but that there was no care taken here to preserve it from the
inroads of thievesand therefore it was reckoned the worst desert
in the whole marchthough we were to go over some much larger.

In passing this frightful wilderness we sawtwo or three times
little parties of the Tartarsbut they seemed to be upon their own
affairsand to have no design upon us; and solike the man who
met the devilif they had nothing to say to uswe had nothing to
say to them: we let them go. Oncehowevera party of them came
so near as to stand and gaze at us. Whether it was to consider if
they should attack us or notwe knew not; but when we had passed
at some distance by themwe made a rear-guard of forty menand
stood ready for themletting the caravan pass half a mile or
thereabouts before us. After a while they marched offbut they
saluted us with five arrows at their partingwhich wounded a horse
so that it disabled himand we left him the next daypoor
creaturein great need of a good farrier. We saw no more arrows
or Tartars that time.

We travelled near a month after thisthe ways not being so good as
at firstthough still in the dominions of the Emperor of China
but lay for the most part in the villagessome of which were
fortifiedbecause of the incursions of the Tartars. When we were
come to one of these towns (about two days and a half's journey
before we came to the city of Naum)I wanted to buy a camelof
which there are plenty to be sold all the way upon that roadand
horses alsosuch as they arebecauseso many caravans coming
that waythey are often wanted. The person that I spoke to to get
me a camel would have gone and fetched one for me; but Ilike a
foolmust be officiousand go myself along with him; the place
was about two miles out of the villagewhere it seems they kept
the camels and horses feeding under a guard.

I walked it on footwith my old pilot and a Chinesebeing very
desirous of a little variety. When we came to the place it was a
lowmarshy groundwalled round with stonespiled up drywithout
mortar or earth among themlike a parkwith a little guard of
Chinese soldiers at the door. Having bought a cameland agreed
for the priceI came awayand the Chinese that went with me led
the camelwhen on a sudden came up five Tartars on horseback. Two
of them seized the fellow and took the camel from himwhile the
other three stepped up to me and my old pilotseeing usas it
wereunarmedfor I had no weapon about me but my swordwhich
could but ill defend me against three horsemen. The first that
came up stopped short upon my drawing my swordfor they are arrant
cowards; but a secondcoming upon my leftgave me a blow on the
headwhich I never felt till afterwardsand wonderedwhen I came
to myselfwhat was the matterand where I wasfor he laid me
flat on the ground; but my never-failing old pilotthe Portuguese
had a pistol in his pocketwhich I knew nothing ofnor the
Tartars either: if they hadI suppose they would not have
attacked usfor cowards are always boldest when there is no
danger. The old man seeing me downwith a bold heart stepped up
to the fellow that had struck meand laying hold of his arm with

one handand pulling him down by main force a little towards him
with the other shot him into the headand laid him dead upon the
spot. He then immediately stepped up to him who had stopped usas
I saidand before he could come forward againmade a blow at him
with a scimitarwhich he always worebut missing the manstruck
his horse in the side of his headcut one of the ears off by the
rootand a great slice down by the side of his face. The poor
beastenraged with the woundwas no more to be governed by his
riderthough the fellow sat well enough toobut away he flewand
carried him quite out of the pilot's reach; and at some distance
rising upon his hind legsthrew down the Tartarand fell upon

In this interval the poor Chinese came in who had lost the camel
but he had no weapon; howeverseeing the Tartar downand his
horse fallen upon himaway he runs to himand seizing upon an
ugly weapon he had by his sidesomething like a pole-axehe
wrenched it from himand made shift to knock his Tartarian brains
out with it. But my old man had the third Tartar to deal with
still; and seeing he did not flyas he expectednor come on to
fight himas he apprehendedbut stood stock stillthe old man
stood still tooand fell to work with his tackle to charge his
pistol again: but as soon as the Tartar saw the pistol away he
scouredand left my pilotmy champion I called him afterwardsa
complete victory.

By this time I was a little recovered. I thoughtwhen I first
began to wakethat I had been in a sweet sleep; butas I said
aboveI wondered where I washow I came upon the groundand what
was the matter. A few moments afteras sense returnedI felt
painthough I did not know where; so I clapped my hand to my head
and took it away bloody; then I felt my head ache: and in a moment
memory returnedand everything was present to me again. I jumped
upon my feet instantlyand got hold of my swordbut no enemies
were in view: I found a Tartar lying deadand his horse standing
very quietly by him; andlooking furtherI saw my delivererwho
had been to see what the Chinese had donecoming back with his
hanger in his hand. The old manseeing me on my feetcame
running to meand joyfully embraced mebeing afraid before that I
had been killed. Seeing me bloodyhe would see how I was hurt;
but it was not muchonly what we call a broken head; neither did I
afterwards find any great inconvenience from the blowfor it was
well again in two or three days.

We made no great gainhoweverby this victoryfor we lost a
camel and gained a horse. I paid for the lost cameland sent for
another; but I did not go to fetch it myself: I had had enough of

The city of Naumwhich we were approachingis a frontier of the
Chinese empireand is fortified in their fashion. We wantedas I
have saidabove two days' journey of this city when messengers
were sent express to every part of the road to tell all travellers
and caravans to halt till they had a guard sent for them; for that
an unusual body of Tartarsmaking ten thousand in allhad
appeared in the wayabout thirty miles beyond the city.

This was very bad news to travellers: howeverit was carefully
done of the governorand we were very glad to hear we should have
a guard. Accordinglytwo days afterwe had two hundred soldiers
sent us from a garrison of the Chinese on our leftand three
hundred more from the city of Naumand with these we advanced
boldly. The three hundred soldiers from Naum marched in our front
the two hundred in our rearand our men on each side of our

camelswith our baggage and the whole caravan in the centre; in
this orderand well prepared for battlewe thought ourselves a
match for the whole ten thousand Mogul Tartarsif they had
appeared; but the next daywhen they did appearit was quite
another thing.


Early in the morningwhen marching from a little town called
Changuwe had a river to passwhich we were obliged to ferry;
andhad the Tartars had any intelligencethen had been the time
to have attacked uswhen the caravan being overthe rear-guard
was behind; but they did not appear there. About three hours
afterwhen we were entered upon a desert of about fifteen or
sixteen miles overwe knew by a cloud of dust they raisedthat
the enemy was at handand presently they came on upon the spur.

Our Chinese guards in the frontwho had talked so big the day
beforebegan to stagger; and the soldiers frequently looked behind
thema certain sign in a soldier that he is just ready to run
away. My old pilot was of my mind; and being near mecalled out
Seignior Inglese, these fellows must be encouraged, or they will
ruin us all; for if the Tartars come on they will never stand it.-"
If am of your mind said I; but what must be done?"--"Done?"
says helet fifty of our men advance, and flank them on each
wing, and encourage them. They will fight like brave fellows in
brave company; but without this they will every man turn his back.
Immediately I rode up to our leader and told himwho was exactly
of our mind; accordinglyfifty of us marched to the right wing
and fifty to the leftand the rest made a line of rescue; and so
we marchedleaving the last two hundred men to make a body of
themselvesand to guard the camels; only thatif need werethey
should send a hundred men to assist the last fifty.

At last the Tartars came onand an innumerable company they were;
how many we could not tellbut ten thousandwe thoughtat the
least. A party of them came on firstand viewed our posture
traversing the ground in the front of our line; andas we found
them within gunshotour leader ordered the two wings to advance
swiftlyand give them a salvo on each wing with their shotwhich
was done. They then went offI suppose to give an account of the
reception they were like to meet with; indeedthat salute cloyed
their stomachsfor they immediately haltedstood a while to
consider of itand wheeling off to the leftthey gave over their
design for that timewhich was very agreeable to our

Two days after we came to the city of Naunor Naum; we thanked the
governor for his care of usand collected to the value of a
hundred crownsor thereaboutswhich we gave to the soldiers sent
to guard us; and here we rested one day. This is a garrison
indeedand there were nine hundred soldiers kept here; but the
reason of it wasthat formerly the Muscovite frontiers lay nearer
to them than they now dothe Muscovites having abandoned that part
of the countrywhich lies from this city west for about two
hundred milesas desolate and unfit for use; and more especially
being so very remoteand so difficult to send troops thither for
its defence; for we were yet above two thousand miles from Muscovy
properly so called. After this we passed several great riversand
two dreadful deserts; one of which we were sixteen days passing

over; and on the 13th of April we came to the frontiers of the
Muscovite dominions. I think the first town or fortresswhichever
it may he calledthat belonged to the Czarwas called Arguna
being on the west side of the river Arguna.

I could not but feel great satisfaction that I was arrived in a
country governed by Christians; for though the Muscovites doin my
opinionbut just deserve the name of Christiansyet such they
pretend to beand are very devout in their way. It would
certainly occur to any reflecting man who travels the world as I
have donewhat a blessing it is to be brought into the world where
the name of God and a Redeemer is knownadoredand worshipped;
and not where the peoplegiven up to strong delusionsworship the
deviland prostrate themselves to monsterselementshorridshaped
animalsand monstrous images. Not a town or city we passed
through but had their pagodastheir idolsand their templesand
ignorant people worshipping even the works of their own hands. Now
we came whereat leasta face of the Christian worship appeared;
where the knee was bowed to Jesus: and whether ignorantly or not
yet the Christian religion was ownedand the name of the true God
was called upon and adored; and it made my soul rejoice to see it.
I saluted the brave Scots merchant with my first acknowledgment of
this; and taking him by the handI said to himBlessed be God,
we are once again amongst Christians.He smiledand answered
Do not rejoice too soon, countryman; these Muscovites are but an
odd sort of Christians; and but for the name of it you may see very
little of the substance for some months further of our journey.-"
Well says I, but still it is better than paganismand
worshipping of devils."--"WhyI will tell you says he; except
the Russian soldiers in the garrisonsand a few of the inhabitants
of the cities upon the roadall the rest of this countryfor
above a thousand miles fartheris inhabited by the worst and most
ignorant of pagans." And soindeedwe found it.

We now launched into the greatest piece of solid earth that is to
be found in any part of the world; we hadat leasttwelve
thousand miles to the sea eastward; two thousand to the bottom of
the Baltic Sea westward; and above three thousandif we left that
seaand went on westto the British and French channels: we had
full five thousand miles to the Indian or Persian Sea south; and
about eight hundred to the Frozen Sea north.

We advanced from the river Arguna by easy and moderate journeys
and were very visibly obliged to the care the Czar has taken to
have cities and towns built in as many places as it is possible to
place themwhere his soldiers keep garrisonsomething like the
stationary soldiers placed by the Romans in the remotest countries
of their empire; some of which I had read of were placed in
Britainfor the security of commerceand for the lodging of
travellers. Thus it was here; for wherever we camethough at
these towns and stations the garrisons and governors were Russians
and professed Christiansyet the inhabitants were mere pagans
sacrificing to idolsand worshipping the sunmoonand starsor
all the host of heaven; and not only sobut wereof all the
heathens and pagans that ever I met withthe most barbarous
except only that they did not eat men's flesh.

Some instances of this we met with in the country between Arguna
where we enter the Muscovite dominionsand a city of Tartars and
Russians togethercalled Nortziouskyin which is a continued
desert or forestwhich cost us twenty days to travel over. In a
village near the last of these places I had the curiosity to go and
see their way of livingwhich is most brutish and unsufferable.
They hadI supposea great sacrifice that day; for there stood

outupon an old stump of a treea diabolical kind of idol made of
wood; it was dressed uptooin the most filthy manner; its upper
garment was of sheepskinswith the wool outward; a great Tartar
bonnet on the headwith two horns growing through it; it was about
eight feet highyet had no feet or legsnor any other proportion
of parts.

This scarecrow was set up at the outer side of the village; and
when I came near to it there were sixteen or seventeen creatures
all lying flat upon the ground round this hideous block of wood; I
saw no motion among themany more than if they had been all logs
like the idoland at first I really thought they had been so; but
when I came a little nearerthey started up upon their feetand
raised a howlas if it had been so many deep-mouthed houndsand
walked awayas if they were displeased at our disturbing them. A
little way off from the idoland at the door of a hutmade of
sheep and cow skins driedstood three men with long knives in
their hands; and in the middle of the tent appeared three sheep
killedand one young bullock. Theseit seemswere sacrifices to
that senseless log of an idol; the three men were priests belonging
to itand the seventeen prostrated wretches were the people who
brought the offeringand were offering their prayers to that

I confess I was more moved at their stupidity and brutish worship
of a hobgoblin than ever I was at anything in my lifeand
overcome with rageI rode up to the hideous idoland with my
sword made a stroke at the bonnet that was on its headand cut it
in two; and one of our men that was with metaking hold of the
sheepskin that covered itpulled at itwhenbeholda most
hideous outcry ran through the villageand two or three hundred
people came about my earsso that I was glad to scour for itfor
some had bows and arrows; but I resolved from that moment to visit
them again. Our caravan rested three nights at the townwhich was
about four miles offin order to provide some horses which they
wantedseveral of the horses having been lamed and jaded with the
long march over the last desert; so we had some leisure here to put
my design in execution. I communicated it to the Scots merchant
of whose courage I had sufficient testimony; I told him what I had
seenand with what indignation I had since thought that human
nature could be so degenerate; I told him if I could get but four
or five men well armed to go with meI was resolved to go and
destroy that vileabominable idoland let them see that it had no
power to help itselfand consequently could not be an object of
worshipor to be prayed tomuch less help them that offered
sacrifices to it.

He at first objected to my plan as uselessseeing thatowing to
the gross ignorance of the peoplethey could not be brought to
profit by the lesson I meant to teach them; and added thatfrom
his knowledge of the country and its customshe feared we should
fall into great peril by giving offence to these brutal idol
worshippers. This somewhat stayed my purposebut I was still
uneasy all that day to put my project in execution; and that
eveningmeeting the Scots merchant in our walk about the townI
again called upon him to aid me in it. When he found me resolute
he said thaton further thoughtshe could not but applaud the
designand told me I should not go alonebut he would go with me;
but he would go first and bring a stout fellowone of his
countrymento go also with us; "and one said he, as famous for
his zeal as you can desire any one to be against such devilish
things as these." So we agreed to goonly we three and my manservant
and resolved to put it in execution the following night
about midnightwith all possible secrecy.

We thought it better to delay it till the next nightbecause the
caravan being to set forward in the morningwe suppose the
governor could not pretend to give them any satisfaction upon us
when we were out of his power. The Scots merchantas steady in
his resolution for the enterprise as bold in executingbrought me
a Tartar's robe or gown of sheepskinsand a bonnetwith a bow and
arrowsand had provided the same for himself and his countryman
that the peopleif they saw usshould not determine who we were.
All the first night we spent in mixing up some combustible matter
with aqua vitaegunpowderand such other materials as we could
get; and having a good quantity of tar in a little potabout an
hour after night we set out upon our expedition.

We came to the place about eleven o'clock at nightand found that
the people had not the least suspicion of danger attending their
idol. The night was cloudy: yet the moon gave us light enough to
see that the idol stood just in the same posture and place that it
did before. The people seemed to be all at their rest; only that
in the great hutwhere we saw the three priestswe saw a light
and going up close to the doorwe heard people talking as if there
were five or six of them; we concludedthereforethat if we set
wildfire to the idolthose men would come out immediatelyand run
up to the place to rescue it from destruction; and what to do with
them we knew not. Once we thought of carrying it awayand setting
fire to it at a distance; but when we came to handle itwe found
it too bulky for our carriageso we were at a loss again. The
second Scotsman was for setting fire to the hutand knocking the
creatures that were there on the head when they came out; but I
could not join with that; I was against killing themif it were
possible to avoid it. "Wellthen said the Scots merchant, I
will tell you what we will do: we will try to make them prisoners
tie their handsand make them stand and see their idol destroyed."

As it happenedwe had twine or packthread enough about uswhich
we used to tie our firelocks together with; so we resolved to
attack these people firstand with as little noise as we could.
The first thing we didwe knocked at the doorwhen one of the
priests coming to itwe immediately seized upon himstopped his
mouthand tied his hands behind himand led him to the idol
where we gagged him that he might not make a noisetied his feet
also togetherand left him on the ground.

Two of us then waited at the doorexpecting that another would
come out to see what the matter was; but we waited so long till the
third man came back to us; and then nobody coming outwe knocked
again gentlyand immediately out came two moreand we served them
just in the same mannerbut were obliged to go all with themand
lay them down by the idol some distance from one another; when
going backwe found two more were come out of the doorand a
third stood behind them within the door. We seized the twoand
immediately tied themwhen the thirdstepping back and crying
outmy Scots merchant went in after themand taking out a
composition we had made that would only smoke and stinkhe set
fire to itand threw it in among them. By that time the other
Scotsman and my mantaking charge of the two men already bound
and tied together also by the armled them away to the idoland
left them thereto see if their idol would relieve themmaking
haste back to us.

When the fuze we had thrown in had filled the hut with so much
smoke that they were almost suffocatedwe threw in a small leather
bag of another kindwhich flamed like a candleandfollowing it
inwe found there were but four peoplewhoas we supposedhad

been about some of their diabolical sacrifices. They appearedin
shortfrightened to deathat least so as to sit trembling and
stupidand not able to speak eitherfor the smoke.

We quickly took them from the hutwhere the smoke soon drove us
outbound them as we had done the otherand all without any
noise. Then we carried them all together to the idol; when we came
therewe fell to work with him. Firstwe daubed him all over
and his robes alsowith tarand tallow mixed with brimstone; then
we stopped his eyes and ears and mouth full of gunpowderand
wrapped up a great piece of wildfire in his bonnet; then sticking
all the combustibles we had brought with us upon himwe looked
about to see if we could find anything else to help to burn him;
when my Scotsman remembered that by the hutwhere the men were
there lay a heap of dry forage; away he and the other Scotsman ran
and fetched their arms full of that. When we had done thiswe
took all our prisonersand brought themhaving untied their feet
and ungagged their mouthsand made them stand upand set them
before their monstrous idoland then set fire to the whole.

We stayed by it a quarter of an hour or thereaboutstill the
powder in the eyes and mouth and ears of the idol blew upandas
we could perceivehad split altogether; and in a wordtill we saw
it burned so that it would soon be quite consumed. We then began
to think of going away; but the Scotsman saidNo, we must not go,
for these poor deluded wretches will all throw themselves into the
fire, and burn themselves with the idol.So we resolved to stay
till the forage has burned down tooand then came away and left
them. After the feat was performedwe appeared in the morning
among our fellow-travellersexceedingly busy in getting ready for
our journey; nor could any man suppose that we had been anywhere
but in our beds.

But the affair did not end so; the next day came a great number of
the country people to the town gatesand in a most outrageous
manner demanded satisfaction of the Russian governor for the
insulting their priests and burning their great Cham Chi-Thaungu.
The people of Nertsinkay were at first in a great consternation
for they said the Tartars were already no less than thirty thousand
strong. The Russian governor sent out messengers to appease them
assuring them that he knew nothing of itand that there had not a
soul in his garrison been abroadso that it could not be from
anybody there: but if they could let him know who did itthey
should be exemplarily punished. They returned haughtilythat all
the country reverenced the great Cham Chi-Thaunguwho dwelt in the
sunand no mortal would have dared to offer violence to his image
but some Christian miscreant; and they therefore resolved to
denounce war against him and all the Russianswhothey saidwere
miscreants and Christians.

The governorunwilling to make a breachor to have any cause of
war alleged to be given by himthe Czar having strictly charged
him to treat the conquered country with gentlenessgave them all
the good words he could. At last he told them there was a caravan
gone towards Russia that morningand perhaps it was some of them
who had done them this injury; and that if they would be satisfied
with thathe would send after them to inquire into it. This
seemed to appease them a little; and accordingly the governor sent
after usand gave us a particular account how the thing was;
intimating withalthat if any in our caravan had done it they
should make their escape; but that whether we had done it or nowe
should make all the haste forward that was possible: and thatin
the meantimehe would keep them in play as long as he could.

This was very friendly in the governor; howeverwhen it came to
the caravanthere was nobody knew anything of the matter; and as
for us that were guiltywe were least of all suspected. However
the captain of the caravan for the time took the hint that the
governor gave usand we travelled two days and two nights without
any considerable stopand then we lay at a village called Plothus:
nor did we make any long stop herebut hastened on towards
Jarawenaanother Muscovite colonyand where we expected we should
be safe. But upon the second day's march from Plothusby the
clouds of dust behind us at a great distanceit was plain we were
pursued. We had entered a vast desertand had passed by a great
lake called Schanks Oserwhen we perceived a large body of horse
appear on the other side of the laketo the northwe travelling
west. We observed they went away westas we didbut had supposed
we would have taken that side of the lakewhereas we very happily
took the south side; and in two days more they disappeared again:
for theybelieving we were still before thempushed on till they
came to the Uddaa very great river when it passes farther north
but when we came to it we found it narrow and fordable.

The third day they had either found their mistakeor had
intelligence of usand came pouring in upon us towards dusk. We
hadto our great satisfactionjust pitched upon a convenient
place for our camp; for as we had just entered upon a desert above
five hundred miles overwhere we had no towns to lodge atand
indeedexpected none but the city Jarawenawhich we had yet two
days' march to; the deserthoweverhad some few woods in it on
this sideand little riverswhich ran all into the great river
Udda; it was in a narrow straitbetween little but very thick
woodsthat we pitched our camp that nightexpecting to be
attacked before morning. As it was usual for the Mogul Tartars to
go about in troops in that desertso the caravans always fortify
themselves every night against themas against armies of robbers;
and it wasthereforeno new thing to be pursued. But we had this
night a most advantageous camp: for as we lay between two woods
with a little rivulet running just before our frontwe could not
be surroundedor attacked any way but in our front or rear. We
took care also to make our front as strong as we couldby placing
our packswith the camels and horsesall in a lineon the inside
of the riverand felling some trees in our rear.

In this posture we encamped for the night; but the enemy was upon
us before we had finished. They did not come on like thievesas
we expectedbut sent three messengers to usto demand the men to
be delivered to them that had abused their priests and burned their
idolthat they might burn them with fire; and upon thisthey
saidthey would go awayand do us no further harmotherwise they
would destroy us all. Our men looked very blank at this message
and began to stare at one another to see who looked with the most
guilt in their faces; but nobody was the word--nobody did it. The
leader of the caravan sent word he was well assured that it was not
done by any of our camp; that we were peaceful merchants
travelling on our business; that we had done no harm to them or to
any one else; and thatthereforethey must look further for the
enemies who had injured themfor we were not the people; so they
desired them not to disturb usfor if they did we should defend

They were far from being satisfied with this for an answer: and a
great crowd of them came running down in the morningby break of
dayto our camp; but seeing us so well postedthey durst come no
farther than the brook in our frontwhere they stood in such
number as to terrify us very much; indeedsome spoke of ten
thousand. Here they stood and looked at us a whileand then

setting up a great howllet fly a crowd of arrows among us; but we
were well enough sheltered under our baggageand I do not remember
that one of us was hurt.

Some time after this we saw them move a little to our rightand
expected them on the rear: when a cunning fellowa Cossack of
Jarawenacalling to the leader of the caravansaid to himI
will send all these people away to Sibeilka.This was a city four
or five days' journey at least to the rightand rather behind us.
So he takes his bow and arrowsand getting on horsebackhe rides
away from our rear directlyas it were back to Nertsinskay; after
this he takes a great circuit aboutand comes directly on the army
of the Tartars as if he had been sent express to tell them a long
story that the people who had burned the Cham Chi-Thaungu were gone
to Sibeilkawith a caravan of miscreantsas he called them--that
is to sayChristians; and that they had resolved to burn the god
Scal-Isarbelonging to the Tonguses. As this fellow was himself a
Tartarand perfectly spoke their languagehe counterfeited so
well that they all believed himand away they drove in a violent
hurry to Sibeilka. In less than three hours they were entirely out
of our sightand we never heard any more of themnor whether they
went to Sibeilka or no. So we passed away safely on to Jarawena
where there was a Russian garrisonand there we rested five days.

From this city we had a frightful desertwhich held us twentythree
days' march. We furnished ourselves with some tents here
for the better accommodating ourselves in the night; and the leader
of the caravan procured sixteen waggons of the countryfor
carrying our water or provisionsand these carriages were our
defence every night round our little camp; so that had the Tartars
appearedunless they had been very numerous indeedthey would not
have been able to hurt us. We may well be supposed to have wanted
rest again after this long journey; for in this desert we neither
saw house nor treeand scarce a bush; though we saw abundance of
the sable-hunterswho are all Tartars of Mogul Tartary; of which
this country is a part; and they frequently attack small caravans
but we saw no numbers of them together.

After we had passed this desert we came into a country pretty well
inhabited--that is to saywe found towns and castlessettled by
the Czar with garrisons of stationary soldiersto protect the
caravans and defend the country against the Tartarswho would
otherwise make it very dangerous travelling; and his czarish
majesty has given such strict orders for the well guarding the
caravansthatif there are any Tartars heard of in the country
detachments of the garrison are always sent to see the travellers
safe from station to station. Thus the governor of Adinskoywhom
I had an opportunity to make a visit toby means of the Scots
merchantwho was acquainted with himoffered us a guard of fifty
menif we thought there was any dangerto the next station.

I thoughtlong before thisthat as we came nearer to Europe we
should find the country better inhabitedand the people more
civilised; but I found myself mistaken in both: for we had yet the
nation of the Tonguses to pass throughwhere we saw the same
tokens of paganism and barbarity as before; onlyas they were
conquered by the Muscovitesthey were not so dangerousbut for
rudeness of manners and idolatry no people in the world ever went
beyond them. They are all clothed in skins of beastsand their
houses are built of the same; you know not a man from a woman
neither by the ruggedness of their countenances nor their clothes;
and in the winterwhen the ground is covered with snowthey live
underground in vaultswhich have cavities going from one to
another. If the Tartars had their Cham Chi-Thaungu for a whole

village or countrythese had idols in every hut and every cave.
This countryI reckonwasfrom the desert I spoke of lastat
least four hundred mileshalf of it being another desertwhich
took us up twelve days' severe travellingwithout house or tree;
and we were obliged again to carry our own provisionsas well
water as bread. After we were out of this desert and had travelled
two dayswe came to Janezaya Muscovite city or stationon the
great river Janezaywhichthey told us thereparted Europe from

All the country between the river Oby and the river Janezay is as
entirely paganand the people as barbarousas the remotest of the
Tartars. I also foundwhich I observed to the Muscovite governors
whom I had an opportunity to converse withthat the poor pagans
are not much wiseror nearer Christianityfor being under the
Muscovite governmentwhich they acknowledged was true enough--but
thatas they saidwas none of their business; that if the Czar
expected to convert his SiberianTonguseor Tartar subjectsit
should be done by sending clergymen among themnot soldiers; and
they addedwith more sincerity than I expectedthat it was not so
much the concern of their monarch to make the people Christians as
to make them subjects.

From this river to the Oby we crossed a wild uncultivated country
barren of people and good managementotherwise it is in itself a
pleasantfruitfuland agreeable country. What inhabitants we
found in it are all pagansexcept such as are sent among them from
Russia; for this is the country--I mean on both sides the river
Oby--whither the Muscovite criminals that are not put to death are
banishedand from whence it is next to impossible they should ever
get away. I have nothing material to say of my particular affairs
till I came to Tobolskithe capital city of Siberiawhere I
continued some time on the following account.

We had now been almost seven months on our journeyand winter
began to come on apace; whereupon my partner and I called a council
about our particular affairsin which we found it properas we
were bound for Englandto consider how to dispose of ourselves.
They told us of sledges and reindeer to carry us over the snow in
the winter timeby which meansindeedthe Russians travel more
in winter than they can in summeras in these sledges they are
able to run night and day: the snowbeing frozenis one
universal covering to natureby which the hillsvalesrivers
and lakes are all smooth and hard is a stoneand they run upon the
surfacewithout any regard to what is underneath.

But I had no occasion to urge a winter journey of this kind. I was
bound to Englandnot to Moscowand my route lay two ways: either
I must go on as the caravan wenttill I came to Jarislawand then
go off west for Narva and the Gulf of Finlandand so on to
Dantzicwhere I might possibly sell my China cargo to good
advantage; or I must leave the caravan at a little town on the
Dwinafrom whence I had but six days by water to Archangeland
from thence might be sure of shipping either to EnglandHolland
or Hamburg.

Nowto go any one of these journeys in the winter would have been
preposterous; for as to Dantzicthe Baltic would have been frozen
up and I could not get passage; and to go by land in those
countries was far less safe than among the Mogul Tartars; likewise
as to Archangel in Octoberall the ships would be gone from
thenceand even the merchants who dwell there in summer retire
south to Moscow in the winterwhen the ships are gone; so that I
could have nothing but extremity of cold to encounterwith a

scarcity of provisionsand must lie in an empty town all the
winter. Thereforeupon the wholeI thought it much my better way
to let the caravan goand make provision to winter where I wasat
Tobolskiin Siberiain the latitude of about sixty degreeswhere
I was sure of three things to wear out a cold winter withviz.
plenty of provisionssuch as the country affordeda warm house
with fuel enoughand excellent company.

I was now in quite a different climate from my beloved island
where I never felt coldexcept when I had my ague; on the
contraryI had much to do to bear any clothes on my backand
never made any fire but without doorswhich was necessary for
dressing my food&c. Now I had three good vestswith large robes
or gowns over themto hang down to the feetand button close to
the wrists; and all these lined with fursto make them
sufficiently warm. As to a warm houseI must confess I greatly
dislike our way in England of making fires in every room of the
house in open chimneyswhichwhen the fire is outalways keeps
the air in the room cold as the climate. So I took an apartment in
a good house in the townand ordered a chimney to be built like a
furnacein the centre of six several roomslike a stove; the
funnel to carry the smoke went up one waythe door to come at the
fire went in anotherand all the rooms were kept equally warmbut
no fire seenjust as they heat baths in England. By this means we
had always the same climate in all the roomsand an equal heat was
preservedand yet we saw no firenor were ever incommoded with

The most wonderful thing of all wasthat it should be possible to
meet with good company herein a country so barbarous as this--one
of the most northerly parts of Europe. But this being the country
where the state criminals of Muscovyas I observed beforeare all
banishedthe city was full of Russian noblemengentlemen
soldiersand courtiers. Here was the famous Prince Galitzinthe
old German Robostiskiand several other persons of noteand some
ladies. By means of my Scotch merchantwhomneverthelessI
parted with hereI made an acquaintance with several of these
gentlemen; and from thesein the long winter nights in which I
stayed hereI received several very agreeable visits.


It was talking one night with a certain princeone of the banished
ministers of state belonging to the Czarthat the discourse of my
particular case began. He had been telling me abundance of fine
things of the greatnessthe magnificencethe dominionsand the
absolute power of the Emperor of the Russians: I interrupted him
and told him I was a greater and more powerful prince than ever the
Czar wasthough my dominion were not so largeor my people so
many. The Russian grandee looked a little surprisedandfixing
his eyes steadily upon mebegan to wonder what I meant. I said
his wonder would cease when I had explained myselfand told him
the story at large of my living in the island; and then how I
managed both myself and the people that were under mejust as I
have since minuted it down. They were exceedingly taken with the
storyand especially the princewho told mewith a sighthat
the true greatness of life was to be masters of ourselves; that he
would not have exchanged such a state of life as mine to be Czar of
Muscovy; and that he found more felicity in the retirement he
seemed to be banished to therethan ever he found in the highest

authority he enjoyed in the court of his master the Czar; that the
height of human wisdom was to bring our tempers down to our
circumstancesand to make a calm withinunder the weight of the
greatest storms without. When he came first hitherhe saidhe
used to tear the hair from his headand the clothes from his back
as others had done before him; but a little time and consideration
had made him look into himselfas well as round him to things
without; that he found the mind of manif it was but once brought
to reflect upon the state of universal lifeand how little this
world was concerned in its true felicitywas perfectly capable of
making a felicity for itselffully satisfying to itselfand
suitable to its own best ends and desireswith but very little
assistance from the world. That being now deprived of all the
fancied felicity which he enjoyed in the full exercise of worldly
pleasureshe said he was at leisure to look upon the dark side of
themwhere he found all manner of deformity; and was now convinced
that virtue only makes a man truly wiserichand greatand
preserves him in the way to a superior happiness in a future state;
and in thishe saidthey were more happy in their banishment than
all their enemies werewho had the full possession of all the
wealth and power they had left behind them. "Norsir says he,
do I bring my mind to this politicallyfrom the necessity of my
circumstanceswhich some call miserable; butif I know anything
of myselfI would not now go backthough the Czar my master
should call meand reinstate me in all my former grandeur."

He spoke this with so much warmth in his temperso much
earnestness and motion of his spiritsthat it was evident it was
the true sense of his soul; there was no room to doubt his
sincerity. I told him I once thought myself a kind of monarch in
my old stationof which I had given him an account; but that I
thought he was not only a monarchbut a great conqueror; for he
that had got a victory over his own exorbitant desiresand the
absolute dominion over himselfhe whose reason entirely governs
his willis certainly greater than he that conquers a city.

I had been here eight monthsand a darkdreadful winter I thought
it; the cold so intense that I could not so much as look abroad
without being wrapped in fursand a kind of mask of fur before my
facewith only a hole for breathand two for sight: the little
daylight we had was for three months not above five hours a day
and six at most; only that the snow lying on the ground
continuallyand the weather being clearit was never quite dark.
Our horses were keptor rather starvedunderground; and as for
our servantswhom we hired here to look after ourselves and
horseswe hadevery now and thentheir fingers and toes to thaw
and take care oflest they should mortify and fall off.

It is truewithin doors we were warmthe houses being closethe
walls thickthe windows smalland the glass all double. Our food
was chiefly the flesh of deerdried and cured in the season; bread
good enoughbut baked as biscuits; dried fish of several sorts
and some flesh of muttonand of buffaloeswhich is pretty good
meat. All the stores of provisions for the winter are laid up in
the summerand well cured: our drink was watermixed with aqua
vitae instead of brandy; and for a treatmead instead of wine
whichhoweverthey have very good. The hunterswho venture
abroad all weathersfrequently brought us in fine venisonand
sometimes bear's fleshbut we did not much care for the last. We
had a good stock of teawith which we treated our friendsand we
lived cheerfully and wellall things considered.

It was now Marchthe days grown considerably longerand the
weather at least tolerable; so the other travellers began to

prepare sledges to carry them over the snowand to get things
ready to be going; but my measures being fixedas I have saidfor
Archangeland not for Muscovy or the BalticI made no motion;
knowing very well that the ships from the south do not set out for
that part of the world till May or Juneand that if I was there by
the beginning of Augustit would be as soon as any ships would be
ready to sail. Therefore I made no haste to be goneas others
did: in a wordI saw a great many peoplenayall the
travellersgo away before me. It seems every year they go from
thence to Muscovyfor tradeto carry fursand buy necessaries
which they bring back with them to furnish their shops: also
others went on the same errand to Archangel.

In the month of May I began to make all ready to pack up; andas I
was doing thisit occurred to me thatseeing all these people
were banished by the Czar to Siberiaand yetwhen they came
therewere left at liberty to go whither they wouldwhy they did
not then go away to any part of the worldwherever they thought
fit: and I began to examine what should hinder them from making
such an attempt. But my wonder was over when I entered upon that
subject with the person I have mentionedwho answered me thus:
Consider, first, sir,said hethe place where we are; and,
secondly, the condition we are in; especially the generality of the
people who are banished thither. We are surrounded with stronger
things than bars or bolts; on the north side, an unnavigable ocean,
where ship never sailed, and boat never swam; every other way we
have above a thousand miles to pass through the Czar's own
dominion, and by ways utterly impassable, except by the roads made
by the government, and through the towns garrisoned by his troops;
in short, we could neither pass undiscovered by the road, nor
subsist any other way, so that it is in vain to attempt it.

I was silenced at onceand found that they were in a prison every
jot as secure as if they had been locked up in the castle at
Moscow: howeverit came into my thoughts that I might certainly
be made an instrument to procure the escape of this excellent
person; and thatwhatever hazard I ranI would certainly try if I
could carry him off. Upon thisI took an occasion one evening to
tell him my thoughts. I represented to him that it was very easy
for me to carry him awaythere being no guard over him in the
country; and as I was not going to Moscowbut to Archangeland
that I went in the retinue of a caravanby which I was not obliged
to lie in the stationary towns in the desertbut could encamp
every night where I wouldwe might easily pass uninterrupted to
Archangelwhere I would immediately secure him on board an English
shipand carry him safe along with me; and as to his subsistence
and other particularsit should be my care till he could better
supply himself.

He heard me very attentivelyand looked earnestly on me all the
while I spoke; nayI could see in his very face that what I said
put his spirits into an exceeding ferment; his colour frequently
changedhis eyes looked redand his heart flutteredtill it
might be even perceived in his countenance; nor could he
immediately answer me when I had doneandas it werehesitated
what he would say to it; but after he had paused a littlehe
embraced meand saidHow unhappy are we, unguarded creatures as
we are, that even our greatest acts of friendship are made snares
unto us, and we are made tempters of one another!He then
heartily thanked me for my offers of servicebut withstood
resolutely the arguments I used to urge him to set himself free.
He declaredin earnest termsthat he was fully bent on remaining
where he was rather than seek to return to his former miserable
greatnessas he called it: where the seeds of prideambition

avariceand luxury might revivetake rootand again overwhelm
him. "Let me remaindear sir he said, in conclusion--let me
remain in this blessed confinementbanished from the crimes of
liferather than purchase a show of freedom at the expense of the
liberty of my reasonand at the future happiness which I now have
in my viewbut should thenI fearquickly lose sight of; for I
am but flesh; a mana mere man; and have passions and affections
as likely to possess and overthrow me as any man: Ohbe not my
friend and tempter both together!"

If I was surprised beforeI was quite dumb nowand stood silent
looking at himandindeedadmiring what I saw. The struggle in
his soul was so great thatthough the weather was extremely cold
it put him into a most violent heat; so I said a word or twothat
I would leave him to consider of itand wait on him againand
then I withdrew to my own apartment.

About two hours after I heard somebody at or near the door of my
roomand I was going to open the doorbut he had opened it and
come in. "My dear friend says he, you had almost overset me
but I am recovered. Do not take it ill that I do not close with
your offer. I assure you it is not for want of sense of the
kindness of it in you; and I came to make the most sincere
acknowledgment of it to you; but I hope I have got the victory over
myself."--"My lord said I, I hope you are fully satisfied that
you do not resist the call of Heaven."--"Sir said he, if it had
been from Heaventhe same power would have influenced me to have
accepted it; but I hopeand am fully satisfiedthat it is from
Heaven that I decline itand I have infinite satisfaction in the
partingthat you shall leave me an honest man stillthough not a
free man."

I had nothing to do but to acquiesceand make professions to him
of my having no end in it but a sincere desire to serve him. He
embraced me very passionatelyand assured me he was sensible of
thatand should always acknowledge it; and with that he offered me
a very fine present of sables--too muchindeedfor me to accept
from a man in his circumstancesand I would have avoided thembut
he would not be refused. The next morning I sent my servant to his
lordship with a small present of teaand two pieces of China
damaskand four little wedges of Japan goldwhich did not all
weigh above six ounces or thereaboutsbut were far short of the
value of his sableswhichwhen I came to EnglandI found worth
near two hundred pounds. He accepted the teaand one piece of the
damaskand one of the pieces of goldwhich had a fine stamp upon
itof the Japan coinagewhich I found he took for the rarity of
itbut would not take any more: and he sent word by my servant
that he desired to speak with me.

When I came to him he told me I knew what had passed between us
and hoped I would not move him any more in that affair; but that
since I had made such a generous offer to himhe asked me if I had
kindness enough to offer the same to another person that he would
name to mein whom he had a great share of concern. In a wordhe
told me it was his only son; whothough I had not seen himwas in
the same condition with himselfand above two hundred miles from
himon the other side of the Oby; but thatif I consentedhe
would send for him.

I made no hesitationbut told him I would do it. I made some
ceremony in letting him understand that it was wholly on his
account; and thatseeing I could not prevail on himI would show
my respect to him by my concern for his son. He sent the next day
for his son; and in about twenty days he came back with the

messengerbringing six or seven horsesloaded with very rich
furswhichin the wholeamounted to a very great value. His
servants brought the horses into the townbut left the young lord
at a distance till nightwhen he came incognito into our
apartmentand his father presented him to me; andin shortwe
concerted the manner of our travellingand everything proper for
the journey.

I had bought a considerable quantity of sablesblack fox-skins
fine erminesand such other furs as are very rich in that cityin
exchange for some of the goods I had brought from China; in
particular for the cloves and nutmegsof which I sold the greatest
part hereand the rest afterwards at Archangelfor a much better
price than I could have got at London; and my partnerwho was
sensible of the profitand whose businessmore particularly than
minewas merchandisewas mightily pleased with our stayon
account of the traffic we made here.

It was the beginning of June when I left this remote place. We
were now reduced to a very small caravanhaving only thirty-two
horses and camels in allwhich passed for minethough my new
guest was proprietor of eleven of them. It was natural also that I
should take more servants with me than I had before; and the young
lord passed for my steward; what great man I passed for myself I
know notneither did it concern me to inquire. We had here the
worst and the largest desert to pass over that we met with in our
whole journey; I call it the worstbecause the way was very deep
in some placesand very uneven in others; the best we had to say
for it wasthat we thought we had no troops of Tartars or robbers
to fearas they never came on this side of the river Obyor at
least very seldom; but we found it otherwise.

My young lord had a faithful Siberian servantwho was perfectly
acquainted with the countryand led us by private roadsso that
we avoided coming into the principal towns and cities upon the
great roadsuch as TumenSoloy Kamaskoyand several others;
because the Muscovite garrisons which are kept there are very
curious and strict in their observation upon travellersand
searching lest any of the banished persons of note should make
their escape that way into Muscovy; butby this meansas we were
kept out of the citiesso our whole journey was a desertand we
were obliged to encamp and lie in our tentswhen we might have had
very good accommodation in the cities on the way; this the young
lord was so sensible ofthat he would not allow us to lie abroad
when we came to several cities on the waybut lay abroad himself
with his servantin the woodsand met us always at the appointed

We had just entered Europehaving passed the river Kamawhich in
these parts is the boundary between Europe and Asiaand the first
city on the European side was called Soloy Kamaskoythat isthe
great city on the river Kama. And here we thought to see some
evident alteration in the people; but we were mistakenfor as we
had a vast desert to passwhich is near seven hundred miles long
in some placesbut not above two hundred miles over where we
passed itsotill we came past that horrible placewe found very
little difference between that country and Mogul Tartary. The
people are mostly pagans; their houses and towns full of idols; and
their way of living wholly barbarousexcept in the cities and
villages near themwhere they are Christiansas they call
themselvesof the Greek Church: but have their religion mingled
with so many relics of superstitionthat it is scarce to be known
in some places from mere sorcery and witchcraft.

In passing this forest (after all our dangers wereto our
imaginationescaped)I thoughtindeedwe must have been
plundered and robbedand perhaps murderedby a troop of thieves:
of what country they were I am yet at a loss to know; but they were
all on horsebackcarried bows and arrowsand were at first about
forty-five in number. They came so near to us as to be within two
musket-shotandasking no questionssurrounded us with their
horsesand looked very earnestly upon us twice; at lengththey
placed themselves just in our way; upon which we drew up in a
little linebefore our camelsbeing not above sixteen men in all.
Thus drawn upwe haltedand sent out the Siberian servantwho
attended his lordto see who they were; his master was the more
willing to let him gobecause he was not a little apprehensive
that they were a Siberian troop sent out after him. The man came
up near them with a flag of truceand called to them; but though
he spoke several of their languagesor dialects of languages
ratherhe could not understand a word they said; howeverafter
some signs to him not to come near them at his perilthe fellow
came back no wiser than he went; only that by their dresshe said
he believed them to be some Tartars of Kalmuckor of the
Circassian hordesand that there must be more of them upon the
great desertthough he never heard that any of them were seen so
far north before.

This was small comfort to us; howeverwe had no remedy: there was
on our left handat about a quarter of a mile distancea little
groveand very near the road. I immediately resolved we should
advance to those treesand fortify ourselves as well as we could
there; forfirstI considered that the trees would in a great
measure cover us from their arrows; andin the next placethey
could not come to charge us in a body: it wasindeedmy old
Portuguese pilot who proposed itand who had this excellency
attending himthat he was always readiest and most apt to direct
and encourage us in cases of the most danger. We advanced
immediatelywith what speed we couldand gained that little wood;
the Tartarsor thievesfor we knew not what to call themkeeping
their standand not attempting to hinder us. When we came
thitherwe foundto our great satisfactionthat it was a swampy
piece of groundand on the one side a very great spring of water
whichrunning out in a little brookwas a little farther joined
by another of the like size; and wasin shortthe source of a
considerable rivercalled afterwards the Wirtska; the trees which
grew about this spring were not above two hundredbut very large
and stood pretty thickso that as soon as we got inwe saw
ourselves perfectly safe from the enemy unless they attacked us on

While we stayed here waiting the motion of the enemy some hours
without perceiving that they made any movementour Portuguese
with some helpcut several arms of trees half offand laid them
hanging across from one tree to anotherand in a manner fenced us
in. About two hours before night they came down directly upon us;
and though we had not perceived itwe found they had been joined
by some moreso that they were near fourscore horse; whereof
howeverwe fancied some were women. They came on till they were
within half-shot of our little woodwhen we fired one musket
without balland called to them in the Russian tongue to know what
they wantedand bade them keep off; but they came on with a double
fury up to the wood-sidenot imagining we were so barricaded that
they could not easily break in. Our old pilot was our captain as
well as our engineerand desired us not to fire upon them till
they came within pistol-shotthat we might be sure to killand
that when we did fire we should be sure to take good aim; we bade
him give the word of commandwhich he delayed so long that they

were some of them within two pikes' length of us when we let fly.
We aimed so true that we killed fourteen of themand wounded
several othersas also several of their horses; for we had all of
us loaded our pieces with two or three bullets apiece at least.

They were terribly surprised with our fireand retreated
immediately about one hundred rods from us; in which time we loaded
our pieces againand seeing them keep that distancewe sallied
outand caught four or five of their horseswhose riders we
supposed were killed; and coming up to the deadwe judged they
were Tartarsbut knew not how they came to make an excursion such
an unusual length.

About an hour after they again made a motion to attack usand rode
round our little wood to see where they might break in; but finding
us always ready to face themthey went off again; and we resolved
not to stir for that night.

We slept littlebut spent the most part of the night in
strengthening our situationand barricading the entrances into the
woodand keeping a strict watch. We waited for daylightand when
it cameit gave us a very unwelcome discovery indeed; for the
enemywho we thought were discouraged with the reception they met
withwere now greatly increasedand had set up eleven or twelve
huts or tentsas if they were resolved to besiege us; and this
little camp they had pitched upon the open plainabout threequarters
of a mile from us. I confess I now gave myself over for
lostand all that I had; the loss of my effects did not lie so
near methough very considerableas the thoughts of falling into
the hands of such barbarians at the latter end of my journeyafter
so many difficulties and hazards as I had gone throughand even in
sight of our portwhere we expected safety and deliverance. As to
my partnerhe was ragingand declared that to lose his goods
would be his ruinand that he would rather die than be starved
and he was for fighting to the last drop.

The young lorda most gallant youthwas for fighting to the last
also; and my old pilot was of opinion that we were able to resist
them all in the situation we were then in. Thus we spent the day
in debates of what we should do; but towards evening we found that
the number of our enemies still increasedand we did not know but
by the morning they might still be a greater number: so I began to
inquire of those people we had brought from Tobolski if there were
no private ways by which we might avoid them in the nightand
perhaps retreat to some townor get help to guard us over the
desert. The young lord's Siberian servant told usif we designed
to avoid themand not fighthe would engage to carry us off in
the nightto a way that went northtowards the river Petruzby
which he made no question but we might get awayand the Tartars
never discover it; buthe saidhis lord had told him he would not
retreatbut would rather choose to fight. I told him he mistook
his lord: for that he was too wise a man to love fighting for the
sake of it; that I knew he was brave enough by what he had showed
already; but that he knew better than to desire seventeen or
eighteen men to fight five hundredunless an unavoidable necessity
forced them to it; and that if he thought it possible for us to
escape in the nightwe had nothing else to do but to attempt it.
He answeredif his lordship gave him such ordershe would lose
his life if he did not perform it; we soon brought his lord to give
that orderthough privatelyand we immediately prepared for
putting it in practice.

And firstas soon as it began to be darkwe kindled a fire in our
little campwhich we kept burningand prepared so as to make it

burn all nightthat the Tartars might conclude we were still
there; but as soon as it was darkand we could see the stars (for
our guide would not stir before)having all our horses and camels
ready loadedwe followed our new guidewho I soon found steered
himself by the north starthe country being level for a long way.

After we had travelled two hours very hardit began to be lighter
still; not that it was dark all nightbut the moon began to rise
so thatin shortit was rather lighter than we wished it to be;
but by six o'clock the next morning we had got above thirty miles
having almost spoiled our horses. Here we found a Russian village
named Kermazinskoywhere we restedand heard nothing of the
Kalmuck Tartars that day. About two hours before night we set out
againand travelled till eight the next morningthough not quite
so hard as before; and about seven o'clock we passed a little
rivercalled Kirtzaand came to a good large town inhabited by
Russianscalled Ozomys; there we heard that several troops of
Kalmucks had been abroad upon the desertbut that we were now
completely out of danger of themwhich was to our great
satisfaction. Here we were obliged to get some fresh horsesand
having need enough of restwe stayed five days; and my partner and
I agreed to give the honest Siberian who conducted us thither the
value of ten pistoles.

In five days more we came to Veussimaupon the river Witzogdaand
running into the Dwina: we were therevery happilynear the end
of our travels by landthat river being navigablein seven days'
passageto Archangel. From hence we came to Lawremskoythe 3rd
of July; and providing ourselves with two luggage boatsand a
barge for our own conveniencewe embarked the 7thand arrived all
safe at Archangel the 18th; having been a yearfive monthsand
three days on the journeyincluding our stay of about eight months
at Tobolski.

We were obliged to stay at this place six weeks for the arrival of
the shipsand must have tarried longerhad not a Hamburgher come
in above a month sooner than any of the English ships; whenafter
some consideration that the city of Hamburgh might happen to be as
good a market for our goods as Londonwe all took freight with
him; andhaving put our goods on boardit was most natural for me
to put my steward on board to take care of them; by which means my
young lord had a sufficient opportunity to conceal himselfnever
coming on shore again all the time we stayed there; and this he did
that he might not be seen in the citywhere some of the Moscow
merchants would certainly have seen and discovered him.

We then set sail from Archangel the 20th of Augustthe same year;
andafter no extraordinary bad voyagearrived safe in the Elbe
the 18th of September. Here my partner and I found a very good
sale for our goodsas well those of China as the sables&c.of
Siberia: anddividing the producemy share amounted to 3475
pounds17s 3d.including about six hundred pounds' worth of
diamondswhich I purchased at Bengal.

Here the young lord took his leave of usand went up the Elbein
order to go to the court of Viennawhere he resolved to seek
protection and could correspond with those of his father's friends
who were left alive. He did not part without testimonials of
gratitude for the service I had done himand for my kindness to
the princehis father.

To conclude: having stayed near four months in HamburghI came
from thence by land to the Haguewhere I embarked in the packet
and arrived in London the 10th of January 1705having been absent

from England ten years and nine months. And hereresolving to
harass myself no moreI am preparing for a longer journey than all
thesehaving lived seventy-two years a life of infinite variety
and learned sufficiently to know the value of retirementand the
blessing of ending our days in peace.