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by Miguel de Cervantes
Translated by John Ormsby


It was with considerable reluctance that I abandoned in favour of
the present undertaking what had long been a favourite project: that
of a new edition of Shelton's "Don Quixote which has now become a
somewhat scarce book. There are some- and I confess myself to be
one- for whom Shelton's racy old version, with all its defects, has
a charm that no modern translation, however skilful or correct,
could possess. Shelton had the inestimable advantage of belonging to
the same generation as Cervantes; Don Quixote" had to him a
vitality that only a contemporary could feel; it cost him no
dramatic effort to see things as Cervantes saw them; there is no
anachronism in his language; he put the Spanish of Cervantes into
the English of Shakespeare. Shakespeare himself most likely knew the
book; he may have carried it home with him in his saddle-bags to
Stratford on one of his last journeysand under the mulberry tree
at New Place joined hands with a kindred genius in its pages.

But it was soon made plain to me that to hope for even a moderate
popularity for Shelton was vain. His fine old crusted English would
no doubtbe relished by a minoritybut it would be only by a
minority. His warmest admirers must admit that he is not a
satisfactory representative of Cervantes. His translation of the First
Part was very hastily made and was never revised by him. It has all
the freshness and vigourbut also a full measure of the faultsof
a hasty production. It is often very literal- barbarously literal
frequently- but just as often very loose. He had evidently a good
colloquial knowledge of Spanishbut apparently not much more. It
never seems to occur to him that the same translation of a word will
not suit in every case.

It is often said that we have no satisfactory translation of "Don
Quixote." To those who are familiar with the originalit savours of
truism or platitude to say sofor in truth there can be no thoroughly
satisfactory translation of "Don Quixote" into English or any other
language. It is not that the Spanish idioms are so utterly
unmanageableor that the untranslatable wordsnumerous enough no
doubtare so superabundantbut rather that the sententious terseness
to which the humour of the book owes its flavour is peculiar to
Spanishand can at best be only distantly imitated in any other

The history of our English translations of "Don Quixote" is
instructive. Shelton'sthe first in any languagewas made
apparentlyabout 1608but not published till 1612. This of course
was only the First Part. It has been asserted that the Second
published in 1620is not the work of Sheltonbut there is nothing to
support the assertion save the fact that it has less spiritless of

what we generally understand by "go about it than the first, which
would be only natural if the first were the work of a young man
writing currente calamo, and the second that of a middle-aged man
writing for a bookseller. On the other hand, it is closer and more
literal, the style is the same, the very same translations, or
mistranslations, occur in it, and it is extremely unlikely that a
new translator would, by suppressing his name, have allowed Shelton to
carry off the credit.

In 1687 John Phillips, Milton's nephew, produced a Don Quixote"
made English,he saysaccording to the humour of our modern
language.His "Quixote" is not so much a translation as a travesty
and a travesty that for coarsenessvulgarityand buffoonery is
almost unexampled even in the literature of that day.

Ned Ward's "Life and Notable Adventures of Don Quixotemerrily
translated into Hudibrastic Verse" (1700)can scarcely be reckoned
a translationbut it serves to show the light in which "Don
Quixote" was regarded at the time.

A further illustration may be found in the version published in 1712
by Peter Motteuxwho had then recently combined tea-dealing with
literature. It is described as "translated from the original by
several hands but if so all Spanish flavour has entirely
evaporated under the manipulation of the several hands. The flavour
that it has, on the other hand, is distinctly Franco-cockney. Anyone
who compares it carefully with the original will have little doubt
that it is a concoction from Shelton and the French of Filleau de
Saint Martin, eked out by borrowings from Phillips, whose mode of
treatment it adopts. It is, to be sure, more decent and decorous,
but it treats Don Quixote" in the same fashion as a comic book that
cannot be made too comic.

To attempt to improve the humour of "Don Quixote" by an infusion
of cockney flippancy and facetiousnessas Motteux's operators didis
not merely an impertinence like larding a sirloin of prize beefbut
an absolute falsification of the spirit of the bookand it is a proof
of the uncritical way in which "Don Quixote" is generally read that
this worse than worthless translation -worthless as failing to
representworse than worthless as misrepresenting- should have been
favoured as it has been.

It had the effecthoweverof bringing out a translation undertaken
and executed in a very different spiritthat of Charles Jervasthe
portrait painterand friend of PopeSwiftArbuthnotand Gay.
Jervas has been allowed little credit for his workindeed it may be
said nonefor it is known to the world in general as Jarvis's. It was
not published until after his deathand the printers gave the name
according to the current pronunciation of the day. It has been the
most freely used and the most freely abused of all the translations.
It has seen far more editions than any otherit is admitted on all
hands to be by far the most faithfuland yet nobody seems to have a
good word to say for it or for its author. Jervas no doubt
prejudiced readers against himself in his prefacewhere among many
true words about SheltonStevensand Motteuxhe rashly and unjustly
charges Shelton with having translated not from the Spanishbut
from the Italian version of Franciosiniwhich did not appear until
ten years after Shelton's first volume. A suspicion of incompetence
tooseems to have attached to him because he was by profession a
painter and a mediocre one (though he has given us the best portrait
we have of Swift)and this may have been strengthened by Pope's
remark that he "translated 'Don Quixote' without understanding
Spanish." He has been also charged with borrowing from Sheltonwhom
he disparaged. It is true that in a few difficult or obscure

passages he has followed Sheltonand gone astray with him; but for
one case of this sortthere are fifty where he is right and Shelton
wrong. As for Pope's dictumanyone who examines Jervas's version
carefullyside by side with the originalwill see that he was a
sound Spanish scholarincomparably a better one than Shelton
except perhaps in mere colloquial Spanish. He wasin factan honest
faithfuland painstaking translatorand he has left a version which
whatever its shortcomings may beis singularly free from errors and

The charge against it is that it is stiffdry- "wooden" in a wordand
no one can deny that there is a foundation for it. But it may be
pleaded for Jervas that a good deal of this rigidity is due to his
abhorrence of the lightflippantjocose style of his predecessors.
He was one of the fewvery fewtranslators that have shown any
apprehension of the unsmiling gravity which is the essence of Quixotic
humour; it seemed to him a crime to bring Cervantes forward smirking
and grinning at his own good thingsand to this may be attributed
in a great measure the ascetic abstinence from everything savouring of
liveliness which is the characteristic of his translation. In most
modern editionsit should be observedhis style has been smoothed
and smartenedbut without any reference to the original Spanishso
that if he has been made to read more agreeably he has also been
robbed of his chief merit of fidelity.

Smollett's versionpublished in 1755may be almost counted as
one of these. At any rate it is plain that in its construction
Jervas's translation was very freely drawn uponand very little or
probably no heed given to the original Spanish.

The later translations may be dismissed in a few words. George
Kelly'swhich appeared in 1769printed for the Translator,was
an impudent imposturebeing nothing more than Motteux's version
with a few of the wordshere and thereartfully transposed;
Charles Wilmot's (1774) was only an abridgment like Florian'sbut not
so skilfully executed; and the version published by Miss Smirke in
1818to accompany her brother's plateswas merely a patchwork
production made out of former translations. On the latestMr. A. J.
Duffield'sit would be in every sense of the word impertinent in me
to offer an opinion here. I had not even seen it when the present
undertaking was proposed to meand since then I may say vidi
tantumhaving for obvious reasons resisted the temptation which Mr.
Duffield's reputation and comely volumes hold out to every lover of

From the foregoing history of our translations of "Don Quixote
it will be seen that there are a good many people who, provided they
get the mere narrative with its full complement of facts, incidents,
and adventures served up to them in a form that amuses them, care very
little whether that form is the one in which Cervantes originally
shaped his ideas. On the other hand, it is clear that there are many
who desire to have not merely the story he tells, but the story as
he tells it, so far at least as differences of idiom and circumstances
permit, and who will give a preference to the conscientious
translator, even though he may have acquitted himself somewhat

But after all there is no real antagonism between the two classes;
there is no reason why what pleases the one should not please the
other, or why a translator who makes it his aim to treat Don Quixote"
with the respect due to a great classicshould not be as acceptable
even to the careless reader as the one who treats it as a famous old
jest-book. It is not a question of caviare to the generalorif it
isthe fault rests with him who makes so. The method by which

Cervantes won the ear of the Spanish people oughtmutatis mutandis
to be equally effective with the great majority of English readers. At
any rateeven if there are readers to whom it is a matter of
indifferencefidelity to the method is as much a part of the
translator's duty as fidelity to the matter. If he can please all
partiesso much the better; but his first duty is to those who look
to him for as faithful a representation of his author as it is in
his power to give themfaithful to the letter so long as fidelity
is practicablefaithful to the spirit so far as he can make it.

My purpose here is not to dogmatise on the rules of translationbut
to indicate those I have followedor at least tried to the best of my
ability to followin the present instance. One whichit seems to me
cannot be too rigidly followed in translating "Don Quixote is to
avoid everything that savours of affectation. The book itself is,
indeed, in one sense a protest against it, and no man abhorred it more
than Cervantes. For this reason, I think, any temptation to use
antiquated or obsolete language should be resisted. It is after all an
affectation, and one for which there is no warrant or excuse.
Spanish has probably undergone less change since the seventeenth
century than any language in Europe, and by far the greater and
certainly the best part of Don Quixote" differs but little in
language from the colloquial Spanish of the present day. Except in the
tales and Don Quixote's speechesthe translator who uses the simplest
and plainest everyday language will almost always be the one who
approaches nearest to the original.

Seeing that the story of "Don Quixote" and all its characters and
incidents have now been for more than two centuries and a half
familiar as household words in English mouthsit seems to me that the
old familiar names and phrases should not be changed without good
reason. Of course a translator who holds that "Don Quixote" should
receive the treatment a great classic deserveswill feel himself
bound by the injunction laid upon the Morisco in Chap. IX not to
omit or add anything.

Four generations had laughed over "Don Quixote" before it occurred
to anyone to askwho and what manner of man was this Miguel de
Cervantes Saavedra whose name is on the title-page; and it was too
late for a satisfactory answer to the question when it was proposed to
add a life of the author to the London edition published at Lord
Carteret's instance in 1738. All traces of the personality of
Cervantes had by that time disappeared. Any floating traditions that
may once have existedtransmitted from men who had known himhad
long since died outand of other record there was none; for the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were incurious as to "the men of
the time a reproach against which the nineteenth has, at any rate,
secured itself, if it has produced no Shakespeare or Cervantes. All
that Mayans y Siscar, to whom the task was entrusted, or any of
those who followed him, Rios, Pellicer, or Navarrete, could do was
to eke out the few allusions Cervantes makes to himself in his various
prefaces with such pieces of documentary evidence bearing upon his
life as they could find.

This, however, has been done by the last-named biographer to such
good purpose that he has superseded all predecessors. Thoroughness
is the chief characteristic of Navarrete's work. Besides sifting,
testing, and methodising with rare patience and judgment what had been
previously brought to light, he left, as the saying is, no stone
unturned under which anything to illustrate his subject might possibly

be found. Navarrete has done all that industry and acumen could do,
and it is no fault of his if he has not given us what we want. What
Hallam says of Shakespeare may be applied to the almost parallel
case of Cervantes: It is not the register of his baptismor the
draft of his willor the orthography of his name that we seek; no
letter of his writingno record of his conversationno character
of him drawn ... by a contemporary has been produced."

It is only naturalthereforethat the biographers of Cervantes
forced to make brick without strawshould have recourse largely to
conjectureand that conjecture should in some instances come by
degrees to take the place of established fact. All that I propose to
do here is to separate what is matter of fact from what is matter of
conjectureand leave it to the reader's judgment to decide whether
the data justify the inference or not.

The men whose names by common consent stand in the front rank of
Spanish literatureCervantesLope de VegaQuevedoCalderon
Garcilaso de la Vegathe MendozasGongorawere all men of ancient
familiesandcuriouslyallexcept the lastof families that
traced their origin to the same mountain district in the North of
Spain. The family of Cervantes is commonly said to have been of
Galician originand unquestionably it was in possession of lands in
Galicia at a very early date; but I think the balance of the
evidence tends to show that the "solar the original site of the
family, was at Cervatos in the north-west corner of Old Castile, close
to the junction of Castile, Leon, and the Asturias. As it happens,
there is a complete history of the Cervantes family from the tenth
century down to the seventeenth extant under the title of Illustrious
AncestryGlorious Deedsand Noble Posterity of the Famous Nuno
AlfonsoAlcaide of Toledo written in 1648 by the industrious
genealogist Rodrigo Mendez Silva, who availed himself of a
manuscript genealogy by Juan de Mena, the poet laureate and
historiographer of John II.

The origin of the name Cervantes is curious. Nuno Alfonso was almost
as distinguished in the struggle against the Moors in the reign of
Alfonso VII as the Cid had been half a century before in that of
Alfonso VI, and was rewarded by divers grants of land in the
neighbourhood of Toledo. On one of his acquisitions, about two leagues
from the city, he built himself a castle which he called Cervatos,
because he was lord of the solar of Cervatos in the Montana as
the mountain region extending from the Basque Provinces to Leon was
always called. At his death in battle in 1143, the castle passed by
his will to his son Alfonso Munio, who, as territorial or local
surnames were then coming into vogue in place of the simple
patronymic, took the additional name of Cervatos. His eldest son Pedro
succeeded him in the possession of the castle, and followed his
example in adopting the name, an assumption at which the younger
son, Gonzalo, seems to have taken umbrage.

Everyone who has paid even a flying visit to Toledo will remember
the ruined castle that crowns the hill above the spot where the bridge
of Alcantara spans the gorge of the Tagus, and with its broken outline
and crumbling walls makes such an admirable pendant to the square
solid Alcazar towering over the city roofs on the opposite side. It
was built, or as some say restored, by Alfonso VI shortly after his
occupation of Toledo in 1085, and called by him San Servando after a
Spanish martyr, a name subsequently modified into San Servan (in which
form it appears in the Poem of the Cid")San Servantesand San
Cervantes: with regard to which last the "Handbook for Spain" warns
its readers against the supposition that it has anything to do with
the author of "Don Quixote." Fordas all know who have taken him
for a companion and counsellor on the roads of Spainis seldom

wrong in matters of literature or history. In this instance
howeverhe is in error. It has everything to do with the author of
Don Quixote,for it is in fact these old walls that have given to
Spain the name she is proudest of to-day. Gonzaloabove mentionedit
may be readily conceiveddid not relish the appropriation by his
brother of a name to which he himself had an equal rightfor though
nominally taken from the castleit was in reality derived from the
ancient territorial possession of the familyand as a set-offand to
distinguish himself (diferenciarse) from his brotherhe took as a
surname the name of the castle on the bank of the Tagusin the
building of whichaccording to a family traditionhis
great-grandfather had a share.

Both brothers founded families. The Cervantes branch had more
tenacity; it sent offshoots in various directionsAndalusia
EstremaduraGaliciaand Portugaland produced a goodly line of
men distinguished in the service of Church and State. Gonzalo himself
and apparently a son of hisfollowed Ferdinand III in the great
campaign of 1236-48 that gave Cordova and Seville to Christian Spain
and penned up the Moors in the kingdom of Granadaand his descendants
intermarried with some of the noblest families of the Peninsula and
numbered among them soldiersmagistratesand Church dignitaries
including at least two cardinal-archbishops.

Of the line that settled in AndalusiaDeigo de Cervantes
Commander of the Order of Santiagomarried Juana Avellanedadaughter
of Juan Arias de Saavedraand had several sonsof whom one was
Gonzalo GomezCorregidor of Jerez and ancestor of the Mexican and
Columbian branches of the family; and anotherJuanwhose son Rodrigo
married Dona Leonor de Cortinasand by her had four children
RodrigoAndreaLuisaand Miguelour author.

The pedigree of Cervantes is not without its bearing on "Don
Quixote." A man who could look back upon an ancestry of genuine
knights-errant extending from well-nigh the time of Pelayo to the
siege of Granada was likely to have a strong feeling on the subject of
the sham chivalry of the romances. It gives a pointtooto what he
says in more than one place about families that have once been great
and have tapered away until they have come to nothinglike a pyramid.
It was the case of his own.

He was born at Alcala de Henares and baptised in the church of Santa
Maria Mayor on the 9th of October1547. Of his boyhood and youth we
know nothingunless it be from the glimpse he gives us in the preface
to his "Comedies" of himself as a boy looking on with delight while
Lope de Rueda and his company set up their rude plank stage in the
plaza and acted the rustic farces which he himself afterwards took
as the model of his interludes. This first glimpsehoweveris a
significant onefor it shows the early development of that love of
the drama which exercised such an influence on his life and seems to
have grown stronger as he grew olderand of which this very
prefacewritten only a few months before his deathis such a
striking proof. He gives us to understandtoothat he was a great
reader in his youth; but of this no assurance was neededfor the
First Part of "Don Quixote" alone proves a vast amount of
miscellaneous readingromances of chivalryballadspopular
poetrychroniclesfor which he had no time or opportunity except
in the first twenty years of his life; and his misquotations and
mistakes in matters of detail are alwaysit may be noticedthose
of a man recalling the reading of his boyhood.

Other things besides the drama were in their infancy when
Cervantes was a boy. The period of his boyhood was in every way a
transition period for Spain. The old chivalrous Spain had passed away.

The new Spain was the mightiest power the world had seen since the
Roman Empire and it had not yet been called upon to pay the price of
its greatness. By the policy of Ferdinand and Ximenez the sovereign
had been made absoluteand the Church and Inquisition adroitly
adjusted to keep him so. The nobleswho had always resisted
absolutism as strenuously as they had fought the Moorshad been
divested of all political powera like fate had befallen the
citiesthe free constitutions of Castile and Aragon had been swept
awayand the only function that remained to the Cortes was that of
granting money at the King's dictation.

The transition extended to literature. Men wholike Garcilaso de la
Vega and Diego Hurtado de Mendozafollowed the Italian warshad
brought back from Italy the products of the post-Renaissance
literaturewhich took root and flourished and even threatened to
extinguish the native growths. Damon and ThyrsisPhyllis and Chloe
had been fairly naturalised in Spaintogether with all the devices of
pastoral poetry for investing with an air of novelty the idea of a
dispairing shepherd and inflexible shepherdess. As a set-off against
thisthe old historical and traditional balladsand the true
pastoralsthe songs and ballads of peasant lifewere being collected
assiduously and printed in the cancioneros that succeeded one
another with increasing rapidity. But the most notable consequence
perhapsof the spread of printing was the flood of romances of
chivalry that had continued to pour from the press ever since Garci
Ordonez de Montalvo had resuscitated "Amadis of Gaul" at the beginning
of the century.

For a youth fond of readingsolid or lightthere could have been
no better spot in Spain than Alcala de Henares in the middle of the
sixteenth century. It was then a busypopulous university town
something more than the enterprising rival of Salamancaand
altogether a very different place from the melancholysilent
deserted Alcala the traveller sees now as he goes from Madrid to
Saragossa. Theology and medicine may have been the strong points of
the universitybut the town itself seems to have inclined rather to
the humanities and light literatureand as a producer of books Alcala
was already beginning to compete with the older presses of Toledo
BurgosSalamanca and Seville.

A pendant to the picture Cervantes has given us of his first
playgoings mightno doubthave been often seen in the streets of
Alcala at that time; a brighteagertawny-haired boy peering into
a book-shop where the latest volumes lay open to tempt the public
wonderingit may bewhat that little book with the woodcut of the
blind beggar and his boythat called itself "Vida de Lazarillo de
Tormessegunda impresion could be about; or with eyes brimming over
with merriment gazing at one of those preposterous portraits of a
knight-errant in outrageous panoply and plumes with which the
publishers of chivalry romances loved to embellish the title-pages
of their folios. If the boy was the father of the man, the sense of
the incongruous that was strong at fifty was lively at ten, and some
such reflections as these may have been the true genesis of Don

For his more solid educationwe are toldhe went to Salamanca. But
why Rodrigo de Cervanteswho was very poorshould have sent his
son to a university a hundred and fifty miles away when he had one
at his own doorwould be a puzzleif we had any reason for supposing
that he did so. The only evidence is a vague statement by Professor
Tomas Gonzalezthat he once saw an old entry of the matriculation
of a Miguel de Cervantes. This does not appear to have been ever
seen again; but even if it hadand if the date correspondedit would
prove nothingas there were at least two other Miguels born about the

middle of the century; one of themmoreovera Cervantes Saavedra
a cousinno doubtwho was a source of great embarrassment to the

That he was a student neither at Salamanca nor at Alcala is best
proved by his own works. No man drew more largely upon experience than
he didand he has nowhere left a single reminiscence of student lifefor
the "Tia Fingida if it be his, is not one- nothing, not even
a college joke to show that he remembered days that most men
remember best. All that we know positively about his education is that
Juan Lopez de Hoyos, a professor of humanities and belles-lettres of
some eminence, calls him his dear and beloved pupil." This was in a
little collection of verses by different hands on the death of
Isabel de Valoissecond queen of Philip IIpublished by the
professor in 1569to which Cervantes contributed four pieces
including an elegyand an epitaph in the form of a sonnet. It is only
by a rare chance that a "Lycidas" finds its way into a volume of
this sortand Cervantes was no Milton. His verses are no worse than
such things usually are; so muchat leastmay be said for them.

By the time the book appeared he had left Spainandas fate
ordered itfor twelve yearsthe most eventful ones of his life.
Giulioafterwards CardinalAcquaviva had been sent at the end of
1568 to Philip II by the Pope on a missionpartly of condolence
partly politicaland on his return to Romewhich was somewhat
brusquely expedited by the Kinghe took Cervantes with him as his
camarero (chamberlain)the office he himself held in the Pope's
household. The post would no doubt have led to advancement at the
Papal Court had Cervantes retained itbut in the summer of 1570 he
resigned it and enlisted as a private soldier in Captain Diego
Urbina's companybelonging to Don Miguel de Moncada's regimentbut
at that time forming a part of the command of Marc Antony Colonna.
What impelled him to this step we know notwhether it was distaste
for the career before himor purely military enthusiasm. It may
well have been the latterfor it was a stirring time; the events
howeverwhich led to the alliance between SpainVeniceand the
Popeagainst the common enemythe Porteand to the victory of the
combined fleets at Lepantobelong rather to the history of Europe
than to the life of Cervantes. He was one of those that sailed from
Messinain September 1571under the command of Don John of
Austria; but on the morning of the 7th of Octoberwhen the Turkish
fleet was sightedhe was lying below ill with fever. At the news that
the enemy was in sight he roseandin spite of the remonstrances
of his comrades and superiorsinsisted on taking his postsaying
he preferred death in the service of God and the King to health. His
galleythe Marquesawas in the thick of the fightand before it was
over he had received three gunshot woundstwo in the breast and one
in the left hand or arm. On the morning after the battleaccording to
Navarretehe had an interview with the commander-in-chiefDon
Johnwho was making a personal inspection of the woundedone
result of which was an addition of three crowns to his payand
anotherapparentlythe friendship of his general.

How severely Cervantes was wounded may be inferred from the fact
that with youtha vigorous frameand as cheerful and buoyant a
temperament as ever invalid hadhe was seven months in hospital at
Messina before he was discharged. He came out with his left hand
permanently disabled; he had lost the use of itas Mercury told him
in the "Viaje del Parnaso" for the greater glory of the right. This
howeverdid not absolutely unfit him for serviceand in April 1572
he joined Manuel Ponce de Leon's company of Lope de Figueroa's
regimentin whichit seems probablehis brother Rodrigo was
servingand shared in the operations of the next three years
including the capture of the Goletta and Tunis. Taking advantage of

the lull which followed the recapture of these places by the Turkshe
obtained leave to return to Spainand sailed from Naples in September
1575 on board the Sun galleyin company with his brother Rodrigo
Pedro Carrillo de Quesadalate Governor of the Golettaand some
othersand furnished with letters from Don John of Austria and the
Duke of Sesathe Viceroy of Sicilyrecommending him to the King
for the command of a companyon account of his services; a dono
infelice as events proved. On the 26th they fell in with a squadron of
Algerine galleysand after a stout resistance were overpowered and
carried into Algiers.

By means of a ransomed fellow-captive the brothers contrived to
inform their family of their conditionand the poor people at
Alcala at once strove to raise the ransom moneythe father
disposing of all he possessedand the two sisters giving up their
marriage portions. But Dali Mami had found on Cervantes the letters
addressed to the King by Don John and the Duke of Sesaand
concluding that his prize must be a person of great consequence
when the money came he refused it scornfully as being altogether
insufficient. The owner of Rodrigohoweverwas more easily
satisfied; ransom was accepted in his caseand it was arranged
between the brothers that he should return to Spain and procure a
vessel in which he was to come back to Algiers and take off Miguel and
as many of their comrades as possible. This was not the first
attempt to escape that Cervantes had made. Soon after the commencement
of his captivity he induced several of his companions to join him in
trying to reach Oranthen a Spanish poston foot; but after the
first day's journeythe Moor who had agreed to act as their guide
deserted themand they had no choice but to return. The second
attempt was more disastrous. In a garden outside the city on the
sea-shorehe constructedwith the help of the gardenera
Spaniarda hiding-placeto which he broughtone by onefourteen of
his fellow-captiveskeeping them there in secrecy for several months
and supplying them with food through a renegade known as El Dorador
the Gilder.How hea captive himselfcontrived to do all this
is one of the mysteries of the story. Wild as the project may
appearit was very nearly successful. The vessel procured by
Rodrigo made its appearance off the coastand under cover of night
was proceeding to take off the refugeeswhen the crew were alarmed by
a passing fishing boatand beat a hasty retreat. On renewing the
attempt shortly afterwardstheyor a portion of them at least
were taken prisonersand just as the poor fellows in the garden
were exulting in the thought that in a few moments more freedom
would be within their graspthey found themselves surrounded by
Turkish troopshorse and foot. The Dorador had revealed the whole
scheme to the Dey Hassan.

When Cervantes saw what had befallen themhe charged his companions
to lay all the blame upon himand as they were being bound he
declared aloud that the whole plot was of his contrivingand that
nobody else had any share in it. Brought before the Deyhe said the
same. He was threatened with impalement and with torture; and as
cutting off ears and noses were playful freaks with the Algerines
it may be conceived what their tortures were like; but nothing could
make him swerve from his original statement that he and he alone was
responsible. The upshot was that the unhappy gardener was hanged by
his masterand the prisoners taken possession of by the Deywho
howeverafterwards restored most of them to their mastersbut kept
Cervantespaying Dali Mami 500 crowns for him. He feltno doubt
that a man of such resourceenergyand daringwas too dangerous a
piece of property to be left in private hands; and he had him
heavily ironed and lodged in his own prison. If he thought that by
these means he could break the spirit or shake the resolution of his
prisonerhe was soon undeceivedfor Cervantes contrived before

long to despatch a letter to the Governor of Oranentreating him to
send him some one that could be trustedto enable him and three other
gentlemenfellow-captives of histo make their escape; intending
evidently to renew his first attempt with a more trustworthy guide.
Unfortunately the Moor who carried the letter was stopped just outside
Oranand the letter being found upon himhe was sent back to
Algierswhere by the order of the Dey he was promptly impaled as a
warning to otherswhile Cervantes was condemned to receive two
thousand blows of the sticka number which most likely would have
deprived the world of "Don Quixote had not some persons, who they
were we know not, interceded on his behalf.

After this he seems to have been kept in still closer confinement
than before, for nearly two years passed before he made another
attempt. This time his plan was to purchase, by the aid of a Spanish
renegade and two Valencian merchants resident in Algiers, an armed
vessel in which he and about sixty of the leading captives were to
make their escape; but just as they were about to put it into
execution one Doctor Juan Blanco de Paz, an ecclesiastic and a
compatriot, informed the Dey of the plot. Cervantes by force of
character, by his self-devotion, by his untiring energy and his
exertions to lighten the lot of his companions in misery, had endeared
himself to all, and become the leading spirit in the captive colony,
and, incredible as it may seem, jealousy of his influence and the
esteem in which he was held, moved this man to compass his destruction
by a cruel death. The merchants finding that the Dey knew all, and
fearing that Cervantes under torture might make disclosures that would
imperil their own lives, tried to persuade him to slip away on board a
vessel that was on the point of sailing for Spain; but he told them
they had nothing to fear, for no tortures would make him compromise
anybody, and he went at once and gave himself up to the Dey.

As before, the Dey tried to force him to name his accomplices.
Everything was made ready for his immediate execution; the halter
was put round his neck and his hands tied behind him, but all that
could be got from him was that he himself, with the help of four
gentlemen who had since left Algiers, had arranged the whole, and that
the sixty who were to accompany him were not to know anything of it
until the last moment. Finding he could make nothing of him, the Dey
sent him back to prison more heavily ironed than before.

The poverty-stricken Cervantes family had been all this time
trying once more to raise the ransom money, and at last a sum of three
hundred ducats was got together and entrusted to the Redemptorist
Father Juan Gil, who was about to sail for Algiers. The Dey,
however, demanded more than double the sum offered, and as his term of
office had expired and he was about to sail for Constantinople, taking
all his slaves with him, the case of Cervantes was critical. He was
already on board heavily ironed, when the Dey at length agreed to
reduce his demand by one-half, and Father Gil by borrowing was able to
make up the amount, and on September 19, 1580, after a captivity of
five years all but a week, Cervantes was at last set free. Before long
he discovered that Blanco de Paz, who claimed to be an officer of
the Inquisition, was now concocting on false evidence a charge of
misconduct to be brought against him on his return to Spain. To
checkmate him Cervantes drew up a series of twenty-five questions,
covering the whole period of his captivity, upon which he requested
Father Gil to take the depositions of credible witnesses before a
notary. Eleven witnesses taken from among the principal captives in
Algiers deposed to all the facts above stated and to a great deal more
besides. There is something touching in the admiration, love, and
gratitude we see struggling to find expression in the formal
language of the notary, as they testify one after another to the
good deeds of Cervantes, how he comforted and helped the weak-hearted,

how he kept up their drooping courage, how he shared his poor purse
with this deponent, and how in him this deponent found father and

On his return to Spain he found his old regiment about to march
for Portugal to support Philip's claim to the crownand utterly
penniless nowhad no choice but to rejoin it. He was in the
expeditions to the Azores in 1582 and the following yearand on the
conclusion of the war returned to Spain in the autumn of 1583
bringing with him the manuscript of his pastoral romancethe
Galatea,and probably alsoto judge by internal evidencethat of
the first portion of "Persiles and Sigismunda." He also brought back
with himhis biographers assertan infant daughterthe offspring of
an amouras some of them with great circumstantiality inform uswith
a Lisbon lady of noble birthwhose namehoweveras well as that
of the street she lived inthey omit to mention. The sole
foundation for all this is that in 1605 there certainly was living
in the family of Cervantes a Dona Isabel de Saavedrawho is described
in an official document as his natural daughterand then twenty years
of age.

With his crippled left hand promotion in the army was hopeless
now that Don John was dead and he had no one to press his claims and
servicesand for a man drawing on to forty life in the ranks was a
dismal prospect; he had already a certain reputation as a poet; he
made up his mindthereforeto cast his lot with literatureand
for a first venture committed his "Galatea" to the press. It was
publishedas Salva y Mallen shows conclusivelyat Alcalahis own
birth-placein 1585 and no doubt helped to make his name more
widely knownbut certainly did not do him much good in any other way.

While it was going through the presshe married Dona Catalina de
Palacios Salazar y Vozmedianoa lady of Esquivias near Madridand
apparently a friend of the familywho brought him a fortune which may
possibly have served to keep the wolf from the doorbut if sothat
was all. The drama had by this time outgrown market-place stages and
strolling companiesand with his old love for it he naturally
turned to it for a congenial employment. In about three years he wrote
twenty or thirty playswhich he tells us were performed without any
throwing of cucumbers or other missilesand ran their course
without any hissesoutcriesor disturbance. In other wordshis
plays were not bad enough to be hissed off the stagebut not good
enough to hold their own upon it. Only two of them have been
preservedbut as they happen to be two of the seven or eight he
mentions with complacencywe may assume they are favourable
specimensand no one who reads the "Numancia" and the "Trato de
Argel" will feel any surprise that they failed as acting dramas.
Whatever merits they may havewhatever occasional they may showthey
areas regards constructionincurably clumsy. How completely they
failed is manifest from the fact that with all his sanguine
temperament and indomitable perseverance he was unable to maintain the
struggle to gain a livelihood as a dramatist for more than three
years; nor was the rising popularity of Lope the causeas is often
saidnotwithstanding his own words to the contrary. When Lope began
to write for the stage is uncertainbut it was certainly after
Cervantes went to Seville.

Among the "Nuevos Documentos" printed by Senor Asensio y Toledo is
one dated 1592and curiously characteristic of Cervantes. It is an
agreement with one Rodrigo Osorioa managerwho was to accept six
comedies at fifty ducats (about 6l.) apiecenot to be paid in any
case unless it appeared on representation that the said comedy was one
of the best that had ever been represented in Spain. The test does not
seem to have been ever applied; perhaps it was sufficiently apparent

to Rodrigo Osorio that the comedies were not among the best that had
ever been represented. Among the correspondence of Cervantes there
might have been foundno doubtmore than one letter like that we see
in the "Rake's Progress SirI have read your playand it will not

He was more successful in a literary contest at Saragossa in 1595 in
honour of the canonisation of St. Jacintowhen his composition won
the first prizethree silver spoons. The year before this he had been
appointed a collector of revenues for the kingdom of Granada. In order
to remit the money he had collected more conveniently to the treasury
he entrusted it to a merchantwho failed and absconded; and as the
bankrupt's assets were insufficient to cover the wholehe was sent to
prison at Seville in September 1597. The balance against himhowever
was a small oneabout 26l.and on giving security for it he was
released at the end of the year.

It was as he journeyed from town to town collecting the king's
taxesthat he noted down those bits of inn and wayside life and
character that abound in the pages of "Don Quixote:" the Benedictine
monks with spectacles and sunshadesmounted on their tall mules;
the strollers in costume bound for the next village; the barber with
his basin on his headon his way to bleed a patient; the recruit with
his breeches in his bundletramping along the road singing; the
reapers gathered in the venta gateway listening to "Felixmarte of
Hircania" read out to them; and those little Hogarthian touches that
he so well knew how to bring inthe ox-tail hanging up with the
landlord's comb stuck in itthe wine-skins at the bed-headand those
notable examples of hostelry artHelen going off in high spirits on
Paris's armand Dido on the tower dropping tears as big as walnuts.
Nayit may well be that on those journeys into remote regions he came
across now and then a specimen of the pauper gentlemanwith his
lean hack and his greyhound and his books of chivalrydreaming away
his life in happy ignorance that the world had changed since his
great-grandfather's old helmet was new. But it was in Seville that
he found out his true vocationthough he himself would not by any
means have admitted it to be so. It was therein Trianathat he
was first tempted to try his hand at drawing from lifeand first
brought his humour into play in the exquisite little sketch of
Rinconete y Cortadillo,the germin more ways than oneof "Don

Where and when that was writtenwe cannot tell. After his
imprisonment all trace of Cervantes in his official capacity
disappearsfrom which it may be inferred that he was not
reinstated. That he was still in Seville in November 1598 appears from
a satirical sonnet of his on the elaborate catafalque erected to
testify the grief of the city at the death of Philip IIbut from this
up to 1603 we have no clue to his movements. The words in the
preface to the First Part of "Don Quixote" are generally held to be
conclusive that he conceived the idea of the bookand wrote the
beginning of it at leastin a prisonand that he may have done so is
extremely likely.

There is a tradition that Cervantes read some portions of his work
to a select audience at the Duke of Bejar'swhich may have helped
to make the book known; but the obvious conclusion is that the First
Part of "Don Quixote" lay on his hands some time before he could
find a publisher bold enough to undertake a venture of so novel a
character; and so little faith in it had Francisco Robles of Madrid
to whom at last he sold itthat he did not care to incur the
expense of securing the copyright for Aragon or Portugalcontenting
himself with that for Castile. The printing was finished in
Decemberand the book came out with the new year1605. It is often

said that "Don Quixote" was at first received coldly. The facts show
just the contrary. No sooner was it in the hands of the public than
preparations were made to issue pirated editions at Lisbon and
Valenciaand to bring out a second edition with the additional
copyrights for Aragon and Portugalwhich he secured in February.

No doubt it was received with something more than coldness by
certain sections of the community. Men of wittasteand
discrimination among the aristocracy gave it a hearty welcomebut the
aristocracy in general were not likely to relish a book that turned
their favourite reading into ridicule and laughed at so many of
their favourite ideas. The dramatists who gathered round Lope as their
leader regarded Cervantes as their common enemyand it is plain
that he was equally obnoxious to the other cliquethe culto poets who
had Gongora for their chief. Navarretewho knew nothing of the letter
above mentionedtries hard to show that the relations between
Cervantes and Lope were of a very friendly sortas indeed they were
until "Don Quixote" was written. Cervantesindeedto the last
generously and manfully declared his admiration of Lope's powers
his unfailing inventionand his marvellous fertility; but in the
preface of the First Part of "Don Quixote" and in the verses of
Urganda the Unknown,and one or two other placesthere areif we
read between the linessly hits at Lope's vanities and affectations
that argue no personal good-will; and Lope openly sneers at "Don
Quixote" and Cervantesand fourteen years after his death gives him
only a few lines of cold commonplace in the "Laurel de Apolo that
seem all the colder for the eulogies of a host of nonentities whose
names are found nowhere else.

In 1601 Valladolid was made the seat of the Court, and at the
beginning of 1603 Cervantes had been summoned thither in connection
with the balance due by him to the Treasury, which was still
outstanding. He remained at Valladolid, apparently supporting
himself by agencies and scrivener's work of some sort; probably
drafting petitions and drawing up statements of claims to be presented
to the Council, and the like. So, at least, we gather from the
depositions taken on the occasion of the death of a gentleman, the
victim of a street brawl, who had been carried into the house in which
he lived. In these he himself is described as a man who wrote and
transacted business, and it appears that his household then
consisted of his wife, the natural daughter Isabel de Saavedra already
mentioned, his sister Andrea, now a widow, her daughter Constanza, a
mysterious Magdalena de Sotomayor calling herself his sister, for whom
his biographers cannot account, and a servant-maid.

Meanwhile Don Quixote" had been growing in favourand its author's
name was now known beyond the Pyrenees. In 1607 an edition was printed
at Brussels. Roblesthe Madrid publisherfound it necessary to
meet the demand by a third editionthe seventh in allin 1608. The
popularity of the book in Italy was such that a Milan bookseller was
led to bring out an edition in 1610; and another was called for in
Brussels in 1611. It might naturally have been expected thatwith
such proofs before him that he had hit the taste of the public
Cervantes would have at once set about redeeming his rather vague
promise of a second volume.

Butto all appearancenothing was farther from his thoughts. He
had still by him one or two short tales of the same vintage as those
he had inserted in "Don Quixote" and instead of continuing the
adventures of Don Quixotehe set to work to write more of these
Novelas Exemplaresas he afterwards called themwith a view to
making a book of them.

The novels were published in the summer of 1613with a dedication

to the Conde de Lemosthe Maecenas of the dayand with one of
those chatty confidential prefaces Cervantes was so fond of. In
thiseight years and a half after the First Part of "Don Quixote" had
appearedwe get the first hint of a forthcoming Second Part. "You
shall see shortly he says, the further exploits of Don Quixote
and humours of Sancho Panza." His idea of "shortly" was a somewhat
elastic oneforas we know by the date to Sancho's letterhe had
barely one-half of the book completed that time twelvemonth.

But more than poemsor pastoralsor novelsit was his dramatic
ambition that engrossed his thoughts. The same indomitable spirit that
kept him from despair in the bagnios of Algiersand prompted him to
attempt the escape of himself and his comrades again and againmade
him persevere in spite of failure and discouragement in his efforts to
win the ear of the public as a dramatist. The temperament of Cervantes
was essentially sanguine. The portrait he draws in the preface to
the novelswith the aquiline featureschestnut hairsmooth
untroubled foreheadand bright cheerful eyesis the very portrait of
a sanguine man. Nothing that the managers might say could persuade him
that the merits of his plays would not be recognised at last if they
were only given a fair chance. The old soldier of the Spanish
Salamis was bent on being the Aeschylus of Spain. He was to found a
great national dramabased on the true principles of artthat was to
be the envy of all nations; he was to drive from the stage the
sillychildish playsthe "mirrors of nonsense and models of folly"
that were in vogue through the cupidity of the managers and
shortsightedness of the authors; he was to correct and educate the
public taste until it was ripe for tragedies on the model of the Greek
drama- like the "Numancia" for instance- and comedies that would not
only amuse but improve and instruct. All this he was to docould he
once get a hearing: there was the initial difficulty.

He shows plainly enoughtoothat "Don Quixote" and the
demolition of the chivalry romances was not the work that lay next his
heart. He wasindeedas he says himself in his prefacemore a
stepfather than a father to "Don Quixote." Never was great work so
neglected by its author. That it was written carelesslyhastily
and by fits and startswas not always his faultbut it seems clear
he never read what he sent to the press. He knew how the printers
had blunderedbut he never took the trouble to correct them when
the third edition was in progressas a man who really cared for the
child of his brain would have done. He appears to have regarded the
book as little more than a mere libro de entretenimientoan amusing
booka thingas he says in the "Viaje to divert the melancholy
moody heart at any time or season." No doubt he had an affection for
his heroand was very proud of Sancho Panza. It would have been
strange indeed if he had not been proud of the most humorous
creation in all fiction. He was proudtooof the popularity and
success of the bookand beyond measure delightful is the naivete with
which he shows his pride in a dozen passages in the Second Part. But
it was not the success he coveted. In all probability he would have
given all the success of "Don Quixote nay, would have seen every
copy of Don Quixote" burned in the Plaza Mayorfor one such
success as Lope de Vega was enjoying on an average once a week.

And so he went ondawdling over "Don Quixote adding a chapter
now and again, and putting it aside to turn to Persiles and
Sigismunda" -whichas we knowwas to be the most entertaining book
in the languageand the rival of "Theagenes and Chariclea"- or
finishing off one of his darling comedies; and if Robles asked when
Don Quixotewould be readythe answer no doubt was: En breveshortly
there was time enough for that. At sixty-eight he was as full
of life and hope and plans for the future as a boy of eighteen.

Nemesis was cominghowever. He had got as far as Chapter LIXwhich
at his leisurely pace he could hardly have reached before October or
November 1614when there was put into his hand a small octave
lately printed at Tarragonaand calling itself "Second Volume of
the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha: by the Licentiate
Alonso Fernandez de Avellaneda of Tordesillas." The last half of
Chapter LIX and most of the following chapters of the Second Part give
us some idea of the effect produced upon himand his irritation was
not likely to be lessened by the reflection that he had no one to
blame but himself. Had Avellanedain factbeen content with merely
bringing out a continuation to "Don Quixote Cervantes would have had
no reasonable grievance. His own intentions were expressed in the very
vaguest language at the end of the book; nay, in his last words,
forse altro cantera con miglior plettro he seems actually to invite
some one else to continue the work, and he made no sign until eight
years and a half had gone by; by which time Avellaneda's volume was no
doubt written.

In fact Cervantes had no case, or a very bad one, as far as the mere
continuation was concerned. But Avellaneda chose to write a preface to
it, full of such coarse personal abuse as only an ill-conditioned
man could pour out. He taunts Cervantes with being old, with having
lost his hand, with having been in prison, with being poor, with being
friendless, accuses him of envy of Lope's success, of petulance and
querulousness, and so on; and it was in this that the sting lay.
Avellaneda's reason for this personal attack is obvious enough.
Whoever he may have been, it is clear that he was one of the
dramatists of Lope's school, for he has the impudence to charge
Cervantes with attacking him as well as Lope in his criticism on the
drama. His identification has exercised the best critics and baffled
all the ingenuity and research that has been brought to bear on it.
Navarrete and Ticknor both incline to the belief that Cervantes knew
who he was; but I must say I think the anger he shows suggests an
invisible assailant; it is like the irritation of a man stung by a
mosquito in the dark. Cervantes from certain solecisms of language
pronounces him to be an Aragonese, and Pellicer, an Aragonese himself,
supports this view and believes him, moreover, to have been an
ecclesiastic, a Dominican probably.

Any merit Avellaneda has is reflected from Cervantes, and he is
too dull to reflect much. Dull and dirty" will always beI
imaginethe verdict of the vast majority of unprejudiced readers.
He isat besta poor plagiarist; all he can do is to follow
slavishly the lead given him by Cervantes; his only humour lies in
making Don Quixote take inns for castles and fancy himself some
legendary or historical personageand Sancho mistake wordsinvert
proverbsand display his gluttony; all through he shows a
proclivity to coarseness and dirtand he has contrived to introduce
two tales filthier than anything by the sixteenth century novellieri
and without their sprightliness.

But whatever Avellaneda and his book may bewe must not forget
the debt we owe them. But for themthere can be no doubtDon
Quixotewould have come to us a mere torso instead of a complete
work. Even if Cervantes had finished the volume he had in handmost
assuredly he would have left off with a promise of a Third Part
giving the further adventures of Don Quixote and humours of Sancho
Panza as shepherds. It is plain that he had at one time an intention
of dealing with the pastoral romances as he had dealt with the books
of chivalryand but for Avellaneda he would have tried to carry it
out. But it is more likely thatwith his plansand projectsand
hopefulnessthe volume would have remained unfinished till his death
and that we should have never made the acquaintance of the Duke and
Duchessor gone with Sancho to Barataria.

From the moment the book came into his hands he seems to have been
haunted by the fear that there might be more Avellanedas in the field
and putting everything else asidehe set himself to finish off his
task and protect Don Quixote in the only way he couldby killing him.
The conclusion is no doubt a hasty and in some places clumsy piece
of work and the frequent repetition of the scolding administered to
Avellaneda becomes in the end rather wearisome; but it isat any
ratea conclusion and for that we must thank Avellaneda.

The new volume was ready for the press in Februarybut was not
printed till the very end of 1615and during the interval Cervantes
put together the comedies and interludes he had written within the
last few yearsandas he adds plaintivelyfound no demand for among
the managersand published them with a prefaceworth the book it
introduces tenfoldin which he gives an account of the early
Spanish stageand of his own attempts as a dramatist. It is
needless to say they were put forward by Cervantes in all good faith
and full confidence in their merits. The readerhoweverwas not to
suppose they were his last word or final effort in the dramafor he
had in hand a comedy called "Engano a los ojos about which, if he
mistook not, there would be no question.

Of this dramatic masterpiece the world has no opportunity of
judging; his health had been failing for some time, and he died,
apparently of dropsy, on the 23rd of April, 1616, the day on which
England lost Shakespeare, nominally at least, for the English calendar
had not yet been reformed. He died as he had lived, accepting his
lot bravely and cheerfully.

Was it an unhappy life, that of Cervantes? His biographers all
tell us that it was; but I must say I doubt it. It was a hard life,
a life of poverty, of incessant struggle, of toil ill paid, of
disappointment, but Cervantes carried within himself the antidote to
all these evils. His was not one of those light natures that rise
above adversity merely by virtue of their own buoyancy; it was in
the fortitude of a high spirit that he was proof against it. It is
impossible to conceive Cervantes giving way to despondency or
prostrated by dejection. As for poverty, it was with him a thing to be
laughed over, and the only sigh he ever allows to escape him is when
he says, Happy he to whom Heaven has given a piece of bread for which
he is not bound to give thanks to any but Heaven itself." Add to all
this his vital energy and mental activityhis restless invention
and his sanguine temperamentand there will be reason enough to doubt
whether his could have been a very unhappy life. He who could take
Cervantes' distresses together with his apparatus for enduring them
would not make so bad a bargainperhapsas far as happiness in
life is concerned.

Of his burial-place nothing is known except that he was buriedin
accordance with his willin the neighbouring convent of Trinitarian
nunsof which it is supposed his daughterIsabel de Saavedrawas an
inmateand that a few years afterwards the nuns removed to another
conventcarrying their dead with them. But whether the remains of
Cervantes were included in the removal or not no one knowsand the
clue to their resting-place is now lost beyond all hope. This
furnishes perhaps the least defensible of the items in the charge of
neglect brought against his contemporaries. In some of the others
there is a good deal of exaggeration. To listen to most of his
biographers one would suppose that all Spain was in league not only
against the man but against his memoryor at least that it was
insensible to his meritsand left him to live in misery and die of
want. To talk of his hard life and unworthy employments in Andalusia
is absurd. What had he done to distinguish him from thousands of other

struggling men earning a precarious livelihood? Truehe was a gallant
soldierwho had been wounded and had undergone captivity and
suffering in his country's causebut there were hundreds of others in
the same case. He had written a mediocre specimen of an insipid
class of romanceand some plays which manifestly did not comply
with the primary condition of pleasing: were the playgoers to
patronise plays that did not amuse thembecause the author was to
produce "Don Quixote" twenty years afterwards?

The scramble for copies whichas we have seenfollowed immediately
on the appearance of the bookdoes not look like general
insensibility to its merits. No doubt it was received coldly by
somebut if a man writes a book in ridicule of periwigs he must
make his account with being coldly received by the periwig wearers and
hated by the whole tribe of wigmakers. If Cervantes had the
chivalry-romance readersthe sentimentaliststhe dramatistsand the
poets of the period all against himit was because "Don Quixote"
was what it was; and if the general public did not come forward to
make him comfortable for the rest of his daysit is no more to be
charged with neglect and ingratitude than the English-speaking
public that did not pay off Scott's liabilities. It did the best it
could; it read his book and liked it and bought itand encouraged the
bookseller to pay him well for others.

It has been also made a reproach to Spain that she has erected no
monument to the man she is proudest of; no monumentthat is to say
of him; for the bronze statue in the little garden of the Plaza de las
Cortesa fair work of art no doubtand unexceptionable had it been
set up to the local poet in the market-place of some provincial
townis not worthy of Cervantes or of Madrid. But what need has
Cervantes of "such weak witness of his name;" or what could a monument
do in his case except testify to the self-glorification of those who
had put it up? Si monumentum quoeriscircumspice. The nearest
bookseller's shop will show what bathos there would be in a monument
to the author of "Don Quixote."

Nine editions of the First Part of "Don Quixote" had already
appeared before Cervantes diedthirty thousand copies in all
according to his own estimateand a tenth was printed at Barcelona
the year after his death. So large a number naturally supplied the
demand for some timebut by 1634 it appears to have been exhausted;
and from that time down to the present day the stream of editions
has continued to flow rapidly and regularly. The translations show
still more clearly in what request the book has been from the very
outset. In seven years from the completion of the work it had been
translated into the four leading languages of Europe. Except the
Biblein factno book has been so widely diffused as "Don
Quixote." The "Imitatio Christi" may have been translated into as many
different languagesand perhaps "Robinson Crusoe" and the "Vicar of
Wakefield" into nearly as manybut in multiplicity of translations
and editions "Don Quixote" leaves them all far behind.

Still more remarkable is the character of this wide diffusion.
Don Quixotehas been thoroughly naturalised among people whose ideas
about knight-errantryif they had any at allwere of the vaguest
who had never seen or heard of a book of chivalrywho could not
possibly feel the humour of the burlesque or sympathise with the
author's purpose. Another curious fact is that thisthe most
cosmopolitan book in the worldis one of the most intensely national.
Manon Lescautis not more thoroughly FrenchTom Jonesnot more
EnglishRob Roynot more Scotchthan "Don Quixote" is Spanish
in characterin ideasin sentimentin local colourin
everything. Whatthenis the secret of this unparalleled popularity
increasing year by year for well-nigh three centuries? One

explanationno doubtis that of all the books in the worldDon
Quixoteis the most catholic. There is something in it for every sort
of readeryoung or oldsage or simplehigh or low. As Cervantes
himself says with a touch of prideIt is thumbed and read and got by
heart by people of all sorts; the children turn its leaves, the
young people read it, the grown men understand it, the old folk praise

But it would be idle to deny that the ingredient whichmore than
its humouror its wisdomor the fertility of invention or
knowledge of human nature it displayshas insured its success with
the multitudeis the vein of farce that runs through it. It was the
attack upon the sheepthe battle with the wine-skinsMambrino's
helmetthe balsam of FierabrasDon Quixote knocked over by the sails
of the windmillSancho tossed in the blanketthe mishaps and
misadventures of master and manthat were originally the great
attractionand perhaps are so still to some extent with the
majority of readers. It is plain that "Don Quixote" was generally
regarded at firstand indeed in Spain for a long timeas little more
than a queer droll bookfull of laughable incidents and absurd
situationsvery amusingbut not entitled to much consideration or
care. All the editions printed in Spain from 1637 to 1771when the
famous printer Ibarra took it upwere mere trade editionsbadly
and carelessly printed on vile paper and got up in the style of
chap-books intended only for popular usewithin most instances
uncouth illustrations and clap-trap additions by the publisher.

To England belongs the credit of having been the first country to
recognise the right of "Don Quixote" to better treatment than this.
The London edition of 1738commonly called Lord Carteret's from
having been suggested by himwas not a mere edition de luxe. It
produced "Don Quixote" in becoming form as regards paper and typeand
embellished with plates whichif not particularly happy as
illustrationswere at least well intentioned and well executedbut
it also aimed at correctness of texta matter to which nobody
except the editors of the Valencia and Brussels editions had given
even a passing thought; and for a first attempt it was fairly
successfulfor though some of its emendations are inadmissiblea
good many of them have been adopted by all subsequent editors.

The zeal of publisherseditorsand annotators brought about a
remarkable change of sentiment with regard to "Don Quixote." A vast
number of its admirers began to grow ashamed of laughing over it. It
became almost a crime to treat it as a humorous book. The humour was
not entirely deniedbutaccording to the new viewit was rated as
an altogether secondary qualitya mere accessorynothing more than
the stalking-horse under the presentation of which Cervantes shot
his philosophy or his satireor whatever it was he meant to shoot;
for on this point opinions varied. All were agreedhoweverthat
the object he aimed at was not the books of chivalry. He said
emphatically in the preface to the First Part and in the last sentence
of the Secondthat he had no other object in view than to discredit
these booksand thisto advanced criticismmade it clear that his
object must have been something else.

One theory was that the book was a kind of allegorysetting forth
the eternal struggle between the ideal and the realbetween the
spirit of poetry and the spirit of prose; and perhaps German
philosophy never evolved a more ungainly or unlikely camel out of
the depths of its inner consciousness. Something of the antagonismno
doubtis to be found in "Don Quixote because it is to be found
everywhere in life, and Cervantes drew from life. It is difficult to
imagine a community in which the never-ceasing game of
cross-purposes between Sancho Panza and Don Quixote would not be

recognized as true to nature. In the stone age, among the lake
dwellers, among the cave men, there were Don Quixotes and Sancho
Panzas; there must have been the troglodyte who never could see the
facts before his eyes, and the troglodyte who could see nothing
else. But to suppose Cervantes deliberately setting himself to expound
any such idea in two stout quarto volumes is to suppose something
not only very unlike the age in which he lived, but altogether
unlike Cervantes himself, who would have been the first to laugh at an
attempt of the sort made by anyone else.

The extraordinary influence of the romances of chivalry in his day
is quite enough to account for the genesis of the book. Some idea of
the prodigious development of this branch of literature in the
sixteenth century may be obtained from the scrutiny of Chapter VII, if
the reader bears in mind that only a portion of the romances belonging
to by far the largest group are enumerated. As to its effect upon
the nation, there is abundant evidence. From the time when the
Amadises and Palmerins began to grow popular down to the very end of
the century, there is a steady stream of invective, from men whose
character and position lend weight to their words, against the
romances of chivalry and the infatuation of their readers. Ridicule
was the only besom to sweep away that dust.

That this was the task Cervantes set himself, and that he had
ample provocation to urge him to it, will be sufficiently clear to
those who look into the evidence; as it will be also that it was not
chivalry itself that he attacked and swept away. Of all the
absurdities that, thanks to poetry, will be repeated to the end of
time, there is no greater one than saying that Cervantes smiled
Spain's chivalry away." In the first place there was no chivalry for
him to smile away. Spain's chivalry had been dead for more than a
century. Its work was done when Granada felland as chivalry was
essentially republican in its natureit could not live under the rule
that Ferdinand substituted for the free institutions of mediaeval
Spain. What he did smile away was not chivalry but a degrading mockery
of it.

The true nature of the "right arm" and the "bright array before
which, according to the poet, the world gave ground and which
Cervantes' single laugh demolished, may be gathered from the words
of one of his own countrymen, Don Felix Pacheco, as reported by
Captain George Carleton, in his Military Memoirs from 1672 to
1713." "Before the appearance in the world of that labour of
Cervantes he said, it was next to an impossibility for a man to
walk the streets with any delight or without danger. There were seen
so many cavaliers prancing and curvetting before the windows of
their mistressesthat a stranger would have imagined the whole nation
to have been nothing less than a race of knight-errants. But after the
world became a little acquainted with that notable historythe man
that was seen in that once celebrated drapery was pointed at as a
Don Quixoteand found himself the jest of high and low. And I
verily believe that to thisand this onlywe owe that dampness and
poverty of spirit which has run through all our councils for a century
pastso little agreeable to those nobler actions of our famous

To call "Don Quixote" a sad bookpreaching a pessimist view of
lifeargues a total misconception of its drift. It would be so if its
moral were thatin this worldtrue enthusiasm naturally leads to
ridicule and discomfiture. But it preaches nothing of the sort; its
moralso far as it can be said to have oneis that the spurious
enthusiasm that is born of vanity and self-conceitthat is made an
end in itselfnot a means to an endthat acts on mere impulse
regardless of circumstances and consequencesis mischievous to its

ownerand a very considerable nuisance to the community at large.
To those who cannot distinguish between the one kind and the otherno
doubt "Don Quixote" is a sad book; no doubt to some minds it is very
sad that a man who had just uttered so beautiful a sentiment as that
it is a hard case to make slaves of those whom God and Nature made
free,should be ungratefully pelted by the scoundrels his crazy
philanthropy had let loose on society; but to others of a more
judicial cast it will be a matter of regret that reckless
self-sufficient enthusiasm is not oftener requited in some such way
for all the mischief it does in the world.

A very slight examination of the structure of "Don Quixote" will
suffice to show that Cervantes had no deep design or elaborate plan in
his mind when he began the book. When he wrote those lines in which
with a few strokes of a great master he sets before us the pauper
gentleman,he had no idea of the goal to which his imagination was
leading him. There can be little doubt that all he contemplated was
a short tale to range with those he had already writtena tale
setting forth the ludicrous results that might be expected to follow
the attempt of a crazy gentleman to act the part of a knight-errant in
modern life.

It is plainfor one thingthat Sancho Panza did not enter into the
original schemefor had Cervantes thought of him he certainly would
not have omitted him in his hero's outfitwhich he obviously meant to
be complete. Him we owe to the landlord's chance remark in Chapter III
that knights seldom travelled without squires. To try to think of a
Don Quixote without Sancho Panza is like trying to think of a
one-bladed pair of scissors.

The story was written at firstlike the otherswithout any
division and without the intervention of Cide Hamete Benengeli; and it
seems not unlikely that Cervantes had some intention of bringing
Dulcineaor Aldonza Lorenzoon the scene in person. It was
probably the ransacking of the Don's library and the discussion on the
books of chivalry that first suggested it to him that his idea was
capable of development. Whatif instead of a mere string of
farcical misadventureshe were to make his tale a burlesque of one of
these bookscaricaturing their styleincidentsand spirit?

In pursuance of this change of planhe hastily and somewhat
clumsily divided what he had written into chapters on the model of
Amadis,invented the fable of a mysterious Arabic manuscriptand
set up Cide Hamete Benengeli in imitation of the almost invariable
practice of the chivalry-romance authorswho were fond of tracing
their books to some recondite source. In working out the new ideashe
soon found the value of Sancho Panza. Indeedthe keynotenot only to
Sancho's partbut to the whole bookis struck in the first words
Sancho utters when he announces his intention of taking his ass with
him. "About the ass we are told, Don Quixote hesitated a little
trying whether he could call to mind any knight-errant taking with him
an esquire mounted on ass-back; but no instance occurred to his
memory." We can see the whole scene at a glancethe stolid
unconsciousness of Sancho and the perplexity of his masterupon whose
perception the incongruity has just forced itself. This is Sancho's
mission throughout the book; he is an unconscious Mephistopheles
always unwittingly making mockery of his master's aspirations
always exposing the fallacy of his ideas by some unintentional ad
absurdumalways bringing him back to the world of fact and
commonplace by force of sheer stolidity.

By the time Cervantes had got his volume of novels off his hands
and summoned up resolution enough to set about the Second Part in
earnestthe case was very much altered. Don Quixote and Sancho

Panza had not merely found favourbut had already becomewhat they
have never since ceased to beveritable entities to the popular
imagination. There was no occasion for him now to interpolate
extraneous matter; nayhis readers told him plainly that what they
wanted of him was more Don Quixote and more Sancho Panzaand not
novelstalesor digressions. To himselftoohis creations had
become realitiesand he had become proud of themespecially of
Sancho. He began the Second Partthereforeunder very different
conditionsand the difference makes itself manifest at once. Even
in translation the style will be seen to be far easiermore
flowingmore naturaland more like that of a man sure of himself and
of his audience. Don Quixote and Sancho undergo a change also. In
the First PartDon Quixote has no character or individuality
whatever. He is nothing more than a crazy representative of the
sentiments of the chivalry romances. In all that he says and does he
is simply repeating the lesson he has learned from his books; and
thereforeit is absurd to speak of him in the gushing strain of the
sentimental critics when they dilate upon his nobleness
disinterestednessdauntless courageand so forth. It was the
business of a knight-errant to right wrongsredress injuriesand
succour the distressedand thisas a matter of coursehe makes
his business when he takes up the part; a knight-errant was bound to
be intrepidand so he feels bound to cast fear aside. Of all
Byron's melodious nonsense about Don Quixotethe most nonsensical
statement is that "'t is his virtue makes him mad!" The exact opposite
is the truth; it is his madness makes him virtuous.

In the Second PartCervantes repeatedly reminds the readeras if
it was a point upon which he was anxious there should be no mistake
that his hero's madness is strictly confined to delusions on the
subject of chivalryand that on every other subject he is discreto
onein factwhose faculty of discernment is in perfect order. The
advantage of this is that he is enabled to make use of Don Quixote
as a mouthpiece for his own reflectionsand sowithout seeming to
digressallow himself the relief of digression when he requires it
as freely as in a commonplace book.

It is true the amount of individuality bestowed upon Don Quixote
is not very great. There are some natural touches of character about
himsuch as his mixture of irascibility and placabilityand his
curious affection for Sancho together with his impatience of the
squire's loquacity and impertinence; but in the mainapart from his
crazehe is little more than a thoughtfulcultured gentlemanwith
instinctive good taste and a great deal of shrewdness and
originality of mind.

As to Sanchoit is plainfrom the concluding words of the
preface to the First Partthat he was a favourite with his creator
even before he had been taken into favour by the public. An inferior
geniustaking him in hand a second timewould very likely have tried
to improve him by making him more comicalcleveramiableor
virtuous. But Cervantes was too true an artist to spoil his work in
this way. Sanchowhen he reappearsis the old Sancho with the old
familiar features; but with a difference; they have been brought out
more distinctlybut at the same time with a careful avoidance of
anything like caricature; the outline has been filled in where filling
in was necessaryandvivified by a few touches of a master's hand
Sancho stands before us as he might in a character portrait by
Velazquez. He is a much more important and prominent figure in the
Second Part than in the First; indeedit is his matchless mendacity
about Dulcinea that to a great extent supplies the action of the

His development in this respect is as remarkable as in any other. In

the First Part he displays a great natural gift of lying. His lies are
not of the highly imaginative sort that liars in fiction commonly
indulge in; like Falstaff'sthey resemble the father that begets
them; they are simplehomelyplump lies; plain working liesin
short. But in the service of such a master as Don Quixote he
develops rapidlyas we see when he comes to palm off the three
country wenches as Dulcinea and her ladies in waiting. It is worth
noticing howflushed by his success in this instancehe is tempted
afterwards to try a flight beyond his powers in his account of the
journey on Clavileno.

In the Second Part it is the spirit rather than the incidents of the
chivalry romances that is the subject of the burlesque. Enchantments
of the sort travestied in those of Dulcinea and the Trifaldi and the
cave of Montesinos play a leading part in the later and inferior
romancesand another distinguishing feature is caricatured in Don
Quixote's blind adoration of Dulcinea. In the romances of chivalry
love is either a mere animalism or a fantastic idolatry. Only a
coarse-minded man would care to make merry with the formerbut to one
of Cervantes' humour the latter was naturally an attractive subject
for ridicule. Like everything else in these romancesit is a gross
exaggeration of the real sentiment of chivalrybut its peculiar
extravagance is probably due to the influence of those masters of
hyperbolethe Provencal poets. When a troubadour professed his
readiness to obey his lady in all thingshe made it incumbent upon
the next comerif he wished to avoid the imputation of tameness and
commonplaceto declare himself the slave of her willwhich the
next was compelled to cap by some still stronger declaration; and so
expressions of devotion went on rising one above the other like
biddings at an auctionand a conventional language of gallantry and
theory of love came into being that in time permeated the literature
of Southern Europeand bore fruitin one direction in the
transcendental worship of Beatrice and Lauraand in another in the
grotesque idolatry which found exponents in writers like Feliciano
de Silva. This is what Cervantes deals with in Don Quixote's passion
for Dulcineaand in no instance has he carried out the burlesque more
happily. By keeping Dulcinea in the backgroundand making her a vague
shadowy being of whose very existence we are left in doubthe invests
Don Quixote's worship of her virtues and charms with an additional
extravaganceand gives still more point to the caricature of the
sentiment and language of the romances.

One of the great merits of "Don Quixote and one of the qualities
that have secured its acceptance by all classes of readers and made it
the most cosmopolitan of books, is its simplicity. There are, of
course, points obvious enough to a Spanish seventeenth century
audience which do not immediately strike a reader now-a-days, and
Cervantes often takes it for granted that an allusion will be
generally understood which is only intelligible to a few. For example,
on many of his readers in Spain, and most of his readers out of it,
the significance of his choice of a country for his hero is completely
lost. It would he going too far to say that no one can thoroughly
comprehend Don Quixote" without having seen La Manchabut
undoubtedly even a glimpse of La Mancha will give an insight into
the meaning of Cervantes such as no commentator can give. Of all the
regions of Spain it is the last that would suggest the idea of
romance. Of all the dull central plateau of the Peninsula it is the
dullest tract. There is something impressive about the grim
solitudes of Estremadura; and if the plains of Leon and Old Castile
are bald and drearythey are studded with old cities renowned in
history and rich in relics of the past. But there is no redeeming
feature in the Manchegan landscape; it has all the sameness of the
desert without its dignity; the few towns and villages that break
its monotony are mean and commonplacethere is nothing venerable

about themthey have not even the picturesqueness of poverty; indeed
Don Quixote's own villageArgamasillahas a sort of oppressive
respectability in the prim regularity of its streets and houses;
everything is ignoble; the very windmills are the ugliest and
shabbiest of the windmill kind.

To anyone who knew the country wellthe mere style and title of
Don Quixote of La Manchagave the key to the author's meaning at
once. La Mancha as the knight's country and scene of his chivalries is
of a piece with the pasteboard helmetthe farm-labourer on ass-back
for a squireknighthood conferred by a rascally venteroconvicts
taken for victims of oppressionand the rest of the incongruities
between Don Quixote's world and the world he lived inbetween
things as he saw them and things as they were.

It is strange that this element of incongruityunderlying the whole
humour and purpose of the bookshould have been so little heeded by
the majority of those who have undertaken to interpret "Don
Quixote." It has been completely overlookedfor exampleby the
illustrators. To be surethe great majority of the artists who
illustrated "Don Quixote" knew nothing whatever of Spain. To them a
venta conveyed no idea but the abstract one of a roadside innand
they could not therefore do full justice to the humour of Don
Quixote's misconception in taking it for a castleor perceive the
remoteness of all its realities from his ideal. But even when better
informed they seem to have no apprehension of the full force of the
discrepancy. Takefor instanceGustave Dore's drawing of Don Quixote
watching his armour in the inn-yard. Whether or not the Venta de
Quesada on the Seville road isas tradition maintainsthe inn
described in "Don Quixote beyond all question it was just such an
inn-yard as the one behind it that Cervantes had in his mind's eye,
and it was on just such a rude stone trough as that beside the
primitive draw-well in the corner that he meant Don Quixote to deposit
his armour. Gustave Dore makes it an elaborate fountain such as no
arriero ever watered his mules at in the corral of any venta in Spain,
and thereby entirely misses the point aimed at by Cervantes. It is the
mean, prosaic, commonplace character of all the surroundings and
circumstances that gives a significance to Don Quixote's vigil and the
ceremony that follows.

Cervantes' humour is for the most part of that broader and simpler
sort, the strength of which lies in the perception of the incongruous.
It is the incongruity of Sancho in all his ways, words, and works,
with the ideas and aims of his master, quite as much as the
wonderful vitality and truth to nature of the character, that makes
him the most humorous creation in the whole range of fiction. That
unsmiling gravity of which Cervantes was the first great master,
Cervantes' serious air which sits naturally on Swift alone,
perhaps, of later humourists, is essential to this kind of humour, and
here again Cervantes has suffered at the hands of his interpreters.
Nothing, unless indeed the coarse buffoonery of Phillips, could be
more out of place in an attempt to represent Cervantes, than a
flippant, would-be facetious style, like that of Motteux's version for
example, or the sprightly, jaunty air, French translators sometimes
adopt. It is the grave matter-of-factness of the narrative, and the
apparent unconsciousness of the author that he is saying anything
ludicrous, anything but the merest commonplace, that give its peculiar
flavour to the humour of Cervantes. His, in fact, is the exact
opposite of the humour of Sterne and the self-conscious humourists.
Even when Uncle Toby is at his best, you are always aware of the
man Sterne" behind himwatching you over his shoulder to see what
effect he is producing. Cervantes always leaves you alone with Don
Quixote and Sancho. He and Swift and the great humourists always
keep themselves out of sightormore properly speakingnever

think about themselves at allunlike our latter-day school of
humouristswho seem to have revived the old horse-collar method
and try to raise a laugh by some grotesque assumption of ignorance
imbecilityor bad taste.

It is true that to do full justice to Spanish humour in any other
language is well-nigh an impossibility. There is a natural gravity and
a sonorous stateliness about Spanishbe it ever so colloquialthat
make an absurdity doubly absurdand give plausibility to the most
preposterous statement. This is what makes Sancho Panza's drollery the
despair of the conscientious translator. Sancho's curt comments can
never fall flatbut they lose half their flavour when transferred
from their native Castilian into any other medium. But if foreigners
have failed to do justice to the humour of Cervantesthey are no
worse than his own countrymen. Indeedwere it not for the Spanish
peasant's relish of "Don Quixote one might be tempted to think
that the great humourist was not looked upon as a humourist at all
in his own country.

The craze of Don Quixote seems, in some instances, to have
communicated itself to his critics, making them see things that are
not in the book and run full tilt at phantoms that have no existence
save in their own imaginations. Like a good many critics now-a-days,
they forget that screams are not criticism, and that it is only vulgar
tastes that are influenced by strings of superlatives, three-piled
hyperboles, and pompous epithets. But what strikes one as particularly
strange is that while they deal in extravagant eulogies, and ascribe
all manner of imaginary ideas and qualities to Cervantes, they show no
perception of the quality that ninety-nine out of a hundred of his
readers would rate highest in him, and hold to be the one that
raises him above all rivalry.

To speak of Don Quixote" as if it were merely a humorous book would
be a manifest misdescription. Cervantes at times makes it a kind of
commonplace book for occasional essays and criticismsor for the
observations and reflections and gathered wisdom of a long and
stirring life. It is a mine of shrewd observation on mankind and human
nature. Among modern novels there may behere and theremore
elaborate studies of characterbut there is no book richer in
individualised character. What Coleridge said of Shakespeare in
minimis is true of Cervantes; he nevereven for the most temporary
purposeputs forward a lay figure. There is life and individuality in
all his charactershowever little they may have to door however
short a time they may be before the reader. Samson Carrascothe
curateTeresa PanzaAltisidoraeven the two students met on the
road to the cave of Montesinosall live and move and have their
being; and it is characteristic of the broad humanity of Cervantes
that there is not a hateful one among them all. Even poor
Maritorneswith her deplorable moralshas a kind heart of her own
and "some faint and distant resemblance to a Christian about her;" and
as for Sanchothough on dissection we fail to find a lovable trait in
himunless it be a sort of dog-like affection for his masterwho
is there that in his heart does not love him?

But it isafter allthe humour of "Don Quixote" that distinguishes
it from all other books of the romance kind. It is this that makes it
as one of the most judicial-minded of modern critics calls itthe
best novel in the world beyond all comparison.It is its varied
humourranging from broad farce to comedy as subtle as
Shakespeare's or Moliere's that has naturalised it in every country
where there are readersand made it a classic in every language
that has a literature.



To the book of Don Quixote of la Mancha

If to be welcomed by the good
O Book! thou make thy steady aim
No empty chatterer will dare
To question or dispute thy claim.
But if perchance thou hast a mind
To win of idiots approbation
Lost labour will be thy reward
Though they'll pretend appreciation.

They say a goodly shade he finds
Who shelters 'neath a goodly tree;
And such a one thy kindly star
In Bejar bath provided thee:
A royal tree whose spreading boughs
A show of princely fruit display;
A tree that bears a noble Duke
The Alexander of his day.

Of a Manchegan gentleman
Thy purpose is to tell the story
Relating how he lost his wits
O'er idle tales of love and glory
Of "ladiesarmsand cavaliers:"
A new Orlando Furioso-
Innamoratorather- who
Won Dulcinea del Toboso.

Put no vain emblems on thy shield;
All figures- that is bragging play.
A modest dedication make
And give no scoffer room to say
What! Alvaro de Luna here?
Or is it Hannibal again?
Or does King Francis at Madrid
Once more of destiny complain?

Since Heaven it hath not pleased on thee
Deep erudition to bestow
Or black Latino's gift of tongues
No Latin let thy pages show.
Ape not philosophy or wit
Lest one who cannot comprehend
Make a wry face at thee and ask
Why offer flowers to me, my friend?

Be not a meddler; no affair
Of thine the life thy neighbours lead:
Be prudent; oft the random jest
Recoils upon the jester's head.
Thy constant labour let it be
To earn thyself an honest name
For fooleries preserved in print
Are perpetuity of shame.

A further counsel bear in mind:

If that thy roof be made of glass
It shows small wit to pick up stones
To pelt the people as they pass.
Win the attention of the wise
And give the thinker food for thought;
Whoso indites frivolities
Will but by simpletons be sought.

To Don Quixote of la Mancha


Thou that didst imitate that life of mine
When I in lonely sadness on the great
Rock Pena Pobre sat disconsolate

In self-imposed penance there to pine;

Thouwhose sole beverage was the bitter brine
Of thine own tearsand who withouten plate
Of silvercoppertinin lowly state

Off the bare earth and on earth's fruits didst dine;

Live thouof thine eternal glory sure.
So long as on the round of the fourth sphere
The bright Apollo shall his coursers steer

In thy renown thou shalt remain secure
Thy country's name in story shall endure
And thy sage author stand without a peer.

To Don Quixote of la Mancha


In slashinghewingcleavingword and deed
I was the foremost knight of chivalry
Stoutboldexpertas e'er the world did see;

Thousands from the oppressor's wrong I freed;

Great were my featseternal fame their meed;
In love I proved my truth and loyalty;
The hugest giant was a dwarf for me;

Ever to knighthood's laws gave I good heed.
My mastery the Fickle Goddess owned
And even Chancesubmitting to control
Grasped by the forelockyielded to my will.
Yet- though above yon horned moon enthroned
My fortune seems to sit- great Quixotestill
Envy of thy achievements fills my soul.

To Dulcinea del Toboso


Ohfairest Dulcineacould it be!
It were a pleasant fancy to suppose so-
Could Miraflores change to El Toboso

And London's town to that which shelters thee!

Ohcould mine but acquire that livery
Of countless charms thy mind and body show so!
Or himnow famous grown- thou mad'st him grow so

Thy knightin some dread combat could I see!
Ohcould I be released from Amadis
By exercise of such coy chastity
As led thee gentle Quixote to dismiss!
Then would my heavy sorrow turn to joy;
None would I envyall would envy me
And happiness be mine without alloy.

To Sancho Panzasquire of Don Quixote


All hailillustrious man! Fortunewhen she
Bound thee apprentice to the esquire trade
Her care and tenderness of thee displayed

Shaping thy course from misadventure free.

No longer now doth proud knight-errantry
Regard with scorn the sickle and the spade;
Of towering arrogance less count is made

Than of plain esquire-like simplicity.
I envy thee thy Dappleand thy name
And those alforjas thou wast wont to stuff

With comforts that thy providence proclaim.
Excellent Sancho! hail to thee again!
To thee alone the Ovid of our Spain

Does homage with the rustic kiss and cuff.


On Sancho Panza and Rocinante


I am the esquire Sancho Pan-
Who served Don Quixote of La Man-;
But from his service I retreat-
Resolved to pass my life discreet-;
For Villadiegocalled the Si-
Maintained that only in reti-
Was found the secret of well-be-
According to the "Celesti-:"
A book divineexcept for sin-
By speech too plainin my opin-


I am that Rocinante fa-
Great-grandson of great Babie-
Whoall for being lean and bon-
Had one Don Quixote for an own-;
But if I matched him well in weak-
I never took short commons meek-
But kept myself in corn by steal-
A trick I learned from Lazaril-
When with a piece of straw so neat-
The blind man of his wine he cheat-.

To Don Quixote of La Mancha


If thou art not a Peerpeer thou hast none;
Among a thousand Peers thou art a peer;
Nor is there room for one when thou art near

Unvanquished victorgreat unconquered one!

Orlandoby Angelica undone
Am I; o'er distant seas condemned to steer
And to Fame's altars as an offering bear

Valour respected by Oblivion.
I cannot be thy rivalfor thy fame
And prowess rise above all rivalry
Albeit both bereft of wits we go.
Butthough the Scythian or the Moor to tame
Was not thy lotstill thou dost rival me:
Love binds us in a fellowship of woe.


To Don Quixote of La Mancha

My sword was not to be compared with thine
Phoebus of Spainmarvel of courtesy

Nor with thy famous arm this hand of mine
That smote from east to west as lightnings fly.
I scorned all empireand that monarchy

The rosy east held out did I resign

For one glance of Claridiana's eye
The bright Aurora for whose love I pine.
A miracle of constancy my love;

And banished by her ruthless cruelty
This arm had might the rage of Hell to tame.
ButGothic Quixotehappier thou dost prove
For thou dost live in Dulcinea's name
And famoushonouredwiseshe lives in thee.

To Don Quixote of La Mancha


Your fantasiesSir Quixoteit is true
That crazy brain of yours have quite upset
But aught of base or mean hath never yet

Been charged by any in reproach to you.

Your deeds are open proof in all men's view;
For you went forth injustice to abate
And for your pains sore drubbings did you get

From many a rascally and ruffian crew.
If the fair Dulcineayour heart's queen
Be unrelenting in her cruelty
If still your woe be powerless to move her
In such hard case your comfort let it be
That Sancho was a sorry go-between:

A booby hehard-hearted sheand you no lover.

Between Babieca and Rocinante


B. "How comes itRocinanteyou're so lean?"
R. "I'm underfedwith overwork I'm worn."
B. "But what becomes of all the hay and corn?"
R. "My master gives me none; he's much too mean."
B. "Comecomeyou show ill-breedingsirI ween;
'T is like an ass your master thus to scorn."
R. He is an asswill die an assan ass was born;
Whyhe's in love; what's what's plainer to be seen?"
B. "To be in love is folly?"- R. "No great sense."
B. "You're metaphysical."- R. "From want of food."
B. "Rail at the squirethen."- R. "Whywhat's the good?
I might indeed complain of himI grant ye
Butsquire or masterwhere's the difference?
They're both as sorry hacks as Rocinante."


Idle reader: thou mayest believe me without any oath that I would
this bookas it is the child of my brainwere the fairestgayest
and cleverest that could be imagined. But I could not counteract
Nature's law that everything shall beget its like; and whatthen
could this sterileilltilled wit of mine beget but the story of a
dryshrivelledwhimsical offspringfull of thoughts of all sorts
and such as never came into any other imagination- just what might
be begotten in a prisonwhere every misery is lodged and every
doleful sound makes its dwelling? Tranquillitya cheerful retreat
pleasant fieldsbright skiesmurmuring brookspeace of mind
these are the things that go far to make even the most barren muses
fertileand bring into the world births that fill it with wonder
and delight. Sometimes when a father has an uglyloutish sonthe
love he bears him so blindfolds his eyes that he does not see his
defectsorrathertakes them for gifts and charms of mind and body
and talks of them to his friends as wit and grace. Ihowever- for
though I pass for the fatherI am but the stepfather to "Don
Quixote"- have no desire to go with the current of customor to
implore theedearest readeralmost with tears in my eyesas
others doto pardon or excuse the defects thou wilt perceive in
this child of mine. Thou art neither its kinsman nor its friendthy
soul is thine own and thy will as free as any man'swhate'er he be
thou art in thine own house and master of it as much as the king of
his taxes and thou knowest the common sayingUnder my cloak I kill
the king;all which exempts and frees thee from every consideration
and obligationand thou canst say what thou wilt of the story without
fear of being abused for any ill or rewarded for any good thou
mayest say of it.

My wish would be simply to present it to thee plain and unadorned
without any embellishment of preface or uncountable muster of
customary sonnetsepigramsand eulogiessuch as are commonly put at
the beginning of books. For I can tell theethough composing it

cost me some labourI found none greater than the making of this
Preface thou art now reading. Many times did I take up my pen to write
itand many did I lay it down againnot knowing what to write. One
of these timesas I was pondering with the paper before mea pen
in my earmy elbow on the deskand my cheek in my handthinking
of what I should saythere came in unexpectedly a certain lively
clever friend of minewhoseeing me so deep in thoughtasked the
reason; to which Imaking no mystery of itanswered that I was
thinking of the Preface I had to make for the story of "Don
Quixote which so troubled me that I had a mind not to make any at
all, nor even publish the achievements of so noble a knight.

Forhow could you expect me not to feel uneasy about what that
ancient lawgiver they call the Public will say when it sees me
after slumbering so many years in the silence of oblivioncoming
out now with all my years upon my backand with a book as dry as a
rushdevoid of inventionmeagre in stylepoor in thoughtswholly
wanting in learning and wisdomwithout quotations in the margin or
annotations at the endafter the fashion of other books I seewhich
though all fables and profanityare so full of maxims from Aristotle
and Platoand the whole herd of philosophersthat they fill the
readers with amazement and convince them that the authors are men of
learningeruditionand eloquence. And thenwhen they quote the Holy
Scriptures!- anyone would say they are St. Thomases or other doctors
of the Churchobserving as they do a decorum so ingenious that in one
sentence they describe a distracted lover and in the next deliver a
devout little sermon that it is a pleasure and a treat to hear and
read. Of all this there will be nothing in my bookfor I have nothing
to quote in the margin or to note at the endand still less do I know
what authors I follow in itto place them at the beginningas all
dounder the letters ABCbeginning with Aristotle and ending
with Xenophonor Zoilusor Zeuxisthough one was a slanderer and
the other a painter. Also my book must do without sonnets at the
beginningat least sonnets whose authors are dukesmarquises
countsbishopsladiesor famous poets. Though if I were to ask
two or three obliging friendsI know they would give me themand
such as the productions of those that have the highest reputation in
our Spain could not equal.

In short, my friend,I continuedI am determined that Senor
Don Quixote shall remain buried in the archives of his own La Mancha
until Heaven provide some one to garnish him with all those things
he stands in need of; because I find myself, through my shallowness
and want of learning, unequal to supplying them, and because I am by
nature shy and careless about hunting for authors to say what I myself
can say without them. Hence the cogitation and abstraction you found
me in, and reason enough, what you have heard from me.

Hearing thismy friendgiving himself a slap on the forehead and
breaking into a hearty laughexclaimedBefore God, Brother, now
am I disabused of an error in which I have been living all this long
time I have known you, all through which I have taken you to be shrewd
and sensible in all you do; but now I see you are as far from that
as the heaven is from the earth. It is possible that things of so
little moment and so easy to set right can occupy and perplex a ripe
wit like yours, fit to break through and crush far greater
obstacles? By my faith, this comes, not of any want of ability, but of
too much indolence and too little knowledge of life. Do you want to
know if I am telling the truth? Well, then, attend to me, and you will
see how, in the opening and shutting of an eye, I sweep away all
your difficulties, and supply all those deficiencies which you say
check and discourage you from bringing before the world the story of
your famous Don Quixote, the light and mirror of all knight-errantry.

Say on,said Ilistening to his talk; "how do you propose to make
up for my diffidenceand reduce to order this chaos of perplexity I
am in?"

To which he made answerYour first difficulty about the sonnets,
epigrams, or complimentary verses which you want for the beginning,
and which ought to be by persons of importance and rank, can be
removed if you yourself take a little trouble to make them; you can
afterwards baptise them, and put any name you like to them,
fathering them on Prester John of the Indies or the Emperor of
Trebizond, who, to my knowledge, were said to have been famous
poets: and even if they were not, and any pedants or bachelors
should attack you and question the fact, never care two maravedis
for that, for even if they prove a lie against you they cannot cut off
the hand you wrote it with.

As to references in the margin to the books and authors from whom
you take the aphorisms and sayings you put into your storyit is only
contriving to fit in nicely any sentences or scraps of Latin you may
happen to have by heartor at any rate that will not give you much
trouble to look up; so aswhen you speak of freedom and captivityto

Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro;

and then refer in the margin to Horaceor whoever said it; orif you
allude to the power of deathto come in with

Pallida mors Aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas
Regumque turres.

If it be friendship and the love God bids us bear to our enemygo
at once to the Holy Scriptureswhich you can do with a very small
amount of researchand quote no less than the words of God himself:
Ego autem dico vobis: diligite inimicos vestros. If you speak of
evil thoughtsturn to the Gospel: De corde exeunt cogitationes malae.
If of the fickleness of friendsthere is Catowho will give you
his distich:

Donec eris felix multos numerabis amicos
Tempora si fuerint nubilasolus eris.

With these and such like bits of Latin they will take you for a
grammarian at all eventsand that now-a-days is no small honour and

With regard to adding annotations at the end of the book, you may
safely do it in this way. If you mention any giant in your book
contrive that it shall be the giant Goliath, and with this alone,
which will cost you almost nothing, you have a grand note, for you can
put- The giant Golias or Goliath was a Philistine whom the shepherd
David slew by a mighty stone-cast in the Terebinth valley, as is
related in the Book of Kings- in the chapter where you find it

Nextto prove yourself a man of erudition in polite literature and
cosmographymanage that the river Tagus shall be named in your story
and there you are at once with another famous annotationsetting
forth- The river Tagus was so called after a King of Spain: it has its
source in such and such a place and falls into the oceankissing
the walls of the famous city of Lisbonand it is a common belief that
it has golden sands&c. If you should have anything to do with
robbersI will give you the story of Cacusfor I have it by heart;
if with loose womenthere is the Bishop of Mondonedowho will give

you the loan of LamiaLaidaand Floraany reference to whom will
bring you great credit; if with hard-hearted onesOvid will furnish
you with Medea; if with witches or enchantressesHomer has Calypso
and Virgil Circe; if with valiant captainsJulius Caesar himself will
lend you himself in his own 'Commentaries' and Plutarch will give you
a thousand Alexanders. If you should deal with lovewith two ounces
you may know of Tuscan you can go to Leon the Hebrewwho will
supply you to your heart's content; or if you should not care to go to
foreign countries you have at home Fonseca's 'Of the Love of God'
in which is condensed all that you or the most imaginative mind can
want on the subject. In shortall you have to do is to manage to
quote these namesor refer to these stories I have mentionedand
leave it to me to insert the annotations and quotationsand I swear
by all that's good to fill your margins and use up four sheets at
the end of the book.

Now let us come to those references to authors which other books
have, and you want for yours. The remedy for this is very simple:
You have only to look out for some book that quotes them all, from A
to Z as you say yourself, and then insert the very same alphabet in
your book, and though the imposition may be plain to see, because
you have so little need to borrow from them, that is no matter;
there will probably be some simple enough to believe that you have
made use of them all in this plain, artless story of yours. At any
rate, if it answers no other purpose, this long catalogue of authors
will serve to give a surprising look of authority to your book.
Besides, no one will trouble himself to verify whether you have
followed them or whether you have not, being no way concerned in it;
especially as, if I mistake not, this book of yours has no need of any
one of those things you say it wants, for it is, from beginning to
end, an attack upon the books of chivalry, of which Aristotle never
dreamt, nor St. Basil said a word, nor Cicero had any knowledge; nor
do the niceties of truth nor the observations of astrology come within
the range of its fanciful vagaries; nor have geometrical
measurements or refutations of the arguments used in rhetoric anything
to do with it; nor does it mean to preach to anybody, mixing up things
human and divine, a sort of motley in which no Christian understanding
should dress itself. It has only to avail itself of truth to nature in
its composition, and the more perfect the imitation the better the
work will be. And as this piece of yours aims at nothing more than
to destroy the authority and influence which books of chivalry have in
the world and with the public, there is no need for you to go
a-begging for aphorisms from philosophers, precepts from Holy
Scripture, fables from poets, speeches from orators, or miracles
from saints; but merely to take care that your style and diction run
musically, pleasantly, and plainly, with clear, proper, and
well-placed words, setting forth your purpose to the best of your
power, and putting your ideas intelligibly, without confusion or
obscurity. Strive, too, that in reading your story the melancholy
may be moved to laughter, and the merry made merrier still; that the
simple shall not be wearied, that the judicious shall admire the
invention, that the grave shall not despise it, nor the wise fail to
praise it. Finally, keep your aim fixed on the destruction of that
ill-founded edifice of the books of chivalry, hated by some and
praised by many more; for if you succeed in this you will have
achieved no small success.

In profound silence I listened to what my friend saidand his
observations made such an impression on me thatwithout attempting to
question themI admitted their soundnessand out of them I
determined to make this Preface; whereingentle readerthou wilt
perceive my friend's good sensemy good fortune in finding such an
adviser in such a time of needand what thou hast gained in
receivingwithout addition or alterationthe story of the famous Don

Quixote of La Manchawho is held by all the inhabitants of the
district of the Campo de Montiel to have been the chastest lover and
the bravest knight that has for many years been seen in that
neighbourhood. I have no desire to magnify the service I render thee
in making thee acquainted with so renowned and honoured a knight
but I do desire thy thanks for the acquaintance thou wilt make with
the famous Sancho Panzahis squirein whomto my thinkingI have
given thee condensed all the squirely drolleries that are scattered
through the swarm of the vain books of chivalry. And so- may God
give thee healthand not forget me. Vale.



In belief of the good reception and honours that Your Excellency
bestows on all sort of booksas prince so inclined to favor good
artschiefly those who by their nobleness do not submit to the
service and bribery of the vulgarI have determined bringing to light
The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of la Manchain shelter of Your
Excellency's glamorous nameto whomwith the obeisance I owe to such
grandeurI pray to receive it agreeably under his protectionso that
in this shadowthough deprived of that precious ornament of
elegance and erudition that clothe the works composed in the houses of
those who knowit dares appear with assurance in the judgment of some
whotrespassing the bounds of their own ignoranceuse to condemn
with more rigour and less justice the writings of others. It is my
earnest hope that Your Excellency's good counsel in regard to my
honourable purposewill not disdain the littleness of so humble a

Miguel de Cervantes



In a village of La Manchathe name of which I have no desire to
call to mindthere lived not long since one of those gentlemen that
keep a lance in the lance-rackan old bucklera lean hackand a
greyhound for coursing. An olla of rather more beef than muttona
salad on most nightsscraps on Saturdayslentils on Fridaysand a
pigeon or so extra on Sundaysmade away with three-quarters of his
income. The rest of it went in a doublet of fine cloth and velvet
breeches and shoes to match for holidayswhile on week-days he made a
brave figure in his best homespun. He had in his house a housekeeper
past fortya niece under twentyand a lad for the field and
market-placewho used to saddle the hack as well as handle the
bill-hook. The age of this gentleman of ours was bordering on fifty;
he was of a hardy habitsparegaunt-featureda very early riser and
a great sportsman. They will have it his surname was Quixada or
Quesada (for here there is some difference of opinion among the
authors who write on the subject)although from reasonable
conjectures it seems plain that he was called Quexana. This

howeveris of but little importance to our tale; it will be enough
not to stray a hair's breadth from the truth in the telling of it.

You must knowthenthat the above-named gentleman whenever he
was at leisure (which was mostly all the year round) gave himself up
to reading books of chivalry with such ardour and avidity that he
almost entirely neglected the pursuit of his field-sportsand even
the management of his property; and to such a pitch did his
eagerness and infatuation go that he sold many an acre of
tillageland to buy books of chivalry to readand brought home as many
of them as he could get. But of all there were none he liked so well
as those of the famous Feliciano de Silva's compositionfor their
lucidity of style and complicated conceits were as pearls in his
sightparticularly when in his reading he came upon courtships and
cartelswhere he often found passages like "the reason of the
unreason with which my reason is afflicted so weakens my reason that
with reason I murmur at your beauty;" or againthe high heavens,
that of your divinity divinely fortify you with the stars, render
you deserving of the desert your greatness deserves.Over conceits of
this sort the poor gentleman lost his witsand used to lie awake
striving to understand them and worm the meaning out of them; what
Aristotle himself could not have made out or extracted had he come
to life again for that special purpose. He was not at all easy about
the wounds which Don Belianis gave and tookbecause it seemed to
him thatgreat as were the surgeons who had cured himhe must have
had his face and body covered all over with seams and scars. He
commendedhoweverthe author's way of ending his book with the
promise of that interminable adventureand many a time was he tempted
to take up his pen and finish it properly as is there proposed
which no doubt he would have doneand made a successful piece of work
of it toohad not greater and more absorbing thoughts prevented him.

Many an argument did he have with the curate of his village (a
learned manand a graduate of Siguenza) as to which had been the
better knightPalmerin of England or Amadis of Gaul. Master Nicholas
the village barberhoweverused to say that neither of them came
up to the Knight of Phoebusand that if there was any that could
compare with him it was Don Galaorthe brother of Amadis of Gaul
because he had a spirit that was equal to every occasionand was no
finikin knightnor lachrymose like his brotherwhile in the matter
of valour he was not a whit behind him. In shorthe became so
absorbed in his books that he spent his nights from sunset to sunrise
and his days from dawn to darkporing over them; and what with little
sleep and much reading his brains got so dry that he lost his wits.
His fancy grew full of what he used to read about in his books
agoniesand all sorts of impossible nonsense; and it so possessed his
mind that the whole fabric of invention and fancy he read of was true
that to him no history in the world had more reality in it. He used to
say the Cid Ruy Diaz was a very good knightbut that he was not to be
compared with the Knight of the Burning Sword who with one back-stroke
cut in half two fierce and monstrous giants. He thought more of
Bernardo del Carpio because at Roncesvalles he slew Roland in spite of
enchantmentsavailing himself of the artifice of Hercules when he
strangled Antaeus the son of Terra in his arms. He approved highly
of the giant Morgantebecausealthough of the giant breed which is
always arrogant and ill-conditionedhe alone was affable and
well-bred. But above all he admired Reinaldos of Montalbanespecially
when he saw him sallying forth from his castle and robbing everyone he
metand when beyond the seas he stole that image of Mahomet whichas
his history sayswas entirely of gold. To have a bout of kicking at
that traitor of a Ganelon he would have given his housekeeperand his
niece into the bargain.

In shorthis wits being quite gonehe hit upon the strangest
notion that ever madman in this world hit uponand that was that he
fancied it was right and requisiteas well for the support of his own
honour as for the service of his countrythat he should make a
knight-errant of himselfroaming the world over in full armour and on
horseback in quest of adventuresand putting in practice himself
all that he had read of as being the usual practices of
knights-errant; righting every kind of wrongand exposing himself
to peril and danger from whichin the issuehe was to reap eternal
renown and fame. Already the poor man saw himself crowned by the might
of his arm Emperor of Trebizond at least; and soled away by the
intense enjoyment he found in these pleasant fancieshe set himself
forthwith to put his scheme into execution.

The first thing he did was to clean up some armour that had belonged
to his great-grandfatherand had been for ages lying forgotten in a
corner eaten with rust and covered with mildew. He scoured and
polished it as best he couldbut he perceived one great defect in it
that it had no closed helmetnothing but a simple morion. This
deficiencyhoweverhis ingenuity suppliedfor he contrived a kind
of half-helmet of pasteboard whichfitted on to the morionlooked
like a whole one. It is true thatin order to see if it was strong
and fit to stand a cuthe drew his sword and gave it a couple of
slashesthe first of which undid in an instant what had taken him a
week to do. The ease with which he had knocked it to pieces
disconcerted him somewhatand to guard against that danger he set
to work againfixing bars of iron on the inside until he was
satisfied with its strength; and thennot caring to try any more
experiments with ithe passed it and adopted it as a helmet of the
most perfect construction.

He next proceeded to inspect his hackwhichwith more quartos than
a real and more blemishes than the steed of Gonelathat "tantum
pellis et ossa fuit surpassed in his eyes the Bucephalus of
Alexander or the Babieca of the Cid. Four days were spent in
thinking what name to give him, because (as he said to himself) it was
not right that a horse belonging to a knight so famous, and one with
such merits of his own, should be without some distinctive name, and
he strove to adapt it so as to indicate what he had been before
belonging to a knight-errant, and what he then was; for it was only
reasonable that, his master taking a new character, he should take a
new name, and that it should be a distinguished and full-sounding one,
befitting the new order and calling he was about to follow. And so,
after having composed, struck out, rejected, added to, unmade, and
remade a multitude of names out of his memory and fancy, he decided
upon calling him Rocinante, a name, to his thinking, lofty,
sonorous, and significant of his condition as a hack before he
became what he now was, the first and foremost of all the hacks in the

Having got a name for his horse so much to his taste, he was anxious
to get one for himself, and he was eight days more pondering over this
point, till at last he made up his mind to call himself Don Quixote
whence, as has been already said, the authors of this veracious
history have inferred that his name must have been beyond a doubt
Quixada, and not Quesada as others would have it. Recollecting,
however, that the valiant Amadis was not content to call himself
curtly Amadis and nothing more, but added the name of his kingdom
and country to make it famous, and called himself Amadis of Gaul,
he, like a good knight, resolved to add on the name of his, and to
style himself Don Quixote of La Mancha, whereby, he considered, he
described accurately his origin and country, and did honour to it in
taking his surname from it.

So then, his armour being furbished, his morion turned into a
helmet, his hack christened, and he himself confirmed, he came to
the conclusion that nothing more was needed now but to look out for
a lady to be in love with; for a knight-errant without love was like a
tree without leaves or fruit, or a body without a soul. As he said
to himself, Iffor my sinsor by my good fortuneI come across
some giant hereaboutsa common occurrence with knights-errantand
overthrow him in one onslaughtor cleave him asunder to the waist
orin shortvanquish and subdue himwill it not be well to have
some one I may send him to as a presentthat he may come in and
fall on his knees before my sweet ladyand in a humblesubmissive
voice say'I am the giant Caraculiambrolord of the island of
Malindraniavanquished in single combat by the never sufficiently
extolled knight Don Quixote of La Manchawho has commanded me to
present myself before your Gracethat your Highness dispose of me
at your pleasure'?" Ohhow our good gentleman enjoyed the delivery of
this speechespecially when he had thought of some one to call his
Lady! There wasso the story goesin a village near his own a very
good-looking farm-girl with whom he had been at one time in love
thoughso far as is knownshe never knew it nor gave a thought to
the matter. Her name was Aldonza Lorenzoand upon her he thought
fit to confer the title of Lady of his Thoughts; and after some search
for a name which should not be out of harmony with her ownand should
suggest and indicate that of a princess and great ladyhe decided
upon calling her Dulcinea del Toboso -she being of El Toboso- a name
to his mindmusicaluncommonand significantlike all those he had
already bestowed upon himself and the things belonging to him.



These preliminaries settledhe did not care to put off any longer
the execution of his designurged on to it by the thought of all
the world was losing by his delayseeing what wrongs he intended to
rightgrievances to redressinjustices to repairabuses to
removeand duties to discharge. Sowithout giving notice of his
intention to anyoneand without anybody seeing himone morning
before the dawning of the day (which was one of the hottest of the
month of July) he donned his suit of armourmounted Rocinante with
his patched-up helmet onbraced his bucklertook his lanceand by
the back door of the yard sallied forth upon the plain in the
highest contentment and satisfaction at seeing with what ease he had
made a beginning with his grand purpose. But scarcely did he find
himself upon the open plainwhen a terrible thought struck himone
all but enough to make him abandon the enterprise at the very
outset. It occurred to him that he had not been dubbed a knightand
that according to the law of chivalry he neither could nor ought to
bear arms against any knight; and that even if he had beenstill he
oughtas a novice knightto wear white armourwithout a device upon
the shield until by his prowess he had earned one. These reflections
made him waver in his purposebut his craze being stronger than any
reasoninghe made up his mind to have himself dubbed a knight by
the first one he came acrossfollowing the example of others in the
same caseas he had read in the books that brought him to this
pass. As for white armourhe resolvedon the first opportunityto
scour his until it was whiter than an ermine; and so comforting
himself he pursued his waytaking that which his horse chosefor
in this he believed lay the essence of adventures.

Thus setting outour new-fledged adventurer paced alongtalking to

himself and sayingWho knows but that in time to come, when the
veracious history of my famous deeds is made known, the sage who
writes it, when he has to set forth my first sally in the early
morning, will do it after this fashion? 'Scarce had the rubicund
Apollo spread o'er the face of the broad spacious earth the golden
threads of his bright hair, scarce had the little birds of painted
plumage attuned their notes to hail with dulcet and mellifluous
harmony the coming of the rosy Dawn, that, deserting the soft couch of
her jealous spouse, was appearing to mortals at the gates and
balconies of the Manchegan horizon, when the renowned knight Don
Quixote of La Mancha, quitting the lazy down, mounted his celebrated
steed Rocinante and began to traverse the ancient and famous Campo
de Montiel;'which in fact he was actually traversing. "Happy the
agehappy the time he continued, in which shall be made known my
deeds of fameworthy to be moulded in brasscarved in marblelimned
in picturesfor a memorial for ever. And thouO sage magician
whoever thou artto whom it shall fall to be the chronicler of this
wondrous historyforget notI entreat theemy good Rocinantethe
constant companion of my ways and wanderings." Presently he broke
out againas if he were love-stricken in earnestO Princess
Dulcinea, lady of this captive heart, a grievous wrong hast thou
done me to drive me forth with scorn, and with inexorable obduracy
banish me from the presence of thy beauty. O lady, deign to hold in
remembrance this heart, thy vassal, that thus in anguish pines for
love of thee.

So he went on stringing together these and other absurditiesall in
the style of those his books had taught himimitating their
language as well as he could; and all the while he rode so slowly
and the sun mounted so rapidly and with such fervour that it was
enough to melt his brains if he had any. Nearly all day he travelled
without anything remarkable happening to himat which he was in
despairfor he was anxious to encounter some one at once upon whom to
try the might of his strong arm.

Writers there are who say the first adventure he met with was that
of Puerto Lapice; others say it was that of the windmills; but what
I have ascertained on this pointand what I have found written in the
annals of La Manchais that he was on the road all dayand towards
nightfall his hack and he found themselves dead tired and hungry
whenlooking all around to see if he could discover any castle or
shepherd's shanty where he might refresh himself and relieve his
sore wantshe perceived not far out of his road an innwhich was
as welcome as a star guiding him to the portalsif not the palaces
of his redemption; and quickening his pace he reached it just as night
was setting in. At the door were standing two young womengirls of
the district as they call themon their way to Seville with some
carriers who had chanced to halt that night at the inn; and ashappen
what might to our adventurereverything he saw or imaged seemed to
him to be and to happen after the fashion of what he read ofthe
moment he saw the inn he pictured it to himself as a castle with its
four turrets and pinnacles of shining silvernot forgetting the
drawbridge and moat and all the belongings usually ascribed to castles
of the sort. To this innwhich to him seemed a castlehe advanced
and at a short distance from it he checked Rocinantehoping that some
dwarf would show himself upon the battlementsand by sound of trumpet
give notice that a knight was approaching the castle. But seeing
that they were slow about itand that Rocinante was in a hurry to
reach the stablehe made for the inn doorand perceived the two
gay damsels who were standing thereand who seemed to him to be two
fair maidens or lovely ladies taking their ease at the castle gate.

At this moment it so happened that a swineherd who was going through
the stubbles collecting a drove of pigs (forwithout any apology

that is what they are called) gave a blast of his horn to bring them
togetherand forthwith it seemed to Don Quixote to be what he was
expectingthe signal of some dwarf announcing his arrival; and so
with prodigious satisfaction he rode up to the inn and to the
ladieswhoseeing a man of this sort approaching in full armour
and with lance and bucklerwere turning in dismay into the inn
when Don Quixoteguessing their fear by their flightraising his
pasteboard visordisclosed his dry dusty visageand with courteous
bearing and gentle voice addressed themYour ladyships need not
fly or fear any rudeness, for that it belongs not to the order of
knighthood which I profess to offer to anyone, much less to highborn
maidens as your appearance proclaims you to be.The girls were
looking at him and straining their eyes to make out the features which
the clumsy visor obscuredbut when they heard themselves called
maidensa thing so much out of their linethey could not restrain
their laughterwhich made Don Quixote wax indignantand say
Modesty becomes the fair, and moreover laughter that has little cause
is great silliness; this, however, I say not to pain or anger you, for
my desire is none other than to serve you.

The incomprehensible language and the unpromising looks of our
cavalier only increased the ladies' laughterand that increased his
irritationand matters might have gone farther if at that moment
the landlord had not come outwhobeing a very fat manwas a very
peaceful one. Heseeing this grotesque figure clad in armour that did
not match any more than his saddlebridlelancebuckleror
corseletwas not at all indisposed to join the damsels in their
manifestations of amusement; butin truthstanding in awe of such
a complicated armamenthe thought it best to speak him fairlyso
he saidSenor Caballero, if your worship wants lodging, bating the
bed (for there is not one in the inn) there is plenty of everything
else here.Don Quixoteobserving the respectful bearing of the
Alcaide of the fortress (for so innkeeper and inn seemed in his eyes)
made answerSir Castellan, for me anything will suffice, for

'My armour is my only wear,
My only rest the fray.'

The host fancied he called him Castellan because he took him for a
worthy of Castile,though he was in fact an Andalusianand one from
the strand of San Lucaras crafty a thief as Cacus and as full of
tricks as a student or a page. "In that case said he,

'Your bed is on the flinty rock
Your sleep to watch alway;'

and if soyou may dismount and safely reckon upon any quantity of
sleeplessness under this roof for a twelvemonthnot to say for a
single night." So sayinghe advanced to hold the stirrup for Don
Quixotewho got down with great difficulty and exertion (for he had
not broken his fast all day)and then charged the host to take
great care of his horseas he was the best bit of flesh that ever ate
bread in this world. The landlord eyed him over but did not find him
as good as Don Quixote saidnor even half as good; and putting him up
in the stablehe returned to see what might be wanted by his guest
whom the damselswho had by this time made their peace with himwere
now relieving of his armour. They had taken off his breastplate and
backpiecebut they neither knew nor saw how to open his gorget or
remove his make-shift helmetfor he had fastened it with green
ribbonswhichas there was no untying the knotsrequired to be cut.
Thishoweverhe would not by any means consent toso he remained
all the evening with his helmet onthe drollest and oddest figure
that can be imagined; and while they were removing his armour
taking the baggages who were about it for ladies of high degree

belonging to the castlehe said to them with great sprightliness:

Ohneversurelywas there knight
So served by hand of dame
As served was heDon Quixote hight
When from his town he came;
With maidens waiting on himself
Princesses on his hack

-or Rocinantefor thatladies mineis my horse's nameand Don
Quixote of La Mancha is my own; for though I had no intention of
declaring myself until my achievements in your service and honour
had made me knownthe necessity of adapting that old ballad of
Lancelot to the present occasion has given you the knowledge of my
name altogether prematurely. A timehoweverwill come for your
ladyships to command and me to obeyand then the might of my arm will
show my desire to serve you."

The girlswho were not used to hearing rhetoric of this sorthad
nothing to say in reply; they only asked him if he wanted anything
to eat. "I would gladly eat a bit of something said Don Quixote,
for I feel it would come very seasonably." The day happened to be a
Fridayand in the whole inn there was nothing but some pieces of
the fish they call in Castile "abadejo in Andalusia bacallao
and in some places curadillo and in others troutlet;" so they
asked him if he thought he could eat troutletfor there was no
other fish to give him. "If there be troutlets enough said Don
Quixote, they will be the same thing as a trout; for it is all one to
me whether I am given eight reals in small change or a piece of eight;
moreoverit may be that these troutlets are like vealwhich is
better than beefor kidwhich is better than goat. But whatever it
be let it come quicklyfor the burden and pressure of arms cannot
be borne without support to the inside." They laid a table for him
at the door of the inn for the sake of the airand the host brought
him a portion of ill-soaked and worse cooked stockfishand a piece of
bread as black and mouldy as his own armour; but a laughable sight
it was to see him eatingfor having his helmet on and the beaver
uphe could not with his own hands put anything into his mouth unless
some one else placed it thereand this service one of the ladies
rendered him. But to give him anything to drink was impossibleor
would have been so had not the landlord bored a reedand putting
one end in his mouth poured the wine into him through the other; all
which he bore with patience rather than sever the ribbons of his

While this was going on there came up to the inn a sowgelderwho
as he approachedsounded his reed pipe four or five timesand
thereby completely convinced Don Quixote that he was in some famous
castleand that they were regaling him with musicand that the
stockfish was troutthe bread the whitestthe wenches ladiesand
the landlord the castellan of the castle; and consequently he held
that his enterprise and sally had been to some purpose. But still it
distressed him to think he had not been dubbed a knightfor it was
plain to him he could not lawfully engage in any adventure without
receiving the order of knighthood.



Harassed by this reflectionhe made haste with his scanty
pothouse supperand having finished it called the landlordand
shutting himself into the stable with himfell on his knees before
himsayingFrom this spot I rise not, valiant knight, until your
courtesy grants me the boon I seek, one that will redound to your
praise and the benefit of the human race.The landlordseeing his
guest at his feet and hearing a speech of this kindstood staring
at him in bewildermentnot knowing what to do or sayand
entreating him to risebut all to no purpose until he had agreed to
grant the boon demanded of him. "I looked for no lessmy lordfrom
your High Magnificence replied Don Quixote, and I have to tell
you that the boon I have asked and your liberality has granted is that
you shall dub me knight to-morrow morningand that to-night I shall
watch my arms in the chapel of this your castle; thus tomorrowas I
have saidwill be accomplished what I so much desireenabling me
lawfully to roam through all the four quarters of the world seeking
adventures on behalf of those in distressas is the duty of
chivalry and of knights-errant like myselfwhose ambition is directed
to such deeds."

The landlordwhoas has been mentionedwas something of a wag
and had already some suspicion of his guest's want of witswas
quite convinced of it on hearing talk of this kind from himand to
make sport for the night he determined to fall in with his humour.
So he told him he was quite right in pursuing the object he had in
viewand that such a motive was natural and becoming in cavaliers
as distinguished as he seemed and his gallant bearing showed him to
be; and that he himself in his younger days had followed the same
honourable callingroaming in quest of adventures in various parts of
the worldamong others the Curing-grounds of Malagathe Isles of
Riaranthe Precinct of Sevillethe Little Market of Segoviathe
Olivera of Valenciathe Rondilla of Granadathe Strand of San Lucar
the Colt of Cordovathe Taverns of Toledoand divers other quarters
where he had proved the nimbleness of his feet and the lightness of
his fingersdoing many wrongscheating many widowsruining maids
and swindling minorsandin shortbringing himself under the notice
of almost every tribunal and court of justice in Spain; until at
last he had retired to this castle of hiswhere he was living upon
his property and upon that of others; and where he received all
knights-errant of whatever rank or condition they might beall for
the great love he bore them and that they might share their
substance with him in return for his benevolence. He told him
moreoverthat in this castle of his there was no chapel in which he
could watch his armouras it had been pulled down in order to be
rebuiltbut that in a case of necessity it mighthe knewbe watched
anywhereand he might watch it that night in a courtyard of the
castleand in the morningGod willingthe requisite ceremonies
might be performed so as to have him dubbed a knightand so
thoroughly dubbed that nobody could be more so. He asked if he had any
money with himto which Don Quixote replied that he had not a
farthingas in the histories of knights-errant he had never read of
any of them carrying any. On this point the landlord told him he was
mistaken; forthough not recorded in the historiesbecause in the
author's opinion there was no need to mention anything so obvious
and necessary as money and clean shirtsit was not to be supposed
therefore that they did not carry themand he might regard it as
certain and established that all knights-errant (about whom there were
so many full and unimpeachable books) carried well-furnished purses in
case of emergencyand likewise carried shirts and a little box of
ointment to cure the wounds they received. For in those plains and
deserts where they engaged in combat and came out woundedit was
not always that there was some one to cure themunless indeed they
had for a friend some sage magician to succour them at once by
fetching through the air upon a cloud some damsel or dwarf with a vial

of water of such virtue that by tasting one drop of it they were cured
of their hurts and wounds in an instant and left as sound as if they
had not received any damage whatever. But in case this should not
occurthe knights of old took care to see that their squires were
provided with money and other requisitessuch as lint and ointments
for healing purposes; and when it happened that knights had no squires
(which was rarely and seldom the case) they themselves carried
everything in cunning saddle-bags that were hardly seen on the horse's
croupas if it were something else of more importancebecause
unless for some such reasoncarrying saddle-bags was not very
favourably regarded among knights-errant. He therefore advised him
(andas his godson so soon to behe might even command him) never
from that time forth to travel without money and the usual
requirementsand he would find the advantage of them when he least
expected it.

Don Quixote promised to follow his advice scrupulouslyand it was
arranged forthwith that he should watch his armour in a large yard
at one side of the inn; socollecting it all togetherDon Quixote
placed it on a trough that stood by the side of a welland bracing
his buckler on his arm he grasped his lance and began with a stately
air to march up and down in front of the troughand as he began his
march night began to fall.

The landlord told all the people who were in the inn about the craze
of his guestthe watching of the armourand the dubbing ceremony
he contemplated. Full of wonder at so strange a form of madness
they flocked to see it from a distanceand observed with what
composure he sometimes paced up and downor sometimesleaning on his
lancegazed on his armour without taking his eyes off it for ever
so long; and as the night closed in with a light from the moon so
brilliant that it might vie with his that lent iteverything the
novice knight did was plainly seen by all.

Meanwhile one of the carriers who were in the inn thought fit to
water his teamand it was necessary to remove Don Quixote's armour as
it lay on the trough; but he seeing the other approach hailed him in a
loud voiceO thou, whoever thou art, rash knight that comest to
lay hands on the armour of the most valorous errant that ever girt
on sword, have a care what thou dost; touch it not unless thou wouldst
lay down thy life as the penalty of thy rashness.The carrier gave no
heed to these words (and he would have done better to heed them if
he had been heedful of his health)but seizing it by the straps flung
the armour some distance from him. Seeing thisDon Quixote raised his
eyes to heavenand fixing his thoughtsapparentlyupon his lady
DulcineaexclaimedAid me, lady mine, in this the first encounter
that presents itself to this breast which thou holdest in subjection;
let not thy favour and protection fail me in this first jeopardy;
andwith these words and others to the same purposedropping his
buckler he lifted his lance with both hands and with it smote such a
blow on the carrier's head that he stretched him on the groundso
stunned that had he followed it up with a second there would have been
no need of a surgeon to cure him. This donehe picked up his armour
and returned to his beat with the same serenity as before.

Shortly after thisanothernot knowing what had happened (for
the carrier still lay senseless)came with the same object of
giving water to his mulesand was proceeding to remove the armour
in order to clear the troughwhen Don Quixotewithout uttering a
word or imploring aid from anyoneonce more dropped his buckler and
once more lifted his lanceand without actually breaking the second
carrier's head into piecesmade more than three of itfor he laid it
open in four. At the noise all the people of the inn ran to the
spotand among them the landlord. Seeing thisDon Quixote braced his

buckler on his armand with his hand on his sword exclaimedO
Lady of Beauty, strength and support of my faint heart, it is time for
thee to turn the eyes of thy greatness on this thy captive knight on
the brink of so mighty an adventure.By this he felt himself so
inspired that he would not have flinched if all the carriers in the
world had assailed him. The comrades of the wounded perceiving the
plight they were in began from a distance to shower stones on Don
Quixotewho screened himself as best he could with his bucklernot
daring to quit the trough and leave his armour unprotected. The
landlord shouted to them to leave him alonefor he had already told
them that he was madand as a madman he would not be accountable even
if he killed them all. Still louder shouted Don Quixotecalling
them knaves and traitorsand the lord of the castlewho allowed
knights-errant to be treated in this fashiona villain and a low-born
knight whomhad he received the order of knighthoodhe would call to
account for his treachery. "But of you he cried, base and vile
rabbleI make no account; flingstrikecome ondo all ye can
against meye shall see what the reward of your folly and insolence
will be." This he uttered with so much spirit and boldness that he
filled his assailants with a terrible fearand as much for this
reason as at the persuasion of the landlord they left off stoning him
and he allowed them to carry off the woundedand with the same
calmness and composure as before resumed the watch over his armour.

But these freaks of his guest were not much to the liking of the
landlordso he determined to cut matters short and confer upon him at
once the unlucky order of knighthood before any further misadventure
could occur; sogoing up to himhe apologised for the rudeness
whichwithout his knowledgehad been offered to him by these low
peoplewhohoweverhad been well punished for their audacity. As he
had already told himhe saidthere was no chapel in the castle
nor was it needed for what remained to be doneforas he
understood the ceremonial of the orderthe whole point of being
dubbed a knight lay in the accolade and in the slap on the shoulder
and that could be administered in the middle of a field; and that he
had now done all that was needful as to watching the armourfor all
requirements were satisfied by a watch of two hours onlywhile he had
been more than four about it. Don Quixote believed it alland told
him he stood there ready to obey himand to make an end of it with as
much despatch as possible; forif he were again attackedand felt
himself to be dubbed knighthe would nothe thoughtleave a soul
alive in the castleexcept such as out of respect he might spare at
his bidding.

Thus warned and menacedthe castellan forthwith brought out a
book in which he used to enter the straw and barley he served out to
the carriersandwith a lad carrying a candle-endand the two
damsels already mentionedhe returned to where Don Quixote stoodand
bade him kneel down. Thenreading from his account-book as if he were
repeating some devout prayerin the middle of his delivery he
raised his hand and gave him a sturdy blow on the neckand thenwith
his own sworda smart slap on the shoulderall the while muttering
between his teeth as if he was saying his prayers. Having done this
he directed one of the ladies to gird on his swordwhich she did with
great self-possession and gravityand not a little was required to
prevent a burst of laughter at each stage of the ceremony; but what
they had already seen of the novice knight's prowess kept their
laughter within bounds. On girding him with the sword the worthy
lady said to himMay God make your worship a very fortunate
knight, and grant you success in battle.Don Quixote asked her name
in order that he might from that time forward know to whom he was
beholden for the favour he had receivedas he meant to confer upon
her some portion of the honour he acquired by the might of his arm.
She answered with great humility that she was called La Tolosaand

that she was the daughter of a cobbler of Toledo who lived in the
stalls of Sanchobienayaand that wherever she might be she would
serve and esteem him as her lord. Don Quixote said in reply that she
would do him a favour if thenceforward she assumed the "Don" and
called herself Dona Tolosa. She promised she wouldand then the other
buckled on his spurand with her followed almost the same
conversation as with the lady of the sword. He asked her nameand she
said it was La Molineraand that she was the daughter of a
respectable miller of Antequera; and of her likewise Don Quixote
requested that she would adopt the "Don" and call herself Dona
Molineramaking offers to her further services and favours.

Having thuswith hot haste and speedbrought to a conclusion these
never-till-now-seen ceremoniesDon Quixote was on thorns until he saw
himself on horseback sallying forth in quest of adventures; and
saddling Rocinante at once he mountedand embracing his hostas he
returned thanks for his kindness in knighting himhe addressed him in
language so extraordinary that it is impossible to convey an idea of
it or report it. The landlordto get him out of the innreplied with
no less rhetoric though with shorter wordsand without calling upon
him to pay the reckoning let him go with a Godspeed.



Day was dawning when Don Quixote quitted the innso happyso
gayso exhilarated at finding himself now dubbed a knightthat his
joy was like to burst his horse-girths. Howeverrecalling the
advice of his host as to the requisites he ought to carry with him
especially that referring to money and shirtshe determined to go
home and provide himself with alland also with a squirefor he
reckoned upon securing a farm-labourera neighbour of hisa poor man
with a familybut very well qualified for the office of squire to a
knight. With this object he turned his horse's head towards his
villageand Rocinantethus reminded of his old quartersstepped out
so briskly that he hardly seemed to tread the earth.

He had not gone farwhen out of a thicket on his right there seemed
to come feeble cries as of some one in distressand the instant he
heard them he exclaimedThanks be to heaven for the favour it
accords me, that it so soon offers me an opportunity of fulfilling the
obligation I have undertaken, and gathering the fruit of my
ambition. These cries, no doubt, come from some man or woman in want
of help, and needing my aid and protection;and wheelinghe turned
Rocinante in the direction whence the cries seemed to proceed. He
had gone but a few paces into the woodwhen he saw a mare tied to
an oakand tied to anotherand stripped from the waist upwardsa
youth of about fifteen years of agefrom whom the cries came. Nor
were they without causefor a lusty farmer was flogging him with a
belt and following up every blow with scoldings and commands
repeatingYour mouth shut and your eyes open!while the youth
made answerI won't do it again, master mine; by God's passion I
won't do it again, and I'll take more care of the flock another time.

Seeing what was going onDon Quixote said in an angry voice
Discourteous knight, it ill becomes you to assail one who cannot
defend himself; mount your steed and take your lance(for there was a
lance leaning against the oak to which the mare was tied)and I will
make you know that you are behaving as a coward.The farmerseeing
before him this figure in full armour brandishing a lance over his

headgave himself up for deadand made answer meeklySir Knight,
this youth that I am chastising is my servant, employed by me to watch
a flock of sheep that I have hard by, and he is so careless that I
lose one every day, and when I punish him for his carelessness and
knavery he says I do it out of niggardliness, to escape paying him the
wages I owe him, and before God, and on my soul, he lies.

Lies before me, base clown!said Don Quixote. "By the sun that
shines on us I have a mind to run you through with this lance. Pay him
at once without another word; if notby the God that rules us I
will make an end of youand annihilate you on the spot; release him

The farmer hung his headand without a word untied his servant
of whom Don Quixote asked how much his master owed him.

He repliednine months at seven reals a month. Don Quixote added it
upfound that it came to sixty-three realsand told the farmer to
pay it down immediatelyif he did not want to die for it.

The trembling clown replied that as he lived and by the oath he
had sworn (though he had not sworn any) it was not so much; for
there were to be taken into account and deducted three pairs of
shoes he had given himand a real for two blood-lettings when he
was sick.

All that is very well,said Don Quixote; "but let the shoes and
the blood-lettings stand as a setoff against the blows you have
given him without any cause; for if he spoiled the leather of the
shoes you paid foryou have damaged that of his bodyand if the
barber took blood from him when he was sickyou have drawn it when he
was sound; so on that score he owes you nothing."

The difficulty is, Sir Knight, that I have no money here; let
Andres come home with me, and I will pay him all, real by real.

I go with him!said the youth. "NayGod forbid! Nosenornot
for the world; for once alone with mehe would ray me like a Saint

He will do nothing of the kind,said Don Quixote; "I have only
to commandand he will obey me; and as he has sworn to me by the
order of knighthood which he has receivedI leave him freeand I
guarantee the payment."

Consider what you are saying, senor,said the youth; "this
master of mine is not a knightnor has he received any order of
knighthood; for he is Juan Haldudo the Richof Quintanar."

That matters little,replied Don Quixote; "there may be Haldudos
knights; moreovereveryone is the son of his works."

That is true,said Andres; "but this master of mine- of what works
is he the sonwhen he refuses me the wages of my sweat and labour?"

I do not refuse, brother Andres,said the farmerbe good
enough to come along with me, and I swear by all the orders of
knighthood there are in the world to pay you as I have agreed, real by
real, and perfumed.

For the perfumery I excuse you,said Don Quixote; "give it to
him in realsand I shall be satisfied; and see that you do as you
have sworn; if notby the same oath I swear to come back and hunt you
out and punish you; and I shall find you though you should lie

closer than a lizard. And if you desire to know who it is lays this
command upon youthat you be more firmly bound to obey itknow
that I am the valorous Don Quixote of La Manchathe undoer of
wrongs and injustices; and soGod be with youand keep in mind
what you have promised and sworn under those penalties that have
been already declared to you."

So sayinghe gave Rocinante the spur and was soon out of reach. The
farmer followed him with his eyesand when he saw that he had cleared
the wood and was no longer in sighthe turned to his boy Andres
and saidCome here, my son, I want to pay you what I owe you, as
that undoer of wrongs has commanded me.

My oath on it,said Andresyour worship will be well advised
to obey the command of that good knight- may he live a thousand yearsfor,
as he is a valiant and just judge, by Roque, if you do not pay
me, he will come back and do as he said.

My oath on it, too,said the farmer; "but as I have a strong
affection for youI want to add to the debt in order to add to the
payment;" and seizing him by the armhe tied him up againand gave
him such a flogging that he left him for dead.

Now, Master Andres,said the farmercall on the undoer of
wrongs; you will find he won't undo that, though I am not sure that
I have quite done with you, for I have a good mind to flay you alive.
But at last he untied himand gave him leave to go look for his judge
in order to put the sentence pronounced into execution.

Andres went off rather down in the mouthswearing he would go to
look for the valiant Don Quixote of La Mancha and tell him exactly
what had happenedand that all would have to be repaid him sevenfold;
but for all thathe went off weepingwhile his master stood

Thus did the valiant Don Quixote right that wrongandthoroughly
satisfied with what had taken placeas he considered he had made a
very happy and noble beginning with his knighthoodhe took the road
towards his village in perfect self-contentsaying in a low voice
Well mayest thou this day call thyself fortunate above all on
earth, O Dulcinea del Toboso, fairest of the fair! since it has fallen
to thy lot to hold subject and submissive to thy full will and
pleasure a knight so renowned as is and will be Don Quixote of La
Mancha, who, as all the world knows, yesterday received the order of
knighthood, and hath to-day righted the greatest wrong and grievance
that ever injustice conceived and cruelty perpetrated: who hath to-day
plucked the rod from the hand of yonder ruthless oppressor so wantonly
lashing that tender child.

He now came to a road branching in four directionsand
immediately he was reminded of those cross-roads where
knights-errant used to stop to consider which road they should take.
In imitation of them he halted for a whileand after having deeply
considered ithe gave Rocinante his headsubmitting his own will
to that of his hackwho followed out his first intentionwhich was
to make straight for his own stable. After he had gone about two miles
Don Quixote perceived a large party of peoplewhoas afterwards
appearedwere some Toledo traderson their way to buy silk at
Murcia. There were six of them coming along under their sunshades
with four servants mountedand three muleteers on foot. Scarcely
had Don Quixote descried them when the fancy possessed him that this
must be some new adventure; and to help him to imitate as far as he
could those passages he had read of in his bookshere seemed to
come one made on purposewhich he resolved to attempt. So with a

lofty bearing and determination he fixed himself firmly in his
stirrupsgot his lance readybrought his buckler before his
breastand planting himself in the middle of the roadstood
waiting the approach of these knights-errantfor such he now
considered and held them to be; and when they had come near enough
to see and hearhe exclaimed with a haughty gestureAll the world
stand, unless all the world confess that in all the world there is
no maiden fairer than the Empress of La Mancha, the peerless
Dulcinea del Toboso.

The traders halted at the sound of this language and the sight of
the strange figure that uttered itand from both figure and
language at once guessed the craze of their owner; they wished
howeverto learn quietly what was the object of this confession
that was demanded of themand one of themwho was rather fond of a
joke and was very sharp-wittedsaid to himSir Knight, we do not
know who this good lady is that you speak of; show her to us, for,
if she be of such beauty as you suggest, with all our hearts and
without any pressure we will confess the truth that is on your part
required of us.

If I were to show her to you,replied Don Quixotewhat merit
would you have in confessing a truth so manifest? The essential
point is that without seeing her you must believe, confess, affirm,
swear, and defend it; else ye have to do with me in battle,
ill-conditioned, arrogant rabble that ye are; and come ye on, one by
one as the order of knighthood requires, or all together as is the
custom and vile usage of your breed, here do I bide and await you
relying on the justice of the cause I maintain.

Sir Knight,replied the traderI entreat your worship in the
name of this present company of princes, that, to save us from
charging our consciences with the confession of a thing we have
never seen or heard of, and one moreover so much to the prejudice of
the Empresses and Queens of the Alcarria and Estremadura, your worship
will be pleased to show us some portrait of this lady, though it be no
bigger than a grain of wheat; for by the thread one gets at the
ball, and in this way we shall be satisfied and easy, and you will
be content and pleased; nay, I believe we are already so far agreed
with you that even though her portrait should show her blind of one
eye, and distilling vermilion and sulphur from the other, we would
nevertheless, to gratify your worship, say all in her favour that
you desire.

She distils nothing of the kind, vile rabble,said Don Quixote
burning with ragenothing of the kind, I say, only ambergris and
civet in cotton; nor is she one-eyed or humpbacked, but straighter
than a Guadarrama spindle: but ye must pay for the blasphemy ye have
uttered against beauty like that of my lady.

And so sayinghe charged with levelled lance against the one who
had spokenwith such fury and fierceness thatif luck had not
contrived that Rocinante should stumble midway and come downit would
have gone hard with the rash trader. Down went Rocinanteand over
went his masterrolling along the ground for some distance; and
when he tried to rise he was unableso encumbered was he with
lancebucklerspurshelmetand the weight of his old armour; and
all the while he was struggling to get up he kept sayingFly not,
cowards and caitiffs! stay, for not by my fault, but my horse's, am
I stretched here.

One of the muleteers in attendancewho could not have had much good
nature in himhearing the poor prostrate man blustering in this
stylewas unable to refrain from giving him an answer on his ribs;

and coming up to him he seized his lanceand having broken it in
pieceswith one of them he began so to belabour our Don Quixote that
notwithstanding and in spite of his armourhe milled him like a
measure of wheat. His masters called out not to lay on so hard and
to leave him alonebut the muleteers blood was upand he did not
care to drop the game until he had vented the rest of his wrathand
gathering up the remaining fragments of the lance he finished with a
discharge upon the unhappy victimwho all through the storm of sticks
that rained on him never ceased threatening heavenand earthand the
brigandsfor such they seemed to him. At last the muleteer was tired
and the traders continued their journeytaking with them matter for
talk about the poor fellow who had been cudgelled. He when he found
himself alone made another effort to rise; but if he was unable when
whole and soundhow was he to rise after having been thrashed and
well-nigh knocked to pieces? And yet he esteemed himself fortunateas
it seemed to him that this was a regular knight-errant's mishapand
entirelyhe consideredthe fault of his horse. Howeverbattered
in body as he wasto rise was beyond his power.



Findingthenthatin fact he could not movehe thought himself
of having recourse to his usual remedywhich was to think of some
passage in his booksand his craze brought to his mind that about
Baldwin and the Marquis of Mantuawhen Carloto left him wounded on
the mountain sidea story known by heart by the childrennot
forgotten by the young menand lauded and even believed by the old
folk; and for all that not a whit truer than the miracles of
Mahomet. This seemed to him to fit exactly the case in which he
found himselfsomaking a show of severe sufferinghe began to roll
on the ground and with feeble breath repeat the very words which the
wounded knight of the wood is said to have uttered:

Where art thoulady minethat thou
My sorrow dost not rue?
Thou canst not know itlady mine
Or else thou art untrue.

And so he went on with the ballad as far as the lines:

O noble Marquis of Mantua
My Uncle and liege lord!

As chance would have itwhen he had got to this line there happened
to come by a peasant from his own villagea neighbour of hiswho had
been with a load of wheat to the milland heseeing the man
stretched therecame up to him and asked him who he was and what
was the matter with him that he complained so dolefully.

Don Quixote was firmly persuaded that this was the Marquis of
Mantuahis uncleso the only answer he made was to go on with his
balladin which he told the tale of his misfortuneand of the
loves of the Emperor's son and his wife all exactly as the ballad
sings it.

The peasant stood amazed at hearing such nonsenseand relieving him
of the visoralready battered to pieces by blowshe wiped his
facewhich was covered with dustand as soon as he had done so he

recognised him and saidSenor Quixada(for so he appears to have
been called when he was in his senses and had not yet changed from a
quiet country gentleman into a knight-errant)who has brought your
worship to this pass?But to all questions the other only went on
with his ballad.

Seeing thisthe good man removed as well as he could his
breastplate and backpiece to see if he had any woundbut he could
perceive no blood nor any mark whatever. He then contrived to raise
him from the groundand with no little difficulty hoisted him upon
his asswhich seemed to him to be the easiest mount for him; and
collecting the armseven to the splinters of the lancehe tied
them on Rocinanteand leading him by the bridle and the ass by the
halter he took the road for the villagevery sad to hear what
absurd stuff Don Quixote was talking. Nor was Don Quixote less sofor
what with blows and bruises he could not sit upright on the assand
from time to time he sent up sighs to heavenso that once more he
drove the peasant to ask what ailed him. And it could have been only
the devil himself that put into his head tales to match his own
adventuresfor nowforgetting Baldwinhe bethought himself of the
Moor Abindarraezwhen the Alcaide of AntequeraRodrigo de Narvaez
took him prisoner and carried him away to his castle; so that when the
peasant again asked him how he was and what ailed himhe gave him for
reply the same words and phrases that the captive Abindarraez gave
to Rodrigo de Narvaezjust as he had read the story in the "Diana" of
Jorge de Montemayor where it is writtenapplying it to his own case
so aptly that the peasant went along cursing his fate that he had to
listen to such a lot of nonsense; from whichhoweverhe came to
the conclusion that his neighbour was madand so made all haste to
reach the village to escape the wearisomeness of this harangue of
Don Quixote's; whoat the end of itsaidSenor Don Rodrigo de
Narvaez, your worship must know that this fair Xarifa I have mentioned
is now the lovely Dulcinea del Toboso, for whom I have done, am doing,
and will do the most famous deeds of chivalry that in this world
have been seen, are to be seen, or ever shall be seen.

To this the peasant answeredSenor- sinner that I am!- cannot your
worship see that I am not Don Rodrigo de Narvaez nor the Marquis of
Mantua, but Pedro Alonso your neighbour, and that your worship is
neither Baldwin nor Abindarraez, but the worthy gentleman Senor

I know who I am,replied Don Quixoteand I know that I may be
not only those I have named, but all the Twelve Peers of France and
even all the Nine Worthies, since my achievements surpass all that
they have done all together and each of them on his own account.

With this talk and more of the same kind they reached the village
just as night was beginning to fallbut the peasant waited until it
was a little later that the belaboured gentleman might not be seen
riding in such a miserable trim. When it was what seemed to him the
proper time he entered the village and went to Don Quixote's house
which he found all in confusionand there were the curate and the
village barberwho were great friends of Don Quixoteand his
housekeeper was saying to them in a loud voiceWhat does your
worship think can have befallen my master, Senor Licentiate Pero
Perez?for so the curate was called; "it is three days now since
anything has been seen of himor the hackor the bucklerlance
or armour. Miserable me! I am certain of itand it is as true as that
I was born to diethat these accursed books of chivalry he hasand
has got into the way of reading so constantlyhave upset his
reason; for now I remember having often heard him saying to himself
that he would turn knight-errant and go all over the world in quest of
adventures. To the devil and Barabbas with such booksthat have

brought to ruin in this way the finest understanding there was in
all La Mancha!"

The niece said the sameandmore: "You must knowMaster
Nicholas"- for that was the name of the barber- "it was often my
uncle's way to stay two days and nights together poring over these
unholy books of misventuresafter which he would fling the book
away and snatch up his sword and fall to slashing the walls; and
when he was tired out he would say he had killed four giants like four
towers; and the sweat that flowed from him when he was weary he said
was the blood of the wounds he had received in battle; and then he
would drink a great jug of cold water and become calm and quiet
saying that this water was a most precious potion which the sage
Esquifea great magician and friend of hishad brought him. But I
take all the blame upon myself for never having told your worships
of my uncle's vagariesthat you might put a stop to them before
things had come to this passand burn all these accursed books- for
he has a great number- that richly deserve to be burned like

So say I too,said the curateand by my faith to-morrow shall
not pass without public judgment upon them, and may they be
condemned to the flames lest they lead those that read to behave as my
good friend seems to have behaved.

All this the peasant heardand from it he understood at last what
was the matter with his neighbourso he began calling aloudOpen,
your worships, to Senor Baldwin and to Senor the Marquis of Mantua,
who comes badly wounded, and to Senor Abindarraez, the Moor, whom
the valiant Rodrigo de Narvaez, the Alcaide of Antequera, brings

At these words they all hurried outand when they recognised
their friendmasterand unclewho had not yet dismounted from the
ass because he could notthey ran to embrace him.

Hold!said hefor I am badly wounded through my horse's fault;
carry me to bed, and if possible send for the wise Urganda to cure and
see to my wounds.

See there! plague on it!cried the housekeeper at this: "did not
my heart tell the truth as to which foot my master went lame of? To
bed with your worship at onceand we will contrive to cure you here
without fetching that Hurgada. A curse I say once moreand a
hundred times moreon those books of chivalry that have brought
your worship to such a pass."

They carried him to bed at onceand after searching for his
wounds could find nonebut he said they were all bruises from
having had a severe fall with his horse Rocinante when in combat
with ten giantsthe biggest and the boldest to be found on earth.

So, so!said the curateare there giants in the dance? By the
sign of the Cross I will burn them to-morrow before the day over.

They put a host of questions to Don Quixotebut his only answer
to all was- give him something to eatand leave him to sleepfor
that was what he needed most. They did soand the curate questioned
the peasant at great length as to how he had found Don Quixote. He
told himand the nonsense he had talked when found and on the way
homeall which made the licentiate the more eager to do what he did
the next daywhich was to summon his friend the barberMaster
Nicholasand go with him to Don Quixote's house.



He was still sleeping; so the curate asked the niece for the keys of
the room where the booksthe authors of all the mischiefwereand
right willingly she gave them. They all went inthe housekeeper
with themand found more than a hundred volumes of big books very
well boundand some other small ones. The moment the housekeeper
saw them she turned about and ran out of the roomand came back
immediately with a saucer of holy water and a sprinklersaying
Here, your worship, senor licentiate, sprinkle this room; don't leave
any magician of the many there are in these books to bewitch us in
revenge for our design of banishing them from the world.

The simplicity of the housekeeper made the licentiate laughand
he directed the barber to give him the books one by one to see what
they were aboutas there might be some to be found among them that
did not deserve the penalty of fire.

No,said the niecethere is no reason for showing mercy to any
of them; they have every one of them done mischief; better fling
them out of the window into the court and make a pile of them and
set fire to them; or else carry them into the yard, and there a
bonfire can be made without the smoke giving any annoyance.The
housekeeper said the sameso eager were they both for the slaughter
of those innocentsbut the curate would not agree to it without first
reading at any rate the titles.

The first that Master Nicholas put into his hand was "The four books
of Amadis of Gaul." "This seems a mysterious thing said the
curate, foras I have heard saythis was the first book of chivalry
printed in Spainand from this all the others derive their birth
and origin; so it seems to me that we ought inexorably to condemn it
to the flames as the founder of so vile a sect."

Nay, sir,said the barberI too, have heard say that this is the
best of all the books of this kind that have been written, and so,
as something singular in its line, it ought to be pardoned.

True,said the curate; "and for that reason let its life be spared
for the present. Let us see that other which is next to it."

It is,said the barberthe 'Sergas de Esplandian,' the lawful
son of Amadis of Gaul.

Then verily,said the curatethe merit of the father must not be
put down to the account of the son. Take it, mistress housekeeper;
open the window and fling it into the yard and lay the foundation of
the pile for the bonfire we are to make.

The housekeeper obeyed with great satisfactionand the worthy
Esplandianwent flying into the yard to await with all patience
the fire that was in store for him.

Proceed,said the curate.

This that comes next,said the barberis 'Amadis of Greece,'
and, indeed, I believe all those on this side are of the same Amadis

Then to the yard with the whole of them,said the curate; "for
to have the burning of Queen Pintiquiniestraand the shepherd Darinel
and his ecloguesand the bedevilled and involved discourses of his
authorI would burn with them the father who begot me if he were
going about in the guise of a knight-errant."

I am of the same mind,said the barber.

And so am I,added the niece.

In that case,said the housekeeperhere, into the yard with

They were handed to herand as there were many of themshe
spared herself the staircaseand flung them down out of the window.

Who is that tub there?said the curate.

This,said the barberis 'Don Olivante de Laura.'

The author of that book,said the curatewas the same that wrote
'The Garden of Flowers,' and truly there is no deciding which of the
two books is the more truthful, or, to put it better, the less
lying; all I can say is, send this one into the yard for a
swaggering fool.

This that follows is 'Florismarte of Hircania,'said the barber.

Senor Florismarte here?said the curate; "then by my faith he must
take up his quarters in the yardin spite of his marvellous birth and
visionary adventuresfor the stiffness and dryness of his style
deserve nothing else; into the yard with him and the othermistress

With all my heart, senor,said sheand executed the order with
great delight.

This,said the barberis The Knight Platir.'

An old book that,said the curatebut I find no reason for
clemency in it; send it after the others without appeal;which was

Another book was openedand they saw it was entitledThe Knight
of the Cross.

For the sake of the holy name this book has,said the curateits
ignorance might be excused; but then, they say, 'behind the cross
there's the devil; to the fire with it.

Taking down another bookthe barber saidThis is 'The Mirror of

I know his worship,said the curate; "that is where Senor
Reinaldos of Montalvan figures with his friends and comrades
greater thieves than Cacusand the Twelve Peers of France with the
veracious historian Turpin; howeverI am not for condemning them to
more than perpetual banishmentbecauseat any ratethey have some
share in the invention of the famous Matteo Boiardowhence too the
Christian poet Ludovico Ariosto wove his webto whomif I find him
hereand speaking any language but his ownI shall show no respect
whatever; but if he speaks his own tongue I will put him upon my

Well, I have him in Italian,said the barberbut I do not
understand him.

Nor would it be well that you should understand him,said the
curateand on that score we might have excused the Captain if he had
not brought him into Spain and turned him into Castilian. He robbed
him of a great deal of his natural force, and so do all those who
try to turn books written in verse into another language, for, with
all the pains they take and all the cleverness they show, they never
can reach the level of the originals as they were first produced. In
short, I say that this book, and all that may be found treating of
those French affairs, should be thrown into or deposited in some dry
well, until after more consideration it is settled what is to be
done with them; excepting always one 'Bernardo del Carpio' that is
going about, and another called 'Roncesvalles;' for these, if they
come into my hands, shall pass at once into those of the
housekeeper, and from hers into the fire without any reprieve.

To all this the barber gave his assentand looked upon it as
right and properbeing persuaded that the curate was so staunch to
the Faith and loyal to the Truth that he would not for the world say
anything opposed to them. Opening another book he saw it was "Palmerin
de Oliva and beside it was another called Palmerin of England
seeing which the licentiate said, Let the Olive be made firewood of
at once and burned until no ashes even are left; and let that Palm
of England be kept and preserved as a thing that stands aloneand let
such another case be made for it as that which Alexander found among
the spoils of Darius and set aside for the safe keeping of the works
of the poet Homer. This bookgossipis of authority for two reasons
first because it is very goodand secondly because it is said to have
been written by a wise and witty king of Portugal. All the
adventures at the Castle of Miraguarda are excellent and of
admirable contrivanceand the language is polished and clear
studying and observing the style befitting the speaker with
propriety and judgment. So thenprovided it seems good to youMaster
NicholasI say let this and 'Amadis of Gaul' be remitted the
penalty of fireand as for all the restlet them perish without
further question or query."

Nay, gossip,said the barberfor this that I have here is the
famous 'Don Belianis.'

Well,said the curatethat and the second, third, and fourth
parts all stand in need of a little rhubarb to purge their excess of
bile, and they must be cleared of all that stuff about the Castle of
Fame and other greater affectations, to which end let them be
allowed the over-seas term, and, according as they mend, so shall
mercy or justice be meted out to them; and in the mean time, gossip,
do you keep them in your house and let no one read them.

With all my heart,said the barber; and not caring to tire himself
with reading more books of chivalryhe told the housekeeper to take
all the big ones and throw them into the yard. It was not said to
one dull or deafbut to one who enjoyed burning them more than
weaving the broadest and finest web that could be; and seizing about
eight at a timeshe flung them out of the window.

In carrying so many together she let one fall at the feet of the
barberwho took it upcurious to know whose it wasand found it
saidHistory of the Famous Knight, Tirante el Blanco.

God bless me!said the curate with a shout'Tirante el Blanco'
here! Hand it over, gossip, for in it I reckon I have found a treasury

of enjoyment and a mine of recreation. Here is Don Kyrieleison of
Montalvan, a valiant knight, and his brother Thomas of Montalvan,
and the knight Fonseca, with the battle the bold Tirante fought with
the mastiff, and the witticisms of the damsel Placerdemivida, and
the loves and wiles of the widow Reposada, and the empress in love
with the squire Hipolito- in truth, gossip, by right of its style it
is the best book in the world. Here knights eat and sleep, and die
in their beds, and make their wills before dying, and a great deal
more of which there is nothing in all the other books. Nevertheless, I
say he who wrote it, for deliberately composing such fooleries,
deserves to be sent to the galleys for life. Take it home with you and
read it, and you will see that what I have said is true.

As you will,said the barber; "but what are we to do with these
little books that are left?"

These must be, not chivalry, but poetry,said the curate; and
opening one he saw it was the "Diana" of Jorge de Montemayorand
supposing all the others to be of the same sortthese,he saiddo
not deserve to be burned like the others, for they neither do nor
can do the mischief the books of chivalry have done, being books of
entertainment that can hurt no one.

Ah, senor!said the nieceyour worship had better order these to
be burned as well as the others; for it would be no wonder if, after
being cured of his chivalry disorder, my uncle, by reading these, took
a fancy to turn shepherd and range the woods and fields singing and
piping; or, what would be still worse, to turn poet, which they say is
an incurable and infectious malady.

The damsel is right,said the curateand it will be well to
put this stumbling-block and temptation out of our friend's way. To
begin, then, with the 'Diana' of Montemayor. I am of opinion it should
not be burned, but that it should be cleared of all that about the
sage Felicia and the magic water, and of almost all the longer
pieces of verse: let it keep, and welcome, its prose and the honour of
being the first of books of the kind.

This that comes next,said the barberis the 'Diana,' entitled
the 'Second Part, by the Salamancan,' and this other has the same
title, and its author is Gil Polo.

As for that of the Salamancan,replied the curatelet it go to
swell the number of the condemned in the yard, and let Gil Polo's be
preserved as if it came from Apollo himself: but get on, gossip, and
make haste, for it is growing late.

This book,said the barberopening anotheris the ten books
of the 'Fortune of Love,' written by Antonio de Lofraso, a Sardinian

By the orders I have received,said the curatesince Apollo
has been Apollo, and the Muses have been Muses, and poets have been
poets, so droll and absurd a book as this has never been written,
and in its way it is the best and the most singular of all of this
species that have as yet appeared, and he who has not read it may be
sure he has never read what is delightful. Give it here, gossip, for I
make more account of having found it than if they had given me a
cassock of Florence stuff.

He put it aside with extreme satisfactionand the barber went on
These that come next are 'The Shepherd of Iberia,' 'Nymphs of
Henares,' and 'The Enlightenment of Jealousy.'

Then all we have to do,said the curateis to hand them over
to the secular arm of the housekeeper, and ask me not why, or we shall
never have done.

This next is the 'Pastor de Filida.'

No Pastor that,said the curatebut a highly polished
courtier; let it be preserved as a precious jewel.

This large one here,said the barberis called 'The Treasury
of various Poems.'

If there were not so many of them,said the curatethey would be
more relished: this book must be weeded and cleansed of certain
vulgarities which it has with its excellences; let it be preserved
because the author is a friend of mine, and out of respect for other
more heroic and loftier works that he has written.

This,continued the barberis the 'Cancionero' of Lopez de

The author of that book, too,said the curateis a great
friend of mine, and his verses from his own mouth are the admiration
of all who hear them, for such is the sweetness of his voice that he
enchants when he chants them: it gives rather too much of its
eclogues, but what is good was never yet plentiful: let it be kept
with those that have been set apart. But what book is that next it?

The 'Galatea' of Miguel de Cervantes,said the barber.

That Cervantes has been for many years a great friend of mine,
and to my knowledge he has had more experience in reverses than in
verses. His book has some good invention in it, it presents us with
something but brings nothing to a conclusion: we must wait for the
Second Part it promises: perhaps with amendment it may succeed in
winning the full measure of grace that is now denied it; and in the
mean time do you, senor gossip, keep it shut up in your own quarters.

Very good,said the barber; "and here come three togetherthe
'Araucana' of Don Alonso de Ercillathe 'Austriada' of Juan Rufo
Justice of Cordovaand the 'Montserrate' of Christobal de Viruesthe
Valencian poet."

These three books,said the curateare the best that have been
written in Castilian in heroic verse, and they may compare with the
most famous of Italy; let them be preserved as the richest treasures
of poetry that Spain possesses.

The curate was tired and would not look into any more booksand
so he decided thatcontents uncertified,all the rest should be
burned; but just then the barber held open onecalled "The Tears of

I should have shed tears myself,said the curate when he heard the
titlehad I ordered that book to be burned, for its author was one
of the famous poets of the world, not to say of Spain, and was very
happy in the translation of some of Ovid's fables.



At this instant Don Quixote began shouting outHere, here,
valiant knights! here is need for you to put forth the might of your
strong arms, for they of the Court are gaining the mastery in the
tourney!Called away by this noise and outcrythey proceeded no
farther with the scrutiny of the remaining booksand so it is thought
that "The Carolea The Lion of Spain and The Deeds of the
Emperor written by Don Luis de Avila, went to the fire unseen and
unheard; for no doubt they were among those that remained, and perhaps
if the curate had seen them they would not have undergone so severe
a sentence.

When they reached Don Quixote he was already out of bed, and was
still shouting and raving, and slashing and cutting all round, as wide
awake as if he had never slept.

They closed with him and by force got him back to bed, and when he
had become a little calm, addressing the curate, he said to him, Of a
truthSenor Archbishop Turpinit is a great disgrace for us who call
ourselves the Twelve Peersso carelessly to allow the knights of
the Court to gain the victory in this tourneywe the adventurers
having carried off the honour on the three former days."

Hush, gossip,said the curate; "please Godthe luck may turnand
what is lost to-day may be won to-morrow; for the present let your
worship have a care of your healthfor it seems to me that you are
over-fatiguedif not badly wounded."

Wounded no,said Don Quixotebut bruised and battered no
doubt, for that bastard Don Roland has cudgelled me with the trunk
of an oak tree, and all for envy, because he sees that I alone rival
him in his achievements. But I should not call myself Reinaldos of
Montalvan did he not pay me for it in spite of all his enchantments as
soon as I rise from this bed. For the present let them bring me
something to eat, for that, I feel, is what will be more to my
purpose, and leave it to me to avenge myself.

They did as he wished; they gave him something to eatand once more
he fell asleepleaving them marvelling at his madness.

That night the housekeeper burned to ashes all the books that were
in the yard and in the whole house; and some must have been consumed
that deserved preservation in everlasting archivesbut their fate and
the laziness of the examiner did not permit itand so in them was
verified the proverb that the innocent suffer for the guilty.

One of the remedies which the curate and the barber immediately
applied to their friend's disorder was to wall up and plaster the room
where the books wereso that when he got up he should not find them
(possibly the cause being removed the effect might cease)and they
might say that a magician had carried them offroom and all; and this
was done with all despatch. Two days later Don Quixote got upand the
first thing he did was to go and look at his booksand not finding
the room where he had left ithe wandered from side to side looking
for it. He came to the place where the door used to beand tried it
with his handsand turned and twisted his eyes in every direction
without saying a word; but after a good while he asked his housekeeper
whereabouts was the room that held his books.

The housekeeperwho had been already well instructed in what she
was to answersaidWhat room or what nothing is it that your
worship is looking for? There are neither room nor books in this house
now, for the devil himself has carried all away.

It was not the devil,said the niecebut a magician who came
on a cloud one night after the day your worship left this, and
dismounting from a serpent that he rode he entered the room, and
what he did there I know not, but after a little while he made off,
flying through the roof, and left the house full of smoke; and when we
went to see what he had done we saw neither book nor room: but we
remember very well, the housekeeper and I, that on leaving, the old
villain said in a loud voice that, for a private grudge he owed the
owner of the books and the room, he had done mischief in that house
that would be discovered by-and-by: he said too that his name was
the Sage Munaton.

He must have said Friston,said Don Quixote.

I don't know whether he called himself Friston or Friton,said the
housekeeperI only know that his name ended with 'ton.'

So it does,said Don Quixoteand he is a sage magician, a
great enemy of mine, who has a spite against me because he knows by
his arts and lore that in process of time I am to engage in single
combat with a knight whom he befriends and that I am to conquer, and
he will be unable to prevent it; and for this reason he endeavours
to do me all the ill turns that he can; but I promise him it will be
hard for him to oppose or avoid what is decreed by Heaven.

Who doubts that?said the niece; "butunclewho mixes you up
in these quarrels? Would it not be better to remain at peace in your
own house instead of roaming the world looking for better bread than
ever came of wheatnever reflecting that many go for wool and come
back shorn?"

Oh, niece of mine,replied Don Quixotehow much astray art
thou in thy reckoning: ere they shear me I shall have plucked away and
stripped off the beards of all who dare to touch only the tip of a
hair of mine.

The two were unwilling to make any further answeras they saw
that his anger was kindling.

In shortthenhe remained at home fifteen days very quietly
without showing any signs of a desire to take up with his former
delusionsand during this time he held lively discussions with his
two gossipsthe curate and the barberon the point he maintained
that knights-errant were what the world stood most in need ofand
that in him was to be accomplished the revival of knight-errantry. The
curate sometimes contradicted himsometimes agreed with himfor if
he had not observed this precaution he would have been unable to bring
him to reason.

Meanwhile Don Quixote worked upon a farm labourera neighbour of
hisan honest man (if indeed that title can be given to him who is
poor)but with very little wit in his pate. In a wordhe so talked
him overand with such persuasions and promisesthat the poor
clown made up his mind to sally forth with him and serve him as
esquire. Don Quixoteamong other thingstold him he ought to be
ready to go with him gladlybecause any moment an adventure might
occur that might win an island in the twinkling of an eye and leave
him governor of it. On these and the like promises Sancho Panza (for
so the labourer was called) left wife and childrenand engaged
himself as esquire to his neighbour. Don Quixote next set about
getting some money; and selling one thing and pawning anotherand
making a bad bargain in every casehe got together a fair sum. He
provided himself with a bucklerwhich he begged as a loan from a
friendandrestoring his battered helmet as best he couldhe warned

his squire Sancho of the day and hour he meant to set outthat he
might provide himself with what he thought most needful. Above allhe
charged him to take alforjas with him. The other said he wouldand
that he meant to take also a very good ass he hadas he was not
much given to going on foot. About the assDon Quixote hesitated a
littletrying whether he could call to mind any knight-errant
taking with him an esquire mounted on ass-backbut no instance
occurred to his memory. For all thathoweverhe determined to take
himintending to furnish him with a more honourable mount when a
chance of it presented itselfby appropriating the horse of the first
discourteous knight he encountered. Himself he provided with shirts
and such other things as he couldaccording to the advice the host
had given him; all which being donewithout taking leaveSancho
Panza of his wife and childrenor Don Quixote of his housekeeper
and niecethey sallied forth unseen by anybody from the village one
nightand made such good way in the course of it that by daylight
they held themselves safe from discoveryeven should search be made
for them.

Sancho rode on his ass like a patriarchwith his alforjas and bota
and longing to see himself soon governor of the island his master
had promised him. Don Quixote decided upon taking the same route and
road he had taken on his first journeythat over the Campo de
Montielwhich he travelled with less discomfort than on the last
occasionforas it was early morning and the rays of the sun fell on
them obliquelythe heat did not distress them.

And now said Sancho Panza to his masterYour worship will take
care, Senor Knight-errant, not to forget about the island you have
promised me, for be it ever so big I'll be equal to governing it.

To which Don Quixote repliedThou must know, friend Sancho
Panza, that it was a practice very much in vogue with the
knights-errant of old to make their squires governors of the islands
or kingdoms they won, and I am determined that there shall be no
failure on my part in so liberal a custom; on the contrary, I mean
to improve upon it, for they sometimes, and perhaps most frequently,
waited until their squires were old, and then when they had had enough
of service and hard days and worse nights, they gave them some title
or other, of count, or at the most marquis, of some valley or province
more or less; but if thou livest and I live, it may well be that
before six days are over, I may have won some kingdom that has
others dependent upon it, which will be just the thing to enable
thee to be crowned king of one of them. Nor needst thou count this
wonderful, for things and chances fall to the lot of such knights in
ways so unexampled and unexpected that I might easily give thee even
more than I promise thee.

In that case,said Sancho Panzaif I should become a king by one
of those miracles your worship speaks of, even Juana Gutierrez, my old
woman, would come to be queen and my children infantes.

Well, who doubts it?said Don Quixote.

I doubt it,replied Sancho Panzabecause for my part I am
persuaded that though God should shower down kingdoms upon earth,
not one of them would fit the head of Mari Gutierrez. Let me tell you,
senor, she is not worth two maravedis for a queen; countess will fit
her better, and that only with God's help.

Leave it to God, Sancho,returned Don Quixotefor he will give
her what suits her best; but do not undervalue thyself so much as to
come to be content with anything less than being governor of a

I will not, senor,answered Sanchospecially as I have a man
of such quality for a master in your worship, who will know how to
give me all that will be suitable for me and that I can bear.



At this point they came in sight of thirty forty windmills that
there are on plainand as soon as Don Quixote saw them he said to his
squireFortune is arranging matters for us better than we could have
shaped our desires ourselves, for look there, friend Sancho Panza,
where thirty or more monstrous giants present themselves, all of
whom I mean to engage in battle and slay, and with whose spoils we
shall begin to make our fortunes; for this is righteous warfare, and
it is God's good service to sweep so evil a breed from off the face of
the earth.

What giants?said Sancho Panza.

Those thou seest there,answered his masterwith the long
arms, and some have them nearly two leagues long.

Look, your worship,said Sancho; "what we see there are not giants
but windmillsand what seem to be their arms are the sails that
turned by the wind make the millstone go."

It is easy to see,replied Don Quixotethat thou art not used to
this business of adventures; those are giants; and if thou art afraid,
away with thee out of this and betake thyself to prayer while I engage
them in fierce and unequal combat.

So sayinghe gave the spur to his steed Rocinanteheedless of
the cries his squire Sancho sent after himwarning him that most
certainly they were windmills and not giants he was going to attack.
Hehoweverwas so positive they were giants that he neither heard
the cries of Sanchonor perceivednear as he waswhat they were
but made at them shoutingFly not, cowards and vile beings, for a
single knight attacks you.

A slight breeze at this moment sprang upand the great sails
began to moveseeing which Don Quixote exclaimedThough ye flourish
more arms than the giant Briareus, ye have to reckon with me.

So sayingand commending himself with all his heart to his lady
Dulcineaimploring her to support him in such a perilwith lance
in rest and covered by his bucklerhe charged at Rocinante's
fullest gallop and fell upon the first mill that stood in front of
him; but as he drove his lance-point into the sail the wind whirled it
round with such force that it shivered the lance to piecessweeping
with it horse and riderwho went rolling over on the plainin a
sorry condition. Sancho hastened to his assistance as fast as his
ass could goand when he came up found him unable to movewith
such a shock had Rocinante fallen with him.

God bless me!said Sanchodid I not tell your worship to mind
what you were about, for they were only windmills? and no one could
have made any mistake about it but one who had something of the same

kind in his head.

Hush, friend Sancho,replied Don Quixotethe fortunes of war
more than any other are liable to frequent fluctuations; and
moreover I think, and it is the truth, that that same sage Friston who
carried off my study and books, has turned these giants into mills
in order to rob me of the glory of vanquishing them, such is the
enmity he bears me; but in the end his wicked arts will avail but
little against my good sword.

God order it as he may,said Sancho Panzaand helping him to rise
got him up again on Rocinantewhose shoulder was half out; and
thendiscussing the late adventurethey followed the road to
Puerto Lapicefor theresaid Don Quixotethey could not fail to
find adventures in abundance and varietyas it was a great
thoroughfare. For all thathe was much grieved at the loss of his
lanceand saying so to his squirehe addedI remember having
read how a Spanish knight, Diego Perez de Vargas by name, having
broken his sword in battle, tore from an oak a ponderous bough or
branch, and with it did such things that day, and pounded so many
Moors, that he got the surname of Machuca, and he and his
descendants from that day forth were called Vargas y Machuca. I
mention this because from the first oak I see I mean to rend such
another branch, large and stout like that, with which I am
determined and resolved to do such deeds that thou mayest deem thyself
very fortunate in being found worthy to come and see them, and be an
eyewitness of things that will with difficulty be believed.

Be that as God will,said SanchoI believe it all as your
worship says it; but straighten yourself a little, for you seem all on
one side, may be from the shaking of the fall.

That is the truth,said Don Quixoteand if I make no complaint
of the pain it is because knights-errant are not permitted to complain
of any wound, even though their bowels be coming out through it.

If so,said SanchoI have nothing to say; but God knows I
would rather your worship complained when anything ailed you. For my
part, I confess I must complain however small the ache may be;
unless this rule about not complaining extends to the squires of
knights-errant also.

Don Quixote could not help laughing at his squire's simplicity
and he assured him he might complain whenever and however he chose
just as he likedforso farhe had never read of anything to the
contrary in the order of knighthood.

Sancho bade him remember it was dinner-timeto which his master
answered that he wanted nothing himself just thenbut that he might
eat when he had a mind. With this permission Sancho settled himself as
comfortably as he could on his beastand taking out of the alforjas
what he had stowed away in themhe jogged along behind his master
munching deliberatelyand from time to time taking a pull at the bota
with a relish that the thirstiest tapster in Malaga might have envied;
and while he went on in this waygulping down draught after
draughthe never gave a thought to any of the promises his master had
made himnor did he rate it as hardship but rather as recreation
going in quest of adventureshowever dangerous they might be. Finally
they passed the night among some treesfrom one of which Don
Quixote plucked a dry branch to serve him after a fashion as a
lanceand fixed on it the head he had removed from the broken one.
All that night Don Quixote lay awake thinking of his lady Dulcineain
order to conform to what he had read in his bookshow many a night in
the forests and deserts knights used to lie sleepless supported by the

memory of their mistresses. Not so did Sancho Panza spend itfor
having his stomach full of something stronger than chicory water he
made but one sleep of itandif his master had not called him
neither the rays of the sun beating on his face nor all the cheery
notes of the birds welcoming the approach of day would have had
power to waken him. On getting up he tried the bota and found it
somewhat less full than the night beforewhich grieved his heart
because they did not seem to be on the way to remedy the deficiency
readily. Don Quixote did not care to break his fastforas has
been already saidhe confined himself to savoury recollections for

They returned to the road they had set out withleading to Puerto
Lapiceand at three in the afternoon they came in sight of it. "Here
brother Sancho Panza said Don Quixote when he saw it, we may plunge
our hands up to the elbows in what they call adventures; but
observeeven shouldst thou see me in the greatest danger in the
worldthou must not put a hand to thy sword in my defenceunless
indeed thou perceivest that those who assail me are rabble or base
folk; for in that case thou mayest very properly aid me; but if they
be knights it is on no account permitted or allowed thee by the laws
of knighthood to help me until thou hast been dubbed a knight."

Most certainly, senor,replied Sanchoyour worship shall be
fully obeyed in this matter; all the more as of myself I am peaceful
and no friend to mixing in strife and quarrels: it is true that as
regards the defence of my own person I shall not give much heed to
those laws, for laws human and divine allow each one to defend himself
against any assailant whatever.

That I grant,said Don Quixotebut in this matter of aiding me
against knights thou must put a restraint upon thy natural

I will do so, I promise you,answered Sanchoand will keep
this precept as carefully as Sunday.

While they were thus talking there appeared on the road two friars
of the order of St. Benedictmounted on two dromedariesfor not less
tall were the two mules they rode on. They wore travelling
spectacles and carried sunshades; and behind them came a coach
attended by four or five persons on horseback and two muleteers on
foot. In the coach there wasas afterwards appeareda Biscay lady on
her way to Sevillewhere her husband was about to take passage for
the Indies with an appointment of high honour. The friarsthough
going the same roadwere not in her company; but the moment Don
Quixote perceived them he said to his squireEither I am mistaken,
or this is going to be the most famous adventure that has ever been
seen, for those black bodies we see there must be, and doubtless
are, magicians who are carrying off some stolen princess in that
coach, and with all my might I must undo this wrong.

This will be worse than the windmills,said Sancho. "Look
senor; those are friars of St. Benedictand the coach plainly belongs
to some travellers: I tell you to mind well what you are about and
don't let the devil mislead you."

I have told thee already, Sancho,replied Don Quixotethat on
the subject of adventures thou knowest little. What I say is the
truth, as thou shalt see presently.

So sayinghe advanced and posted himself in the middle of the
road along which the friars were comingand as soon as he thought
they had come near enough to hear what he saidhe cried aloud

Devilish and unnatural beings, release instantly the highborn
princesses whom you are carrying off by force in this coach, else
prepare to meet a speedy death as the just punishment of your evil

The friars drew rein and stood wondering at the appearance of Don
Quixote as well as at his wordsto which they repliedSenor
Caballero, we are not devilish or unnatural, but two brothers of St.
Benedict following our road, nor do we know whether or not there are
any captive princesses coming in this coach.

No soft words with me, for I know you, lying rabble,said Don
Quixoteand without waiting for a reply he spurred Rocinante and with
levelled lance charged the first friar with such fury and
determinationthatif the friar had not flung himself off the
mulehe would have brought him to the ground against his willand
sore woundedif not killed outright. The second brotherseeing how
his comrade was treateddrove his heels into his castle of a mule and
made off across the country faster than the wind.

Sancho Panzawhen he saw the friar on the grounddismounting
briskly from his assrushed towards him and began to strip off his
gown. At that instant the friars muleteers came up and asked what he
was stripping him for. Sancho answered them that this fell to him
lawfully as spoil of the battle which his lord Don Quixote had won.
The muleteerswho had no idea of a joke and did not understand all
this about battles and spoilsseeing that Don Quixote was some
distance off talking to the travellers in the coachfell upon Sancho
knocked him downand leaving hardly a hair in his beardbelaboured
him with kicks and left him stretched breathless and senseless on
the ground; and without any more delay helped the friar to mountwho
tremblingterrifiedand paleas soon as he found himself in the
saddlespurred after his companionwho was standing at a distance
looking onwatching the result of the onslaught; thennot caring
to wait for the end of the affair just begunthey pursued their
journey making more crosses than if they had the devil after them.

Don Quixote wasas has been saidspeaking to the lady in the
coach: "Your beautylady mine said he, may now dispose of your
person as may be most in accordance with your pleasurefor the
pride of your ravishers lies prostrate on the ground through this
strong arm of mine; and lest you should be pining to know the name
of your delivererknow that I am called Don Quixote of La Mancha
knight-errant and adventurerand captive to the peerless and
beautiful lady Dulcinea del Toboso: and in return for the service
you have received of me I ask no more than that you should return to
El Tobosoand on my behalf present yourself before that lady and tell
her what I have done to set you free."

One of the squires in attendance upon the coacha Biscayanwas
listening to all Don Quixote was sayingandperceiving that he would
not allow the coach to go onbut was saying it must return at once to
El Tobosohe made at himand seizing his lance addressed him in
bad Castilian and worse Biscayan after his fashionBegone,
caballero, and ill go with thee; by the God that made me, unless
thou quittest coach, slayest thee as art here a Biscayan.

Don Quixote understood him quite welland answered him very
quietlyIf thou wert a knight, as thou art none, I should have
already chastised thy folly and rashness, miserable creature.To
which the Biscayan returnedI no gentleman! -I swear to God thou
liest as I am Christian: if thou droppest lance and drawest sword,
soon shalt thou see thou art carrying water to the cat: Biscayan on
land, hidalgo at sea, hidalgo at the devil, and look, if thou sayest

otherwise thou liest.

'You will see presently said Agrajes,'replied Don Quixote; and
throwing his lance on the ground he drew his swordbraced his buckler
on his armand attacked the Biscayanbent upon taking his life.

The Biscayanwhen he saw him coming onthough he wished to
dismount from his mulein whichbeing one of those sorry ones let
out for hirehe had no confidencehad no choice but to draw his
sword; it was lucky for himhoweverthat he was near the coachfrom
which he was able to snatch a cushion that served him for a shield;
and they went at one another as if they had been two mortal enemies.
The others strove to make peace between thembut could notfor the
Biscayan declared in his disjointed phrase that if they did not let
him finish his battle he would kill his mistress and everyone that
strove to prevent him. The lady in the coachamazed and terrified
at what she sawordered the coachman to draw aside a littleand
set herself to watch this severe strugglein the course of which
the Biscayan smote Don Quixote a mighty stroke on the shoulder over
the top of his bucklerwhichgiven to one without armourwould have
cleft him to the waist. Don Quixotefeeling the weight of this
prodigious blowcried aloudsayingO lady of my soul, Dulcinea,
flower of beauty, come to the aid of this your knight, who, in
fulfilling his obligations to your beauty, finds himself in this
extreme peril.To say thisto lift his swordto shelter himself
well behind his bucklerand to assail the Biscayan was the work of an
instantdetermined as he was to venture all upon a single blow. The
Biscayanseeing him come on in this waywas convinced of his courage
by his spirited bearingand resolved to follow his exampleso he
waited for him keeping well under cover of his cushionbeing unable
to execute any sort of manoeuvre with his mulewhichdead tired
and never meant for this kind of gamecould not stir a step.

Onthenas aforesaidcame Don Quixote against the wary
Biscayanwith uplifted sword and a firm intention of splitting him in
halfwhile on his side the Biscayan waited for him sword in handand
under the protection of his cushion; and all present stood
tremblingwaiting in suspense the result of blows such as
threatened to falland the lady in the coach and the rest of her
following were making a thousand vows and offerings to all the
images and shrines of Spainthat God might deliver her squire and all
of them from this great peril in which they found themselves. But it
spoils allthat at this point and crisis the author of the history
leaves this battle impendinggiving as excuse that he could find
nothing more written about these achievements of Don Quixote than what
has been already set forth. It is true the second author of this
work was unwilling to believe that a history so curious could have
been allowed to fall under the sentence of oblivionor that the
wits of La Mancha could have been so undiscerning as not to preserve
in their archives or registries some documents referring to this
famous knight; and this being his persuasionhe did not despair of
finding the conclusion of this pleasant historywhichheaven
favouring himhe did find in a way that shall be related in the
Second Part.



In the First Part of this history we left the valiant Biscayan and

the renowned Don Quixote with drawn swords upliftedready to
deliver two such furious slashing blows that if they had fallen full
and fair they would at least have split and cleft them asunder from
top to toe and laid them open like a pomegranate; and at this so
critical point the delightful history came to a stop and stood cut
short without any intimation from the author where what was missing
was to be found.

This distressed me greatlybecause the pleasure derived from having
read such a small portion turned to vexation at the thought of the
poor chance that presented itself of finding the large part thatso
it seemed to mewas missing of such an interesting tale. It
appeared to me to be a thing impossible and contrary to all
precedent that so good a knight should have been without some sage
to undertake the task of writing his marvellous achievements; a
thing that was never wanting to any of those knights-errant who
they saywent after adventures; for every one of them had one or
two sages as if made on purposewho not only recorded their deeds but
described their most trifling thoughts and follieshowever secret
they might be; and such a good knight could not have been so
unfortunate as not to have what Platir and others like him had in
abundance. And so I could not bring myself to believe that such a
gallant tale had been left maimed and mutilatedand I laid the
blame on Timethe devourer and destroyer of all thingsthat had
either concealed or consumed it.

On the other handit struck me thatinasmuch as among his books
there had been found such modern ones as "The Enlightenment of
Jealousy" and the "Nymphs and Shepherds of Henares his story must
likewise be modern, and that though it might not be written, it
might exist in the memory of the people of his village and of those in
the neighbourhood. This reflection kept me perplexed and longing to
know really and truly the whole life and wondrous deeds of our
famous Spaniard, Don Quixote of La Mancha, light and mirror of
Manchegan chivalry, and the first that in our age and in these so evil
days devoted himself to the labour and exercise of the arms of
knight-errantry, righting wrongs, succouring widows, and protecting
damsels of that sort that used to ride about, whip in hand, on their
palfreys, with all their virginity about them, from mountain to
mountain and valley to valley- for, if it were not for some ruffian,
or boor with a hood and hatchet, or monstrous giant, that forced them,
there were in days of yore damsels that at the end of eighty years, in
all which time they had never slept a day under a roof, went to
their graves as much maids as the mothers that bore them. I say, then,
that in these and other respects our gallant Don Quixote is worthy
of everlasting and notable praise, nor should it be withheld even from
me for the labour and pains spent in searching for the conclusion of
this delightful history; though I know well that if Heaven, chance and
good fortune had not helped me, the world would have remained deprived
of an entertainment and pleasure that for a couple of hours or so
may well occupy him who shall read it attentively. The discovery of it
occurred in this way.

One day, as I was in the Alcana of Toledo, a boy came up to sell
some pamphlets and old papers to a silk mercer, and, as I am fond of
reading even the very scraps of paper in the streets, led by this
natural bent of mine I took up one of the pamphlets the boy had for
sale, and saw that it was in characters which I recognised as
Arabic, and as I was unable to read them though I could recognise
them, I looked about to see if there were any Spanish-speaking Morisco
at hand to read them for me; nor was there any great difficulty in
finding such an interpreter, for even had I sought one for an older
and better language I should have found him. In short, chance provided
me with one, who when I told him what I wanted and put the book into

his hands, opened it in the middle and after reading a little in it
began to laugh. I asked him what he was laughing at, and he replied
that it was at something the book had written in the margin by way
of a note. I bade him tell it to me; and he still laughing said, In
the marginas I told youthis is written: 'This Dulcinea del
Toboso so often mentioned in this historyhadthey saythe best
hand of any woman in all La Mancha for salting pigs.'"

When I heard Dulcinea del Toboso namedI was struck with surprise
and amazementfor it occurred to me at once that these pamphlets
contained the history of Don Quixote. With this idea I pressed him
to read the beginningand doing soturning the Arabic offhand into
Castilianhe told me it meantHistory of Don Quixote of La
Mancha, written by Cide Hamete Benengeli, an Arab historian.It
required great caution to hide the joy I felt when the title of the
book reached my earsand snatching it from the silk mercerI
bought all the papers and pamphlets from the boy for half a real;
and if he had had his wits about him and had known how eager I was for
themhe might have safely calculated on making more than six reals by
the bargain. I withdrew at once with the Morisco into the cloister
of the cathedraland begged him to turn all these pamphlets that
related to Don Quixote into the Castilian tonguewithout omitting
or adding anything to themoffering him whatever payment he
pleased. He was satisfied with two arrobas of raisins and two
bushels of wheatand promised to translate them faithfully and with
all despatch; but to make the matter easierand not to let such a
precious find out of my handsI took him to my housewhere in little
more than a month and a half he translated the whole just as it is set
down here.

In the first pamphlet the battle between Don Quixote and the
Biscayan was drawn to the very lifethey planted in the same attitude
as the history describestheir swords raisedand the one protected
by his bucklerthe other by his cushionand the Biscayan's mule so
true to nature that it could be seen to be a hired one a bowshot
off. The Biscayan had an inscription under his feet which saidDon
Sancho de Azpeitia,which no doubt must have been his name; and at
the feet of Rocinante was another that saidDon Quixote.
Rocinante was marvellously portrayedso long and thinso lank and
leanwith so much backbone and so far gone in consumptionthat he
showed plainly with what judgment and propriety the name of
Rocinante had been bestowed upon him. Near him was Sancho Panza
holding the halter of his assat whose feet was another label that
saidSancho Zancas,and according to the picturehe must have
had a big bellya short bodyand long shanksfor which reasonno
doubtthe names of Panza and Zancas were given himfor by these
two surnames the history several times calls him. Some other
trifling particulars might be mentionedbut they are all of slight
importance and have nothing to do with the true relation of the
history; and no history can be bad so long as it is true.

If against the present one any objection be raised on the score of
its truthit can only be that its author was an Arabas lying is a
very common propensity with those of that nation; thoughas they
are such enemies of oursit is conceivable that there were
omissions rather than additions made in the course of it. And this
is my own opinion; forwhere he could and should give freedom to
his pen in praise of so worthy a knighthe seems to me deliberately
to pass it over in silence; which is ill done and worse contrivedfor
it is the business and duty of historians to be exacttruthfuland
wholly free from passionand neither interest nor fearhatred nor
loveshould make them swerve from the path of truthwhose mother
is historyrival of timestorehouse of deedswitness for the
pastexample and counsel for the presentand warning for the future.

In this I know will be found all that can be desired in the
pleasantestand if it be wanting in any good qualityI maintain it
is the fault of its hound of an author and not the fault of the
subject. To be briefits Second Partaccording to the translation
began in this way:

With trenchant swords upraised and poised on highit seemed as
though the two valiant and wrathful combatants stood threatening
heavenand earthand hellwith such resolution and determination
did they bear themselves. The fiery Biscayan was the first to strike a
blowwhich was delivered with such force and fury that had not the
sword turned in its coursethat single stroke would have sufficed
to put an end to the bitter struggle and to all the adventures of
our knight; but that good fortune which reserved him for greater
thingsturned aside the sword of his adversaryso that although it
smote him upon the left shoulderit did him no more harm than to
strip all that side of its armourcarrying away a great part of his
helmet with half of his earall which with fearful ruin fell to the
groundleaving him in a sorry plight.

Good God! Who is there that could properly describe the rage that
filled the heart of our Manchegan when he saw himself dealt with in
this fashion? All that can be said isit was such that he again
raised himself in his stirrupsandgrasping his sword more firmly
with both handshe came down on the Biscayan with such fury
smiting him full over the cushion and over the headthat- even so
good a shield proving useless- as if a mountain had fallen on him
he began to bleed from nosemouthand earsreeling as if about to
fall backwards from his muleas no doubt he would have done had he
not flung his arms about its neck; at the same timehoweverhe
slipped his feet out of the stirrups and then unclasped his arms
and the muletaking fright at the terrible blowmade off across
the plainand with a few plunges flung its master to the ground.
Don Quixote stood looking on very calmlyandwhen he saw him fall
leaped from his horse and with great briskness ran to himand
presenting the point of his sword to his eyesbade him surrender
or he would cut his head off. The Biscayan was so bewildered that he
was unable to answer a wordand it would have gone hard with him
so blind was Don Quixotehad not the ladies in the coachwho had
hitherto been watching the combat in great terrorhastened to where
he stood and implored him with earnest entreaties to grant them the
great grace and favour of sparing their squire's life; to which Don
Quixote replied with much gravity and dignityIn truth, fair ladies,
I am well content to do what ye ask of me; but it must be on one
condition and understanding, which is that this knight promise me to
go to the village of El Toboso, and on my behalf present himself
before the peerless lady Dulcinea, that she deal with him as shall
be most pleasing to her.

The terrified and disconsolate ladieswithout discussing Don
Quixote's demand or asking who Dulcinea might bepromised that
their squire should do all that had been commanded.

Then, on the faith of that promise,said Don QuixoteI shall
do him no further harm, though he well deserves it of me.



Now by this time Sancho had risenrather the worse for the handling
of the friars' muleteersand stood watching the battle of his master
Don Quixoteand praying to God in his heart that it might be his will
to grant him the victoryand that he might thereby win some island to
make him governor ofas he had promised. Seeingthereforethat
the struggle was now overand that his master was returning to
mount Rocinantehe approached to hold the stirrup for himand
before he could mounthe went on his knees before himand taking his
handkissed it sayingMay it please your worship, Senor Don
Quixote, to give me the government of that island which has been won
in this hard fight, for be it ever so big I feel myself in
sufficient force to be able to govern it as much and as well as anyone
in the world who has ever governed islands.

To which Don Quixote repliedThou must take notice, brother
Sancho, that this adventure and those like it are not adventures of
islands, but of cross-roads, in which nothing is got except a broken
head or an ear the less: have patience, for adventures will present
themselves from which I may make you, not only a governor, but
something more.

Sancho gave him many thanksand again kissing his hand and the
skirt of his hauberkhelped him to mount Rocinanteand mounting
his ass himselfproceeded to follow his masterwho at a brisk
pacewithout taking leaveor saying anything further to the ladies
belonging to the coachturned into a wood that was hard by. Sancho
followed him at his ass's best trotbut Rocinante stepped out so
thatseeing himself left behindhe was forced to call to his
master to wait for him. Don Quixote did soreining in Rocinante until
his weary squire came upwho on reaching him saidIt seems to me,
senor, it would be prudent in us to go and take refuge in some church,
for, seeing how mauled he with whom you fought has been left, it
will be no wonder if they give information of the affair to the Holy
Brotherhood and arrest us, and, faith, if they do, before we come
out of gaol we shall have to sweat for it.

Peace,said Don Quixote; "where hast thou ever seen or heard
that a knight-errant has been arraigned before a court of justice
however many homicides he may have committed?"

I know nothing about omecils,answered Sanchonor in my life
have had anything to do with one; I only know that the Holy
Brotherhood looks after those who fight in the fields, and in that
other matter I do not meddle.

Then thou needst have no uneasiness, my friend,said Don
Quixotefor I will deliver thee out of the hands of the Chaldeans,
much more out of those of the Brotherhood. But tell me, as thou
livest, hast thou seen a more valiant knight than I in all the known
world; hast thou read in history of any who has or had higher mettle
in attack, more spirit in maintaining it, more dexterity in wounding
or skill in overthrowing?

The truth is,answered Sanchothat I have never read any
history, for I can neither read nor write, but what I will venture
to bet is that a more daring master than your worship I have never
served in all the days of my life, and God grant that this daring be
not paid for where I have said; what I beg of your worship is to dress
your wound, for a great deal of blood flows from that ear, and I
have here some lint and a little white ointment in the alforjas.

All that might be well dispensed with,said Don Quixoteif I had
remembered to make a vial of the balsam of Fierabras, for time and
medicine are saved by one single drop.

What vial and what balsam is that?said Sancho Panza.

It is a balsam,answered Don Quixotethe receipt of which I have
in my memory, with which one need have no fear of death, or dread
dying of any wound; and so when I make it and give it to thee thou
hast nothing to do when in some battle thou seest they have cut me
in half through the middle of the body- as is wont to happen
frequently,- but neatly and with great nicety, ere the blood
congeal, to place that portion of the body which shall have fallen
to the ground upon the other half which remains in the saddle,
taking care to fit it on evenly and exactly. Then thou shalt give me
to drink but two drops of the balsam I have mentioned, and thou
shalt see me become sounder than an apple.

If that be so,said PanzaI renounce henceforth the government
of the promised island, and desire nothing more in payment of my
many and faithful services than that your worship give me the
receipt of this supreme liquor, for I am persuaded it will be worth
more than two reals an ounce anywhere, and I want no more to pass
the rest of my life in ease and honour; but it remains to be told if
it costs much to make it.

With less than three reals, six quarts of it may be made,said Don

Sinner that I am!said Sanchothen why does your worship put off
making it and teaching it to me?

Peace, friend,answered Don Quixote; "greater secrets I mean to
teach thee and greater favours to bestow upon thee; and for the
present let us see to the dressingfor my ear pains me more than I
could wish."

Sancho took out some lint and ointment from the alforjas; but when
Don Quixote came to see his helmet shatteredhe was like to lose
his sensesand clapping his hand upon his sword and raising his
eyes to heavenbe saidI swear by the Creator of all things and the
four Gospels in their fullest extent, to do as the great Marquis of
Mantua did when he swore to avenge the death of his nephew Baldwin
(and that was not to eat bread from a table-cloth, nor embrace his
wife, and other points which, though I cannot now call them to mind, I
here grant as expressed) until I take complete vengeance upon him
who has committed such an offence against me.

Hearing thisSancho said to himYour worship should bear in mind,
Senor Don Quixote, that if the knight has done what was commanded
him in going to present himself before my lady Dulcinea del Toboso, he
will have done all that he was bound to do, and does not deserve
further punishment unless he commits some new offence.

Thou hast said well and hit the point,answered Don Quixote; and
so I recall the oath in so far as relates to taking fresh vengeance on
himbut I make and confirm it anew to lead the life I have said until
such time as I take by force from some knight another helmet such as
this and as good; and think notSanchothat I am raising smoke
with straw in doing sofor I have one to imitate in the mattersince
the very same thing to a hair happened in the case of Mambrino's
helmetwhich cost Sacripante so dear."

Senor,replied Sancholet your worship send all such oaths to
the devil, for they are very pernicious to salvation and prejudicial
to the conscience; just tell me now, if for several days to come we
fall in with no man armed with a helmet, what are we to do? Is the

oath to be observed in spite of all the inconvenience and discomfort
it will be to sleep in your clothes, and not to sleep in a house,
and a thousand other mortifications contained in the oath of that
old fool the Marquis of Mantua, which your worship is now wanting to
revive? Let your worship observe that there are no men in armour
travelling on any of these roads, nothing but carriers and carters,
who not only do not wear helmets, but perhaps never heard tell of them
all their lives.

Thou art wrong there,said Don Quixotefor we shall not have
been above two hours among these cross-roads before we see more men in
armour than came to Albraca to win the fair Angelica.

Enough,said Sancho; "so be it thenand God grant us successand
that the time for winning that island which is costing me so dear
may soon comeand then let me die."

I have already told thee, Sancho,said Don Quixotenot to give
thyself any uneasiness on that score; for if an island should fail,
there is the kingdom of Denmark, or of Sobradisa, which will fit
thee as a ring fits the finger, and all the more that, being on
terra firma, thou wilt all the better enjoy thyself. But let us
leave that to its own time; see if thou hast anything for us to eat in
those alforjas, because we must presently go in quest of some castle
where we may lodge to-night and make the balsam I told thee of, for
I swear to thee by God, this ear is giving me great pain.

I have here an onion and a little cheese and a few scraps of
bread,said Sanchobut they are not victuals fit for a valiant
knight like your worship.

How little thou knowest about it,answered Don Quixote; "I would
have thee to knowSanchothat it is the glory of knights-errant to
go without eating for a monthand even when they do eatthat it
should be of what comes first to hand; and this would have been
clear to thee hadst thou read as many histories as I haveforthough
they are very manyamong them all I have found no mention made of
knights-errant eatingunless by accident or at some sumptuous
banquets prepared for themand the rest of the time they passed in
dalliance. And though it is plain they could not do without eating and
performing all the other natural functionsbecausein factthey
were men like ourselvesit is plain too thatwandering as they did
the most part of their lives through woods and wilds and without a
cooktheir most usual fare would be rustic viands such as those
thou now offer me; so thatfriend Sancholet not that distress
thee which pleases meand do not seek to make a new world or
pervert knight-errantry."

Pardon me, your worship,said Sanchofor, as I cannot read or
write, as I said just now, I neither know nor comprehend the rules
of the profession of chivalry: henceforward I will stock the
alforjas with every kind of dry fruit for your worship, as you are a
knight; and for myself, as I am not one, I will furnish them with
poultry and other things more substantial.

I do not say, Sancho,replied Don Quixotethat it is
imperative on knights-errant not to eat anything else but the fruits
thou speakest of; only that their more usual diet must be those, and
certain herbs they found in the fields which they knew and I know

A good thing it is,answered Sanchoto know those herbs, for
to my thinking it will be needful some day to put that knowledge
into practice.

And here taking out what he said he had broughtthe pair made their
repast peaceably and sociably. But anxious to find quarters for the
nightthey with all despatch made an end of their poor dry fare
mounted at onceand made haste to reach some habitation before
night set in; but daylight and the hope of succeeding in their
object failed them close by the huts of some goatherdsso they
determined to pass the night thereand it was as much to Sancho's
discontent not to have reached a houseas it was to his master's
satisfaction to sleep under the open heavenfor he fancied that
each time this happened to him he performed an act of ownership that
helped to prove his chivalry.



He was cordially welcomed by the goatherdsand Sanchohaving as
best he could put up Rocinante and the assdrew towards the fragrance
that came from some pieces of salted goat simmering in a pot on the
fire; and though he would have liked at once to try if they were ready
to be transferred from the pot to the stomachhe refrained from doing
so as the goatherds removed them from the fireand laying
sheepskins on the groundquickly spread their rude tableand with
signs of hearty good-will invited them both to share what they had.
Round the skins six of the men belonging to the fold seated
themselveshaving first with rough politeness pressed Don Quixote
to take a seat upon a trough which they placed for him upside down.
Don Quixote seated himselfand Sancho remained standing to serve
the cupwhich was made of horn. Seeing him standinghis master
said to him:

That thou mayest see, Sancho, the good that knight-errantry
contains in itself, and how those who fill any office in it are on the
high road to be speedily honoured and esteemed by the world, I
desire that thou seat thyself here at my side and in the company of
these worthy people, and that thou be one with me who am thy master
and natural lord, and that thou eat from my plate and drink from
whatever I drink from; for the same may be said of knight-errantry
as of love, that it levels all.

Great thanks,said Sanchobut I may tell your worship that
provided I have enough to eat, I can eat it as well, or better,
standing, and by myself, than seated alongside of an emperor. And
indeed, if the truth is to be told, what I eat in my corner without
form or fuss has much more relish for me, even though it be bread
and onions, than the turkeys of those other tables where I am forced
to chew slowly, drink little, wipe my mouth every minute, and cannot
sneeze or cough if I want or do other things that are the privileges
of liberty and solitude. So, senor, as for these honours which your
worship would put upon me as a servant and follower of
knight-errantry, exchange them for other things which may be of more
use and advantage to me; for these, though I fully acknowledge them as
received, I renounce from this moment to the end of the world.

For all that,said Don Quixotethou must seat thyself, because
him who humbleth himself God exalteth;and seizing him by the arm
he forced him to sit down beside himself.

The goatherds did not understand this jargon about squires and
knights-errantand all they did was to eat in silence and stare at

their guestswho with great elegance and appetite were stowing away
pieces as big as one's fist. The course of meat finishedthey
spread upon the sheepskins a great heap of parched acornsand with
them they put down a half cheese harder than if it had been made of
mortar. All this while the horn was not idlefor it went round so
constantlynow fullnow emptylike the bucket of a water-wheel
that it soon drained one of the two wine-skins that were in sight.
When Don Quixote had quite appeased his appetite he took up a
handful of the acornsand contemplating them attentively delivered
himself somewhat in this fashion:

Happy the age, happy the time, to which the ancients gave the
name of golden, not because in that fortunate age the gold so
coveted in this our iron one was gained without toil, but because they
that lived in it knew not the two words mine" and "thine"! In that
blessed age all things were in common; to win the daily food no labour
was required of any save to stretch forth his hand and gather it
from the sturdy oaks that stood generously inviting him with their
sweet ripe fruit. The clear streams and running brooks yielded their
savoury limpid waters in noble abundance. The busy and sagacious
bees fixed their republic in the clefts of the rocks and hollows of
the treesoffering without usance the plenteous produce of their
fragrant toil to every hand. The mighty cork treesunenforced save of
their own courtesyshed the broad light bark that served at first
to roof the houses supported by rude stakesa protection against
the inclemency of heaven alone. Then all was peaceall friendship
all concord; as yet the dull share of the crooked plough had not dared
to rend and pierce the tender bowels of our first mother that
without compulsion yielded from every portion of her broad fertile
bosom all that could satisfysustainand delight the children that
then possessed her. Then was it that the innocent and fair young
shepherdess roamed from vale to vale and hill to hillwith flowing
locksand no more garments than were needful modestly to cover what
modesty seeks and ever sought to hide. Nor were their ornaments like
those in use to-dayset off by Tyrian purpleand silk tortured in
endless fashionsbut the wreathed leaves of the green dock and ivy
wherewith they went as bravely and becomingly decked as our Court
dames with all the rare and far-fetched artifices that idle
curiosity has taught them. Then the love-thoughts of the heart clothed
themselves simply and naturally as the heart conceived themnor
sought to commend themselves by forced and rambling verbiage. Fraud
deceitor malice had then not yet mingled with truth and sincerity.
Justice held her groundundisturbed and unassailed by the efforts
of favour and of interestthat now so much impairpervertand beset
her. Arbitrary law had not yet established itself in the mind of the
judgefor then there was no cause to judge and no one to be judged.
Maidens and modestyas I have saidwandered at will alone and
unattendedwithout fear of insult from lawlessness or libertine
assaultand if they were undone it was of their own will and
pleasure. But now in this hateful age of ours not one is safenot
though some new labyrinth like that of Crete conceal and surround her;
even there the pestilence of gallantry will make its way to them
through chinks or on the air by the zeal of its accursed
importunityanddespite of all seclusionlead them to ruin. In
defence of theseas time advanced and wickedness increasedthe order
of knights-errant was institutedto defend maidensto protect widows
and to succour the orphans and the needy. To this order I belong
brother goatherdsto whom I return thanks for the hospitality and
kindly welcome ye offer me and my squire; for though by natural law
all living are bound to show favour to knights-errantyetseeing
that without knowing this obligation ye have welcomed and feasted
meit is right that with all the good-will in my power I should thank
you for yours."

All this long harangue (which might very well have been spared)
our knight delivered because the acorns they gave him reminded him
of the golden age; and the whim seized him to address all this
unnecessary argument to the goatherdswho listened to him gaping in
amazement without saying a word in reply. Sancho likewise held his
peace and ate acornsand paid repeated visits to the second
wine-skinwhich they had hung up on a cork tree to keep the wine

Don Quixote was longer in talking than the supper in finishingat
the end of which one of the goatherds saidThat your worship,
senor knight-errant, may say with more truth that we show you
hospitality with ready good-will, we will give you amusement and
pleasure by making one of our comrades sing: he will be here before
long, and he is a very intelligent youth and deep in love, and what is
more he can read and write and play on the rebeck to perfection.

The goatherd had hardly done speakingwhen the notes of the
rebeck reached their ears; and shortly afterthe player came upa
very good-looking young man of about two-and-twenty. His comrades
asked him if he had suppedand on his replying that he hadhe who
had already made the offer said to him:

In that case, Antonio, thou mayest as well do us the pleasure of
singing a little, that the gentleman, our guest, may see that even
in the mountains and woods there are musicians: we have told him of
thy accomplishments, and we want thee to show them and prove that we
say true; so, as thou livest, pray sit down and sing that ballad about
thy love that thy uncle the prebendary made thee, and that was so much
liked in the town.

With all my heart,said the young manand without waiting for
more pressing he seated himself on the trunk of a felled oakand
tuning his rebeckpresently began to sing to these words.


Thou dost love me wellOlalla;
Well I know iteven though
Love's mute tonguesthine eyeshave never
By their glances told me so.

For I know my love thou knowest
Therefore thine to claim I dare:
Once it ceases to be secret
Love need never feel despair.

True it isOlallasometimes
Thou hast all too plainly shown
That thy heart is brass in hardness
And thy snowy bosom stone.

Yet for all thatin thy coyness
And thy fickle fits between
Hope is there- at least the border
Of her garment may be seen.

Lures to faith are theythose glimpses
And to faith in thee I hold;
Kindness cannot make it stronger
Coldness cannot make it cold.

If it be that love is gentle
In thy gentleness I see
Something holding out assurance
To the hope of winning thee.

If it be that in devotion
Lies a power hearts to move
That which every day I show thee
Helpful to my suit should prove.

Many a time thou must have noticedIf
to notice thou dost care-
How I go about on Monday
Dressed in all my Sunday wear.

Love's eyes love to look on brightness;
Love loves what is gaily drest;
SundayMondayall I care is
Thou shouldst see me in my best.

No account I make of dances
Or of strains that pleased thee so
Keeping thee awake from midnight
Till the cocks began to crow;

Or of how I roundly swore it
That there's none so fair as thou;
True it isbut as I said it
By the girls I'm hated now.

For Teresa of the hillside
At my praise of thee was sore;
SaidYou think you love an angel;
It's a monkey you adore;

Caught by all her glittering trinkets
And her borrowed braids of hair
And a host of made-up beauties
That would Love himself ensnare."

'T was a lieand so I told her
And her cousin at the word
Gave me his defiance for it;
And what followed thou hast heard.

Mine is no high-flown affection
Mine no passion par amours-
As they call it- what I offer
Is an honest loveand pure.

Cunning cords the holy Church has
Cords of softest silk they be;
Put thy neck beneath the yokedear;
Mine will followthou wilt see.

Else- and once for all I swear it
By the saint of most renown-
If I ever quit the mountains
'T will be in a friar's gown.

Here the goatherd brought his song to an endand though Don Quixote
entreated him to sing moreSancho had no mind that waybeing more
inclined for sleep than for listening to songs; so said he to his

masterYour worship will do well to settle at once where you mean to
pass the night, for the labour these good men are at all day does
not allow them to spend the night in singing.

I understand thee, Sancho,replied Don Quixote; "I perceive
clearly that those visits to the wine-skin demand compensation in
sleep rather than in music."

It's sweet to us all, blessed be God,said Sancho.

I do not deny it,replied Don Quixote; "but settle thyself where
thou wilt; those of my calling are more becomingly employed in
watching than in sleeping; still it would be as well if thou wert to
dress this ear for me againfor it is giving me more pain than it

Sancho did as he bade himbut one of the goatherdsseeing the
woundtold him not to be uneasyas he would apply a remedy with
which it would be soon healed; and gathering some leaves of
rosemaryof which there was a great quantity therehe chewed them
and mixed them with a little saltand applying them to the ear he
secured them firmly with a bandageassuring him that no other
treatment would be requiredand so it proved.



Just then another young manone of those who fetched their
provisions from the villagecame up and saidDo you know what is
going on in the village, comrades?

How could we know it?replied one of them.

Well, then, you must know,continued the young manthis
morning that famous student-shepherd called Chrysostom died, and it is
rumoured that he died of love for that devil of a village girl the
daughter of Guillermo the Rich, she that wanders about the wolds
here in the dress of a shepherdess.

You mean Marcela?said one.

Her I mean,answered the goatherd; "and the best of it ishe
has directed in his will that he is to be buried in the fields like
a Moorand at the foot of the rock where the Cork-tree spring is
becauseas the story goes (and they say he himself said so)that was
the place where he first saw her. And he has also left other
directions which the clergy of the village say should not and must not
be obeyed because they savour of paganism. To all which his great
friend Ambrosio the studenthe wholike himalso went dressed as
a shepherdreplies that everything must be done without any
omission according to the directions left by Chrysostomand about
this the village is all in commotion; howeverreport says thatafter
allwhat Ambrosio and all the shepherds his friends desire will be
doneand to-morrow they are coming to bury him with great ceremony
where I said. I am sure it will be something worth seeing; at least
I will not fail to go and see it even if I knew I should not return to
the village tomorrow."

We will do the same,answered the goatherdsand cast lots to see
who must stay to mind the goats of all.

Thou sayest well, Pedro,said onethough there will be no need
of taking that trouble, for I will stay behind for all; and don't
suppose it is virtue or want of curiosity in me; it is that the
splinter that ran into my foot the other day will not let me walk.

For all that, we thank thee,answered Pedro.

Don Quixote asked Pedro to tell him who the dead man was and who the
shepherdessto which Pedro replied that all he knew was that the dead
man was a wealthy gentleman belonging to a village in those mountains
who had been a student at Salamanca for many yearsat the end of
which he returned to his village with the reputation of being very
learned and deeply read. "Above allthey saidhe was learned in
the science of the stars and of what went on yonder in the heavens and
the sun and the moonfor he told us of the cris of the sun and moon
to exact time."

Eclipse it is called, friend, not cris, the darkening of those
two luminaries,said Don Quixote; but Pedronot troubling himself
with trifleswent on with his storysayingAlso he foretold when
the year was going to be one of abundance or estility.

Sterility, you mean,said Don Quixote.

Sterility or estility,answered Pedroit is all the same in
the end. And I can tell you that by this his father and friends who
believed him grew very rich because they did as he advised them,
bidding them 'sow barley this year, not wheat; this year you may sow
pulse and not barley; the next there will be a full oil crop, and
the three following not a drop will be got.'

That science is called astrology,said Don Quixote.

I do not know what it is called,replied Pedrobut I know that
he knew all this and more besides. But, to make an end, not many
months had passed after he returned from Salamanca, when one day he
appeared dressed as a shepherd with his crook and sheepskin, having
put off the long gown he wore as a scholar; and at the same time his
great friend, Ambrosio by name, who had been his companion in his
studies, took to the shepherd's dress with him. I forgot to say that
Chrysostom, who is dead, was a great man for writing verses, so much
so that he made carols for Christmas Eve, and plays for Corpus
Christi, which the young men of our village acted, and all said they
were excellent. When the villagers saw the two scholars so
unexpectedly appearing in shepherd's dress, they were lost in
wonder, and could not guess what had led them to make so extraordinary
a change. About this time the father of our Chrysostom died, and he
was left heir to a large amount of property in chattels as well as
in land, no small number of cattle and sheep, and a large sum of
money, of all of which the young man was left dissolute owner, and
indeed he was deserving of it all, for he was a very good comrade, and
kind-hearted, and a friend of worthy folk, and had a countenance
like a benediction. Presently it came to be known that he had
changed his dress with no other object than to wander about these
wastes after that shepherdess Marcela our lad mentioned a while ago,
with whom the deceased Chrysostom had fallen in love. And I must
tell you now, for it is well you should know it, who this girl is;
perhaps, and even without any perhaps, you will not have heard
anything like it all the days of your life, though you should live
more years than sarna.

Say Sarra,said Don Quixoteunable to endure the goatherd's
confusion of words.

The sarna lives long enough,answered Pedro; "and ifsenoryou
must go finding fault with words at every stepwe shall not make an
end of it this twelvemonth."

Pardon me, friend,said Don Quixote; "butas there is such a
difference between sarna and SarraI told you of it; howeveryou
have answered very rightlyfor sarna lives longer than Sarra: so
continue your storyand I will not object any more to anything."

I say then, my dear sir,said the goatherdthat in our village
there was a farmer even richer than the father of Chrysostom, who
was named Guillermo, and upon whom God bestowed, over and above
great wealth, a daughter at whose birth her mother died, the most
respected woman there was in this neighbourhood; I fancy I can see her
now with that countenance which had the sun on one side and the moon
on the other; and moreover active, and kind to the poor, for which I
trust that at the present moment her soul is in bliss with God in
the other world. Her husband Guillermo died of grief at the death of
so good a wife, leaving his daughter Marcela, a child and rich, to the
care of an uncle of hers, a priest and prebendary in our village.
The girl grew up with such beauty that it reminded us of her mother's,
which was very great, and yet it was thought that the daughter's would
exceed it; and so when she reached the age of fourteen to fifteen
years nobody beheld her but blessed God that had made her so
beautiful, and the greater number were in love with her past
redemption. Her uncle kept her in great seclusion and retirement,
but for all that the fame of her great beauty spread so that, as
well for it as for her great wealth, her uncle was asked, solicited,
and importuned, to give her in marriage not only by those of our
town but of those many leagues round, and by the persons of highest
quality in them. But he, being a good Christian man, though he desired
to give her in marriage at once, seeing her to be old enough, was
unwilling to do so without her consent, not that he had any eye to the
gain and profit which the custody of the girl's property brought him
while he put off her marriage; and, faith, this was said in praise
of the good priest in more than one set in the town. For I would
have you know, Sir Errant, that in these little villages everything is
talked about and everything is carped at, and rest assured, as I am,
that the priest must be over and above good who forces his
parishioners to speak well of him, especially in villages.

That is the truth,said Don Quixote; "but go onfor the story
is very goodand yougood Pedrotell it with very good grace."

May that of the Lord not be wanting to me,said Pedro; "that is
the one to have. To proceed; you must know that though the uncle put
before his niece and described to her the qualities of each one in
particular of the many who had asked her in marriagebegging her to
marry and make a choice according to her own tasteshe never gave any
other answer than that she had no desire to marry just yetand that
being so young she did not think herself fit to bear the burden of
matrimony. At theseto all appearancereasonable excuses that she
madeher uncle ceased to urge herand waited till she was somewhat
more advanced in age and could mate herself to her own liking. For
said he- and he said quite right- parents are not to settle children
in life against their will. But when one least looked for itlo and
behold! one day the demure Marcela makes her appearance turned
shepherdess; andin spite of her uncle and all those of the town that
strove to dissuade hertook to going a-field with the other
shepherd-lasses of the villageand tending her own flock. And so
since she appeared in publicand her beauty came to be seen openlyI
could not well tell you how many rich youthsgentlemen and
peasantshave adopted the costume of Chrysostomand go about these

fields making love to her. One of theseas has been already saidwas
our deceased friendof whom they say that he did not love but adore
her. But you must not supposebecause Marcela chose a life of such
liberty and independenceand of so little or rather no retirement
that she has given any occasionor even the semblance of onefor
disparagement of her purity and modesty; on the contrarysuch and
so great is the vigilance with which she watches over her honourthat
of all those that court and woo her not one has boastedor can with
truth boastthat she has given him any hope however small of
obtaining his desire. For although she does not avoid or shun the
society and conversation of the shepherdsand treats them courteously
and kindlyshould any one of them come to declare his intention to
herthough it be one as proper and holy as that of matrimonyshe
flings him from her like a catapult. And with this kind of disposition
she does more harm in this country than if the plague had got into it
for her affability and her beauty draw on the hearts of those that
associate with her to love her and to court herbut her scorn and her
frankness bring them to the brink of despair; and so they know not
what to say save to proclaim her aloud cruel and hard-heartedand
other names of the same sort which well describe the nature of her
character; and if you should remain here any timesenoryou would
hear these hills and valleys resounding with the laments of the
rejected ones who pursue her. Not far from this there is a spot
where there are a couple of dozen of tall beechesand there is not
one of them but has carved and written on its smooth bark the name
of Marcelaand above some a crown carved on the same tree as though
her lover would say more plainly that Marcela wore and deserved that
of all human beauty. Here one shepherd is sighingthere another is
lamenting; there love songs are heardhere despairing elegies. One
will pass all the hours of the night seated at the foot of some oak or
rockand therewithout having closed his weeping eyesthe sun finds
him in the morning bemused and bereft of sense; and another without
relief or respite to his sighsstretched on the burning sand in the
full heat of the sultry summer noontidemakes his appeal to the
compassionate heavensand over one and the otherover these and all
the beautiful Marcela triumphs free and careless. And all of us that
know her are waiting to see what her pride will come toand who is to
be the happy man that will succeed in taming a nature so formidable
and gaining possession of a beauty so supreme. All that I have told
you being such well-established truthI am persuaded that what they
say of the cause of Chrysostom's deathas our lad told usis the
same. And so I advise yousenorfail not to be present to-morrow
at his burialwhich will be well worth seeingfor Chrysostom had
many friendsand it is not half a league from this place to where
he directed he should be buried."

I will make a point of it,said Don Quixoteand I thank you
for the pleasure you have given me by relating so interesting a tale.

Oh,said the goatherdI do not know even the half of what has
happened to the lovers of Marcela, but perhaps to-morrow we may fall
in with some shepherd on the road who can tell us; and now it will
be well for you to go and sleep under cover, for the night air may
hurt your wound, though with the remedy I have applied to you there is
no fear of an untoward result.

Sancho Panzawho was wishing the goatherd's loquacity at the devil
on his part begged his master to go into Pedro's hut to sleep. He
did soand passed all the rest of the night in thinking of his lady
Dulcineain imitation of the lovers of Marcela. Sancho Panza settled
himself between Rocinante and his assand sleptnot like a lover
who had been discardedbut like a man who had been soundly kicked.



Bit hardly had day begun to show itself through the balconies of the
eastwhen five of the six goatherds came to rouse Don Quixote and
tell him that if he was still of a mind to go and see the famous
burial of Chrysostom they would bear him company. Don Quixotewho
desired nothing betterrose and ordered Sancho to saddle and pannel
at oncewhich he did with all despatchand with the same they all
set out forthwith. They had not gone a quarter of a league when at the
meeting of two paths they saw coming towards them some six shepherds
dressed in black sheepskins and with their heads crowned with garlands
of cypress and bitter oleander. Each of them carried a stout holly
staff in his handand along with them there came two men of quality
on horseback in handsome travelling dresswith three servants on foot
accompanying them. Courteous salutations were exchanged on meeting
and inquiring one of the other which way each party was goingthey
learned that all were bound for the scene of the burialso they
went on all together.

One of those on horseback addressing his companion said to him
It seems to me, Senor Vivaldo, that we may reckon as well spent the
delay we shall incur in seeing this remarkable funeral, for remarkable
it cannot but be judging by the strange things these shepherds have
told us, of both the dead shepherd and homicide shepherdess.

So I think too,replied Vivaldoand I would delay not to say a
day, but four, for the sake of seeing it.

Don Quixote asked them what it was they had heard of Marcela and
Chrysostom. The traveller answered that the same morning they had
met these shepherdsand seeing them dressed in this mournful
fashion they had asked them the reason of their appearing in such a
guise; which one of them gavedescribing the strange behaviour and
beauty of a shepherdess called Marcelaand the loves of many who
courted hertogether with the death of that Chrysostom to whose
burial they were going. In shorthe repeated all that Pedro had
related to Don Quixote.

This conversation droppedand another was commenced by him who
was called Vivaldo asking Don Quixote what was the reason that led him
to go armed in that fashion in a country so peaceful. To which Don
Quixote repliedThe pursuit of my calling does not allow or permit
me to go in any other fashion; easy life, enjoyment, and repose were
invented for soft courtiers, but toil, unrest, and arms were
invented and made for those alone whom the world calls knights-errant,
of whom I, though unworthy, am the least of all.

The instant they heard this all set him down as madand the
better to settle the point and discover what kind of madness his
wasVivaldo proceeded to ask him what knights-errant meant.

Have not your worships,replied Don Quixoteread the annals
and histories of England, in which are recorded the famous deeds of
King Arthur, whom we in our popular Castilian invariably call King
Artus, with regard to whom it is an ancient tradition, and commonly
received all over that kingdom of Great Britain, that this king did
not die, but was changed by magic art into a raven, and that in
process of time he is to return to reign and recover his kingdom and
sceptre; for which reason it cannot be proved that from that time to

this any Englishman ever killed a raven? Well, then, in the time of
this good king that famous order of chivalry of the Knights of the
Round Table was instituted, and the amour of Don Lancelot of the
Lake with the Queen Guinevere occurred, precisely as is there related,
the go-between and confidante therein being the highly honourable dame
Quintanona, whence came that ballad so well known and widely spread in
our Spain-

O never surely was there knight
So served by hand of dame,
As served was he Sir Lancelot hight
When he from Britain came

with all the sweet and delectable course of his achievements in love
and war. Handed down from that time, then, this order of chivalry went
on extending and spreading itself over many and various parts of the
world; and in it, famous and renowned for their deeds, were the mighty
Amadis of Gaul with all his sons and descendants to the fifth
generation, and the valiant Felixmarte of Hircania, and the never
sufficiently praised Tirante el Blanco, and in our own days almost
we have seen and heard and talked with the invincible knight Don
Belianis of Greece. This, then, sirs, is to be a knight-errant, and
what I have spoken of is the order of his chivalry, of which, as I
have already said, I, though a sinner, have made profession, and
what the aforesaid knights professed that same do I profess, and so
I go through these solitudes and wilds seeking adventures, resolved in
soul to oppose my arm and person to the most perilous that fortune may
offer me in aid of the weak and needy.

By these words of his the travellers were able to satisfy themselves
of Don Quixote's being out of his senses and of the form of madness
that overmastered himat which they felt the same astonishment that
all felt on first becoming acquainted with it; and Vivaldowho was
a person of great shrewdness and of a lively temperamentin order
to beguile the short journey which they said was required to reach the
mountainthe scene of the burialsought to give him an opportunity
of going on with his absurdities. So he said to himIt seems to
me, Senor Knight-errant, that your worship has made choice of one of
the most austere professions in the world, and I imagine even that
of the Carthusian monks is not so austere.

As austere it may perhaps be,replied our Don Quixotebut so
necessary for the world I am very much inclined to doubt. For, if
the truth is to be told, the soldier who executes what his captain
orders does no less than the captain himself who gives the order. My
meaning, is, that churchmen in peace and quiet pray to Heaven for
the welfare of the world, but we soldiers and knights carry into
effect what they pray for, defending it with the might of our arms and
the edge of our swords, not under shelter but in the open air, a
target for the intolerable rays of the sun in summer and the
piercing frosts of winter. Thus are we God's ministers on earth and
the arms by which his justice is done therein. And as the business
of war and all that relates and belongs to it cannot be conducted
without exceeding great sweat, toil, and exertion, it follows that
those who make it their profession have undoubtedly more labour than
those who in tranquil peace and quiet are engaged in praying to God to
help the weak. I do not mean to say, nor does it enter into my
thoughts, that the knight-errant's calling is as good as that of the
monk in his cell; I would merely infer from what I endure myself
that it is beyond a doubt a more laborious and a more belaboured
one, a hungrier and thirstier, a wretcheder, raggeder, and lousier;
for there is no reason to doubt that the knights-errant of yore
endured much hardship in the course of their lives. And if some of
them by the might of their arms did rise to be emperors, in faith it

cost them dear in the matter of blood and sweat; and if those who
attained to that rank had not had magicians and sages to help them
they would have been completely baulked in their ambition and
disappointed in their hopes.

That is my own opinion,replied the traveller; "but one thing
among many others seems to me very wrong in knights-errantand that
is that when they find themselves about to engage in some mighty and
perilous adventure in which there is manifest danger of losing their
livesthey never at the moment of engaging in it think of
commending themselves to Godas is the duty of every good Christian
in like peril; instead of which they commend themselves to their
ladies with as much devotion as if these were their godsa thing
which seems to me to savour somewhat of heathenism."

Sir,answered Don Quixotethat cannot be on any account omitted,
and the knight-errant would be disgraced who acted otherwise: for it
is usual and customary in knight-errantry that the knight-errant,
who on engaging in any great feat of arms has his lady before him,
should turn his eyes towards her softly and lovingly, as though with
them entreating her to favour and protect him in the hazardous venture
he is about to undertake, and even though no one hear him, he is bound
to say certain words between his teeth, commending himself to her with
all his heart, and of this we have innumerable instances in the
histories. Nor is it to be supposed from this that they are to omit
commending themselves to God, for there will be time and opportunity
for doing so while they are engaged in their task.

For all that,answered the travellerI feel some doubt still,
because often I have read how words will arise between two
knights-errant, and from one thing to another it comes about that
their anger kindles and they wheel their horses round and take a
good stretch of field, and then without any more ado at the top of
their speed they come to the charge, and in mid-career they are wont
to commend themselves to their ladies; and what commonly comes of
the encounter is that one falls over the haunches of his horse pierced
through and through by his antagonist's lance, and as for the other,
it is only by holding on to the mane of his horse that he can help
falling to the ground; but I know not how the dead man had time to
commend himself to God in the course of such rapid work as this; it
would have been better if those words which he spent in commending
himself to his lady in the midst of his career had been devoted to his
duty and obligation as a Christian. Moreover, it is my belief that all
knights-errant have not ladies to commend themselves to, for they
are not all in love.

That is impossible,said Don Quixote: "I say it is impossible that
there could be a knight-errant without a ladybecause to such it is
as natural and proper to be in love as to the heavens to have stars:
most certainly no history has been seen in which there is to be
found a knight-errant without an amourand for the simple reason that
without one he would be held no legitimate knight but a bastardand
one who had gained entrance into the stronghold of the said
knighthoodnot by the doorbut over the wall like a thief and a

Nevertheless,said the travellerif I remember rightly, I
think I have read that Don Galaor, the brother of the valiant Amadis
of Gaul, never had any special lady to whom he might commend
himself, and yet he was not the less esteemed, and was a very stout
and famous knight.

To which our Don Quixote made answerSir, one solitary swallow
does not make summer; moreover, I know that knight was in secret

very deeply in love; besides which, that way of falling in love with
all that took his fancy was a natural propensity which he could not
control. But, in short, it is very manifest that he had one alone whom
he made mistress of his will, to whom he commended himself very
frequently and very secretly, for he prided himself on being a
reticent knight.

Then if it be essential that every knight-errant should be in
love,said the travellerit may be fairly supposed that your
worship is so, as you are of the order; and if you do not pride
yourself on being as reticent as Don Galaor, I entreat you as
earnestly as I can, in the name of all this company and in my own,
to inform us of the name, country, rank, and beauty of your lady,
for she will esteem herself fortunate if all the world knows that
she is loved and served by such a knight as your worship seems to be.

At this Don Quixote heaved a deep sigh and saidI cannot say
positively whether my sweet enemy is pleased or not that the world
should know I serve her; I can only say in answer to what has been
so courteously asked of me, that her name is Dulcinea, her country
El Toboso, a village of La Mancha, her rank must be at least that of a
princess, since she is my queen and lady, and her beauty superhuman,
since all the impossible and fanciful attributes of beauty which the
poets apply to their ladies are verified in her; for her hairs are
gold, her forehead Elysian fields, her eyebrows rainbows, her eyes
suns, her cheeks roses, her lips coral, her teeth pearls, her neck
alabaster, her bosom marble, her hands ivory, her fairness snow, and
what modesty conceals from sight such, I think and imagine, as
rational reflection can only extol, not compare.

We should like to know her lineage, race, and ancestry,said

To which Don Quixote repliedShe is not of the ancient Roman
Curtii, Caii, or Scipios, nor of the modern Colonnas or Orsini, nor of
the Moncadas or Requesenes of Catalonia, nor yet of the Rebellas or
Villanovas of Valencia; Palafoxes, Nuzas, Rocabertis, Corellas, Lunas,
Alagones, Urreas, Foces, or Gurreas of Aragon; Cerdas, Manriques,
Mendozas, or Guzmans of Castile; Alencastros, Pallas, or Meneses of
Portugal; but she is of those of El Toboso of La Mancha, a lineage
that though modern, may furnish a source of gentle blood for the
most illustrious families of the ages that are to come, and this let
none dispute with me save on the condition that Zerbino placed at
the foot of the trophy of Orlando's arms, saying,

'These let none move
Who dareth not his might with Roland prove.'

Although mine is of the Cachopins of Laredo,said the traveller
I will not venture to compare it with that of El Toboso of La Mancha,
though, to tell the truth, no such surname has until now ever
reached my ears.

What!said Don Quixotehas that never reached them?

The rest of the party went along listening with great attention to
the conversation of the pairand even the very goatherds and
shepherds perceived how exceedingly out of his wits our Don Quixote
was. Sancho Panza alone thought that what his master said was the
truthknowing who he was and having known him from his birth; and all
that he felt any difficulty in believing was that about the fair
Dulcinea del Tobosobecause neither any such name nor any such
princess had ever come to his knowledge though he lived so close to El

Toboso. They were going along conversing in this waywhen they saw
descending a gap between two high mountains some twenty shepherdsall
clad in sheepskins of black wooland crowned with garlands which
as afterwards appearedweresome of them of yewsome of cypress.
Six of the number were carrying a bier covered with a great variety of
flowers and brancheson seeing which one of the goatherds said
Those who come there are the bearers of Chrysostom's body, and the
foot of that mountain is the place where he ordered them to bury him.
They therefore made haste to reach the spotand did so by the time
those who came had laid the bier upon the groundand four of them
with sharp pickaxes were digging a grave by the side of a hard rock.
They greeted each other courteouslyand then Don Quixote and those
who accompanied him turned to examine the bierand on itcovered
with flowersthey saw a dead body in the dress of a shepherdto
all appearance of one thirty years of ageand showing even in death
that in life he had been of comely features and gallant bearing.
Around him on the bier itself were laid some booksand several papers
open and folded; and those who were looking on as well as those who
were opening the grave and all the others who were there preserved a
strange silenceuntil one of those who had borne the body said to
anotherObserve carefully, Ambrosia if this is the place
Chrysostom spoke of, since you are anxious that what he directed in
his will should be so strictly complied with.

This is the place,answered Ambrosia "for in it many a time did my
poor friend tell me the story of his hard fortune. Here it washe
told methat he saw for the first time that mortal enemy of the human
raceand heretoofor the first time he declared to her his
passionas honourable as it was devotedand here it was that at last
Marcela ended by scorning and rejecting him so as to bring the tragedy
of his wretched life to a close; herein memory of misfortunes so
greathe desired to be laid in the bowels of eternal oblivion."
Then turning to Don Quixote and the travellers he went on to say
That body, sirs, on which you are looking with compassionate eyes,
was the abode of a soul on which Heaven bestowed a vast share of its
riches. That is the body of Chrysostom, who was unrivalled in wit,
unequalled in courtesy, unapproached in gentle bearing, a phoenix in
friendship, generous without limit, grave without arrogance, gay
without vulgarity, and, in short, first in all that constitutes
goodness and second to none in all that makes up misfortune. He
loved deeply, he was hated; he adored, he was scorned; he wooed a wild
beast, he pleaded with marble, he pursued the wind, he cried to the
wilderness, he served ingratitude, and for reward was made the prey of
death in the mid-course of life, cut short by a shepherdess whom he
sought to immortalise in the memory of man, as these papers which
you see could fully prove, had he not commanded me to consign them
to the fire after having consigned his body to the earth.

You would deal with them more harshly and cruelly than their
owner himself,said Vivaldofor it is neither right nor proper to
do the will of one who enjoins what is wholly unreasonable; it would
not have been reasonable in Augustus Caesar had he permitted the
directions left by the divine Mantuan in his will to be carried into
effect. So that, Senor Ambrosia while you consign your friend's body
to the earth, you should not consign his writings to oblivion, for
if he gave the order in bitterness of heart, it is not right that
you should irrationally obey it. On the contrary, by granting life
to those papers, let the cruelty of Marcela live for ever, to serve as
a warning in ages to come to all men to shun and avoid falling into
like danger; or I and all of us who have come here know already the
story of this your love-stricken and heart-broken friend, and we know,
too, your friendship, and the cause of his death, and the directions
he gave at the close of his life; from which sad story may be gathered
how great was the cruelty of Marcela, the love of Chrysostom, and

the loyalty of your friendship, together with the end awaiting those
who pursue rashly the path that insane passion opens to their eyes.
Last night we learned the death of Chrysostom and that he was to be
buried here, and out of curiosity and pity we left our direct road and
resolved to come and see with our eyes that which when heard of had so
moved our compassion, and in consideration of that compassion and
our desire to prove it if we might by condolence, we beg of you,
excellent Ambrosia, or at least I on my own account entreat you,
that instead of burning those papers you allow me to carry away some
of them.

And without waiting for the shepherd's answerhe stretched out
his hand and took up some of those that were nearest to him; seeing
which Ambrosio saidOut of courtesy, senor, I will grant your
request as to those you have taken, but it is idle to expect me to
abstain from burning the remainder.

Vivaldowho was eager to see what the papers containedopened
one of them at onceand saw that its title was "Lay of Despair."

Ambrosio hearing it saidThat is the last paper the unhappy man
wrote; and that you may see, senor, to what an end his misfortunes
brought him, read it so that you may be heard, for you will have
time enough for that while we are waiting for the grave to be dug.

I will do so very willingly,said Vivaldo; and as all the
bystanders were equally eager they gathered round himand hereading
in a loud voicefound that it ran as follows.




Since thou dost in thy cruelty desire
The ruthless rigour of thy tyranny
From tongue to tonguefrom land to land proclaimed
The very Hell will I constrain to lend
This stricken breast of mine deep notes of woe
To serve my need of fitting utterance.
And as I strive to body forth the tale
Of all I sufferall that thou hast done
Forth shall the dread voice rolland bear along
Shreds from my vitals torn for greater pain.
Then listennot to dulcet harmony
But to a discord wrung by mad despair
Out of this bosom's depths of bitterness
To ease my heart and plant a sting in thine.

The lion's roarthe fierce wolf's savage howl
The horrid hissing of the scaly snake
The awesome cries of monsters yet unnamed
The crow's ill-boding croakthe hollow moan
Of wild winds wrestling with the restless sea
The wrathful bellow of the vanquished bull
The plaintive sobbing of the widowed dove
The envied owl's sad notethe wail of woe

That rises from the dreary choir of Hell
Commingled in one soundconfusing sense
Let all these come to aid my soul's complaint
For pain like mine demands new modes of song.

No echoes of that discord shall be heard
Where Father Tagus rollsor on the banks
Of olive-bordered Betis; to the rocks
Or in deep caverns shall my plaint be told
And by a lifeless tongue in living words;
Or in dark valleys or on lonely shores
Where neither foot of man nor sunbeam falls;
Or in among the poison-breathing swarms
Of monsters nourished by the sluggish Nile.
Forthough it be to solitudes remote
The hoarse vague echoes of my sorrows sound
Thy matchless crueltymy dismal fate
Shall carry them to all the spacious world.

Disdain hath power to killand patience dies
Slain by suspicionbe it false or true;
And deadly is the force of jealousy;
Long absence makes of life a dreary void;
No hope of happiness can give repose
To him that ever fears to be forgot;
And deathinevitablewaits in hall.
But Iby some strange miraclelive on
A prey to absencejealousydisdain;
Racked by suspicion as by certainty;
Forgottenleft to feed my flame alone.
And while I suffer thusthere comes no ray
Of hope to gladden me athwart the gloom;
Nor do I look for it in my despair;
But rather clinging to a cureless woe
All hope do I abjure for evermore.

Can there be hope where fear is? Were it well
When far more certain are the grounds of fear?
Ought I to shut mine eyes to jealousy
If through a thousand heart-wounds it appears?
Who would not give free access to distrust
Seeing disdain unveiledand- bitter change!All
his suspicions turned to certainties
And the fair truth transformed into a lie?
Ohthou fierce tyrant of the realms of love
OhJealousy! put chains upon these hands
And bind me with thy strongest cordDisdain.
Butwoe is me! triumphant over all
My sufferings drown the memory of you.

And now I dieand since there is no hope
Of happiness for me in life or death
Still to my fantasy I'll fondly cling.
I'll say that he is wise who loveth well
And that the soul most free is that most bound
In thraldom to the ancient tyrant Love.
I'll say that she who is mine enemy
In that fair body hath as fair a mind
And that her coldness is but my desert
And that by virtue of the pain be sends
Love rules his kingdom with a gentle sway.
Thusself-deludingand in bondage sore
And wearing out the wretched shred of life
To which I am reduced by her disdain

I'll give this soul and body to the winds
All hopeless of a crown of bliss in store.

Thou whose injustice hath supplied the cause
That makes me quit the weary life I loathe
As by this wounded bosom thou canst see
How willingly thy victim I become
Let not my deathif haply worth a tear
Cloud the clear heaven that dwells in thy bright eyes;
I would not have thee expiate in aught
The crime of having made my heart thy prey;
But rather let thy laughter gaily ring
And prove my death to be thy festival.
Fool that I am to bid thee! well I know
Thy glory gains by my untimely end.

And now it is the time; from Hell's abyss
Come thirsting Tantaluscome Sisyphus
Heaving the cruel stonecome Tityus
With vultureand with wheel Ixion come
And come the sisters of the ceaseless toil;
And all into this breast transfer their pains
And (if such tribute to despair be due)
Chant in their deepest tones a doleful dirge
Over a corse unworthy of a shroud.
Let the three-headed guardian of the gate
And all the monstrous progeny of hell
The doleful concert join: a lover dead
Methinks can have no fitter obsequies.

Lay of despairgrieve not when thou art gone
Forth from this sorrowing heart: my misery
Brings fortune to the cause that gave thee birth;
Then banish sadness even in the tomb.

The "Lay of Chrysostom" met with the approbation of the listeners
though the reader said it did not seem to him to agree with what he
had heard of Marcela's reserve and proprietyfor Chrysostom
complained in it of jealousysuspicionand absenceall to the
prejudice of the good name and fame of Marcela; to which Ambrosio
replied as one who knew well his friend's most secret thoughts
Senor, to remove that doubt I should tell you that when the unhappy
man wrote this lay he was away from Marcela, from whom be had
voluntarily separated himself, to try if absence would act with him as
it is wont; and as everything distresses and every fear haunts the
banished lover, so imaginary jealousies and suspicions, dreaded as
if they were true, tormented Chrysostom; and thus the truth of what
report declares of the virtue of Marcela remains unshaken, and with
her envy itself should not and cannot find any fault save that of
being cruel, somewhat haughty, and very scornful.

That is true,said Vivaldo; and as he was about to read another
paper of those he had preserved from the firehe was stopped by a
marvellous vision (for such it seemed) that unexpectedly presented
itself to their eyes; for on the summit of the rock where they were
digging the grave there appeared the shepherdess Marcelaso beautiful
that her beauty exceeded its reputation. Those who had never till then
beheld her gazed upon her in wonder and silenceand those who were
accustomed to see her were not less amazed than those who had never
seen her before. But the instant Ambrosio saw her he addressed her
with manifest indignation:

Art thou come, by chance, cruel basilisk of these mountains, to see

if in thy presence blood will flow from the wounds of this wretched
being thy cruelty has robbed of life; or is it to exult over the cruel
work of thy humours that thou art come; or like another pitiless
Nero to look down from that height upon the ruin of his Rome in
embers; or in thy arrogance to trample on this ill-fated corpse, as
the ungrateful daughter trampled on her father Tarquin's? Tell us
quickly for what thou art come, or what it is thou wouldst have,
for, as I know the thoughts of Chrysostom never failed to obey thee in
life, I will make all these who call themselves his friends obey thee,
though he be dead.

I come not, Ambrosia for any of the purposes thou hast named,
replied Marcelabut to defend myself and to prove how unreasonable
are all those who blame me for their sorrow and for Chrysostom's
death; and therefore I ask all of you that are here to give me your
attention, for will not take much time or many words to bring the
truth home to persons of sense. Heaven has made me, so you say,
beautiful, and so much so that in spite of yourselves my beauty
leads you to love me; and for the love you show me you say, and even
urge, that I am bound to love you. By that natural understanding which
God has given me I know that everything beautiful attracts love, but I
cannot see how, by reason of being loved, that which is loved for
its beauty is bound to love that which loves it; besides, it may
happen that the lover of that which is beautiful may be ugly, and
ugliness being detestable, it is very absurd to say, I love thee
because thou art beautifulthou must love me though I be ugly." But
supposing the beauty equal on both sidesit does not follow that
the inclinations must be therefore alikefor it is not every beauty
that excites lovesome but pleasing the eye without winning the
affection; and if every sort of beauty excited love and won the heart
the will would wander vaguely to and fro unable to make choice of any;
for as there is an infinity of beautiful objects there must be an
infinity of inclinationsand true loveI have heard it saidis
indivisibleand must be voluntary and not compelled. If this be so
as I believe it to bewhy do you desire me to bend my will by
forcefor no other reason but that you say you love me? Nay- tell mehad
Heaven made me uglyas it has made me beautifulcould I with
justice complain of you for not loving me? Moreoveryou must remember
that the beauty I possess was no choice of mineforbe it what it
mayHeaven of its bounty gave it me without my asking or choosing it;
and as the viperthough it kills with itdoes not deserve to be
blamed for the poison it carriesas it is a gift of natureneither
do I deserve reproach for being beautiful; for beauty in a modest
woman is like fire at a distance or a sharp sword; the one does not
burnthe other does not cutthose who do not come too near. Honour
and virtue are the ornaments of the mindwithout which the body
though it be sohas no right to pass for beautiful; but if modesty is
one of the virtues that specially lend a grace and charm to mind and
bodywhy should she who is loved for her beauty part with it to
gratify one who for his pleasure alone strives with all his might
and energy to rob her of it? I was born freeand that I might live in
freedom I chose the solitude of the fields; in the trees of the
mountains I find societythe clear waters of the brooks are my
mirrorsand to the trees and waters I make known my thoughts and
charms. I am a fire afar offa sword laid aside. Those whom I have
inspired with love by letting them see meI have by words undeceived
and if their longings live on hope- and I have given none to
Chrysostom or to any other- it cannot justly be said that the death of
any is my doingfor it was rather his own obstinacy than my cruelty
that killed him; and if it be made a charge against me that his wishes
were honourableand that therefore I was bound to yield to themI
answer that when on this very spot where now his grave is made he
declared to me his purity of purposeI told him that mine was to live
in perpetual solitudeand that the earth alone should enjoy the

fruits of my retirement and the spoils of my beauty; and ifafter
this open avowalhe chose to persist against hope and steer against
the windwhat wonder is it that he should sink in the depths of his
infatuation? If I had encouraged himI should be false; if I had
gratified himI should have acted against my own better resolution
and purpose. He was persistent in spite of warninghe despaired
without being hated. Bethink you now if it be reasonable that his
suffering should be laid to my charge. Let him who has been deceived
complainlet him give way to despair whose encouraged hopes have
proved vainlet him flatter himself whom I shall enticelet him
boast whom I shall receive; but let not him call me cruel or
homicide to whom I make no promiseupon whom I practise no deception
whom I neither entice nor receive. It has not been so far the will
of Heaven that I should love by fateand to expect me to love by
choice is idle. Let this general declaration serve for each of my
suitors on his own accountand let it be understood from this time
forth that if anyone dies for me it is not of jealousy or misery he
diesfor she who loves no one can give no cause for jealousy to
anyand candour is not to be confounded with scorn. Let him who calls
me wild beast and basiliskleave me alone as something noxious and
evil; let him who calls me ungratefulwithhold his service; who calls
me waywardseek not my acquaintance; who calls me cruelpursue me
not; for this wild beastthis basiliskthis ungratefulcruel
wayward being has no kind of desire to seekserveknowor follow
them. If Chrysostom's impatience and violent passion killed himwhy
should my modest behaviour and circumspection be blamed? If I preserve
my purity in the society of the treeswhy should he who would have me
preserve it among menseek to rob me of it? I haveas you know
wealth of my ownand I covet not that of others; my taste is for
freedomand I have no relish for constraint; I neither love nor
hate anyone; I do not deceive this one or court thator trifle with
one or play with another. The modest converse of the shepherd girls of
these hamlets and the care of my goats are my recreations; my
desires are bounded by these mountainsand if they ever wander
hence it is to contemplate the beauty of the heavenssteps by which
the soul travels to its primeval abode."

With these wordsand not waiting to hear a replyshe turned and
passed into the thickest part of a wood that was hard byleaving
all who were there lost in admiration as much of her good sense as
of her beauty. Some- those wounded by the irresistible shafts launched
by her bright eyes- made as though they would follow herheedless
of the frank declaration they had heard; seeing whichand deeming
this a fitting occasion for the exercise of his chivalry in aid of
distressed damselsDon Quixotelaying his hand on the hilt of his
swordexclaimed in a loud and distinct voice:

Let no one, whatever his rank or condition, dare to follow the
beautiful Marcela, under pain of incurring my fierce indignation.
She has shown by clear and satisfactory arguments that little or no
fault is to be found with her for the death of Chrysostom, and also
how far she is from yielding to the wishes of any of her lovers, for
which reason, instead of being followed and persecuted, she should
in justice be honoured and esteemed by all the good people of the
world, for she shows that she is the only woman in it that holds to
such a virtuous resolution.

Whether it was because of the threats of Don Quixoteor because
Ambrosio told them to fulfil their duty to their good friendnone
of the shepherds moved or stirred from the spot untilhaving finished
the grave and burned Chrysostom's papersthey laid his body in it
not without many tears from those who stood by. They closed the
grave with a heavy stone until a slab was ready which Ambrosio said he
meant to have preparedwith an epitaph which was to be to this effect:

Beneath the stone before your eyes
The body of a lover lies;
In life he was a shepherd swain
In death a victim to disdain.
Ungratefulcruelcoyand fair
Was she that drove him to despair
And Love hath made her his ally
For spreading wide his tyranny.

They then strewed upon the grave a profusion of flowers and
branchesand all expressing their condolence with his friend
ambrosiotook their Vivaldo and his companion did the same; and Don
Quixote bade farewell to his hosts and to the travellerswho
pressed him to come with them to Sevilleas being such a convenient
place for finding adventuresfor they presented themselves in every
street and round every corner oftener than anywhere else. Don
Quixote thanked them for their advice and for the disposition they
showed to do him a favourand said that for the present he would not
and must not go to Seville until he had cleared all these mountains of
highwaymen and robbersof whom report said they were full. Seeing his
good intentionthe travellers were unwilling to press him further
and once more bidding him farewellthey left him and pursued their
journeyin the course of which they did not fail to discuss the story
of Marcela and Chrysostom as well as the madness of Don Quixote. He
on his partresolved to go in quest of the shepherdess Marcelaand
make offer to her of all the service he could render her; but things
did not fall out with him as he expectedaccording to what is related
in the course of this veracious historyof which the Second Part ends



The sage Cide Hamete Benengeli relates that as soon as Don Quixote
took leave of his hosts and all who had been present at the burial
of Chrysostomhe and his squire passed into the same wood which
they had seen the shepherdess Marcela enterand after having wandered
for more than two hours in all directions in search of her without
finding herthey came to a halt in a glade covered with tender grass
beside which ran a pleasant cool stream that invited and compelled
them to pass there the hours of the noontide heatwhich by this
time was beginning to come on oppressively. Don Quixote and Sancho
dismountedand turning Rocinante and the ass loose to feed on the
grass that was there in abundancethey ransacked the alforjasand
without any ceremony very peacefully and sociably master and man
made their repast on what they found in them. Sancho had not thought
it worth while to hobble Rocinantefeeling surefrom what he knew of
his staidness and freedom from incontinencethat all the mares in the
Cordova pastures would not lead him into an impropriety. Chance
howeverand the devilwho is not always asleepso ordained it
that feeding in this valley there was a drove of Galician ponies
belonging to certain Yanguesan carrierswhose way it is to take their
midday rest with their teams in places and spots where grass and water
abound; and that where Don Quixote chanced to be suited the
Yanguesans' purpose very well. It so happenedthenthat Rocinante
took a fancy to disport himself with their ladyships the poniesand

abandoning his usual gait and demeanour as he scented themhe
without asking leave of his mastergot up a briskish little trot
and hastened to make known his wishes to them; theyhoweverit
seemedpreferred their pasture to himand received him with their
heels and teeth to such effect that they soon broke his girths and
left him naked without a saddle to cover him; but what must have
been worse to him was that the carriersseeing the violence he was
offering to their marescame running up armed with stakesand so
belaboured him that they brought him sorely battered to the ground.

By this time Don Quixote and Sanchowho had witnessed the
drubbing of Rocinantecame up pantingand said Don Quixote to

So far as I can see, friend Sancho, these are not knights but
base folk of low birth: I mention it because thou canst lawfully aid
me in taking due vengeance for the insult offered to Rocinante
before our eyes.

What the devil vengeance can we take,answered Sanchoif they
are more than twenty, and we no more than two, or, indeed, perhaps not
more than one and a half?

I count for a hundred,replied Don Quixoteand without more words
he drew his sword and attacked the Yanguesans and excited and impelled
by the example of his masterSancho did the same; and to begin
withDon Quixote delivered a slash at one of them that laid open
the leather jerkin he woretogether with a great portion of his
shoulder. The Yanguesansseeing themselves assaulted by only two
men while they were so manybetook themselves to their stakesand
driving the two into the middle they began to lay on with great zeal
and energy; in factat the second blow they brought Sancho to the
groundand Don Quixote fared the same wayall his skill and high
mettle availing him nothingand fate willed it that he should fall at
the feet of Rocinantewho had not yet risen; whereby it may be seen
how furiously stakes can pound in angry boorish hands. Thenseeing
the mischief they had donethe Yanguesans with all the haste they
could loaded their team and pursued their journeyleaving the two
adventurers a sorry sight and in sorrier mood.

Sancho was the first to come toand finding himself close to his
master he called to him in a weak and doleful voiceSenor Don
Quixote, ah, Senor Don Quixote!

What wouldst thou, brother Sancho?answered Don Quixote in the
same feeble suffering tone as Sancho.

I would like, if it were possible,answered Sancho Panzayour
worship to give me a couple of sups of that potion of the fiery
Blas, if it be that you have any to hand there; perhaps it will
serve for broken bones as well as for wounds.

If I only had it here, wretch that I am, what more should we want?
said Don Quixote; "but I swear to theeSancho Panzaon the faith
of a knight-errantere two days are overunless fortune orders
otherwiseI mean to have it in my possessionor my hand will have
lost its cunning."

But in how many does your worship think we shall have the use of
our feet?answered Sancho Panza.

For myself I must say I cannot guess how many,said the battered
knight Don Quixote; "but I take all the blame upon myselffor I had
no business to put hand to sword against men who where not dubbed

knights like myselfand so I believe that in punishment for having
transgressed the laws of chivalry the God of battles has permitted
this chastisement to be administered to me; for which reason
brother Sanchoit is well thou shouldst receive a hint on the
matter which I am now about to mention to theefor it is of much
importance to the welfare of both of us. It is at when thou shalt
see rabble of this sort offering us insult thou art not to wait till I
draw sword against themfor I shall not do so at all; but do thou
draw sword and chastise them to thy heart's contentand if any
knights come to their aid and defence I will take care to defend
thee and assail them with all my might; and thou hast already seen
by a thousand signs and proofs what the might of this strong arm of
mine is equal to"- so uplifted had the poor gentleman become through
the victory over the stout Biscayan.

But Sancho did not so fully approve of his master's admonition as to
let it pass without saying in replySenor, I am a man of peace, meek
and quiet, and I can put up with any affront because I have a wife and
children to support and bring up; so let it be likewise a hint to your
worship, as it cannot be a mandate, that on no account will I draw
sword either against clown or against knight, and that here before God
I forgive the insults that have been offered me, whether they have
been, are, or shall be offered me by high or low, rich or poor,
noble or commoner, not excepting any rank or condition whatsoever.

To all which his master said in replyI wish I had breath enough
to speak somewhat easily, and that the pain I feel on this side
would abate so as to let me explain to thee, Panza, the mistake thou
makest. Come now, sinner, suppose the wind of fortune, hitherto so
adverse, should turn in our favour, filling the sails of our desires
so that safely and without impediment we put into port in some one
of those islands I have promised thee, how would it be with thee if on
winning it I made thee lord of it? Why, thou wilt make it well-nigh
impossible through not being a knight nor having any desire to be one,
nor possessing the courage nor the will to avenge insults or defend
thy lordship; for thou must know that in newly conquered kingdoms
and provinces the minds of the inhabitants are never so quiet nor so
well disposed to the new lord that there is no fear of their making
some move to change matters once more, and try, as they say, what
chance may do for them; so it is essential that the new possessor
should have good sense to enable him to govern, and valour to attack
and defend himself, whatever may befall him.

In what has now befallen us,answered SanchoI'd have been
well pleased to have that good sense and that valour your worship
speaks of, but I swear on the faith of a poor man I am more fit for
plasters than for arguments. See if your worship can get up, and let
us help Rocinante, though he does not deserve it, for he was the
main cause of all this thrashing. I never thought it of Rocinante, for
I took him to be a virtuous person and as quiet as myself. After
all, they say right that it takes a long time to come to know
people, and that there is nothing sure in this life. Who would have
said that, after such mighty slashes as your worship gave that unlucky
knight-errant, there was coming, travelling post and at the very heels
of them, such a great storm of sticks as has fallen upon our

And yet thine, Sancho,replied Don Quixoteought to be used to
such squalls; but mine, reared in soft cloth and fine linen, it is
plain they must feel more keenly the pain of this mishap, and if it
were not that I imagine- why do I say imagine?- know of a certainty
that all these annoyances are very necessary accompaniments of the
calling of arms, I would lay me down here to die of pure vexation.

To this the squire repliedSenor, as these mishaps are what one
reaps of chivalry, tell me if they happen very often, or if they
have their own fixed times for coming to pass; because it seems to
me that after two harvests we shall be no good for the third, unless
God in his infinite mercy helps us.

Know, friend Sancho,answered Don Quixotethat the life of
knights-errant is subject to a thousand dangers and reverses, and
neither more nor less is it within immediate possibility for
knights-errant to become kings and emperors, as experience has shown
in the case of many different knights with whose histories I am
thoroughly acquainted; and I could tell thee now, if the pain would
let me, of some who simply by might of arm have risen to the high
stations I have mentioned; and those same, both before and after,
experienced divers misfortunes and miseries; for the valiant Amadis of
Gaul found himself in the power of his mortal enemy Arcalaus the
magician, who, it is positively asserted, holding him captive, gave
him more than two hundred lashes with the reins of his horse while
tied to one of the pillars of a court; and moreover there is a certain
recondite author of no small authority who says that the Knight of
Phoebus, being caught in a certain pitfall, which opened under his
feet in a certain castle, on falling found himself bound hand and foot
in a deep pit underground, where they administered to him one of those
things they call clysters, of sand and snow-water, that well-nigh
finished him; and if he had not been succoured in that sore
extremity by a sage, a great friend of his, it would have gone very
hard with the poor knight; so I may well suffer in company with such
worthy folk, for greater were the indignities which they had to suffer
than those which we suffer. For I would have thee know, Sancho, that
wounds caused by any instruments which happen by chance to be in
hand inflict no indignity, and this is laid down in the law of the
duel in express words: if, for instance, the cobbler strikes another
with the last which he has in his hand, though it be in fact a piece
of wood, it cannot be said for that reason that he whom he struck with
it has been cudgelled. I say this lest thou shouldst imagine that
because we have been drubbed in this affray we have therefore suffered
any indignity; for the arms those men carried, with which they pounded
us, were nothing more than their stakes, and not one of them, so far
as I remember, carried rapier, sword, or dagger.

They gave me no time to see that much,answered Sanchofor
hardly had I laid hand on my tizona when they signed the cross on my
shoulders with their sticks in such style that they took the sight out
of my eyes and the strength out of my feet, stretching me where I
now lie, and where thinking of whether all those stake-strokes were an
indignity or not gives me no uneasiness, which the pain of the blows
does, for they will remain as deeply impressed on my memory as on my

For all that let me tell thee, brother Panza,said Don Quixote
that there is no recollection which time does not put an end to,
and no pain which death does not remove.

And what greater misfortune can there be,replied Panzathan the
one that waits for time to put an end to it and death to remove it? If
our mishap were one of those that are cured with a couple of plasters,
it would not be so bad; but I am beginning to think that all the
plasters in a hospital almost won't be enough to put us right.

No more of that: pluck strength out of weakness, Sancho, as I
mean to do,returned Don Quixoteand let us see how Rocinante is,
for it seems to me that not the least share of this mishap has
fallen to the lot of the poor beast.

There is nothing wonderful in that,replied Sanchosince he is a
knight-errant too; what I wonder at is that my beast should have
come off scot-free where we come out scotched.

Fortune always leaves a door open in adversity in order to bring
relief to it,said Don Quixote; "I say so because this little beast
may now supply the want of Rocinantecarrying me hence to some castle
where I may be cured of my wounds. And moreover I shall not hold it
any dishonour to be so mountedfor I remember having read how the
good old Silenusthe tutor and instructor of the gay god of laughter
when he entered the city of the hundred gateswent very contentedly
mounted on a handsome ass."

It may be true that he went mounted as your worship says,answered
Sanchobut there is a great difference between going mounted and
going slung like a sack of manure.

To which Don Quixote repliedWounds received in battle confer
honour instead of taking it away; and so, friend Panza, say no more,
but, as I told thee before, get up as well as thou canst and put me on
top of thy beast in whatever fashion pleases thee best, and let us
go hence ere night come on and surprise us in these wilds.

And yet I have heard your worship say,observed Panzathat it is
very meet for knights-errant to sleep in wastes and deserts, and
that they esteem it very good fortune.

That is,said Don Quixotewhen they cannot help it, or when they
are in love; and so true is this that there have been knights who have
remained two years on rocks, in sunshine and shade and all the
inclemencies of heaven, without their ladies knowing anything of it;
and one of these was Amadis, when, under the name of Beltenebros, he
took up his abode on the Pena Pobre for -I know not if it was eight
years or eight months, for I am not very sure of the reckoning; at any
rate he stayed there doing penance for I know not what pique the
Princess Oriana had against him; but no more of this now, Sancho,
and make haste before a mishap like Rocinante's befalls the ass.

The very devil would be in it in that case,said Sancho; and
letting off thirty "ohs and sixty sighs, and a hundred and twenty
maledictions and execrations on whomsoever it was that had brought him
there, he raised himself, stopping half-way bent like a Turkish bow
without power to bring himself upright, but with all his pains he
saddled his ass, who too had gone astray somewhat, yielding to the
excessive licence of the day; he next raised up Rocinante, and as
for him, had he possessed a tongue to complain with, most assuredly
neither Sancho nor his master would have been behind him. To be brief,
Sancho fixed Don Quixote on the ass and secured Rocinante with a
leading rein, and taking the ass by the halter, he proceeded more or
less in the direction in which it seemed to him the high road might
be; and, as chance was conducting their affairs for them from good
to better, he had not gone a short league when the road came in sight,
and on it he perceived an inn, which to his annoyance and to the
delight of Don Quixote must needs be a castle. Sancho insisted that it
was an inn, and his master that it was not one, but a castle, and
the dispute lasted so long that before the point was settled they
had time to reach it, and into it Sancho entered with all his team
without any further controversy.



The innkeeper, seeing Don Quixote slung across the ass, asked Sancho
what was amiss with him. Sancho answered that it was nothing, only
that he had fallen down from a rock and had his ribs a little bruised.
The innkeeper had a wife whose disposition was not such as those of
her calling commonly have, for she was by nature kind-hearted and felt
for the sufferings of her neighbours, so she at once set about tending
Don Quixote, and made her young daughter, a very comely girl, help her
in taking care of her guest. There was besides in the inn, as servant,
an Asturian lass with a broad face, flat poll, and snub nose, blind of
one eye and not very sound in the other. The elegance of her shape, to
be sure, made up for all her defects; she did not measure seven
palms from head to foot, and her shoulders, which overweighted her
somewhat, made her contemplate the ground more than she liked. This
graceful lass, then, helped the young girl, and the two made up a very
bad bed for Don Quixote in a garret that showed evident signs of
having formerly served for many years as a straw-loft, in which
there was also quartered a carrier whose bed was placed a little
beyond our Don Quixote's, and, though only made of the pack-saddles
and cloths of his mules, had much the advantage of it, as Don
Quixote's consisted simply of four rough boards on two not very even
trestles, a mattress, that for thinness might have passed for a quilt,
full of pellets which, were they not seen through the rents to be
wool, would to the touch have seemed pebbles in hardness, two sheets
made of buckler leather, and a coverlet the threads of which anyone
that chose might have counted without missing one in the reckoning.

On this accursed bed Don Quixote stretched himself, and the
hostess and her daughter soon covered him with plasters from top to
toe, while Maritornes- for that was the name of the Asturian- held the
light for them, and while plastering him, the hostess, observing how
full of wheals Don Quixote was in some places, remarked that this
had more the look of blows than of a fall.

It was not blows, Sancho said, but that the rock had many points and
projections, and that each of them had left its mark. Pray
senora he added, manage to save some towas there will be no
want of some one to use itfor my loins too are rather sore."

Then you must have fallen too,said the hostess.

I did not fall,said Sancho Panzabut from the shock I got at
seeing my master fall, my body aches so that I feel as if I had had
a thousand thwacks.

That may well be,said the young girlfor it has many a time
happened to me to dream that I was falling down from a tower and never
coming to the ground, and when I awoke from the dream to find myself
as weak and shaken as if I had really fallen.

There is the point, senora,replied Sancho Panzathat I
without dreaming at all, but being more awake than I am now, find
myself with scarcely less wheals than my master, Don Quixote.

How is the gentleman called?asked Maritornes the Asturian.

Don Quixote of La Mancha,answered Sancho Panzaand he is a
knight-adventurer, and one of the best and stoutest that have been
seen in the world this long time past.

What is a knight-adventurer?said the lass.

Are you so new in the world as not to know?answered Sancho Panza.
Well, then, you must know, sister, that a knight-adventurer is a
thing that in two words is seen drubbed and emperor, that is to-day
the most miserable and needy being in the world, and to-morrow will
have two or three crowns of kingdoms to give his squire.

Then how is it,said the hostessthat belonging to so good a
master as this, you have not, to judge by appearances, even so much as
a county?

It is too soon yet,answered Sanchofor we have only been a
month going in quest of adventures, and so far we have met with
nothing that can be called one, for it will happen that when one thing
is looked for another thing is found; however, if my master Don
Quixote gets well of this wound, or fall, and I am left none the worse
of it, I would not change my hopes for the best title in Spain.

To all this conversation Don Quixote was listening very attentively
and sitting up in bed as well as he couldand taking the hostess by
the hand he said to herBelieve me, fair lady, you may call yourself
fortunate in having in this castle of yours sheltered my person, which
is such that if I do not myself praise it, it is because of what is
commonly said, that self-praise debaseth; but my squire will inform
you who I am. I only tell you that I shall preserve for ever inscribed
on my memory the service you have rendered me in order to tender you
my gratitude while life shall last me; and would to Heaven love held
me not so enthralled and subject to its laws and to the eyes of that
fair ingrate whom I name between my teeth, but that those of this
lovely damsel might be the masters of my liberty.

The hostessher daughterand the worthy Maritornes listened in
bewilderment to the words of the knight-errant; for they understood
about as much of them as if he had been talking Greekthough they
could perceive they were all meant for expressions of good-will and
blandishments; and not being accustomed to this kind of languagethey
stared at him and wondered to themselvesfor he seemed to them a
man of a different sort from those they were used toand thanking him
in pothouse phrase for his civility they left himwhile the
Asturian gave her attention to Sanchowho needed it no less than
his master.

The carrier had made an arrangement with her for recreation that
nightand she had given him her word that when the guests were
quiet and the family asleep she would come in search of him and meet
his wishes unreservedly. And it is said of this good lass that she
never made promises of the kind without fulfilling themeven though
she made them in a forest and without any witness presentfor she
plumed herself greatly on being a lady and held it no disgrace to be
in such an employment as servant in an innbecauseshe said
misfortunes and ill-luck had brought her to that position. The hard
narrowwretchedrickety bed of Don Quixote stood first in the middle
of this star-lit stableand close beside it Sancho made hiswhich
merely consisted of a rush mat and a blanket that looked as if it
was of threadbare canvas rather than of wool. Next to these two beds
was that of the carriermade upas has been saidof the
pack-saddles and all the trappings of the two best mules he had
though there were twelve of themsleekplumpand in prime
conditionfor he was one of the rich carriers of Arevaloaccording
to the author of this historywho particularly mentions this
carrier because he knew him very welland they even say was in some
degree a relation of his; besides which Cide Hamete Benengeli was a
historian of great research and accuracy in all thingsas is very
evident since he would not pass over in silence those that have been
already mentionedhowever trifling and insignificant they might be

an example that might be followed by those grave historians who relate
transactions so curtly and briefly that we hardly get a taste of them
all the substance of the work being left in the inkstand from
carelessnessperversenessor ignorance. A thousand blessings on
the author of "Tablante de Ricamonte" and that of the other book in
which the deeds of the Conde Tomillas are recounted; with what
minuteness they describe everything!

To proceedthen: after having paid a visit to his team and given
them their second feedthe carrier stretched himself on his
pack-saddles and lay waiting for his conscientious Maritornes.
Sancho was by this time plastered and had lain downand though he
strove to sleep the pain of his ribs would not let himwhile Don
Quixote with the pain of his had his eyes as wide open as a hare's.
The inn was all in silenceand in the whole of it there was no
light except that given by a lantern that hung burning in the middle
of the gateway. This strange stillnessand the thoughtsalways
present to our knight's mindof the incidents described at every turn
in the books that were the cause of his misfortuneconjured up to his
imagination as extraordinary a delusion as can well be conceived
which was that he fancied himself to have reached a famous castle
(foras has been saidall the inns he lodged in were castles to
his eyes)and that the daughter of the innkeeper was daughter of
the lord of the castleand that shewon by his high-bred bearing
had fallen in love with himand had promised to come to his bed for a
while that night without the knowledge of her parents; and holding all
this fantasy that he had constructed as solid facthe began to feel
uneasy and to consider the perilous risk which his virtue was about to
encounterand he resolved in his heart to commit no treason to his
lady Dulcinea del Tobosoeven though the queen Guinevere herself
and the dame Quintanona should present themselves before him.

While he was taken up with these vagariesthenthe time and the
hour- an unlucky one for him- arrived for the Asturian to comewho in
her smockwith bare feet and her hair gathered into a fustian coif
with noiseless and cautious steps entered the chamber where the
three were quarteredin quest of the carrier; but scarcely had she
gained the door when Don Quixote perceived herand sitting up in
his bed in spite of his plasters and the pain of his ribshe
stretched out his arms to receive his beauteous damsel. The
Asturianwho went all doubled up and in silence with her hands before
her feeling for her loverencountered the arms of Don Quixotewho
grasped her tightly by the wristand drawing her towards himwhile
she dared not utter a wordmade her sit down on the bed. He then felt
her smockand although it was of sackcloth it appeared to him to be
of the finest and softest silk: on her wrists she wore some glass
beadsbut to him they had the sheen of precious Orient pearls: her
hairwhich in some measure resembled a horse's manehe rated as
threads of the brightest gold of Arabywhose refulgence dimmed the
sun himself: her breathwhich no doubt smelt of yesterday's stale
saladseemed to him to diffuse a sweet aromatic fragrance from her
mouth; andin shorthe drew her portrait in his imagination with the
same features and in the same style as that which he had seen in his
books of the other princesses whosmitten by lovecame with all
the adornments that are here set downto see the sorely wounded
knight; and so great was the poor gentleman's blindness that neither
touchnor smellnor anything else about the good lass that would
have made any but a carrier vomitwere enough to undeceive him; on
the contraryhe was persuaded he had the goddess of beauty in his
armsand holding her firmly in his grasp he went on to say in low
tender voice:

Would that found myself, lovely and exalted lady, in a position
to repay such a favour as that which you, by the sight of your great

beauty, have granted me; but fortune, which is never weary of
persecuting the good, has chosen to place me upon this bed, where I
lie so bruised and broken that though my inclination would gladly
comply with yours it is impossible; besides, to this impossibility
another yet greater is to be added, which is the faith that I have
pledged to the peerless Dulcinea del Toboso, sole lady of my most
secret thoughts; and were it not that this stood in the way I should
not be so insensible a knight as to miss the happy opportunity which
your great goodness has offered me.

Maritornes was fretting and sweating at finding herself held so fast
by Don Quixoteand not understanding or heeding the words he
addressed to hershe strove without speaking to free herself. The
worthy carrierwhose unholy thoughts kept him awakewas aware of his
doxy the moment she entered the doorand was listening attentively to
all Don Quixote said; and jealous that the Asturian should have broken
her word with him for anotherdrew nearer to Don Quixote's bed and
stood still to see what would come of this talk which he could not
understand; but when he perceived the wench struggling to get free and
Don Quixote striving to hold hernot relishing the joke he raised his
arm and delivered such a terrible cuff on the lank jaws of the amorous
knight that be bathed all his mouth in bloodand not content with
this he mounted on his ribs and with his feet tramped all over them at
a pace rather smarter than a trot. The bed which was somewhat crazy
and not very firm on its feetunable to support the additional weight
of the carriercame to the groundand at the mighty crash of this
the innkeeper awoke and at once concluded that it must be some brawl
of Maritornes'because after calling loudly to her he got no
answer. With this suspicion he got upand lighting a lamp hastened to
the quarter where he had heard the disturbance. The wenchseeing that
her master was coming and knowing that his temper was terrible
frightened and panic-stricken made for the bed of Sancho Panzawho
still sleptand crouching upon it made a ball of herself.

The innkeeper came in exclaimingWhere art thou, strumpet? Of
course this is some of thy work.At this Sancho awokeand feeling
this mass almost on top of him fancied he had the nightmare and
began to distribute fisticuffs all roundof which a certain share
fell upon Maritorneswhoirritated by the pain and flinging
modesty asidepaid back so many in return to Sancho that she woke him
up in spite of himself. He thenfinding himself so handledby whom
he knew notraising himself up as well as he couldgrappled with
Maritornesand he and she between them began the bitterest and
drollest scrimmage in the world. The carrierhoweverperceiving by
the light of the innkeeper candle how it fared with his ladylove
quitting Don Quixoteran to bring her the help she needed; and the
innkeeper did the same but with a different intentionfor his was
to chastise the lassas he believed that beyond a doubt she alone was
the cause of all the harmony. And soas the saying iscat to rat
rat to roperope to stickthe carrier pounded SanchoSancho the
lassshe himand the innkeeper herand all worked away so briskly
that they did not give themselves a moment's rest; and the best of
it was that the innkeeper's lamp went outand as they were left in
the dark they all laid on one upon the other in a mass so unmercifully
that there was not a sound spot left where a hand could light.

It so happened that there was lodging that night in the inn a
caudrillero of what they call the Old Holy Brotherhood of Toledowho
also hearing the extraordinary noise of the conflictseized his staff
and the tin case with his warrantsand made his way in the dark
into the room crying: "Hold! in the name of the Jurisdiction! Hold! in
the name of the Holy Brotherhood!"

The first that he came upon was the pummelled Don Quixotewho lay

stretched senseless on his back upon his broken-down bedandhis
hand falling on the beard as he felt abouthe continued to cryHelp
for the Jurisdiction!but perceiving that he whom he had laid hold of
did not move or stirhe concluded that he was dead and that those
in the room were his murderersand with this suspicion he raised
his voice still highercalling outShut the inn gate; see that no
one goes out; they have killed a man here!This cry startled them
alland each dropped the contest at the point at which the voice
reached him. The innkeeper retreated to his roomthe carrier to his
pack-saddlesthe lass to her crib; the unlucky Don Quixote and Sancho
alone were unable to move from where they were. The cuadrillero on
this let go Don Quixote's beardand went out to look for a light to
search for and apprehend the culprits; but not finding oneas the
innkeeper had purposely extinguished the lantern on retreating to
his roomhe was compelled to have recourse to the hearthwhere after
much time and trouble he lit another lamp.



By this time Don Quixote had recovered from his swoon; and in the
same tone of voice in which he had called to his squire the day before
when he lay stretched "in the vale of the stakes he began calling to
him now, Sanchomy friendart thou asleep? sleepest thoufriend

How can I sleep, curses on it!returned Sancho discontentedly
and bitterlywhen it is plain that all the devils have been at me
this night?

Thou mayest well believe that,answered Don Quixotebecause,
either I know little, or this castle is enchanted, for thou must knowbut
this that I am now about to tell thee thou must swear to keep
secret until after my death.

I swear it,answered Sancho.

I say so,continued Don Quixotebecause I hate taking away
anyone's good name.

I say,replied Sanchothat I swear to hold my tongue about it
till the end of your worship's days, and God grant I may be able to
let it out tomorrow.

Do I do thee such injuries, Sancho,said Don Quixotethat thou
wouldst see me dead so soon?

It is not for that,replied Sanchobut because I hate keeping
things long, and I don't want them to grow rotten with me from

At any rate,said Don QuixoteI have more confidence in thy
affection and good nature; and so I would have thee know that this
night there befell me one of the strangest adventures that I could
describe, and to relate it to thee briefly thou must know that a
little while ago the daughter of the lord of this castle came to me,
and that she is the most elegant and beautiful damsel that could be
found in the wide world. What I could tell thee of the charms of her

person! of her lively wit! of other secret matters which, to
preserve the fealty I owe to my lady Dulcinea del Toboso, I shall pass
over unnoticed and in silence! I will only tell thee that, either fate
being envious of so great a boon placed in my hands by good fortune,
or perhaps (and this is more probable) this castle being, as I have
already said, enchanted, at the time when I was engaged in the
sweetest and most amorous discourse with her, there came, without my
seeing or knowing whence it came, a hand attached to some arm of
some huge giant, that planted such a cuff on my jaws that I have
them all bathed in blood, and then pummelled me in such a way that I
am in a worse plight than yesterday when the carriers, on account of
Rocinante's misbehaviour, inflicted on us the injury thou knowest
of; whence conjecture that there must be some enchanted Moor
guarding the treasure of this damsel's beauty, and that it is not
for me.

Not for me either,said Sanchofor more than four hundred
Moors have so thrashed me that the drubbing of the stakes was cakes
and fancy-bread to it. But tell me, senor, what do you call this
excellent and rare adventure that has left us as we are left now?
Though your worship was not so badly off, having in your arms that
incomparable beauty you spoke of; but I, what did I have, except the
heaviest whacks I think I had in all my life? Unlucky me and the
mother that bore me! for I am not a knight-errant and never expect
to be one, and of all the mishaps, the greater part falls to my

Then thou hast been thrashed too?said Don Quixote.

Didn't I say so? worse luck to my line!said Sancho.

Be not distressed, friend,said Don Quixotefor I will now
make the precious balsam with which we shall cure ourselves in the
twinkling of an eye.

By this time the cuadrillero had succeeded in lighting the lampand
came in to see the man that he thought had been killed; and as
Sancho caught sight of him at the doorseeing him coming in his
shirtwith a cloth on his headand a lamp in his handand a very
forbidding countenancehe said to his masterSenor, can it be
that this is the enchanted Moor coming back to give us more
castigation if there be anything still left in the ink-bottle?

It cannot be the Moor,answered Don Quixotefor those under
enchantment do not let themselves be seen by anyone.

If they don't let themselves be seen, they let themselves be felt,
said Sancho; "if notlet my shoulders speak to the point."

Mine could speak too,said Don Quixotebut that is not a
sufficient reason for believing that what we see is the enchanted

The officer came upand finding them engaged in such a peaceful
conversationstood amazed; though Don Quixoteto be surestill
lay on his back unable to move from pure pummelling and plasters.
The officer turned to him and saidWell, how goes it, good man?

I would speak more politely if I were you,replied Don Quixote;
is it the way of this country to address knights-errant in that
style, you booby?

The cuadrillero finding himself so disrespectfully treated by such a
sorry-looking individuallost his temperand raising the lamp full

of oilsmote Don Quixote such a blow with it on the head that he gave
him a badly broken pate; thenall being in darknesshe went outand
Sancho Panza saidThat is certainly the enchanted Moor, Senor, and
he keeps the treasure for others, and for us only the cuffs and

That is the truth,answered Don Quixoteand there is no use in
troubling oneself about these matters of enchantment or being angry or
vexed at them, for as they are invisible and visionary we shall find
no one on whom to avenge ourselves, do what we may; rise, Sancho, if
thou canst, and call the alcaide of this fortress, and get him to give
me a little oil, wine, salt, and rosemary to make the salutiferous
balsam, for indeed I believe I have great need of it now, because I am
losing much blood from the wound that phantom gave me.

Sancho got up with pain enough in his bonesand went after the
innkeeper in the darkand meeting the officerwho was looking to see
what had become of his enemyhe said to himSenor, whoever you are,
do us the favour and kindness to give us a little rosemary, oil, salt,
and wine, for it is wanted to cure one of the best knights-errant on
earth, who lies on yonder bed wounded by the hands of the enchanted
Moor that is in this inn.

When the officer heard him talk in this wayhe took him for a man
out of his sensesand as day was now beginning to breakhe opened
the inn gateand calling the hosthe told him what this good man
wanted. The host furnished him with what he requiredand Sancho
brought it to Don Quixotewhowith his hand to his headwas
bewailing the pain of the blow of the lampwhich had done him no more
harm than raising a couple of rather large lumpsand what he
fancied blood was only the sweat that flowed from him in his
sufferings during the late storm. To be briefhe took the
materialsof which he made a compoundmixing them all and boiling
them a good while until it seemed to him they had come to
perfection. He then asked for some vial to pour it intoand as
there was not one in the innhe decided on putting it into a tin
oil-bottle or flask of which the host made him a free gift; and over
the flask he repeated more than eighty paternosters and as many more
ave-mariassalvesand credosaccompanying each word with a cross by
way of benedictionat all which there were present Sanchothe
innkeeperand the cuadrillero; for the carrier was now peacefully
engaged in attending to the comfort of his mules.

This being accomplishedhe felt anxious to make trial himselfon
the spotof the virtue of this precious balsamas he considered
itand so he drank near a quart of what could not be put into the
flask and remained in the pigskin in which it had been boiled; but
scarcely had he done drinking when he began to vomit in such a way
that nothing was left in his stomachand with the pangs and spasms of
vomiting he broke into a profuse sweaton account of which he bade
them cover him up and leave him alone. They did soand he lay
sleeping more than three hoursat the end of which he awoke and
felt very great bodily relief and so much ease from his bruises that
he thought himself quite curedand verily believed he had hit upon
the balsam of Fierabras; and that with this remedy he might
thenceforwardwithout any fearface any kind of destructionbattle
or combathowever perilous it might be.

Sancho Panzawho also regarded the amendment of his master as
miraculousbegged him to give him what was left in the pigskinwhich
was no small quantity. Don Quixote consentedand hetaking it with
both handsin good faith and with a better willgulped down and
drained off very little less than his master. But the fact isthat
the stomach of poor Sancho was of necessity not so delicate as that of

his masterand sobefore vomitinghe was seized with such
gripings and retchingsand such sweats and faintnessthat verily and
truly be believed his last hour had comeand finding himself so
racked and tormented he cursed the balsam and the thief that had given
it to him.

Don Quixote seeing him in this state saidIt is my belief, Sancho,
that this mischief comes of thy not being dubbed a knight, for I am
persuaded this liquor cannot be good for those who are not so.

If your worship knew that,returned Sancho- "woe betide me and all
my kindred!- why did you let me taste it?"

At this moment the draught took effectand the poor squire began to
discharge both ways at such a rate that the rush mat on which he had
thrown himself and the canvas blanket he had covering him were fit for
nothing afterwards. He sweated and perspired with such paroxysms and
convulsions that not only he himself but all present thought his end
had come. This tempest and tribulation lasted about two hoursat
the end of which he was leftnot like his masterbut so weak and
exhausted that he could not stand. Don Quixotehoweverwhoas has
been saidfelt himself relieved and wellwas eager to take his
departure at once in quest of adventuresas it seemed to him that all
the time he loitered there was a fraud upon the world and those in
it who stood in need of his help and protectionall the more when
he had the security and confidence his balsam afforded him; and so
urged by this impulsehe saddled Rocinante himself and put the
pack-saddle on his squire's beastwhom likewise he helped to dress
and mount the ass; after which he mounted his horse and turning to a
corner of the inn he laid hold of a pike that stood thereto serve
him by way of a lance. All that were in the innwho were more than
twenty personsstood watching him; the innkeeper's daughter was
likewise observing himand he too never took his eyes off herand
from time to time fetched a sigh that he seemed to pluck up from the
depths of his bowels; but they all thought it must be from the pain he
felt in his ribs; at any rate they who had seen him plastered the
night before thought so.

As soon as they were both mountedat the gate of the innhe called
to the host and said in a very grave and measured voiceMany and
great are the favours, Senor Alcaide, that I have received in this
castle of yours, and I remain under the deepest obligation to be
grateful to you for them all the days of my life; if I can repay
them in avenging you of any arrogant foe who may have wronged you,
know that my calling is no other than to aid the weak, to avenge those
who suffer wrong, and to chastise perfidy. Search your memory, and
if you find anything of this kind you need only tell me of it, and I
promise you by the order of knighthood which I have received to
procure you satisfaction and reparation to the utmost of your desire.

The innkeeper replied to him with equal calmnessSir Knight, I
do not want your worship to avenge me of any wrong, because when any
is done me I can take what vengeance seems good to me; the only
thing I want is that you pay me the score that you have run up in
the inn last night, as well for the straw and barley for your two
beasts, as for supper and beds.

Then this is an inn?said Don Quixote.

And a very respectable one,said the innkeeper.

I have been under a mistake all this time,answered Don Quixote
for in truth I thought it was a castle, and not a bad one; but
since it appears that it is not a castle but an inn, all that can be

done now is that you should excuse the payment, for I cannot
contravene the rule of knights-errant, of whom I know as a fact (and
up to the present I have read nothing to the contrary) that they never
paid for lodging or anything else in the inn where they might be;
for any hospitality that might be offered them is their due by law and
right in return for the insufferable toil they endure in seeking
adventures by night and by day, in summer and in winter, on foot and
on horseback, in hunger and thirst, cold and heat, exposed to all
the inclemencies of heaven and all the hardships of earth.

I have little to do with that,replied the innkeeper; "pay me what
you owe meand let us have no more talk of chivalryfor all I care
about is to get my money."

You are a stupid, scurvy innkeeper,said Don Quixoteand
putting spurs to Rocinante and bringing his pike to the slope he
rode out of the inn before anyone could stop himand pushed on some
distance without looking to see if his squire was following him.

The innkeeper when he saw him go without paying him ran to get
payment of Sanchowho said that as his master would not pay neither
would hebecausebeing as he was squire to a knight-errantthe same
rule and reason held good for him as for his master with regard to not
paying anything in inns and hostelries. At this the innkeeper waxed
very wrothand threatened if he did not pay to compel him in a way
that he would not like. To which Sancho made answer that by the law of
chivalry his master had received he would not pay a rapthough it
cost him his life; for the excellent and ancient usage of
knights-errant was not going to be violated by himnor should the
squires of such as were yet to come into the world ever complain of
him or reproach him with breaking so just a privilege.

The ill-luck of the unfortunate Sancho so ordered it that among
the company in the inn there were four woolcarders from Segoviathree
needle-makers from the Colt of Cordovaand two lodgers from the
Fair of Sevillelively fellowstender-heartedfond of a jokeand
playfulwhoalmost as if instigated and moved by a common impulse
made up to Sancho and dismounted him from his asswhile one of them
went in for the blanket of the host's bed; but on flinging him into it
they looked upand seeing that the ceiling was somewhat lower what
they required for their workthey decided upon going out into the
yardwhich was bounded by the skyand thereputting Sancho in the
middle of the blanketthey began to raise him highmaking sport with
him as they would with a dog at Shrovetide.

The cries of the poor blanketed wretch were so loud that they
reached the ears of his masterwhohalting to listen attentively
was persuaded that some new adventure was cominguntil he clearly
perceived that it was his squire who uttered them. Wheeling about he
came up to the inn with a laborious gallopand finding it shut went
round it to see if he could find some way of getting in; but as soon
as he came to the wall of the yardwhich was not very highhe
discovered the game that was being played with his squire. He saw
him rising and falling in the air with such grace and nimbleness that
had his rage allowed himit is my belief he would have laughed. He
tried to climb from his horse on to the top of the wallbut he was so
bruised and battered that he could not even dismount; and so from
the back of his horse he began to utter such maledictions and
objurgations against those who were blanketing Sancho as it would be
impossible to write down accurately: theyhoweverdid not stay their
laughter or their work for thisnor did the flying Sancho cease his
lamentationsmingled now with threatsnow with entreaties but all to
little purposeor none at alluntil from pure weariness they left
off. They then brought him his assand mounting him on top of it they

put his jacket round him; and the compassionate Maritornesseeing him
so exhaustedthought fit to refresh him with a jug of waterand that
it might be all the cooler she fetched it from the well. Sancho took
itand as he was raising it to his mouth he was stopped by the
cries of his master exclaimingSancho, my son, drink not water;
drink it not, my son, for it will kill thee; see, here I have the
blessed balsam (and he held up the flask of liquor), and with drinking
two drops of it thou wilt certainly be restored.

At these words Sancho turned his eyes asquintand in a still louder
voice saidCan it be your worship has forgotten that I am not a
knight, or do you want me to end by vomiting up what bowels I have
left after last night? Keep your liquor in the name of all the devils,
and leave me to myself!and at one and the same instant he left off
talking and began drinking; but as at the first sup he perceived it
was water he did not care to go on with itand begged Maritornes to
fetch him some winewhich she did with right good willand paid
for it with her own money; for indeed they say of her thatthough she
was in that line of lifethere was some faint and distant resemblance
to a Christian about her. When Sancho had done drinking he dug his
heels into his assand the gate of the inn being thrown open he
passed out very well pleased at having paid nothing and carried his
pointthough it had been at the expense of his usual suretieshis
shoulders. It is true that the innkeeper detained his alforjas in
payment of what was owing to himbut Sancho took his departure in
such a flurry that he never missed them. The innkeeperas soon as
he saw him offwanted to bar the gate closebut the blanketers would
not agree to itfor they were fellows who would not have cared two
farthings for Don Quixoteeven had he been really one of the
knights-errant of the Round Table.



Sancho reached his master so limp and faint that he could not urge
on his beast. When Don Quixote saw the state he was in he saidI
have now come to the conclusion, good Sancho, that this castle or
inn is beyond a doubt enchanted, because those who have so atrociously
diverted themselves with thee, what can they be but phantoms or beings
of another world? and I hold this confirmed by having noticed that
when I was by the wall of the yard witnessing the acts of thy sad
tragedy, it was out of my power to mount upon it, nor could I even
dismount from Rocinante, because they no doubt had me enchanted; for I
swear to thee by the faith of what I am that if I had been able to
climb up or dismount, I would have avenged thee in such a way that
those braggart thieves would have remembered their freak for ever,
even though in so doing I knew that I contravened the laws of
chivalry, which, as I have often told thee, do not permit a knight
to lay hands on him who is not one, save in case of urgent and great
necessity in defence of his own life and person.

I would have avenged myself too if I could,said Sancho
whether I had been dubbed knight or not, but I could not; though
for my part I am persuaded those who amused themselves with me were
not phantoms or enchanted men, as your worship says, but men of
flesh and bone like ourselves; and they all had their names, for I
heard them name them when they were tossing me, and one was called
Pedro Martinez, and another Tenorio Hernandez, and the innkeeper, I
heard, was called Juan Palomeque the Left-handed; so that, senor, your

not being able to leap over the wall of the yard or dismount from your
horse came of something else besides enchantments; and what I make out
clearly from all this is, that these adventures we go seeking will
in the end lead us into such misadventures that we shall not know
which is our right foot; and that the best and wisest thing, according
to my small wits, would be for us to return home, now that it is
harvest-time, and attend to our business, and give over wandering from
Zeca to Mecca and from pail to bucket, as the saying is.

How little thou knowest about chivalry, Sancho,replied Don
Quixote; "hold thy peace and have patience; the day will come when
thou shalt see with thine own eyes what an honourable thing it is to
wander in the pursuit of this calling; naytell mewhat greater
pleasure can there be in the worldor what delight can equal that
of winning a battleand triumphing over one's enemy? Nonebeyond all

Very likely,answered Sanchothough I do not know it; all I know
is that since we have been knights-errant, or since your worship has
been one (for I have no right to reckon myself one of so honourable
a number) we have never won any battle except the one with the
Biscayan, and even out of that your worship car-ne with half an ear
and half a helmet the less; and from that till now it has been all
cudgellings and more cudgellings, cuffs and more cuffs, I getting
the blanketing over and above, and falling in with enchanted persons
on whom I cannot avenge myself so as to know what the delight, as your
worship calls it, of conquering an enemy is like.

That is what vexes me, and what ought to vex thee, Sancho,replied
Don Quixote; "but henceforward I will endeavour to have at hand some
sword made by such craft that no kind of enchantments can take
effect upon him who carries itand it is even possible that fortune
may procure for me that which belonged to Amadis when he was called
'The Knight of the Burning Sword' which was one of the best swords
that ever knight in the world possessedforbesides having the
said virtueit cut like a razorand there was no armourhowever
strong and enchanted it might bethat could resist it."

Such is my luck,said Sanchothat even if that happened and your
worship found some such sword, it would, like the balsam, turn out
serviceable and good for dubbed knights only, and as for the
squires, they might sup sorrow.

Fear not that, Sancho,said Don Quixote: "Heaven will deal
better by thee."

Thus talkingDon Quixote and his squire were going alongwhen
on the road they were followingDon Quixote perceived approaching
them a large and thick cloud of duston seeing which he turned to
Sancho and said:

This is the day, Sancho, on which will be seen the boon my
fortune is reserving for me; this, I say, is the day on which as
much as on any other shall be displayed the might of my arm, and on
which I shall do deeds that shall remain written in the book of fame
for all ages to come. Seest thou that cloud of dust which rises
yonder? Well, then, all that is churned up by a vast army composed
of various and countless nations that comes marching there.

According to that there must be two,said Sanchofor on this
opposite side also there rises just such another cloud of dust.

Don Quixote turned to look and found that it was trueand rejoicing
exceedinglyhe concluded that they were two armies about to engage

and encounter in the midst of that broad plain; for at all times and
seasons his fancy was full of the battlesenchantmentsadventures
crazy featslovesand defiances that are recorded in the books of
chivalryand everything he saidthoughtor did had reference to
such things. Now the cloud of dust he had seen was raised by two great
droves of sheep coming along the same road in opposite directions
whichbecause of the dustdid not become visible until they drew
nearbut Don Quixote asserted so positively that they were armies
that Sancho was led to believe it and sayWell, and what are we to
do, senor?

What?said Don Quixote: "give aid and assistance to the weak and
those who need it; and thou must knowSanchothat this which comes
opposite to us is conducted and led by the mighty emperor Alifanfaron
lord of the great isle of Trapobana; this other that marches behind me
is that of his enemy the king of the GaramantasPentapolin of the
Bare Armfor he always goes into battle with his right arm bare."

But why are these two lords such enemies?

They are at enmity,replied Don Quixotebecause this Alifanfaron
is a furious pagan and is in love with the daughter of Pentapolin, who
is a very beautiful and moreover gracious lady, and a Christian, and
her father is unwilling to bestow her upon the pagan king unless he
first abandons the religion of his false prophet Mahomet, and adopts
his own.

By my beard,said Sanchobut Pentapolin does quite right, and
I will help him as much as I can.

In that thou wilt do what is thy duty, Sancho,said Don Quixote;
for to engage in battles of this sort it is not requisite to be a
dubbed knight.

That I can well understand,answered Sancho; "but where shall we
put this ass where we may be sure to find him after the fray is
over? for I believe it has not been the custom so far to go into
battle on a beast of this kind."

That is true,said Don Quixoteand what you had best do with him
is to leave him to take his chance whether he be lost or not, for
the horses we shall have when we come out victors will be so many that
even Rocinante will run a risk of being changed for another. But
attend to me and observe, for I wish to give thee some account of
the chief knights who accompany these two armies; and that thou mayest
the better see and mark, let us withdraw to that hillock which rises
yonder, whence both armies may be seen.

They did soand placed themselves on a rising ground from which the
two droves that Don Quixote made armies of might have been plainly
seen if the clouds of dust they raised had not obscured them and
blinded the sight; neverthelessseeing in his imagination what he did
not see and what did not existhe began thus in a loud voice:

That knight whom thou seest yonder in yellow armour, who bears upon
his shield a lion crowned crouching at the feet of a damsel, is the
valiant Laurcalco, lord of the Silver Bridge; that one in armour
with flowers of gold, who bears on his shield three crowns argent on
an azure field, is the dreaded Micocolembo, grand duke of Quirocia;
that other of gigantic frame, on his right hand, is the ever dauntless
Brandabarbaran de Boliche, lord of the three Arabias, who for armour
wears that serpent skin, and has for shield a gate which, according to
tradition, is one of those of the temple that Samson brought to the
ground when by his death he revenged himself upon his enemies. But

turn thine eyes to the other side, and thou shalt see in front and
in the van of this other army the ever victorious and never vanquished
Timonel of Carcajona, prince of New Biscay, who comes in armour with
arms quartered azure, vert, white, and yellow, and bears on his shield
a cat or on a field tawny with a motto which says Miau, which is the
beginning of the name of his lady, who according to report is the
peerless Miaulina, daughter of the duke Alfeniquen of the Algarve; the
other, who burdens and presses the loins of that powerful charger
and bears arms white as snow and a shield blank and without any
device, is a novice knight, a Frenchman by birth, Pierres Papin by
name, lord of the baronies of Utrique; that other, who with
iron-shod heels strikes the flanks of that nimble parti-coloured
zebra, and for arms bears azure vair, is the mighty duke of Nerbia,
Espartafilardo del Bosque, who bears for device on his shield an
asparagus plant with a motto in Castilian that says, Rastrea mi
suerte.And so he went on naming a number of knights of one
squadron or the other out of his imaginationand to all he assigned
off-hand their armscoloursdevicesand mottoescarried away by
the illusions of his unheard-of craze; and without a pausehe
continuedPeople of divers nations compose this squadron in front;
here are those that drink of the sweet waters of the famous Xanthus,
those that scour the woody Massilian plains, those that sift the
pure fine gold of Arabia Felix, those that enjoy the famed cool
banks of the crystal Thermodon, those that in many and various ways
divert the streams of the golden Pactolus, the Numidians, faithless in
their promises, the Persians renowned in archery, the Parthians and
the Medes that fight as they fly, the Arabs that ever shift their
dwellings, the Scythians as cruel as they are fair, the Ethiopians
with pierced lips, and an infinity of other nations whose features I
recognise and descry, though I cannot recall their names. In this
other squadron there come those that drink of the crystal streams of
the olive-bearing Betis, those that make smooth their countenances
with the water of the ever rich and golden Tagus, those that rejoice
in the fertilising flow of the divine Genil, those that roam the
Tartesian plains abounding in pasture, those that take their
pleasure in the Elysian meadows of Jerez, the rich Manchegans
crowned with ruddy ears of corn, the wearers of iron, old relics of
the Gothic race, those that bathe in the Pisuerga renowned for its
gentle current, those that feed their herds along the spreading
pastures of the winding Guadiana famed for its hidden course, those
that tremble with the cold of the pineclad Pyrenees or the dazzling
snows of the lofty Apennine; in a word, as many as all Europe includes
and contains.

Good God! what a number of countries and nations he named! giving to
each its proper attributes with marvellous readiness; brimful and
saturated with what he had read in his lying books! Sancho Panza
hung upon his words without speakingand from time to time turned
to try if he could see the knights and giants his master was
describingand as he could not make out one of them he said to him:

Senor, devil take it if there's a sign of any man you talk of,
knight or giant, in the whole thing; maybe it's all enchantment,
like the phantoms last night.

How canst thou say that!answered Don Quixote; "dost thou not hear
the neighing of the steedsthe braying of the trumpetsthe roll of
the drums?"

I hear nothing but a great bleating of ewes and sheep,said
Sancho; which was truefor by this time the two flocks had come

The fear thou art in, Sancho,said Don Quixoteprevents thee

from seeing or hearing correctly, for one of the effects of fear is to
derange the senses and make things appear different from what they
are; if thou art in such fear, withdraw to one side and leave me to
myself, for alone I suffice to bring victory to that side to which I
shall give my aid;and so saying he gave Rocinante the spurand
putting the lance in restshot down the slope like a thunderbolt.
Sancho shouted after himcryingCome back, Senor Don Quixote; I vow
to God they are sheep and ewes you are charging! Come back! Unlucky
the father that begot me! what madness is this! Look, there is no
giant, nor knight, nor cats, nor arms, nor shields quartered or whole,
nor vair azure or bedevilled. What are you about? Sinner that I am
before God!But not for all these entreaties did Don Quixote turn
back; on the contrary he went on shouting outHo, knights, ye who
follow and fight under the banners of the valiant emperor Pentapolin
of the Bare Arm, follow me all; ye shall see how easily I shall give
him his revenge over his enemy Alifanfaron of the Trapobana.

So sayinghe dashed into the midst of the squadron of ewesand
began spearing them with as much spirit and intrepidity as if he
were transfixing mortal enemies in earnest. The shepherds and
drovers accompanying the flock shouted to him to desist; seeing it was
no usethey ungirt their slings and began to salute his ears with
stones as big as one's fist. Don Quixote gave no heed to the stones
butletting drive right and left kept saying:

Where art thou, proud Alifanfaron? Come before me; I am a single
knight who would fain prove thy prowess hand to hand, and make thee
yield thy life a penalty for the wrong thou dost to the valiant
Pentapolin Garamanta.Here came a sugar-plum from the brook that
struck him on the side and buried a couple of ribs in his body.
Feeling himself so smittenhe imagined himself slain or badly wounded
for certainand recollecting his liquor he drew out his flaskand
putting it to his mouth began to pour the contents into his stomach;
but ere he had succeeded in swallowing what seemed to him enough
there came another almond which struck him on the hand and on the
flask so fairly that it smashed it to piecesknocking three or four
teeth and grinders out of his mouth in its courseand sorely crushing
two fingers of his hand. Such was the force of the first blow and of
the secondthat the poor knight in spite of himself came down
backwards off his horse. The shepherds came upand felt sure they had
killed him; so in all haste they collected their flock together
took up the dead beastsof which there were more than sevenand made
off without waiting to ascertain anything further.

All this time Sancho stood on the hill watching the crazy feats
his master was performingand tearing his beard and cursing the
hour and the occasion when fortune had made him acquainted with him.
Seeing himthenbrought to the groundand that the shepherds had
taken themselves offhe ran to him and found him in very bad case
though not unconscious; and said he:

Did I not tell you to come back, Senor Don Quixote; and that what
you were going to attack were not armies but droves of sheep?

That's how that thief of a sage, my enemy, can alter and falsify
things,answered Don Quixote; "thou must knowSanchothat it is a
very easy matter for those of his sort to make us believe what they
choose; and this malignant being who persecutes meenvious of the
glory he knew I was to win in this battlehas turned the squadrons of
the enemy into droves of sheep. At any ratedo this muchI beg of
theeSanchoto undeceive thyselfand see that what I say is true;
mount thy ass and follow them quietlyand thou shalt see that when
they have gone some little distance from this they will return to
their original shape andceasing to be sheepbecome men in all

respects as I described them to thee at first. But go not just yet
for I want thy help and assistance; come hitherand see how many of
my teeth and grinders are missingfor I feel as if there was not
one left in my mouth."

Sancho came so close that he almost put his eyes into his mouth; now
just at that moment the balsam had acted on the stomach of Don
Quixotesoat the very instant when Sancho came to examine his
mouthhe discharged all its contents with more force than a musket
and full into the beard of the compassionate squire.

Holy Mary!cried Sanchowhat is this that has happened me?
Clearly this sinner is mortally wounded, as he vomits blood from the
mouth;but considering the matter a little more closely he
perceived by the colourtasteand smellthat it was not blood but
the balsam from the flask which he had seen him drink; and he was
taken with such a loathing that his stomach turnedand he vomited
up his inside over his very masterand both were left in a precious
state. Sancho ran to his ass to get something wherewith to clean
himselfand relieve his masterout of his alforjas; but not
finding themhe well-nigh took leave of his sensesand cursed
himself anewand in his heart resolved to quit his master and
return homeeven though he forfeited the wages of his service and all
hopes of the promised island.

Don Quixote now roseand putting his left hand to his mouth to keep
his teeth from falling out altogetherwith the other he laid hold
of the bridle of Rocinantewho had never stirred from his master's
side- so loyal and well-behaved was he- and betook himself to where
the squire stood leaning over his ass with his hand to his cheeklike
one in deep dejection. Seeing him in this moodlooking so sadDon
Quixote said to him:

Bear in mind, Sancho, that one man is no more than another,
unless he does more than another; all these tempests that fall upon us
are signs that fair weather is coming shortly, and that things will go
well with us, for it is impossible for good or evil to last for
ever; and hence it follows that the evil having lasted long, the
good must be now nigh at hand; so thou must not distress thyself at
the misfortunes which happen to me, since thou hast no share in them.

How have I not?replied Sancho; "was he whom they blanketed
yesterday perchance any other than my father's son? and the alforjas
that are missing to-day with all my treasuresdid they belong to
any other but myself?"

What! are the alforjas missing, Sancho?said Don Quixote.

Yes, they are missing,answered Sancho.

In that case we have nothing to eat to-day,replied Don Quixote.

It would be so,answered Sanchoif there were none of the
herbs your worship says you know in these meadows, those with which
knights-errant as unlucky as your worship are wont to supply such-like

For all that,answered Don QuixoteI would rather have just
now a quarter of bread, or a loaf and a couple of pilchards' heads,
than all the herbs described by Dioscorides, even with Doctor Laguna's
notes. Nevertheless, Sancho the Good, mount thy beast and come along
with me, for God, who provides for all things, will not fail us
(more especially when we are so active in his service as we are),
since he fails not the midges of the air, nor the grubs of the

earth, nor the tadpoles of the water, and is so merciful that he
maketh his sun to rise on the good and on the evil, and sendeth rain
on the unjust and on the just.

Your worship would make a better preacher than knight-errant,said

Knights-errant knew and ought to know everything, Sancho,said Don
Quixote; "for there were knights-errant in former times as well
qualified to deliver a sermon or discourse in the middle of an
encampmentas if they had graduated in the University of Paris;
whereby we may see that the lance has never blunted the pennor the
pen the lance."

Well, be it as your worship says,replied Sancho; "let us be off
now and find some place of shelter for the nightand God grant it may
be somewhere where there are no blanketsnor blanketeersnor
phantomsnor enchanted Moors; for if there aremay the devil take
the whole concern."

Ask that of God, my son,said Don Quixote; and do thou lead on
where thou wiltfor this time I leave our lodging to thy choice;
but reach me here thy handand feel with thy fingerand find out how
many of my teeth and grinders are missing from this right side of
the upper jawfor it is there I feel the pain."

Sancho put in his fingersand feeling about asked himHow many
grinders used your worship have on this side?

Four,replied Don Quixotebesides the back-tooth, all whole
and quite sound.

Mind what you are saying, senor.

I say four, if not five,answered Don Quixotefor never in my
life have I had tooth or grinder drawn, nor has any fallen out or been
destroyed by any decay or rheum.

Well, then,said Sanchoin this lower side your worship has no
more than two grinders and a half, and in the upper neither a half nor
any at all, for it is all as smooth as the palm of my hand.

Luckless that I am!said Don Quixotehearing the sad news his
squire gave him; "I had rather they despoiled me of an armso it were
not the sword-arm; for I tell theeSanchoa mouth without teeth is
like a mill without a millstoneand a tooth is much more to be prized
than a diamond; but we who profess the austere order of chivalry are
liable to all this. Mountfriendand lead the wayand I will follow
thee at whatever pace thou wilt."

Sancho did as he bade himand proceeded in the direction in which
he thought he might find refuge without quitting the high road
which was there very much frequented. As they went alongthenat a
slow pace- for the pain in Don Quixote's jaws kept him uneasy and
ill-disposed for speed- Sancho thought it well to amuse and divert him
by talk of some kindand among the things he said to him was that
which will be told in the following chapter.




It seems to me, senor, that all these mishaps that have befallen us
of late have been without any doubt a punishment for the offence
committed by your worship against the order of chivalry in not keeping
the oath you made not to eat bread off a tablecloth or embrace the
queen, and all the rest of it that your worship swore to observe until
you had taken that helmet of Malandrino's, or whatever the Moor is
called, for I do not very well remember.

Thou art very right, Sancho,said Don Quixotebut to tell the
truth, it had escaped my memory; and likewise thou mayest rely upon it
that the affair of the blanket happened to thee because of thy fault
in not reminding me of it in time; but I will make amends, for there
are ways of compounding for everything in the order of chivalry.

Why! have I taken an oath of some sort, then?said Sancho.

It makes no matter that thou hast not taken an oath,said Don
Quixote; "suffice it that I see thou art not quite clear of
complicity; and whether or noit will not be ill done to provide
ourselves with a remedy."

In that case,said Sanchomind that your worship does not forget
this as you did the oath; perhaps the phantoms may take it into
their heads to amuse themselves once more with me; or even with your
worship if they see you so obstinate.

While engaged in this and other talknight overtook them on the
road before they had reached or discovered any place of shelter; and
what made it still worse was that they were dying of hungerfor
with the loss of the alforjas they had lost their entire larder and
commissariat; and to complete the misfortune they met with an
adventure which without any invention had really the appearance of
one. It so happened that the night closed in somewhat darklybut
for all that they pushed onSancho feeling sure that as the road
was the king's highway they might reasonably expect to find some inn
within a league or two. Going alongthenin this waythe night
darkthe squire hungrythe master sharp-setthey saw coming towards
them on the road they were travelling a great number of lights which
looked exactly like stars in motion. Sancho was taken aback at the
sight of themnor did Don Quixote altogether relish them: the one
pulled up his ass by the halterthe other his hack by the bridleand
they stood stillwatching anxiously to see what all this would turn
out to beand found that the lights were approaching themand the
nearer they came the greater they seemedat which spectacle Sancho
began to shake like a man dosed with mercuryand Don Quixote's hair
stood on end; hehoweverplucking up spirit a littlesaid:

This, no doubt, Sancho, will be a most mighty and perilous
adventure, in which it will be needful for me to put forth all my
valour and resolution.

Unlucky me!answered Sancho; "if this adventure happens to be
one of phantomsas I am beginning to think it iswhere shall I
find the ribs to bear it?"

Be they phantoms ever so much,said Don QuixoteI will not
permit them to touch a thread of thy garments; for if they played
tricks with thee the time before, it was because I was unable to
leap the walls of the yard; but now we are on a wide plain, where I
shall be able to wield my sword as I please.

And if they enchant and cripple you as they did the last time,
said Sanchowhat difference will it make being on the open plain
or not?

For all that,replied Don QuixoteI entreat thee, Sancho, to
keep a good heart, for experience will tell thee what mine is.

I will, please God,answered Sanchoand the two retiring to one
side of the road set themselves to observe closely what all these
moving lights might be; and very soon afterwards they made out some
twenty encamisadosall on horsebackwith lighted torches in their
handsthe awe-inspiring aspect of whom completely extinguished the
courage of Sanchowho began to chatter with his teeth like one in the
cold fit of an ague; and his heart sank and his teeth chattered
still more when they perceived distinctly that behind them there
came a litter covered over with black and followed by six more mounted
figures in mourning down to the very feet of their mules- for they
could perceive plainly they were not horses by the easy pace at
which they went. And as the encamisados came along they muttered to
themselves in a low plaintive tone. This strange spectacle at such
an hour and in such a solitary place was quite enough to strike terror
into Sancho's heartand even into his master's; and (save in Don
Quixote's case) did sofor all Sancho's resolution had now broken
down. It was just the opposite with his masterwhose imagination
immediately conjured up all this to him vividly as one of the
adventures of his books.

He took it into his head that the litter was a bier on which was
borne some sorely wounded or slain knightto avenge whom was a task
reserved for him alone; and without any further reasoning he laid
his lance in restfixed himself firmly in his saddleand with
gallant spirit and bearing took up his position in the middle of the
road where the encamisados must of necessity pass; and as soon as he
saw them near at hand he raised his voice and said:

Halt, knights, or whosoever ye may be, and render me account of who
ye are, whence ye come, where ye go, what it is ye carry upon that
bier, for, to judge by appearances, either ye have done some wrong
or some wrong has been done to you, and it is fitting and necessary
that I should know, either that I may chastise you for the evil ye
have done, or else that I may avenge you for the injury that has
been inflicted upon you.

We are in haste,answered one of the encamisadosand the inn
is far off, and we cannot stop to render you such an account as you
demand;and spurring his mule he moved on.

Don Quixote was mightily provoked by this answerand seizing the
mule by the bridle he saidHalt, and be more mannerly, and render an
account of what I have asked of you; else, take my defiance to combat,
all of you.

The mule was shyand was so frightened at her bridle being seized
that rearing up she flung her rider to the ground over her haunches.
An attendant who was on footseeing the encamisado fallbegan to
abuse Don Quixotewho now moved to angerwithout any more ado
laying his lance in rest charged one of the men in mourning and
brought him badly wounded to the groundand as he wheeled round
upon the others the agility with which he attacked and routed them was
a sight to seefor it seemed just as if wings had that instant
grown upon Rocinanteso lightly and proudly did he bear himself.
The encamisados were all timid folk and unarmedso they speedily made
their escape from the fray and set off at a run across the plain
with their lighted torcheslooking exactly like maskers running on

some gala or festival night. The mournerstooenveloped and
swathed in their skirts and gownswere unable to bestir themselves
and so with entire safety to himself Don Quixote belaboured them all
and drove them off against their willfor they all thought it was
no man but a devil from hell come to carry away the dead body they had
in the litter.

Sancho beheld all this in astonishment at the intrepidity of his
lordand said to himselfClearly this master of mine is as bold and
valiant as he says he is.

A burning torch lay on the ground near the first man whom the mule
had thrownby the light of which Don Quixote perceived himand
coming up to him he presented the point of the lance to his face
calling on him to yield himself prisoneror else he would kill him;
to which the prostrate man repliedI am prisoner enough as it is;
I cannot stir, for one of my legs is broken: I entreat you, if you
be a Christian gentleman, not to kill me, which will be committing
grave sacrilege, for I am a licentiate and I hold first orders.

Then what the devil brought you here, being a churchman?said
Don Quixote.

What, senor?said the other. "My bad luck."

Then still worse awaits you,said Don Quixoteif you do not
satisfy me as to all I asked you at first.

You shall be soon satisfied,said the licentiate; "you must
knowthenthat though just now I said I was a licentiateI am
only a bachelorand my name is Alonzo Lopez; I am a native of
AlcobendasI come from the city of Baeza with eleven otherspriests
the same who fled with the torchesand we are going to the city of
Segovia accompanying a dead body which is in that litterand is
that of a gentleman who died in Baezawhere he was interred; and now
as I saidwe are taking his bones to their burial-placewhich is
in Segoviawhere he was born."

And who killed him?asked Don Quixote.

God, by means of a malignant fever that took him,answered the

In that case,said Don Quixotethe Lord has relieved me of the
task of avenging his death had any other slain him; but, he who slew
him having slain him, there is nothing for it but to be silent, and
shrug one's shoulders; I should do the same were he to slay myself;
and I would have your reverence know that I am a knight of La
Mancha, Don Quixote by name, and it is my business and calling to roam
the world righting wrongs and redressing injuries.

I do not know how that about righting wrongs can be,said the
bachelorfor from straight you have made me crooked, leaving me with
a broken leg that will never see itself straight again all the days of
its life; and the injury you have redressed in my case has been to
leave me injured in such a way that I shall remain injured for ever;
and the height of misadventure it was to fall in with you who go in
search of adventures.

Things do not all happen in the same way,answered Don Quixote;
it all came, Sir Bachelor Alonzo Lopez, of your going, as you did, by
night, dressed in those surplices, with lighted torches, praying,
covered with mourning, so that naturally you looked like something
evil and of the other world; and so I could not avoid doing my duty in

attacking you, and I should have attacked you even had I known
positively that you were the very devils of hell, for such I certainly
believed and took you to be.

As my fate has so willed it,said the bachelorI entreat you,
sir knight-errant, whose errand has been such an evil one for me, to
help me to get from under this mule that holds one of my legs caught
between the stirrup and the saddle.

I would have talked on till to-morrow,said Don Quixote; "how long
were you going to wait before telling me of your distress?"

He at once called to Sanchowhohoweverhad no mind to comeas
he was just then engaged in unloading a sumpter mulewell laden
with provenderwhich these worthy gentlemen had brought with them.
Sancho made a bag of his coatandgetting together as much as he
couldand as the bag would holdhe loaded his beastand then
hastened to obey his master's calland helped him to remove the
bachelor from under the mule; then putting him on her back he gave him
the torchand Don Quixote bade him follow the track of his
companionsand beg pardon of them on his part for the wrong which
he could not help doing them.

And said SanchoIf by chance these gentlemen should want to know
who was the hero that served them so, your worship may tell them
that he is the famous Don Quixote of La Mancha, otherwise called the
Knight of the Rueful Countenance.

The bachelor then took his departure.

I forgot to mention that before he did so he said to Don Quixote
Remember that you stand excommunicated for having laid violent
hands on a holy thing, juxta illud, si quis, suadente diabolo.

I do not understand that Latin,answered Don Quixotebut I
know well I did not lay hands, only this pike; besides, I did not
think I was committing an assault upon priests or things of the
Church, which, like a Catholic and faithful Christian as I am, I
respect and revere, but upon phantoms and spectres of the other world;
but even so, I remember how it fared with Cid Ruy Diaz when he broke
the chair of the ambassador of that king before his Holiness the Pope,
who excommunicated him for the same; and yet the good Roderick of
Vivar bore himself that day like a very noble and valiant knight.

On hearing this the bachelor took his departureas has been said
without making any reply; and Don Quixote asked Sancho what had
induced him to call him the "Knight of the Rueful Countenance" more
then than at any other time.

I will tell you,answered Sancho; "it was because I have been
looking at you for some time by the light of the torch held by that
unfortunateand verily your worship has got of late the most
ill-favoured countenance I ever saw: it must be either owing to the
fatigue of this combator else to the want of teeth and grinders."

It is not that,replied Don Quixotebut because the sage whose
duty it will be to write the history of my achievements must have
thought it proper that I should take some distinctive name as all
knights of yore did; one being 'He of the Burning Sword,' another
'He of the Unicorn,' this one 'He of the Damsels,' that 'He of the
Phoenix,' another 'The Knight of the Griffin,' and another 'He of
the Death,' and by these names and designations they were known all
the world round; and so I say that the sage aforesaid must have put it
into your mouth and mind just now to call me 'The Knight of the Rueful

Countenance,' as I intend to call myself from this day forward; and
that the said name may fit me better, I mean, when the opportunity
offers, to have a very rueful countenance painted on my shield.

There is no occasion, senor, for wasting time or money on making
that countenance,said Sancho; "for all that need be done is for your
worship to show your ownface to faceto those who look at you
and without anything moreeither image or shieldthey will call
you 'Him of the Rueful Countenance' and believe me I am telling you
the truthfor I assure yousenor (and in good part be it said)
hunger and the loss of your grinders have given you such an
ill-favoured face thatas I saythe rueful picture may be very
well spared."

Don Quixote laughed at Sancho's pleasantry; nevertheless he resolved
to call himself by that nameand have his shield or buckler painted
as he had devised.

Don Quixote would have looked to see whether the body in the
litter were bones or notbut Sancho would not have itsaying:

Senor, you have ended this perilous adventure more safely for
yourself than any of those I have seen: perhaps these people, though
beaten and routed, may bethink themselves that it is a single man that
has beaten them, and feeling sore and ashamed of it may take heart and
come in search of us and give us trouble enough. The ass is in
proper trim, the mountains are near at hand, hunger presses, we have
nothing more to do but make good our retreat, and, as the saying is,
the dead to the grave and the living to the loaf.

And driving his ass before him he begged his master to follow
whofeeling that Sancho was rightdid so without replying; and after
proceeding some little distance between two hills they found
themselves in a wide and retired valleywhere they alightedand
Sancho unloaded his beastand stretched upon the green grasswith
hunger for saucethey breakfasteddinedlunchedand supped all
at oncesatisfying their appetites with more than one store of cold
meat which the dead man's clerical gentlemen (who seldom put
themselves on short allowance) had brought with them on their
sumpter mule. But another piece of ill-luck befell themwhich
Sancho held the worst of alland that was that they had no wine to
drinknor even water to moisten their lips; and as thirst tormented
themSanchoobserving that the meadow where they were was full of
green and tender grasssaid what will be told in the following chapter.



It cannot be, senor, but that this grass is a proof that there must
be hard by some spring or brook to give it moisture, so it would be
well to move a little farther on, that we may find some place where we
may quench this terrible thirst that plagues us, which beyond a
doubt is more distressing than hunger.

The advice seemed good to Don Quixoteandhe leading Rocinante
by the bridle and Sancho the ass by the halterafter he had packed
away upon him the remains of the supperthey advanced the meadow
feeling their wayfor the darkness of the night made it impossible to
see anything; but they had not gone two hundred paces when a loud

noise of wateras if falling from great rocksstruck their ears. The
sound cheered them greatly; but halting to make out by listening
from what quarter it came they heard unseasonably another noise
which spoiled the satisfaction the sound of the water gave them
especially for Sanchowho was by nature timid and faint-hearted. They
heardI saystrokes falling with a measured beatand a certain
rattling of iron and chains thattogether with the furious din of the
waterwould have struck terror into any heart but Don Quixote's.
The night wasas has been saiddarkand they had happened to
reach a spot in among some tall treeswhose leaves stirred by a
gentle breeze made a low ominous sound; so thatwhat with the
solitudethe placethe darknessthe noise of the waterand the
rustling of the leaveseverything inspired awe and dread; more
especially as they perceived that the strokes did not ceasenor the
wind lullnor morning approach; to all which might be added their
ignorance as to where they were. But Don Quixotesupported by his
intrepid heartleaped on Rocinanteand bracing his buckler on his
armbrought his pike to the slopeand saidFriend Sancho, know
that I by Heaven's will have been born in this our iron age to
revive revive in it the age of gold, or the golden as it is called;
I am he for whom perils, mighty achievements, and valiant deeds are
reserved; I am, I say again, he who is to revive the Knights of the
Round Table, the Twelve of France and the Nine Worthies; and he who is
to consign to oblivion the Platirs, the Tablantes, the Olivantes and
Tirantes, the Phoebuses and Belianises, with the whole herd of
famous knights-errant of days gone by, performing in these in which
I live such exploits, marvels, and feats of arms as shall obscure
their brightest deeds. Thou dost mark well, faithful and trusty
squire, the gloom of this night, its strange silence, the dull
confused murmur of those trees, the awful sound of that water in quest
of which we came, that seems as though it were precipitating and
dashing itself down from the lofty mountains of the Moon, and that
incessant hammering that wounds and pains our ears; which things all
together and each of itself are enough to instil fear, dread, and
dismay into the breast of Mars himself, much more into one not used to
hazards and adventures of the kind. Well, then, all this that I put
before thee is but an incentive and stimulant to my spirit, making
my heart burst in my bosom through eagerness to engage in this
adventure, arduous as it promises to be; therefore tighten Rocinante's
girths a little, and God be with thee; wait for me here three days and
no more, and if in that time I come not back, thou canst return to our
village, and thence, to do me a favour and a service, thou wilt go
to El Toboso, where thou shalt say to my incomparable lady Dulcinea
that her captive knight hath died in attempting things that might make
him worthy of being called hers.

When Sancho heard his master's words he began to weep in the most
pathetic waysaying:

Senor, I know not why your worship wants to attempt this so
dreadful adventure; it is night now, no one sees us here, we can
easily turn about and take ourselves out of danger, even if we don't
drink for three days to come; and as there is no one to see us, all
the less will there be anyone to set us down as cowards; besides, I
have many a time heard the curate of our village, whom your worship
knows well, preach that he who seeks danger perishes in it; so it is
not right to tempt God by trying so tremendous a feat from which there
can be no escape save by a miracle, and Heaven has performed enough of
them for your worship in delivering you from being blanketed as I was,
and bringing you out victorious and safe and sound from among all
those enemies that were with the dead man; and if all this does not
move or soften that hard heart, let this thought and reflection move
it, that you will have hardly quitted this spot when from pure fear
I shall yield my soul up to anyone that will take it. I left home

and wife and children to come and serve your worship, trusting to do
better and not worse; but as covetousness bursts the bag, it has
rent my hopes asunder, for just as I had them highest about getting
that wretched unlucky island your worship has so often promised me,
I see that instead and in lieu of it you mean to desert me now in a
place so far from human reach: for God's sake, master mine, deal not
so unjustly by me, and if your worship will not entirely give up
attempting this feat, at least put it off till morning, for by what
the lore I learned when I was a shepherd tells me it cannot want three
hours of dawn now, because the mouth of the Horn is overhead and makes
midnight in the line of the left arm.

How canst thou see, Sancho,said Don Quixotewhere it makes that
line, or where this mouth or this occiput is that thou talkest of,
when the night is so dark that there is not a star to be seen in the
whole heaven?

That's true,said Sanchobut fear has sharp eyes, and sees
things underground, much more above in heavens; besides, there is good
reason to show that it now wants but little of day.

Let it want what it may,replied Don Quixoteit shall not be
said of me now or at any time that tears or entreaties turned me aside
from doing what was in accordance with knightly usage; and so I beg of
thee, Sancho, to hold thy peace, for God, who has put it into my heart
to undertake now this so unexampled and terrible adventure, will
take care to watch over my safety and console thy sorrow; what thou
hast to do is to tighten Rocinante's girths well, and wait here, for I
shall come back shortly, alive or dead.

Sancho perceiving it his master's final resolveand how little
his tearscounselsand entreaties prevailed with himdetermined
to have recourse to his own ingenuity and compel himif he could
to wait till daylight; and sowhile tightening the girths of the
horsehe quietly and without being feltwith his ass' halter tied
both Rocinante's legsso that when Don Quixote strove to go he was
unable as the horse could only move by jumps. Seeing the success of
his trickSancho Panza said:

See there, senor! Heaven, moved by my tears and prayers, has so
ordered it that Rocinante cannot stir; and if you will be obstinate,
and spur and strike him, you will only provoke fortune, and kick, as
they say, against the pricks.

Don Quixote at this grew desperatebut the more he drove his
heels into the horsethe less he stirred him; and not having any
suspicion of the tyinghe was fain to resign himself and wait till
daybreak or until Rocinante could movefirmly persuaded that all this
came of something other than Sancho's ingenuity. So he said to him
As it is so, Sancho, and as Rocinante cannot move, I am content to
wait till dawn smiles upon us, even though I weep while it delays
its coming.

There is no need to weep,answered Sanchofor I will amuse
your worship by telling stories from this till daylight, unless indeed
you like to dismount and lie down to sleep a little on the green grass
after the fashion of knights-errant, so as to be fresher when day
comes and the moment arrives for attempting this extraordinary
adventure you are looking forward to.

What art thou talking about dismounting or sleeping for?said
Don Quixote. "Am Ithinkest thouone of those knights that take
their rest in the presence of danger? Sleep thou who art born to
sleepor do as thou wiltfor I will act as I think most consistent

with my character."

Be not angry, master mine,replied SanchoI did not mean to
say that;and coming close to him he laid one hand on the pommel of
the saddle and the other on the cantle so that he held his master's
left thigh in his embracenot daring to separate a finger's width
from him; so much afraid was he of the strokes which still resounded
with a regular beat. Don Quixote bade him tell some story to amuse him
as he had proposedto which Sancho replied that he would if his dread
of what he heard would let him; "Still said he, I will strive to
tell a story whichif I can manage to relate itand nobody
interferes with the tellingis the best of storiesand let your
worship give me your attentionfor here I begin. What waswas; and
may the good that is to come be for alland the evil for him who goes
to look for it -your worship must know that the beginning the old folk
used to put to their tales was not just as each one pleased; it was
a maxim of Cato Zonzorino the Romanthat says 'the evil for him
that goes to look for it' and it comes as pat to the purpose now as
ring to fingerto show that your worship should keep quiet and not go
looking for evil in any quarterand that we should go back by some
other roadsince nobody forces us to follow this in which so many
terrors affright us."

Go on with thy story, Sancho,said Don Quixoteand leave the
choice of our road to my care.

I say then,continued Sanchothat in a village of Estremadura
there was a goat-shepherd -that is to say, one who tended goats- which
shepherd or goatherd, as my story goes, was called Lope Ruiz, and this
Lope Ruiz was in love with a shepherdess called Torralva, which
shepherdess called Torralva was the daughter of a rich grazier, and
this rich grazier-

If that is the way thou tellest thy tale, Sancho,said Don
Quixoterepeating twice all thou hast to say, thou wilt not have
done these two days; go straight on with it, and tell it like a
reasonable man, or else say nothing.

Tales are always told in my country in the very way I am telling
this,answered Sanchoand I cannot tell it in any other, nor is
it right of your worship to ask me to make new customs.

Tell it as thou wilt,replied Don Quixote; "and as fate will
have it that I cannot help listening to theego on."

And so, lord of my soul,continued Sanchoas I have saidthis
shepherd was in love with Torralva the shepherdesswho was a wild
buxom lass with something of the look of a man about herfor she
had little moustaches; I fancy I see her now."

Then you knew her?said Don Quixote.

I did not know her,said Sanchobut he who told me the story
said it was so true and certain that when I told it to another I might
safely declare and swear I had seen it all myself. And so in course of
time, the devil, who never sleeps and puts everything in confusion,
contrived that the love the shepherd bore the shepherdess turned
into hatred and ill-will, and the reason, according to evil tongues,
was some little jealousy she caused him that crossed the line and
trespassed on forbidden ground; and so much did the shepherd hate
her from that time forward that, in order to escape from her, he
determined to quit the country and go where he should never set eyes
on her again. Torralva, when she found herself spurned by Lope, was
immediately smitten with love for him, though she had never loved

him before.

That is the natural way of women,said Don Quixoteto scorn
the one that loves them, and love the one that hates them: go on,

It came to pass,said Sanchothat the shepherd carried out his
intention, and driving his goats before him took his way across the
plains of Estremadura to pass over into the Kingdom of Portugal.
Torralva, who knew of it, went after him, and on foot and barefoot
followed him at a distance, with a pilgrim's staff in her hand and a
scrip round her neck, in which she carried, it is said, a bit of
looking-glass and a piece of a comb and some little pot or other of
paint for her face; but let her carry what she did, I am not going
to trouble myself to prove it; all I say is, that the shepherd, they
say, came with his flock to cross over the river Guadiana, which was
at that time swollen and almost overflowing its banks, and at the spot
he came to there was neither ferry nor boat nor anyone to carry him or
his flock to the other side, at which he was much vexed, for he
perceived that Torralva was approaching and would give him great
annoyance with her tears and entreaties; however, he went looking
about so closely that he discovered a fisherman who had alongside of
him a boat so small that it could only hold one person and one goat;
but for all that he spoke to him and agreed with him to carry
himself and his three hundred goats across. The fisherman got into the
boat and carried one goat over; he came back and carried another over;
he came back again, and again brought over another- let your worship
keep count of the goats the fisherman is taking across, for if one
escapes the memory there will be an end of the story, and it will be
impossible to tell another word of it. To proceed, I must tell you the
landing place on the other side was miry and slippery, and the
fisherman lost a great deal of time in going and coming; still he
returned for another goat, and another, and another.

Take it for granted he brought them all across,said Don
Quixoteand don't keep going and coming in this way, or thou wilt
not make an end of bringing them over this twelvemonth.

How many have gone across so far?said Sancho.

How the devil do I know?replied Don Quixote.

There it is,said Sanchowhat I told you, that you must keep a
good count; well then, by God, there is an end of the story, for there
is no going any farther.

How can that be?said Don Quixote; "is it so essential to the
story to know to a nicety the goats that have crossed overthat if
there be a mistake of one in the reckoningthou canst not go on
with it?"

No, senor, not a bit,replied Sancho; "for when I asked your
worship to tell me how many goats had crossedand you answered you
did not knowat that very instant all I had to say passed away out of
my memoryandfaiththere was much virtue in itand

So, then,said Don Quixotethe story has come to an end?

As much as my mother has,said Sancho.

In truth,said Don Quixotethou hast told one of the rarest
stories, tales, or histories, that anyone in the world could have
imagined, and such a way of telling it and ending it was never seen

nor will be in a lifetime; though I expected nothing else from thy
excellent understanding. But I do not wonder, for perhaps those
ceaseless strokes may have confused thy wits.

All that may be,replied Sanchobut I know that as to my
story, all that can be said is that it ends there where the mistake in
the count of the passage of the goats begins.

Let it end where it will, well and good,said Don Quixoteand
let us see if Rocinante can go;and again he spurred himand again
Rocinante made jumps and remained where he wasso well tied was he.

Just thenwhether it was the cold of the morning that was now
approachingor that he had eaten something laxative at supperor
that it was only natural (as is most likely)Sancho felt a desire
to do what no one could do for him; but so great was the fear that had
penetrated his hearthe dared not separate himself from his master by
as much as the black of his nail; to escape doing what he wanted
washoweveralso impossible; so what he did for peace's sake was
to remove his right handwhich held the back of the saddleand
with it to untie gently and silently the running string which alone
held up his breechesso that on loosening it they at once fell down
round his feet like fetters; he then raised his shirt as well as he
could and bared his hind quartersno slim ones. Butthis
accomplishedwhich he fancied was all he had to do to get out of this
terrible strait and embarrassmentanother still greater difficulty
presented itselffor it seemed to him impossible to relieve himself
without making some noiseand he ground his teeth and squeezed his
shoulders togetherholding his breath as much as he could; but in
spite of his precautions he was unlucky enough after all to make a
little noisevery different from that which was causing him so much

Don Quixotehearing itsaidWhat noise is that, Sancho?

I don't know, senor,said he; "it must be something newfor
adventures and misadventures never begin with a trifle." Once more
he tried his luckand succeeded so wellthat without any further
noise or disturbance he found himself relieved of the burden that
had given him so much discomfort. But as Don Quixote's sense of
smell was as acute as his hearingand as Sancho was so closely linked
with him that the fumes rose almost in a straight lineit could not
be but that some should reach his noseand as soon as they did he
came to its relief by compressing it between his fingerssaying in
a rather snuffing toneSancho, it strikes me thou art in great

I am,answered Sancho; "but how does your worship perceive it
now more than ever?"

Because just now thou smellest stronger than ever, and not of
ambergris,answered Don Quixote.

Very likely,said Sanchobut that's not my fault, but your
worship's, for leading me about at unseasonable hours and at such
unwonted paces.

Then go back three or four, my friend,said Don Quixoteall the
time with his fingers to his nose; "and for the future pay more
attention to thy person and to what thou owest to mine; for it is my
great familiarity with thee that has bred this contempt."

I'll bet,replied Sanchothat your worship thinks I have done
something I ought not with my person.

It makes it worse to stir it, friend Sancho,returned Don Quixote.

With this and other talk of the same sort master and man passed
the nighttill Sanchoperceiving that daybreak was coming on
apacevery cautiously untied Rocinante and tied up his breeches. As
soon as Rocinante found himself freethough by nature he was not at
all mettlesomehe seemed to feel lively and began pawing- for as to
caperingbegging his pardonhe knew not what it meant. Don
Quixotethenobserving that Rocinante could movetook it as a
good sign and a signal that he should attempt the dread adventure.
By this time day had fully broken and everything showed distinctly
and Don Quixote saw that he was among some tall treeschestnuts
which cast a very deep shade; he perceived likewise that the sound
of the strokes did not ceasebut could not discover what caused it
and so without any further delay he let Rocinante feel the spurand
once more taking leave of Sanchohe told him to wait for him there
three days at mostas he had said beforeand if he should not have
returned by that timehe might feel sure it had been God's will
that he should end his days in that perilous adventure. He again
repeated the message and commission with which he was to go on his
behalf to his lady Dulcineaand said he was not to be uneasy as to
the payment of his servicesfor before leaving home he had made his
willin which he would find himself fully recompensed in the matter
of wages in due proportion to the time he had served; but if God
delivered him safesoundand unhurt out of that dangerhe might
look upon the promised island as much more than certain. Sancho
began to weep afresh on again hearing the affecting words of his
good masterand resolved to stay with him until the final issue and
end of the business. From these tears and this honourable resolve of
Sancho Panza's the author of this history infers that he must have
been of good birth and at least an old Christian; and the feeling he
displayed touched his but not so much as to make him show any
weakness; on the contraryhiding what he felt as well as he couldhe
began to move towards that quarter whence the sound of the water and
of the strokes seemed to come.

Sancho followed him on footleading by the halteras his custom
washis asshis constant comrade in prosperity or adversity; and
advancing some distance through the shady chestnut trees they came
upon a little meadow at the foot of some high rocksdown which a
mighty rush of water flung itself. At the foot of the rocks were
some rudely constructed houses looking more like ruins than houses
from among which camethey perceivedthe din and clatter of blows
which still continued without intermission. Rocinante took fright at
the noise of the water and of the blowsbut quieting him Don
Quixote advanced step by step towards the housescommending himself
with all his heart to his ladyimploring her support in that dread
pass and enterpriseand on the way commending himself to Godtoo
not to forget him. Sancho who never quitted his sidestretched his
neck as far as he could and peered between the legs of Rocinante to
see if he could now discover what it was that caused him such fear and
apprehension. They went it might be a hundred paces fartherwhen on
turning a corner the true causebeyond the possibility of any
mistakeof that dread-sounding and to them awe-inspiring noise that
had kept them all the night in such fear and perplexityappeared
plain and obvious; and it was (ifreaderthou art not disgusted
and disappointed) six fulling hammers which by their alternate strokes
made all the din.

When Don Quixote perceived what it washe was struck dumb and rigid
from head to foot. Sancho glanced at him and saw him with his head
bent down upon his breast in manifest mortification; and Don Quixote
glanced at Sancho and saw him with his cheeks puffed out and his mouth

full of laughterand evidently ready to explode with itand in spite
of his vexation he could not help laughing at the sight of him; and
when Sancho saw his master begin he let go so heartily that he had
to hold his sides with both hands to keep himself from bursting with
laughter. Four times he stoppedand as many times did his laughter
break out afresh with the same violence as at firstwhereat Don
Quixote grew furiousabove all when he heard him say mockinglyThou
must know, friend Sancho, that of Heaven's will I was born in this our
iron age to revive in it the golden or age of gold; I am he for whom
are reserved perils, mighty achievements, valiant deeds;and here
he went on repeating the words that Don Quixote uttered the first time
they heard the awful strokes.

Don Quixotethenseeing that Sancho was turning him into ridicule
was so mortified and vexed that he lifted up his pike and smote him
two such blows that ifinstead of catching them on his shoulders
he had caught them on his head there would have been no wages to
payunless indeed to his heirs. Sancho seeing that he was getting
an awkward return in earnest for his jestand fearing his master
might carry it still furthersaid to him very humblyCalm yourself,
sir, for by God I am only joking.

Well, then, if you are joking I am not,replied Don Quixote. "Look
heremy lively gentlemanif theseinstead of being fulling hammers
had been some perilous adventurehave I notthink youshown the
courage required for the attempt and achievement? Am Iperchance
beingas I ama gentlemanbound to know and distinguish sounds
and tell whether they come from fulling mills or not; and thatwhen
perhapsas is the caseI have never in my life seen any as you have
low boor as you arethat have been born and bred among them? But turn
me these six hammers into six giantsand bring them to beard me
one by one or all togetherand if I do not knock them head over
heelsthen make what mockery you like of me."

No more of that, senor,returned Sancho; "I own I went a little
too far with the joke. But tell meyour worshipnow that peace is
made between us (and may God bring you out of all the adventures
that may befall you as safe and sound as he has brought you out of
this one)was it not a thing to laugh atand is it not a good story
the great fear we were in?- at least that I was in; for as to your
worship I see now that you neither know nor understand what either
fear or dismay is."

I do not deny,said Don Quixotethat what happened to us may
be worth laughing at, but it is not worth making a story about, for it
is not everyone that is shrewd enough to hit the right point of a

At any rate,said Sanchoyour worship knew how to hit the
right point with your pike, aiming at my head and hitting me on the
shoulders, thanks be to God and my own smartness in dodging it. But
let that pass; all will come out in the scouring; for I have heard say
'he loves thee well that makes thee weep;' and moreover that it is the
way with great lords after any hard words they give a servant to
give him a pair of breeches; though I do not know what they give after
blows, unless it be that knights-errant after blows give islands, or
kingdoms on the mainland.

It may be on the dice,said Don Quixotethat all thou sayest
will come true; overlook the past, for thou art shrewd enough to
know that our first movements are not in our own control; and one
thing for the future bear in mind, that thou curb and restrain thy
loquacity in my company; for in all the books of chivalry that I
have read, and they are innumerable, I never met with a squire who

talked so much to his lord as thou dost to thine; and in fact I feel
it to be a great fault of thine and of mine: of thine, that thou
hast so little respect for me; of mine, that I do not make myself more
respected. There was Gandalin, the squire of Amadis of Gaul, that
was Count of the Insula Firme, and we read of him that he always
addressed his lord with his cap in his hand, his head bowed down and
his body bent double, more turquesco. And then, what shall we say of
Gasabal, the squire of Galaor, who was so silent that in order to
indicate to us the greatness of his marvellous taciturnity his name is
only once mentioned in the whole of that history, as long as it is
truthful? From all I have said thou wilt gather, Sancho, that there
must be a difference between master and man, between lord and
lackey, between knight and squire: so that from this day forward in
our intercourse we must observe more respect and take less
liberties, for in whatever way I may be provoked with you it will be
bad for the pitcher. The favours and benefits that I have promised you
will come in due time, and if they do not your wages at least will not
be lost, as I have already told you.

All that your worship says is very well,said Sanchobut I
should like to know (in case the time of favours should not come,
and it might be necessary to fall back upon wages) how much did the
squire of a knight-errant get in those days, and did they agree by the
month, or by the day like bricklayers?

I do not believe,replied Don Quixotethat such squires were
ever on wages, but were dependent on favour; and if I have now
mentioned thine in the sealed will I have left at home, it was with
a view to what may happen; for as yet I know not how chivalry will
turn out in these wretched times of ours, and I do not wish my soul to
suffer for trifles in the other world; for I would have thee know,
Sancho, that in this there is no condition more hazardous than that of

That is true,said Sanchosince the mere noise of the hammers of
a fulling mill can disturb and disquiet the heart of such a valiant
errant adventurer as your worship; but you may be sure I will not open
my lips henceforward to make light of anything of your worship's,
but only to honour you as my master and natural lord.

By so doing,replied Don Quixoteshalt thou live long on the
face of the earth; for next to parents, masters are to be respected as
though they were parents.



It now began to rain a littleand Sancho was for going into the
fulling millsbut Don Quixote had taken such an abhorrence to them on
account of the late joke that he would not enter them on any
account; so turning aside to right they came upon another road
different from that which they had taken the night before. Shortly
afterwards Don Quixote perceived a man on horseback who wore on his
head something that shone like goldand the moment he saw him he
turned to Sancho and said:

I think, Sancho, there is no proverb that is not true, all being
maxims drawn from experience itself, the mother of all the sciences,

especially that one that says, 'Where one door shuts, another
opens.' I say so because if last night fortune shut the door of the
adventure we were looking for against us, cheating us with the fulling
mills, it now opens wide another one for another better and more
certain adventure, and if I do not contrive to enter it, it will be my
own fault, and I cannot lay it to my ignorance of fulling mills, or
the darkness of the night. I say this because, if I mistake not, there
comes towards us one who wears on his head the helmet of Mambrino,
concerning which I took the oath thou rememberest.

Mind what you say, your worship, and still more what you do,
said Sanchofor I don't want any more fulling mills to finish off
fulling and knocking our senses out.

The devil take thee, man,said Don Quixote; "what has a helmet
to do with fulling mills?"

I don't know,replied Sanchobut, faith, if I might speak as I
used, perhaps I could give such reasons that your worship would see
you were mistaken in what you say.

How can I be mistaken in what I say, unbelieving traitor?returned
Don Quixote; "tell meseest thou not yonder knight coming towards
us on a dappled grey steedwho has upon his head a helmet of gold?"

What I see and make out,answered Sanchois only a man on a grey
ass like my own, who has something that shines on his head.

Well, that is the helmet of Mambrino,said Don Quixote; "stand
to one side and leave me alone with him; thou shalt see howwithout
saying a wordto save timeI shall bring this adventure to an
issue and possess myself of the helmet I have so longed for."

I will take care to stand aside,said Sancho; "but God grantI
say once morethat it may be marjoram and not fulling mills."

I have told thee, brother, on no account to mention those fulling
mills to me again,said Don Quixoteor I vow- and I say no more-
I'll full the soul out of you.

Sancho held his peace in dread lest his master should carry out
the vow he had hurled like a bowl at him.

The fact of the matter as regards the helmetsteedand knight that
Don Quixote sawwas this. In that neighbourhood there were two
villagesone of them so small that it had neither apothecary's shop
nor barberwhich the other that was close to it hadso the barber of
the larger served the smallerand in it there was a sick man who
required to be bled and another man who wanted to be shavedand on
this errand the barber was goingcarrying with him a brass basin; but
as luck would have itas he was on the way it began to rainand
not to spoil his hatwhich probably was a new onehe put the basin
on his headand being clean it glittered at half a league's distance.
He rode upon a grey assas Sancho saidand this was what made it
seem to Don Quixote to be a dapple-grey steed and a knight and a
golden helmet; for everything he saw he made to fall in with his crazy
chivalry and ill-errant notions; and when he saw the poor knight
draw nearwithout entering into any parley with himat Rocinante's
top speed he bore down upon him with the pike pointed lowfully
determined to run him through and throughand as he reached him
without checking the fury of his chargehe cried to him:

Defend thyself, miserable being, or yield me of thine own accord
that which is so reasonably my due.

The barberwho without any expectation or apprehension of it saw
this apparition coming down upon himhad no other way of saving
himself from the stroke of the lance but to let himself fall off his
ass; and no sooner had he touched the ground than he sprang up more
nimbly than a deer and sped away across the plain faster than the

He left the basin on the groundwith which Don Quixote contented
himselfsaying that the pagan had shown his discretion and imitated
the beaverwhich finding itself pressed by the hunters bites and cuts
off with its teeth that for whichby its natural instinctit knows
it is pursued.

He told Sancho to pick up the helmetand he taking it in his
hands said:

By God the basin is a good one, and worth a real of eight if it
is worth a maravedis,and handed it to his masterwho immediately
put it on his headturning it roundnow this waynow thatin
search of fitmentand not finding it he saidClearly the pagan to
whose measure this famous head-piece was first forged must have had
a very large head; but the worst of it is half of it is wanting.

When Sancho heard him call the basin a headpiece he was unable to
restrain his laughterbut remembering his master's wrath he checked
himself in the midst of it.

What art thou laughing at, Sancho?said Don Quixote.

I am laughing,said heto think of the great head the pagan must
have had who owned this helmet, for it looks exactly like a regular
barber's basin.

Dost thou know what I suspect, Sancho?said Don Quixote; "that
this wonderful piece of this enchanted helmet must by some strange
accident have come into the hands of some one who was unable to
recognise or realise its valueand whonot knowing what he did
and seeing it to be of the purest goldmust have melted down one half
for the sake of what it might be worthand of the other made this
which is like a barber's basin as thou sayest; but be it as it mayto
me who recognise itits transformation makes no differencefor I
will set it to rights at the first village where there is a
blacksmithand in such style that that helmet the god of smithies
forged for the god of battles shall not surpass it or even come up
to it; and in the meantime I will wear it as well as I canfor
something is better than nothing; all the more as it will be quite
enough to protect me from any chance blow of a stone."

That is,said Sanchoif it is not shot with a sling as they were
in the battle of the two armies, when they signed the cross on your
worship's grinders and smashed the flask with that blessed draught
that made me vomit my bowels up.

It does not grieve me much to have lost it,said Don Quixotefor
thou knowest, Sancho, that I have the receipt in my memory.

So have I,answered Sanchobut if ever I make it, or try it
again as long as I live, may this be my last hour; moreover, I have no
intention of putting myself in the way of wanting it, for I mean, with
all my five senses, to keep myself from being wounded or from wounding
anyone: as to being blanketed again I say nothing, for it is hard to
prevent mishaps of that sort, and if they come there is nothing for it
but to squeeze our shoulders together, hold our breath, shut our eyes,

and let ourselves go where luck and the blanket may send us.

Thou art a bad Christian, Sancho,said Don Quixote on hearing
thisfor once an injury has been done thee thou never forgettest it:
but know that it is the part of noble and generous hearts not to
attach importance to trifles. What lame leg hast thou got by it,
what broken rib, what cracked head, that thou canst not forget that
jest? For jest and sport it was, properly regarded, and had I not seen
it in that light I would have returned and done more mischief in
revenging thee than the Greeks did for the rape of Helen, who, if
she were alive now, or if my Dulcinea had lived then, might depend
upon it she would not be so famous for her beauty as she is;and here
he heaved a sigh and sent it aloft; and said SanchoLet it pass
for a jest as it cannot be revenged in earnest, but I know what sort
of jest and earnest it was, and I know it will never be rubbed out
of my memory any more than off my shoulders. But putting that aside,
will your worship tell me what are we to do with this dapple-grey
steed that looks like a grey ass, which that Martino that your worship
overthrew has left deserted here? for, from the way he took to his
heels and bolted, he is not likely ever to come back for it; and by my
beard but the grey is a good one.

I have never been in the habit,said Don Quixoteof taking spoil
of those whom I vanquish, nor is it the practice of chivalry to take
away their horses and leave them to go on foot, unless indeed it be
that the victor have lost his own in the combat, in which case it is
lawful to take that of the vanquished as a thing won in lawful war;
therefore, Sancho, leave this horse, or ass, or whatever thou wilt
have it to be; for when its owner sees us gone hence he will come back
for it.

God knows I should like to take it,returned Sanchoor at
least to change it for my own, which does not seem to me as good a
one: verily the laws of chivalry are strict, since they cannot be
stretched to let one ass be changed for another; I should like to know
if I might at least change trappings.

On that head I am not quite certain,answered Don Quixoteand
the matter being doubtful, pending better information, I say thou
mayest change them, if so be thou hast urgent need of them.

So urgent is it,answered Sanchothat if they were for my own
person I could not want them more;and forthwithfortified by this
licencehe effected the mutatio capparumrigging out his beast to
the ninety-nines and making quite another thing of it. This donethey
broke their fast on the remains of the spoils of war plundered from
the sumpter muleand drank of the brook that flowed from the
fulling millswithout casting a look in that directionin such
loathing did they hold them for the alarm they had caused them; and
all anger and gloom removedthey mounted andwithout taking any
fixed road (not to fix upon any being the proper thing for true
knights-errant)they set outguided by Rocinante's willwhich
carried along with it that of his masternot to say that of the
asswhich always followed him wherever he ledlovingly and sociably;
nevertheless they returned to the high roadand pursued it at a
venture without any other aim.

As they went alongthenin this way Sancho said to his master
Senor, would your worship give me leave to speak a little to you? For
since you laid that hard injunction of silence on me several things
have gone to rot in my stomach, and I have now just one on the tip
of my tongue that I don't want to be spoiled.

Say, on, Sancho,said Don Quixoteand be brief in thy discourse,

for there is no pleasure in one that is long.

Well then, senor,returned SanchoI say that for some days
past I have been considering how little is got or gained by going in
search of these adventures that your worship seeks in these wilds
and cross-roads, where, even if the most perilous are victoriously
achieved, there is no one to see or know of them, and so they must
be left untold for ever, to the loss of your worship's object and
the credit they deserve; therefore it seems to me it would be better
(saving your worship's better judgment) if we were to go and serve
some emperor or other great prince who may have some war on hand, in
whose service your worship may prove the worth of your person, your
great might, and greater understanding, on perceiving which the lord
in whose service we may be will perforce have to reward us, each
according to his merits; and there you will not be at a loss for
some one to set down your achievements in writing so as to preserve
their memory for ever. Of my own I say nothing, as they will not go
beyond squirely limits, though I make bold to say that, if it be the
practice in chivalry to write the achievements of squires, I think
mine must not be left out.

Thou speakest not amiss, Sancho,answered Don Quixotebut before
that point is reached it is requisite to roam the world, as it were on
probation, seeking adventures, in order that, by achieving some,
name and fame may be acquired, such that when he betakes himself to
the court of some great monarch the knight may be already known by his
deeds, and that the boys, the instant they see him enter the gate of
the city, may all follow him and surround him, crying, 'This is the
Knight of the Sun'-or the Serpent, or any other title under which he
may have achieved great deeds. 'This,' they will say, 'is he who
vanquished in single combat the gigantic Brocabruno of mighty
strength; he who delivered the great Mameluke of Persia out of the
long enchantment under which he had been for almost nine hundred
years.' So from one to another they will go proclaiming his
achievements; and presently at the tumult of the boys and the others
the king of that kingdom will appear at the windows of his royal
palace, and as soon as he beholds the knight, recognising him by his
arms and the device on his shield, he will as a matter of course
say, 'What ho! Forth all ye, the knights of my court, to receive the
flower of chivalry who cometh hither!' At which command all will issue
forth, and he himself, advancing half-way down the stairs, will
embrace him closely, and salute him, kissing him on the cheek, and
will then lead him to the queen's chamber, where the knight will
find her with the princess her daughter, who will be one of the most
beautiful and accomplished damsels that could with the utmost pains be
discovered anywhere in the known world. Straightway it will come to
pass that she will fix her eyes upon the knight and he his upon her,
and each will seem to the other something more divine than human, and,
without knowing how or why they will be taken and entangled in the
inextricable toils of love, and sorely distressed in their hearts
not to see any way of making their pains and sufferings known by
speech. Thence they will lead him, no doubt, to some richly adorned
chamber of the palace, where, having removed his armour, they will
bring him a rich mantle of scarlet wherewith to robe himself, and if
he looked noble in his armour he will look still more so in a doublet.
When night comes he will sup with the king, queen, and princess; and
all the time he will never take his eyes off her, stealing stealthy
glances, unnoticed by those present, and she will do the same, and
with equal cautiousness, being, as I have said, a damsel of great
discretion. The tables being removed, suddenly through the door of the
hall there will enter a hideous and diminutive dwarf followed by a
fair dame, between two giants, who comes with a certain adventure, the
work of an ancient sage; and he who shall achieve it shall be deemed
the best knight in the world.

The king will then command all those present to essay itand
none will bring it to an end and conclusion save the stranger
knightto the great enhancement of his famewhereat the princess
will be overjoyed and will esteem herself happy and fortunate in
having fixed and placed her thoughts so high. And the best of it is
that this kingor princeor whatever he isis engaged in a very
bitter war with another as powerful as himselfand the stranger
knightafter having been some days at his courtrequests leave
from him to go and serve him in the said war. The king will grant it
very readilyand the knight will courteously kiss his hands for the
favour done to him; and that night he will take leave of his lady
the princess at the grating of the chamber where she sleepswhich
looks upon a gardenand at which he has already many times
conversed with herthe go-between and confidante in the matter
being a damsel much trusted by the princess. He will sighshe will
swoonthe damsel will fetch watermuch distressed because morning
approachesand for the honour of her lady he would not that they were
discovered; at last the princess will come to herself and will present
her white hands through the grating to the knightwho will kiss
them a thousand and a thousand timesbathing them with his tears.
It will be arranged between them how they are to inform each other
of their good or evil fortunesand the princess will entreat him to
make his absence as short as possiblewhich he will promise to do
with many oaths; once more he kisses her handsand takes his leave in
such grief that he is well-nigh ready to die. He betakes him thence to
his chamberflings himself on his bedcannot sleep for sorrow at
partingrises early in the morninggoes to take leave of the king
queenand princessandas he takes his leave of the pairit is
told him that the princess is indisposed and cannot receive a visit;
the knight thinks it is from grief at his departurehis heart is
piercedand he is hardly able to keep from showing his pain. The
confidante is presentobserves allgoes to tell her mistresswho
listens with tears and says that one of her greatest distresses is not
knowing who this knight isand whether he is of kingly lineage or
not; the damsel assures her that so much courtesygentlenessand
gallantry of bearing as her knight possesses could not exist in any
save one who was royal and illustrious; her anxiety is thus
relievedand she strives to be of good cheer lest she should excite
suspicion in her parentsand at the end of two days she appears in
public. Meanwhile the knight has taken his departure; he fights in the
warconquers the king's enemywins many citiestriumphs in many
battlesreturns to the courtsees his lady where he was wont to
see herand it is agreed that he shall demand her in marriage of
her parents as the reward of his services; the king is unwilling to
give heras he knows not who he isbut neverthelesswhether carried
off or in whatever other way it may bethe princess comes to be his
brideand her father comes to regard it as very good fortune; for
it so happens that this knight is proved to be the son of a valiant
king of some kingdomI know not whatfor I fancy it is not likely to
be on the map. The father diesthe princess inheritsand in two
words the knight becomes king. And here comes in at once the
bestowal of rewards upon his squire and all who have aided him in
rising to so exalted a rank. He marries his squire to a damsel of
the princess'swho will beno doubtthe one who was confidante in
their amourand is daughter of a very great duke."

That's what I want, and no mistake about it!said Sancho.
That's what I'm waiting for; for all this, word for word, is in store
for your worship under the title of the Knight of the Rueful

Thou needst not doubt it, Sancho,replied Don Quixotefor in the
same manner, and by the same steps as I have described here,

knights-errant rise and have risen to be kings and emperors; all we
want now is to find out what king, Christian or pagan, is at war and
has a beautiful daughter; but there will be time enough to think of
that, for, as I have told thee, fame must be won in other quarters
before repairing to the court. There is another thing, too, that is
wanting; for supposing we find a king who is at war and has a
beautiful daughter, and that I have won incredible fame throughout the
universe, I know not how it can be made out that I am of royal
lineage, or even second cousin to an emperor; for the king will not be
willing to give me his daughter in marriage unless he is first
thoroughly satisfied on this point, however much my famous deeds may
deserve it; so that by this deficiency I fear I shall lose what my arm
has fairly earned. True it is I am a gentleman of known house, of
estate and property, and entitled to the five hundred sueldos mulct;
and it may be that the sage who shall write my history will so clear
up my ancestry and pedigree that I may find myself fifth or sixth in
descent from a king; for I would have thee know, Sancho, that there
are two kinds of lineages in the world; some there be tracing and
deriving their descent from kings and princes, whom time has reduced
little by little until they end in a point like a pyramid upside down;
and others who spring from the common herd and go on rising step by
step until they come to be great lords; so that the difference is that
the one were what they no longer are, and the others are what they
formerly were not. And I may be of such that after investigation my
origin may prove great and famous, with which the king, my
father-in-law that is to be, ought to be satisfied; and should he
not be, the princess will so love me that even though she well knew me
to be the son of a water-carrier, she will take me for her lord and
husband in spite of her father; if not, then it comes to seizing her
and carrying her off where I please; for time or death will put an end
to the wrath of her parents.

It comes to this, too,said Sanchowhat some naughty people say,
'Never ask as a favour what thou canst take by force;' though it would
fit better to say, 'A clear escape is better than good men's prayers.'
I say so because if my lord the king, your worship's father-in-law,
will not condescend to give you my lady the princess, there is nothing
for it but, as your worship says, to seize her and transport her.
But the mischief is that until peace is made and you come into the
peaceful enjoyment of your kingdom, the poor squire is famishing as
far as rewards go, unless it be that the confidante damsel that is
to be his wife comes with the princess, and that with her he tides
over his bad luck until Heaven otherwise orders things; for his
master, I suppose, may as well give her to him at once for a lawful

Nobody can object to that,said Don Quixote.

Then since that may be,said Sanchothere is nothing for it
but to commend ourselves to God, and let fortune take what course it

God guide it according to my wishes and thy wants,said Don
Quixoteand mean be he who thinks himself mean.

In God's name let him be so,said Sancho: "I am an old
Christianand to fit me for a count that's enough."

And more than enough for thee,said Don Quixote; "and even wert
thou notit would make no differencebecause I being the king can
easily give thee nobility without purchase or service rendered by
theefor when I make thee a countthen thou art at once a gentleman;
and they may say what they willbut by my faith they will have to
call thee 'your lordship' whether they like it or not."

Not a doubt of it; and I'll know how to support the tittle,said

Title thou shouldst say, not tittle,said his master.

So be it,answered Sancho. "I say I will know how to behavefor
once in my life I was beadle of a brotherhoodand the beadle's gown
sat so well on me that all said I looked as if I was to be steward
of the same brotherhood. What will it bethenwhen I put a duke's
robe on my backor dress myself in gold and pearls like a count? I
believe they'll come a hundred leagues to see me."

Thou wilt look well,said Don Quixotebut thou must shave thy
beard often, for thou hast it so thick and rough and unkempt, that
if thou dost not shave it every second day at least, they will see
what thou art at the distance of a musket shot.

What more will it be,said Sanchothan having a barber, and
keeping him at wages in the house? and even if it be necessary, I will
make him go behind me like a nobleman's equerry.

Why, how dost thou know that noblemen have equerries behind
them?asked Don Quixote.

I will tell you,answered Sancho. "Years ago I was for a month
at the capital and there I saw taking the air a very small gentleman
who they said was a very great manand a man following him on
horseback in every turn he tookjust as if he was his tail. I asked
why this man did not join the other maninstead of always going
behind him; they answered me that he was his equerryand that it
was the custom with nobles to have such persons behind themand
ever since then I know itfor I have never forgotten it."

Thou art right,said Don Quixoteand in the same way thou mayest
carry thy barber with thee, for customs did not come into use all
together, nor were they all invented at once, and thou mayest be the
first count to have a barber to follow him; and, indeed, shaving one's
beard is a greater trust than saddling one's horse.

Let the barber business be my look-out,said Sancho; "and your
worship's be it to strive to become a kingand make me a count."

So it shall be,answered Don Quixoteand raising his eyes he
saw what will be told in the following chapter.



Cide Hamete Benengelithe Arab and Manchegan authorrelates in
this most gravehigh-soundingminutedelightfuland original
history that after the discussion between the famous Don Quixote of La
Mancha and his squire Sancho Panza which is set down at the end of
chapter twenty-oneDon Quixote raised his eyes and saw coming along
the road he was following some dozen men on foot strung together by
the necklike beadson a great iron chainand all with manacles
on their hands. With them there came also two men on horseback and two
on foot; those on horseback with wheel-lock musketsthose on foot
with javelins and swordsand as soon as Sancho saw them he said:

That is a chain of galley slaves, on the way to the galleys by
force of the king's orders.

How by force?asked Don Quixote; "is it possible that the king
uses force against anyone?"

I do not say that,answered Sanchobut that these are people
condemned for their crimes to serve by force in the king's galleys.

In fact,replied Don Quixotehowever it may be, these people are
going where they are taking them by force, and not of their own will.

Just so,said Sancho.

Then if so,said Don Quixotehere is a case for the exercise
of my office, to put down force and to succour and help the wretched.

Recollect, your worship,said SanchoJustice, which is the
king himself, is not using force or doing wrong to such persons, but
punishing them for their crimes.

The chain of galley slaves had by this time come upand Don Quixote
in very courteous language asked those who were in custody of it to be
good enough to tell him the reason or reasons for which they were
conducting these people in this manner. One of the guards on horseback
answered that they were galley slaves belonging to his majestythat
they were going to the galleysand that was all that was to be said
and all he had any business to know.

Nevertheless,replied Don QuixoteI should like to know from
each of them separately the reason of his misfortune;to this he
added more to the same effect to induce them to tell him what he
wanted so civilly that the other mounted guard said to him:

Though we have here the register and certificate of the sentence of
every one of these wretches, this is no time to take them out or
read them; come and ask themselves; they can tell if they choose,
and they will, for these fellows take a pleasure in doing and
talking about rascalities.

With this permissionwhich Don Quixote would have taken even had
they not granted ithe approached the chain and asked the first for
what offences he was now in such a sorry case.

He made answer that it was for being a lover.

For that only?replied Don Quixote; "whyif for being lovers they
send people to the galleys I might have been rowing in them long ago."

The love is not the sort your worship is thinking of,said the
galley slave; "mine was that I loved a washerwoman's basket of clean
linen so welland held it so close in my embracethat if the arm
of the law had not forced it from meI should never have let it go of
my own will to this moment; I was caught in the actthere was no
occasion for torturethe case was settledthey treated me to a
hundred lashes on the backand three years of gurapas besidesand
that was the end of it."

What are gurapas?asked Don Quixote.

Gurapas are galleys,answered the galley slavewho was a young
man of about four-and-twentyand said he was a native of Piedrahita.

Don Quixote asked the same question of the secondwho made no
replyso downcast and melancholy was he; but the first answered for
himand saidHe, sir, goes as a canary, I mean as a musician and
a singer.

What!said Don Quixotefor being musicians and singers are
people sent to the galleys too?

Yes, sir,answered the galley slavefor there is nothing worse
than singing under suffering.

On the contrary, I have heard say,said Don Quixotethat he
who sings scares away his woes.

Here it is the reverse,said the galley slave; "for he who sings
once weeps all his life."

I do not understand it,said Don Quixote; but one of the guards
said to himSir, to sing under suffering means with the non sancta
fraternity to confess under torture; they put this sinner to the
torture and he confessed his crime, which was being a cuatrero, that
is a cattle-stealer, and on his confession they sentenced him to six
years in the galleys, besides two bundred lashes that he has already
had on the back; and he is always dejected and downcast because the
other thieves that were left behind and that march here ill-treat, and
snub, and jeer, and despise him for confessing and not having spirit
enough to say nay; for, say they, 'nay' has no more letters in it than
'yea,' and a culprit is well off when life or death with him depends
on his own tongue and not on that of witnesses or evidence; and to
my thinking they are not very far out.

And I think so too,answered Don Quixote; then passing on to the
third he asked him what he had asked the othersand the man
answered very readily and unconcernedlyI am going for five years to
their ladyships the gurapas for the want of ten ducats.

I will give twenty with pleasure to get you out of that trouble,
said Don Quixote.

That,said the galley slaveis like a man having money at sea
when he is dying of hunger and has no way of buying what he wants; I
say so because if at the right time I had had those twenty ducats that
your worship now offers me, I would have greased the notary's pen
and freshened up the attorney's wit with them, so that to-day I should
be in the middle of the plaza of the Zocodover at Toledo, and not on
this road coupled like a greyhound. But God is great; patience- there,
that's enough of it.

Don Quixote passed on to the fourtha man of venerable aspect
with a white beard falling below his breastwho on hearing himself
asked the reason of his being there began to weep without answering
a wordbut the fifth acted as his tongue and saidThis worthy man
is going to the galleys for four years, after having gone the rounds
in ceremony and on horseback.

That means,said Sancho Panzaas I take it, to have been
exposed to shame in public.

Just so,replied the galley slaveand the offence for which they
gave him that punishment was having been an ear-broker, nay
body-broker; I mean, in short, that this gentleman goes as a pimp, and
for having besides a certain touch of the sorcerer about him.

If that touch had not been thrown in,said Don Quixotebe

would not deserve, for mere pimping, to row in the galleys, but rather
to command and be admiral of them; for the office of pimp is no
ordinary one, being the office of persons of discretion, one very
necessary in a well-ordered state, and only to be exercised by persons
of good birth; nay, there ought to be an inspector and overseer of
them, as in other offices, and recognised number, as with the
brokers on change; in this way many of the evils would be avoided
which are caused by this office and calling being in the hands of
stupid and ignorant people, such as women more or less silly, and
pages and jesters of little standing and experience, who on the most
urgent occasions, and when ingenuity of contrivance is needed, let the
crumbs freeze on the way to their mouths, and know not which is
their right hand. I should like to go farther, and give reasons to
show that it is advisable to choose those who are to hold so necessary
an office in the state, but this is not the fit place for it; some day
I will expound the matter to some one able to see to and rectify it;
all I say now is, that the additional fact of his being a sorcerer has
removed the sorrow it gave me to see these white hairs and this
venerable countenance in so painful a position on account of his being
a pimp; though I know well there are no sorceries in the world that
can move or compel the will as some simple folk fancy, for our will is
free, nor is there herb or charm that can force it. All that certain
silly women and quacks do is to turn men mad with potions and poisons,
pretending that they have power to cause love, for, as I say, it is an
impossibility to compel the will.

It is true,said the good old manand indeed, sir, as far as the
charge of sorcery goes I was not guilty; as to that of being a pimp
I cannot deny it; but I never thought I was doing any harm by it,
for my only object was that all the world should enjoy itself and live
in peace and quiet, without quarrels or troubles; but my good
intentions were unavailing to save me from going where I never
expect to come back from, with this weight of years upon me and a
urinary ailment that never gives me a moment's ease;and again he
fell to weeping as beforeand such compassion did Sancho feel for him
that he took out a real of four from his bosom and gave it to him in

Don Quixote went on and asked another what his crime wasand the
man answered with no less but rather much more sprightliness than
the last one.

I am here because I carried the joke too far with a couple of
cousins of mine, and with a couple of other cousins who were none of
mine; in short, I carried the joke so far with them all that it
ended in such a complicated increase of kindred that no accountant
could make it clear: it was all proved against me, I got no favour,
I had no money, I was near having my neck stretched, they sentenced me
to the galleys for six years, I accepted my fate, it is the punishment
of my fault; I am a young man; let life only last, and with that all
will come right. If you, sir, have anything wherewith to help the
poor, God will repay it to you in heaven, and we on earth will take
care in our petitions to him to pray for the life and health of your
worship, that they may be as long and as good as your amiable
appearance deserves.

This one was in the dress of a studentand one of the guards said
he was a great talker and a very elegant Latin scholar.

Behind all these there came a man of thirtya very personable
fellowexcept that when he lookedhis eyes turned in a little one
towards the other. He was bound differently from the restfor he
had to his leg a chain so long that it was wound all round his body
and two rings on his neckone attached to the chainthe other to

what they call a "keep-friend" or "friend's foot from which hung two
irons reaching to his waist with two manacles fixed to them in which
his hands were secured by a big padlock, so that he could neither
raise his hands to his mouth nor lower his head to his hands. Don
Quixote asked why this man carried so many more chains than the
others. The guard replied that it was because he alone had committed
more crimes than all the rest put together, and was so daring and such
a villain, that though they marched him in that fashion they did not
feel sure of him, but were in dread of his making his escape.

What crimes can he have committed said Don Quixote, if they have
not deserved a heavier punishment than being sent to the galleys?"

He goes for ten years,replied the guardwhich is the same thing
as civil death, and all that need be said is that this good fellow
is the famous Gines de Pasamonte, otherwise called Ginesillo de

Gently, senor commissary,said the galley slave at thislet us
have no fixing of names or surnames; my name is Gines, not
Ginesillo, and my family name is Pasamonte, not Parapilla as you
say; let each one mind his own business, and he will be doing enough.

Speak with less impertinence, master thief of extra measure,
replied the commissaryif you don't want me to make you hold your
tongue in spite of your teeth.

It is easy to see,returned the galley slavethat man goes as
God pleases, but some one shall know some day whether I am called
Ginesillo de Parapilla or not.

Don't they call you so, you liar?said the guard.

They do,returned Ginesbut I will make them give over calling
me so, or I will be shaved, where, I only say behind my teeth. If you,
sir, have anything to give us, give it to us at once, and God speed
you, for you are becoming tiresome with all this inquisitiveness about
the lives of others; if you want to know about mine, let me tell you I
am Gines de Pasamonte, whose life is written by these fingers.

He says true,said the commissaryfor he has himself written his
story as grand as you please, and has left the book in the prison in
pawn for two hundred reals.

And I mean to take it out of pawn,said Ginesthough it were
in for two hundred ducats.

Is it so good?said Don Quixote.

So good is it,replied Ginesthat a fig for 'Lazarillo de
Tormes,' and all of that kind that have been written, or shall be
written compared with it: all I will say about it is that it deals
with facts, and facts so neat and diverting that no lies could match

And how is the book entitled?asked Don Quixote.

The 'Life of Gines de Pasamonte,'replied the subject of it.

And is it finished?asked Don Quixote.

How can it be finished,said the otherwhen my life is not yet
finished? All that is written is from my birth down to the point
when they sent me to the galleys this last time.

Then you have been there before?said Don Quixote.

In the service of God and the king I have been there for four years
before now, and I know by this time what the biscuit and courbash
are like,replied Gines; "and it is no great grievance to me to go
back to themfor there I shall have time to finish my book; I have
still many things left to sayand in the galleys of Spain there is
more than enough leisure; though I do not want much for what I have to
writefor I have it by heart."

You seem a clever fellow,said Don Quixote.

And an unfortunate one,replied Ginesfor misfortune always
persecutes good wit.

It persecutes rogues,said the commissary.

I told you already to go gently, master commissary,said
Pasamonte; "their lordships yonder never gave you that staff to
ill-treat us wretches herebut to conduct and take us where his
majesty orders you; if notby the life of-never mind-; it may be that
some day the stains made in the inn will come out in the scouring; let
everyone hold his tongue and behave well and speak better; and now let
us march onfor we have had quite enough of this entertainment."

The commissary lifted his staff to strike Pasamonte in return for
his threatsbut Don Quixote came between themand begged him not
to ill-use himas it was not too much to allow one who had his
hands tied to have his tongue a trifle free; and turning to the
whole chain of them he said:

From all you have told me, dear brethren, make out clearly that
though they have punished you for your faults, the punishments you are
about to endure do not give you much pleasure, and that you go to them
very much against the grain and against your will, and that perhaps
this one's want of courage under torture, that one's want of money,
the other's want of advocacy, and lastly the perverted judgment of the
judge may have been the cause of your ruin and of your failure to
obtain the justice you had on your side. All which presents itself now
to my mind, urging, persuading, and even compelling me to
demonstrate in your case the purpose for which Heaven sent me into the
world and caused me to make profession of the order of chivalry to
which I belong, and the vow I took therein to give aid to those in
need and under the oppression of the strong. But as I know that it
is a mark of prudence not to do by foul means what may be done by
fair, I will ask these gentlemen, the guards and commissary, to be
so good as to release you and let you go in peace, as there will be no
lack of others to serve the king under more favourable
circumstances; for it seems to me a hard case to make slaves of
those whom God and nature have made free. Moreover, sirs of the
guard,added Don Quixotethese poor fellows have done nothing to
you; let each answer for his own sins yonder; there is a God in Heaven
who will not forget to punish the wicked or reward the good; and it is
not fitting that honest men should be the instruments of punishment to
others, they being therein no way concerned. This request I make
thus gently and quietly, that, if you comply with it, I may have
reason for thanking you; and, if you will not voluntarily, this
lance and sword together with the might of my arm shall compel you
to comply with it by force.

Nice nonsense!said the commissary; "a fine piece of pleasantry he
has come out with at last! He wants us to let the king's prisoners go
as if we had any authority to release themor he to order us to do

so! Go your waysirand good luck to you; put that basin straight
that you've got on your headand don't go looking for three feet on a

'Tis you that are the catratand rascal replied Don Quixote,
and acting on the word he fell upon him so suddenly that without
giving him time to defend himself he brought him to the ground
sorely wounded with a lance-thrust; and lucky it was for him that it
was the one that had the musket. The other guards stood
thunderstruck and amazed at this unexpected event, but recovering
presence of mind, those on horseback seized their swords, and those on
foot their javelins, and attacked Don Quixote, who was waiting for
them with great calmness; and no doubt it would have gone badly with
him if the galley slaves, seeing the chance before them of
liberating themselves, had not effected it by contriving to break
the chain on which they were strung. Such was the confusion, that
the guards, now rushing at the galley slaves who were breaking
loose, now to attack Don Quixote who was waiting for them, did nothing
at all that was of any use. Sancho, on his part, gave a helping hand
to release Gines de Pasamonte, who was the first to leap forth upon
the plain free and unfettered, and who, attacking the prostrate
commissary, took from him his sword and the musket, with which, aiming
at one and levelling at another, he, without ever discharging it,
drove every one of the guards off the field, for they took to
flight, as well to escape Pasamonte's musket, as the showers of stones
the now released galley slaves were raining upon them. Sancho was
greatly grieved at the affair, because he anticipated that those who
had fled would report the matter to the Holy Brotherhood, who at the
summons of the alarm-bell would at once sally forth in quest of the
offenders; and he said so to his master, and entreated him to leave
the place at once, and go into hiding in the sierra that was close by.

That is all very well said Don Quixote, but I know what must
be done now;" and calling together all the galley slaveswho were now
running riotand had stripped the commissary to the skinhe
collected them round him to hear what he had to sayand addressed
them as follows: "To be grateful for benefits received is the part
of persons of good birthand one of the sins most offensive to God is
ingratitude; I say so becausesirsye have already seen by
manifest proof the benefit ye have received of me; in return for which
I desireand it is my good pleasure thatladen with that chain which
I have taken off your necksye at once set out and proceed to the
city of El Tobosoand there present yourselves before the lady
Dulcinea del Tobosoand say to her that her knighthe of the
Rueful Countenancesends to commend himself to her; and that ye
recount to her in full detail all the particulars of this notable
adventureup to the recovery of your longed-for liberty; and this
done ye may go where ye willand good fortune attend you."

Gines de Pasamonte made answer for allsayingThat which you,
sir, our deliverer, demand of us, is of all impossibilities the most
impossible to comply with, because we cannot go together along the
roads, but only singly and separate, and each one his own way,
endeavouring to hide ourselves in the bowels of the earth to escape
the Holy Brotherhood, which, no doubt, will come out in search of
us. What your worship may do, and fairly do, is to change this service
and tribute as regards the lady Dulcinea del Toboso for a certain
quantity of ave-marias and credos which we will say for your worship's
intention, and this is a condition that can be complied with by
night as by day, running or resting, in peace or in war; but to
imagine that we are going now to return to the flesh-pots of Egypt,
I mean to take up our chain and set out for El Toboso, is to imagine
that it is now night, though it is not yet ten in the morning, and
to ask this of us is like asking pears of the elm tree.

Then by all that's good,said Don Quixote (now stirred to
wrath)Don son of a bitch, Don Ginesillo de Paropillo, or whatever
your name is, you will have to go yourself alone, with your tail
between your legs and the whole chain on your back.

Pasamontewho was anything but meek (being by this time
thoroughly convinced that Don Quixote was not quite right in his
head as he had committed such a vagary as to set them free)finding
himself abused in this fashiongave the wink to his companionsand
falling back they began to shower stones on Don Quixote at such a rate
that he was quite unable to protect himself with his bucklerand poor
Rocinante no more heeded the spur than if he had been made of brass.
Sancho planted himself behind his assand with him sheltered
himself from the hailstorm that poured on both of them. Don Quixote
was unable to shield himself so well but that more pebbles than I
could count struck him full on the body with such force that they
brought him to the ground; and the instant he fell the student pounced
upon himsnatched the basin from his headand with it struck three
or four blows on his shouldersand as many more on the ground
knocking it almost to pieces. They then stripped him of a jacket
that he wore over his armourand they would have stripped off his
stockings if his greaves had not prevented them. From Sancho they took
his coatleaving him in his shirt-sleeves; and dividing among
themselves the remaining spoils of the battlethey went each one
his own waymore solicitous about keeping clear of the Holy
Brotherhood they dreadedthan about burdening themselves with the
chainor going to present themselves before the lady Dulcinea del
Toboso. The ass and RocinanteSancho and Don Quixotewere all that
were left upon the spot; the ass with drooping headserious
shaking his ears from time to time as if he thought the storm of
stones that assailed them was not yet over; Rocinante stretched beside
his masterfor he too had been brought to the ground by a stone;
Sancho strippedand trembling with fear of the Holy Brotherhood;
and Don Quixote fuming to find himself so served by the very persons
for whom he had done so much.



Seeing himself served in this wayDon Quixote said to his squire
I have always heard it said, Sancho, that to do good to boors is to
throw water into the sea. If I had believed thy words, I should have
avoided this trouble; but it is done now, it is only to have
patience and take warning for the future.

Your worship will take warning as much as I am a Turk,returned
Sancho; "butas you say this mischief might have been avoided if
you had believed mebelieve me nowand a still greater one will be
avoided; for I tell you chivalry is of no account with the Holy
Brotherhoodand they don't care two maravedis for all the
knights-errant in the world; and I can tell you I fancy I hear their
arrows whistling past my ears this minute."

Thou art a coward by nature, Sancho,said Don Quixotebut lest
thou shouldst say I am obstinate, and that I never do as thou dost
advise, this once I will take thy advice, and withdraw out of reach of
that fury thou so dreadest; but it must be on one condition, that
never, in life or in death, thou art to say to anyone that I retired

or withdrew from this danger out of fear, but only in compliance
with thy entreaties; for if thou sayest otherwise thou wilt lie
therein, and from this time to that, and from that to this, I give
thee lie, and say thou liest and wilt lie every time thou thinkest
or sayest it; and answer me not again; for at the mere thought that
I am withdrawing or retiring from any danger, above all from this,
which does seem to carry some little shadow of fear with it, I am
ready to take my stand here and await alone, not only that Holy
Brotherhood you talk of and dread, but the brothers of the twelve
tribes of Israel, and the Seven Maccabees, and Castor and Pollux,
and all the brothers and brotherhoods in the world.

Senor,replied Sanchoto retire is not to flee, and there is
no wisdom in waiting when danger outweighs hope, and it is the part of
wise men to preserve themselves to-day for to-morrow, and not risk all
in one day; and let me tell you, though I am a clown and a boor, I
have got some notion of what they call safe conduct; so repent not
of having taken my advice, but mount Rocinante if you can, and if
not I will help you; and follow me, for my mother-wit tells me we have
more need of legs than hands just now.

Don Quixote mounted without replyingandSancho leading the way on
his assthey entered the side of the Sierra Morenawhich was close
byas it was Sancho's design to cross it entirely and come out
again at El Viso or Almodovar del Campoand hide for some days
among its crags so as to escape the search of the Brotherhood should
they come to look for them. He was encouraged in this by perceiving
that the stock of provisions carried by the ass had come safe out of
the fray with the galley slavesa circumstance that he regarded as
a miracleseeing how they pillaged and ransacked.

That night they reached the very heart of the Sierra Morenawhere
it seemed prudent to Sancho to pass the night and even some daysat
least as many as the stores he carried might lastand so they
encamped between two rocks and among some cork trees; but fatal
destinywhichaccording to the opinion of those who have not the
light of the true faithdirectsarrangesand settles everything
in its own wayso ordered it that Gines de Pasamontethe famous
knave and thief who by the virtue and madness of Don Quixote had
been released from the chaindriven by fear of the Holy
Brotherhoodwhich he had good reason to dreadresolved to take
hiding in the mountains; and his fate and fear led him to the same
spot to which Don Quixote and Sancho Panza had been led by theirs
just in time to recognise them and leave them to fall asleep: and as
the wicked are always ungratefuland necessity leads to evildoing
and immediate advantage overcomes all considerations of the future
Gineswho was neither grateful nor well-principledmade up his
mind to steal Sancho Panza's assnot troubling himself about
Rocinanteas being a prize that was no good either to pledge or sell.
While Sancho slept he stole his assand before day dawned he was
far out of reach.

Aurora made her appearance bringing gladness to the earth but
sadness to Sancho Panzafor he found that his Dapple was missingand
seeing himself bereft of him he began the saddest and most doleful
lament in the worldso loud that Don Quixote awoke at his
exclamations and heard him sayingO son of my bowels, born in my
very house, my children's plaything, my wife's joy, the envy of my
neighbours, relief of my burdens, and lastly, half supporter of
myself, for with the six-and-twenty maravedis thou didst earn me daily
I met half my charges.

Don Quixotewhen he heard the lament and learned the cause
consoled Sancho with the best arguments he couldentreating him to be

patientand promising to give him a letter of exchange ordering three
out of five ass-colts that he had at home to be given to him. Sancho
took comfort at thisdried his tearssuppressed his sobsand
returned thanks for the kindness shown him by Don Quixote. He on his
part was rejoiced to the heart on entering the mountainsas they
seemed to him to be just the place for the adventures he was in
quest of. They brought back to his memory the marvellous adventures
that had befallen knights-errant in like solitudes and wildsand he
went along reflecting on these thingsso absorbed and carried away by
them that he had no thought for anything else. Nor had Sancho any
other care (now that he fancied he was travelling in a safe quarter)
than to satisfy his appetite with such remains as were left of the
clerical spoilsand so he marched behind his master laden with what
Dapple used to carryemptying the sack and packing his paunchand so
long as he could go that wayhe would not have given a farthing to
meet with another adventure.

While so engaged he raised his eyes and saw that his master had
haltedand was trying with the point of his pike to lift some bulky
object that lay upon the groundon which he hastened to join him
and help him if it were needfuland reached him just as with the
point of the pike he was raising a saddle-pad with a valise attached
to ithalf or rather wholly rotten and torn; but so heavy were they
that Sancho had to help to take them upand his master directed him
to see what the valise contained. Sancho did so with great alacrity
and though the valise was secured by a chain and padlockfrom its
torn and rotten condition he was able to see its contentswhich
were four shirts of fine hollandand other articles of linen no
less curious than clean; and in a handkerchief he found a good lot
of gold crownsand as soon as he saw them he exclaimed:

Blessed be all Heaven for sending us an adventure that is good
for something!

Searching further he found a little memorandum book richly bound;
this Don Quixote asked of himtelling him to take the money and
keep it for himself. Sancho kissed his hands for the favourand
cleared the valise of its linenwhich he stowed away in the provision
sack. Considering the whole matterDon Quixote observed:

It seems to me, Sancho- and it is impossible it can be otherwisethat
some strayed traveller must have crossed this sierra and been
attacked and slain by footpads, who brought him to this remote spot to
bury him.

That cannot be,answered Sanchobecause if they had been robbers
they would not have left this money.

Thou art right,said Don Quixoteand I cannot guess or explain
what this may mean; but stay; let us see if in this memorandum book
there is anything written by which we may be able to trace out or
discover what we want to know.

He opened itand the first thing he found in itwritten roughly
but in a very good handwas a sonnetand reading it aloud that
Sancho might hear ithe found that it ran as follows:


Or Love is lacking in intelligence

Or to the height of cruelty attains

Or else it is my doom to suffer pains
Beyond the measure due to my offence.
But if Love be a Godit follows thence

That he knows alland certain it remains

No God loves cruelty; then who ordains
This penance that enthrals while it torments?
It were a falsehoodChloethee to name;

Such evil with such goodness cannot live;
And against Heaven I dare not charge the blame

I only know it is my fate to die.

To him who knows not whence his malady

A miracle alone a cure can give.

There is nothing to be learned from that rhyme,said Sancho
unless by that clue there's in it, one may draw out the ball of the
whole matter.

What clue is there?said Don Quixote.

I thought your worship spoke of a clue in it,said Sancho.

I only said Chloe,replied Don Quixote; "and that no doubtis the
name of the lady of whom the author of the sonnet complains; and
faithhe must be a tolerable poetor I know little of the craft."

Then your worship understands rhyming too?

And better than thou thinkest,replied Don Quixoteas thou shalt
see when thou carriest a letter written in verse from beginning to end
to my lady Dulcinea del Toboso, for I would have thee know, Sancho,
that all or most of the knights-errant in days of yore were great
troubadours and great musicians, for both of these accomplishments, or
more properly speaking gifts, are the peculiar property of
lovers-errant: true it is that the verses of the knights of old have
more spirit than neatness in them.

Read more, your worship,said Sanchoand you will find something
that will enlighten us.

Don Quixote turned the page and saidThis is prose and seems to be
a letter.

A correspondence letter, senor?

From the beginning it seems to be a love letter,replied Don

Then let your worship read it aloud,said Sanchofor I am very
fond of love matters.

With all my heart,said Don Quixoteand reading it aloud as
Sancho had requested himhe found it ran thus:

Thy false promise and my sure misforutne carry me to a place
whence the news of my death will reach thy ears before the words of my
complaint. Ungrateful onethou hast rejected me for one more wealthy
but not more worthy; but if virtue were esteemed wealth I should
neither envy the fortunes of others nor weep for misfortunes of my
own. What thy beauty raised up thy deeds have laid low; by it I
believed thee to be an angelby them I know thou art a woman. Peace
be with thee who hast sent war to meand Heaven grant that the deceit
of thy husband be ever hidden from theeso that thou repent not of
what thou hast doneand I reap not a revenge I would not have.

When he had finished the letterDon Quixote saidThere is less to

be gathered from this than from the verses, except that he who wrote
it is some rejected lover;and turning over nearly all the pages of
the book he found more verses and letterssome of which he could
readwhile others he could not; but they were all made up of
complaintslamentsmisgivingsdesires and aversionsfavours and
rejectionssome rapturoussome doleful. While Don Quixote examined
the bookSancho examined the valisenot leaving a corner in the
whole of it or in the pad that he did not searchpeer intoand
exploreor seam that he did not ripor tuft of wool that he did
not pick to pieceslest anything should escape for want of care and
pains; so keen was the covetousness excited in him by the discovery of
the crownswhich amounted to near a hundred; and though he found no
more bootyhe held the blanket flightsbalsam vomitsstake
benedictionscarriers' fisticuffsmissing alforjasstolen coatand
all the hungerthirstand weariness he had endured in the service of
his good mastercheap at the price; as he considered himself more
than fully indemnified for all by the payment he received in the
gift of the treasure-trove.

The Knight of the Rueful Countenance was still very anxious to
find out who the owner of the valise could beconjecturing from the
sonnet and letterfrom the money in goldand from the fineness of
the shirtsthat he must be some lover of distinction whom the scorn
and cruelty of his lady had driven to some desperate course; but as in
that uninhabited and rugged spot there was no one to be seen of whom
he could inquirehe saw nothing else for it but to push ontaking
whatever road Rocinante chose- which was where he could make his
way- firmly persuaded that among these wilds he could not fail to meet
some rare adventure. As he went alongthenoccupied with these
thoughtshe perceived on the summit of a height that rose before
their eyes a man who went springing from rock to rock and from tussock
to tussock with marvellous agility. As well as he could make out he
was uncladwith a thick black beardlong tangled hairand bare legs
and feethis thighs were covered by breeches apparently of tawny
velvet but so ragged that they showed his skin in several places. He
was bareheadedand notwithstanding the swiftness with which he passed
as has been describedthe Knight of the Rueful Countenance observed
and noted all these triflesand though he made the attempthe was
unable to follow himfor it was not granted to the feebleness of
Rocinante to make way over such rough groundhe beingmoreover
slow-paced and sluggish by nature. Don Quixote at once came to the
conclusion that this was the owner of the saddle-pad and of the
valiseand made up his mind to go in search of himeven though he
should have to wander a year in those mountains before he found him
and so he directed Sancho to take a short cut over one side of the
mountainwhile he himself went by the otherand perhaps by this
means they might light upon this man who had passed so quickly out
of their sight.

I could not do that,said Sanchofor when I separate from your
worship fear at once lays hold of me, and assails me with all sorts of
panics and fancies; and let what I now say be a notice that from
this time forth I am not going to stir a finger's width from your

It shall be so,said he of the Rueful Countenanceand I am
very glad that thou art willing to rely on my courage, which will
never fail thee, even though the soul in thy body fail thee; so come
on now behind me slowly as well as thou canst, and make lanterns of
thine eyes; let us make the circuit of this ridge; perhaps we shall
light upon this man that we saw, who no doubt is no other than the
owner of what we found.

To which Sancho made answerFar better would it be not to look for

him, for, if we find him, and he happens to be the owner of the money,
it is plain I must restore it; it would be better, therefore, that
without taking this needless trouble, I should keep possession of it
until in some other less meddlesome and officious way the real owner
may be discovered; and perhaps that will be when I shall have spent
it, and then the king will hold me harmless.

Thou art wrong there, Sancho,said Don Quixotefor now that we
have a suspicion who the owner is, and have him almost before us, we
are bound to seek him and make restitution; and if we do not see
him, the strong suspicion we have as to his being the owner makes us
as guilty as if he were so; and so, friend Sancho, let not our
search for him give thee any uneasiness, for if we find him it will
relieve mine.

And so saying he gave Rocinante the spurand Sancho followed him on
foot and loadedand after having partly made the circuit of the
mountain they found lying in a ravinedead and half devoured by
dogs and pecked by jackdawsa mule saddled and bridledall which
still further strengthened their suspicion that he who had fled was
the owner of the mule and the saddle-pad.

As they stood looking at it they heard a whistle like that of a
shepherd watching his flockand suddenly on their left there appeared
a great number of goats and behind them on the summit of the
mountain the goatherd in charge of thema man advanced in years.
Don Quixote called aloud to him and begged him to come down to where
they stood. He shouted in returnasking what had brought them to that
spotseldom or never trodden except by the feet of goatsor of the
wolves and other wild beasts that roamed around. Sancho in return bade
him come downand they would explain all to him.

The goatherd descendedand reaching the place where Don Quixote
stoodhe saidI will wager you are looking at that hack mule that
lies dead in the hollow there, and, faith, it has been lying there now
these six months; tell me, have you come upon its master about here?

We have come upon nobody,answered Don Quixotenor on anything
except a saddle-pad and a little valise that we found not far from

I found it too,said the goatherdbut I would not lift it nor go
near it for fear of some ill-luck or being charged with theft, for the
devil is crafty, and things rise up under one's feet to make one
fall without knowing why or wherefore.

That's exactly what I say,said Sancho; "I found it tooand I
would not go within a stone's throw of it; there I left itand
there it lies just as it wasfor I don't want a dog with a bell."

Tell me, good man,said Don Quixotedo you know who is the owner
of this property?

All I can tell you,said the goatherdis that about six months
ago, more or less, there arrived at a shepherd's hut three leagues,
perhaps, away from this, a youth of well-bred appearance and
manners, mounted on that same mule which lies dead here, and with
the same saddle-pad and valise which you say you found and did not
touch. He asked us what part of this sierra was the most rugged and
retired; we told him that it was where we now are; and so in truth
it is, for if you push on half a league farther, perhaps you will
not be able to find your way out; and I am wondering how you have
managed to come here, for there is no road or path that leads to
this spot. I say, then, that on hearing our answer the youth turned

about and made for the place we pointed out to him, leaving us all
charmed with his good looks, and wondering at his question and the
haste with which we saw him depart in the direction of the sierra; and
after that we saw him no more, until some days afterwards he crossed
the path of one of our shepherds, and without saying a word to him,
came up to him and gave him several cuffs and kicks, and then turned
to the ass with our provisions and took all the bread and cheese it
carried, and having done this made off back again into the sierra with
extraordinary swiftness. When some of us goatherds learned this we
went in search of him for about two days through the most remote
portion of this sierra, at the end of which we found him lodged in the
hollow of a large thick cork tree. He came out to meet us with great
gentleness, with his dress now torn and his face so disfigured and
burned by the sun, that we hardly recognised him but that his clothes,
though torn, convinced us, from the recollection we had of them,
that he was the person we were looking for. He saluted us courteously,
and in a few well-spoken words he told us not to wonder at seeing
him going about in this guise, as it was binding upon him in order
that he might work out a penance which for his many sins had been
imposed upon him. We asked him to tell us who he was, but we were
never able to find out from him: we begged of him too, when he was
in want of food, which he could not do without, to tell us where we
should find him, as we would bring it to him with all good-will and
readiness; or if this were not to his taste, at least to come and
ask it of us and not take it by force from the shepherds. He thanked
us for the offer, begged pardon for the late assault, and promised for
the future to ask it in God's name without offering violence to
anybody. As for fixed abode, he said he had no other than that which
chance offered wherever night might overtake him; and his words
ended in an outburst of weeping so bitter that we who listened to
him must have been very stones had we not joined him in it,
comparing what we saw of him the first time with what we saw now; for,
as I said, he was a graceful and gracious youth, and in his
courteous and polished language showed himself to be of good birth and
courtly breeding, and rustics as we were that listened to him, even to
our rusticity his gentle bearing sufficed to make it plain.

But in the midst of his conversation he stopped and became
silentkeeping his eyes fixed upon the ground for some timeduring
which we stood still waiting anxiously to see what would come of
this abstraction; and with no little pityfor from his behaviournow
staring at the ground with fixed gaze and eyes wide open without
moving an eyelidagain closing themcompressing his lips and raising
his eyebrowswe could perceive plainly that a fit of madness of
some kind had come upon him; and before long he showed that what we
imagined was the truthfor he arose in a fury from the ground where
he had thrown himselfand attacked the first he found near him with
such rage and fierceness that if we had not dragged him off himhe
would have beaten or bitten him to deathall the while exclaiming
'Oh faithless Fernandoherehere shalt thou pay the penalty of the
wrong thou hast done me; these hands shall tear out that heart of
thineabode and dwelling of all iniquitybut of deceit and fraud
above all; and to these he added other words all in effect
upbraiding this Fernando and charging him with treachery and

We forced him to release his hold with no little difficulty, and
without another word he left us, and rushing off plunged in among
these brakes and brambles, so as to make it impossible for us to
follow him; from this we suppose that madness comes upon him from time
to time, and that some one called Fernando must have done him a
wrong of a grievous nature such as the condition to which it had
brought him seemed to show. All this has been since then confirmed
on those occasions, and they have been many, on which he has crossed

our path, at one time to beg the shepherds to give him some of the
food they carry, at another to take it from them by force; for when
there is a fit of madness upon him, even though the shepherds offer it
freely, he will not accept it but snatches it from them by dint of
blows; but when he is in his senses he begs it for the love of God,
courteously and civilly, and receives it with many thanks and not a
few tears. And to tell you the truth, sirs,continued the goatherd
it was yesterday that we resolved, I and four of the lads, two of
them our servants, and the other two friends of mine, to go in
search of him until we find him, and when we do to take him, whether
by force or of his own consent, to the town of Almodovar, which is
eight leagues from this, and there strive to cure him (if indeed his
malady admits of a cure), or learn when he is in his senses who he is,
and if he has relatives to whom we may give notice of his
misfortune. This, sirs, is all I can say in answer to what you have
asked me; and be sure that the owner of the articles you found is he
whom you saw pass by with such nimbleness and so naked.

For Don Quixote had already described how he had seen the man go
bounding along the mountain sideand he was now filled with amazement
at what he heard from the goatherdand more eager than ever to
discover who the unhappy madman was; and in his heart he resolved
as he had done beforeto search for him all over the mountainnot
leaving a corner or cave unexamined until he had found him. But chance
arranged matters better than he expected or hopedfor at that very
momentin a gorge on the mountain that opened where they stoodthe
youth he wished to find made his appearancecoming along talking to
himself in a way that would have been unintelligible near at hand
much more at a distance. His garb was what has been describedsave
that as he drew nearDon Quixote perceived that a tattered doublet
which he wore was amber-tannedfrom which he concluded that one who
wore such garments could not be of very low rank.

Approaching themthe youth greeted them in a harsh and hoarse voice
but with great courtesy. Don Quixote returned his salutation with
equal politenessand dismounting from Rocinante advanced with
well-bred bearing and grace to embrace himand held him for some time
close in his arms as if he had known him for a long time. The other
whom we may call the Ragged One of the Sorry Countenanceas Don
Quixote was of the Ruefulafter submitting to the embrace pushed
him back a little andplacing his hands on Don Quixote's shoulders
stood gazing at him as if seeking to see whether he knew himnot less
amazedperhapsat the sight of the facefigureand armour of Don
Quixote than Don Quixote was at the sight of him. To be briefthe
first to speak after embracing was the Ragged Oneand he said what
will be told farther on.



The history relates that it was with the greatest attention Don
Quixote listened to the ragged knight of the Sierrawho began by

Of a surety, senor, whoever you are, for I know you not, I thank
you for the proofs of kindness and courtesy you have shown me, and
would I were in a condition to requite with something more than
good-will that which you have displayed towards me in the cordial
reception you have given me; but my fate does not afford me any
other means of returning kindnesses done me save the hearty desire

to repay them.

Mine,replied Don Quixoteis to be of service to you, so much so
that I had resolved not to quit these mountains until I had found you,
and learned of you whether there is any kind of relief to be found for
that sorrow under which from the strangeness of your life you seem
to labour; and to search for you with all possible diligence, if
search had been necessary. And if your misfortune should prove to be
one of those that refuse admission to any sort of consolation, it
was my purpose to join you in lamenting and mourning over it, so far
as I could; for it is still some comfort in misfortune to find one who
can feel for it. And if my good intentions deserve to be
acknowledged with any kind of courtesy, I entreat you, senor, by
that which I perceive you possess in so high a degree, and likewise
conjure you by whatever you love or have loved best in life, to tell
me who you are and the cause that has brought you to live or die in
these solitudes like a brute beast, dwelling among them in a manner so
foreign to your condition as your garb and appearance show. And I
swear,added Don Quixoteby the order of knighthood which I have
received, and by my vocation of knight-errant, if you gratify me in
this, to serve you with all the zeal my calling demands of me,
either in relieving your misfortune if it admits of relief, or in
joining you in lamenting it as I promised to do.

The Knight of the Thickethearing him of the Rueful Countenance
talk in this straindid nothing but stare at himand stare at him
againand again survey him from head to foot; and when he had
thoroughly examined himhe said to him:

If you have anything to give me to eat, for God's sake give it
me, and after I have eaten I will do all you ask in acknowledgment
of the goodwill you have displayed towards me.

Sancho from his sackand the goatherd from his pouchfurnished the
Ragged One with the means of appeasing his hungerand what they
gave him he ate like a half-witted beingso hastily that he took no
time between mouthfulsgorging rather than swallowing; and while he
ate neither he nor they who observed him uttered a word. As soon as he
had done he made signs to them to follow himwhich they didand he
led them to a green plot which lay a little farther off round the
corner of a rock. On reaching it he stretched himself upon the
grassand the others did the sameall keeping silenceuntil the
Ragged Onesettling himself in his placesaid:

If it is your wish, sirs, that I should disclose in a few words the
surpassing extent of my misfortunes, you must promise not to break the
thread of my sad story with any question or other interruption, for
the instant you do so the tale I tell will come to an end.

These words of the Ragged One reminded Don Quixote of the tale his
squire had told himwhen he failed to keep count of the goats that
had crossed the river and the story remained unfinished; but to return
to the Ragged Onehe went on to say:

I give you this warning because I wish to pass briefly over the
story of my misfortunes, for recalling them to memory only serves to
add fresh ones, and the less you question me the sooner shall I make
an end of the recital, though I shall not omit to relate anything of
importance in order fully to satisfy your curiosity.

Don Quixote gave the promise for himself and the othersand with
this assurance he began as follows:

My name is Cardenio, my birthplace one of the best cities of this

Andalusia, my family noble, my parents rich, my misfortune so great
that my parents must have wept and my family grieved over it without
being able by their wealth to lighten it; for the gifts of fortune can
do little to relieve reverses sent by Heaven. In that same country
there was a heaven in which love had placed all the glory I could
desire; such was the beauty of Luscinda, a damsel as noble and as rich
as I, but of happier fortunes, and of less firmness than was due to so
worthy a passion as mine. This Luscinda I loved, worshipped, and
adored from my earliest and tenderest years, and she loved me in all
the innocence and sincerity of childhood. Our parents were aware of
our feelings, and were not sorry to perceive them, for they saw
clearly that as they ripened they must lead at last to a marriage
between us, a thing that seemed almost prearranged by the equality
of our families and wealth. We grew up, and with our growth grew the
love between us, so that the father of Luscinda felt bound for
propriety's sake to refuse me admission to his house, in this
perhaps imitating the parents of that Thisbe so celebrated by the
poets, and this refusal but added love to love and flame to flame; for
though they enforced silence upon our tongues they could not impose it
upon our pens, which can make known the heart's secrets to a loved one
more freely than tongues; for many a time the presence of the object
of love shakes the firmest will and strikes dumb the boldest tongue.
Ah heavens! how many letters did I write her, and how many dainty
modest replies did I receive! how many ditties and love-songs did I
compose in which my heart declared and made known its feelings,
described its ardent longings, revelled in its recollections and
dallied with its desires! At length growing impatient and feeling my
heart languishing with longing to see her, I resolved to put into
execution and carry out what seemed to me the best mode of winning
my desired and merited reward, to ask her of her father for my
lawful wife, which I did. To this his answer was that he thanked me
for the disposition I showed to do honour to him and to regard
myself as honoured by the bestowal of his treasure; but that as my
father was alive it was his by right to make this demand, for if it
were not in accordance with his full will and pleasure, Luscinda was
not to be taken or given by stealth. I thanked him for his kindness,
reflecting that there was reason in what he said, and that my father
would assent to it as soon as I should tell him, and with that view
I went the very same instant to let him know what my desires were.
When I entered the room where he was I found him with an open letter
in his hand, which, before I could utter a word, he gave me, saying,
'By this letter thou wilt see, Cardenio, the disposition the Duke
Ricardo has to serve thee.' This Duke Ricardo, as you, sirs,
probably know already, is a grandee of Spain who has his seat in the
best part of this Andalusia. I took and read the letter, which was
couched in terms so flattering that even I myself felt it would be
wrong in my father not to comply with the request the duke made in it,
which was that he would send me immediately to him, as he wished me to
become the companion, not servant, of his eldest son, and would take
upon himself the charge of placing me in a position corresponding to
the esteem in which he held me. On reading the letter my voice
failed me, and still more when I heard my father say, 'Two days
hence thou wilt depart, Cardenio, in accordance with the duke's
wish, and give thanks to God who is opening a road to thee by which
thou mayest attain what I know thou dost deserve; and to these words
he added others of fatherly counsel. The time for my departure
arrived; I spoke one night to Luscinda, I told her all that had
occurred, as I did also to her father, entreating him to allow some
delay, and to defer the disposal of her hand until I should see what
the Duke Ricardo sought of me: he gave me the promise, and she
confirmed it with vows and swoonings unnumbered. Finally, I
presented myself to the duke, and was received and treated by him so
kindly that very soon envy began to do its work, the old servants
growing envious of me, and regarding the duke's inclination to show me

favour as an injury to themselves. But the one to whom my arrival gave
the greatest pleasure was the duke's second son, Fernando by name, a
gallant youth, of noble, generous, and amorous disposition, who very
soon made so intimate a friend of me that it was remarked by
everybody; for though the elder was attached to me, and showed me
kindness, he did not carry his affectionate treatment to the same
length as Don Fernando. It so happened, then, that as between
friends no secret remains unshared, and as the favour I enjoyed with
Don Fernando had grown into friendship, he made all his thoughts known
to me, and in particular a love affair which troubled his mind a
little. He was deeply in love with a peasant girl, a vassal of his
father's, the daughter of wealthy parents, and herself so beautiful,
modest, discreet, and virtuous, that no one who knew her was able to
decide in which of these respects she was most highly gifted or most
excelled. The attractions of the fair peasant raised the passion of
Don Fernando to such a point that, in order to gain his object and
overcome her virtuous resolutions, he determined to pledge his word to
her to become her husband, for to attempt it in any other way was to
attempt an impossibility. Bound to him as I was by friendship, I
strove by the best arguments and the most forcible examples I could
think of to restrain and dissuade him from such a course; but
perceiving I produced no effect I resolved to make the Duke Ricardo,
his father, acquainted with the matter; but Don Fernando, being
sharp-witted and shrewd, foresaw and apprehended this, perceiving that
by my duty as a good servant I was bound not to keep concealed a thing
so much opposed to the honour of my lord the duke; and so, to
mislead and deceive me, he told me he could find no better way of
effacing from his mind the beauty that so enslaved him than by
absenting himself for some months, and that he wished the absence to
be effected by our going, both of us, to my father's house under the
pretence, which he would make to the duke, of going to see and buy
some fine horses that there were in my city, which produces the best
in the world. When I heard him say so, even if his resolution had
not been so good a one I should have hailed it as one of the
happiest that could be imagined, prompted by my affection, seeing what
a favourable chance and opportunity it offered me of returning to
see my Luscinda. With this thought and wish I commended his idea and
encouraged his design, advising him to put it into execution as
quickly as possible, as, in truth, absence produced its effect in
spite of the most deeply rooted feelings. But, as afterwards appeared,
when he said this to me he had already enjoyed the peasant girl
under the title of husband, and was waiting for an opportunity of
making it known with safety to himself, being in dread of what his
father the duke would do when he came to know of his folly. It
happened, then, that as with young men love is for the most part
nothing more than appetite, which, as its final object is enjoyment,
comes to an end on obtaining it, and that which seemed to be love
takes to flight, as it cannot pass the limit fixed by nature, which
fixes no limit to true love- what I mean is that after Don Fernando
had enjoyed this peasant girl his passion subsided and his eagerness
cooled, and if at first he feigned a wish to absent himself in order
to cure his love, he was now in reality anxious to go to avoid keeping
his promise.

The duke gave him permissionand ordered me to accompany him; we
arrived at my cityand my father gave him the reception due to his
rank; I saw Luscinda without delayandthough it had not been dead
or deadenedmy love gathered fresh life. To my sorrow I told the
story of it to Don Fernandofor I thought that in virtue of the great
friendship he bore me I was bound to conceal nothing from him. I
extolled her beautyher gaietyher witso warmlythat my praises
excited in him a desire to see a damsel adorned by such attractions.
To my misfortune I yielded to itshowing her to him one night by
the light of a taper at a window where we used to talk to one another.

As she appeared to him in her dressing-gownshe drove all the
beauties he had seen until then out of his recollection; speech failed
himhis head turnedhe was spell-boundand in the end love-smitten
as you will see in the course of the story of my misfortune; and to
inflame still further his passionwhich he hid from me and revealed
to Heaven aloneit so happened that one day he found a note of hers
entreating me to demand her of her father in marriageso delicateso
modestand so tenderthat on reading it he told me that in
Luscinda alone were combined all the charms of beauty and
understanding that were distributed among all the other women in the
world. It is trueand I own it nowthat though I knew what good
cause Don Fernando had to praise Luscindait gave me uneasiness to
hear these praises from his mouthand I began to fearand with
reason to feel distrust of himfor there was no moment when he was
not ready to talk of Luscindaand he would start the subject
himself even though he dragged it in unseasonablya circumstance that
aroused in me a certain amount of jealousy; not that I feared any
change in the constancy or faith of Luscinda; but still my fate led me
to forebode what she assured me against. Don Fernando contrived always
to read the letters I sent to Luscinda and her answers to meunder
the pretence that he enjoyed the wit and sense of both. It so
happenedthenthat Luscinda having begged of me a book of chivalry
to readone that she was very fond ofAmadis of Gaul-"

Don Quixote no sooner heard a book of chivalry mentionedthan he

Had your worship told me at the beginning of your story that the
Lady Luscinda was fond of books of chivalry, no other laudation
would have been requisite to impress upon me the superiority of her
understanding, for it could not have been of the excellence you
describe had a taste for such delightful reading been wanting; so,
as far as I am concerned, you need waste no more words in describing
her beauty, worth, and intelligence; for, on merely hearing what her
taste was, I declare her to be the most beautiful and the most
intelligent woman in the world; and I wish your worship had, along
with Amadis of Gaul, sent her the worthy Don Rugel of Greece, for I
know the Lady Luscinda would greatly relish Daraida and Garaya, and
the shrewd sayings of the shepherd Darinel, and the admirable verses
of his bucolics, sung and delivered by him with such sprightliness,
wit, and ease; but a time may come when this omission can be remedied,
and to rectify it nothing more is needed than for your worship to be
so good as to come with me to my village, for there I can give you
more than three hundred books which are the delight of my soul and the
entertainment of my life;- though it occurs to me that I have not
got one of them now, thanks to the spite of wicked and envious
enchanters;- but pardon me for having broken the promise we made not
to interrupt your discourse; for when I hear chivalry or
knights-errant mentioned, I can no more help talking about them than
the rays of the sun can help giving heat, or those of the moon
moisture; pardon me, therefore, and proceed, for that is more to the
purpose now.

While Don Quixote was saying thisCardenio allowed his head to fall
upon his breastand seemed plunged in deep thought; and though
twice Don Quixote bade him go on with his storyhe neither looked
up nor uttered a word in reply; but after some time he raised his head
and saidI cannot get rid of the idea, nor will anyone in the
world remove it, or make me think otherwise -and he would be a
blockhead who would hold or believe anything else than that that
arrant knave Master Elisabad made free with Queen Madasima.

That is not true, by all that's good,said Don Quixote in high
wrathturning upon him angrilyas his way was; "and it is a very

great slanderor rather villainy. Queen Madasima was a very
illustrious ladyand it is not to be supposed that so exalted a
princess would have made free with a quack; and whoever maintains
the contrary lies like a great scoundreland I will give him to
know iton foot or on horsebackarmed or unarmedby night or by
dayor as he likes best."

Cardenio was looking at him steadilyand his mad fit having now
come upon himhe had no disposition to go on with his storynor
would Don Quixote have listened to itso much had what he had heard
about Madasima disgusted him. Strange to sayhe stood up for her as
if she were in earnest his veritable born lady; to such a pass had his
unholy books brought him. Cardeniothenbeingas I saidnow mad
when he heard himself given the lieand called a scoundrel and
other insulting namesnot relishing the jestsnatched up a stone
that he found near himand with it delivered such a blow on Don
Quixote's breast that he laid him on his back. Sancho Panzaseeing
his master treated in this fashionattacked the madman with his
closed fist; but the Ragged One received him in such a way that with a
blow of his fist he stretched him at his feetand then mounting
upon him crushed his ribs to his own satisfaction; the goatherdwho
came to the rescueshared the same fate; and having beaten and
pummelled them all he left them and quietly withdrew to his
hiding-place on the mountain. Sancho roseand with the rage he felt
at finding himself so belaboured without deserving itran to take
vengeance on the goatherdaccusing him of not giving them warning
that this man was at times taken with a mad fitfor if they had known
it they would have been on their guard to protect themselves. The
goatherd replied that he had said soand that if he had not heard
himthat was no fault of his. Sancho retortedand the goatherd
rejoinedand the altercation ended in their seizing each other by the
beardand exchanging such fisticuffs that if Don Quixote had not made
peace between themthey would have knocked one another to pieces.

Leave me alone, Sir Knight of the Rueful Countenance,said Sancho
grappling with the goatherdfor of this fellow, who is a clown
like myself, and no dubbed knight, I can safely take satisfaction
for the affront he has offered me, fighting with him hand to hand like
an honest man.

That is true,said Don Quixotebut I know that he is not to
blame for what has happened.

With this he pacified themand again asked the goatherd if it would
be possible to find Cardenioas he felt the greatest anxiety to
know the end of his story. The goatherd told himas he had told him
beforethat there was no knowing of a certainty where his lair was;
but that if he wandered about much in that neighbourhood he could
not fail to fall in with him either in or out of his senses.



Don Quixote took leave of the goatherdand once more mounting
Rocinante bade Sancho follow himwhich he having no assdid very
discontentedly. They proceeded slowlymaking their way into the
most rugged part of the mountainSancho all the while dying to have a
talk with his masterand longing for him to beginso that there

should be no breach of the injunction laid upon him; but unable to
keep silence so long he said to him:

Senor Don Quixote, give me your worship's blessing and dismissal,
for I'd like to go home at once to my wife and children with whom I
can at any rate talk and converse as much as I like; for to want me to
go through these solitudes day and night and not speak to you when I
have a mind is burying me alive. If luck would have it that animals
spoke as they did in the days of Guisopete, it would not be so bad,
because I could talk to Rocinante about whatever came into my head,
and so put up with my ill-fortune; but it is a hard case, and not to
be borne with patience, to go seeking adventures all one's life and
get nothing but kicks and blanketings, brickbats and punches, and with
all this to have to sew up one's mouth without daring to say what is
in one's heart, just as if one were dumb.

I understand thee, Sancho,replied Don Quixote; "thou art dying to
have the interdict I placed upon thy tongue removed; consider it
removedand say what thou wilt while we are wandering in these

So be it,said Sancho; "let me speak nowfor God knows what
will happen by-and-by; and to take advantage of the permit at once
I askwhat made your worship stand up so for that Queen Majimasa
or whatever her name isor what did it matter whether that abbot
was a friend of hers or not? for if your worship had let that pass
-and you were not a judge in the matter- it is my belief the madman
would have gone on with his storyand the blow of the stoneand
the kicksand more than half a dozen cuffs would have been escaped."

In faith, Sancho,answered Don Quixoteif thou knewest as I do
what an honourable and illustrious lady Queen Madasima was, I know
thou wouldst say I had great patience that I did not break in pieces
the mouth that uttered such blasphemies, for a very great blasphemy it
is to say or imagine that a queen has made free with a surgeon. The
truth of the story is that that Master Elisabad whom the madman
mentioned was a man of great prudence and sound judgment, and served
as governor and physician to the queen, but to suppose that she was
his mistress is nonsense deserving very severe punishment; and as a
proof that Cardenio did not know what he was saying, remember when
he said it he was out of his wits.

That is what I say,said Sancho; "there was no occasion for
minding the words of a madman; for if good luck had not helped your
worshipand he had sent that stone at your head instead of at your
breasta fine way we should have been in for standing up for my
lady yonderGod confound her! And thenwould not Cardenio have
gone free as a madman?"

Against men in their senses or against madmen,said Don Quixote
every knight-errant is bound to stand up for the honour of women,
whoever they may be, much more for queens of such high degree and
dignity as Queen Madasima, for whom I have a particular regard on
account of her amiable qualities; for, besides being extremely
beautiful, she was very wise, and very patient under her
misfortunes, of which she had many; and the counsel and society of the
Master Elisabad were a great help and support to her in enduring her
afflictions with wisdom and resignation; hence the ignorant and
ill-disposed vulgar took occasion to say and think that she was his
mistress; and they lie, I say it once more, and will lie two hundred
times more, all who think and say so.

I neither say nor think so,said Sancho; "let them look to it;
with their bread let them eat it; they have rendered account to God

whether they misbehaved or not; I come from my vineyardI know
nothing; I am not fond of prying into other men's lives; he who buys
and lies feels it in his purse; moreovernaked was I bornnaked I
find myselfI neither lose nor gain; but if they didwhat is that to
me? many think there are flitches where there are no hooks; but who
can put gates to the open plain? moreover they said of God-"

God bless me,said Don Quixotewhat a set of absurdities thou
art stringing together! What has what we are talking about got to do
with the proverbs thou art threading one after the other? for God's
sake hold thy tongue, Sancho, and henceforward keep to prodding thy
ass and don't meddle in what does not concern thee; and understand
with all thy five senses that everything I have done, am doing, or
shall do, is well founded on reason and in conformity with the rules
of chivalry, for I understand them better than all the world that
profess them.

Senor,replied Sanchois it a good rule of chivalry that we
should go astray through these mountains without path or road, looking
for a madman who when he is found will perhaps take a fancy to
finish what he began, not his story, but your worship's head and my
ribs, and end by breaking them altogether for us?

Peace, I say again, Sancho,said Don Quixotefor let me tell
thee it is not so much the desire of finding that madman that leads me
into these regions as that which I have of performing among them an
achievement wherewith I shall win eternal name and fame throughout the
known world; and it shall be such that I shall thereby set the seal on
all that can make a knight-errant perfect and famous.

And is it very perilous, this achievement?

No,replied he of the Rueful Countenance; "though it may be in the
dice that we may throw deuce-ace instead of sixes; but all will depend
on thy diligence."

On my diligence!said Sancho.

Yes,said Don Quixotefor if thou dost return soon from the
place where I mean to send thee, my penance will be soon over, and
my glory will soon begin. But as it is not right to keep thee any
longer in suspense, waiting to see what comes of my words, I would
have thee know, Sancho, that the famous Amadis of Gaul was one of
the most perfect knights-errant- I am wrong to say he was one; he
stood alone, the first, the only one, the lord of all that were in the
world in his time. A fig for Don Belianis, and for all who say he
equalled him in any respect, for, my oath upon it, they are
deceiving themselves! I say, too, that when a painter desires to
become famous in his art he endeavours to copy the originals of the
rarest painters that he knows; and the same rule holds good for all
the most important crafts and callings that serve to adorn a state;
thus must he who would be esteemed prudent and patient imitate
Ulysses, in whose person and labours Homer presents to us a lively
picture of prudence and patience; as Virgil, too, shows us in the
person of AEneas the virtue of a pious son and the sagacity of a brave
and skilful captain; not representing or describing them as they were,
but as they ought to be, so as to leave the example of their virtues
to posterity. In the same way Amadis was the polestar, day-star, sun
of valiant and devoted knights, whom all we who fight under the banner
of love and chivalry are bound to imitate. This, then, being so, I
consider, friend Sancho, that the knight-errant who shall imitate
him most closely will come nearest to reaching the perfection of
chivalry. Now one of the instances in which this knight most
conspicuously showed his prudence, worth, valour, endurance,

fortitude, and love, was when he withdrew, rejected by the Lady
Oriana, to do penance upon the Pena Pobre, changing his name into that
of Beltenebros, a name assuredly significant and appropriate to the
life which he had voluntarily adopted. So, as it is easier for me to
imitate him in this than in cleaving giants asunder, cutting off
serpents' heads, slaying dragons, routing armies, destroying fleets,
and breaking enchantments, and as this place is so well suited for a
similar purpose, I must not allow the opportunity to escape which
now so conveniently offers me its forelock.

What is it in reality,said Sanchothat your worship means to do
in such an out-of-the-way place as this?

Have I not told thee,answered Don Quixotethat I mean to
imitate Amadis here, playing the victim of despair, the madman, the
maniac, so as at the same time to imitate the valiant Don Roland, when
at the fountain he had evidence of the fair Angelica having
disgraced herself with Medoro and through grief thereat went mad,
and plucked up trees, troubled the waters of the clear springs, slew
destroyed flocks, burned down huts, levelled houses, dragged mares
after him, and perpetrated a hundred thousand other outrages worthy of
everlasting renown and record? And though I have no intention of
imitating Roland, or Orlando, or Rotolando (for he went by all these
names), step by step in all the mad things he did, said, and
thought, I will make a rough copy to the best of my power of all
that seems to me most essential; but perhaps I shall content myself
with the simple imitation of Amadis, who without giving way to any
mischievous madness but merely to tears and sorrow, gained as much
fame as the most famous.

It seems to me,said Sanchothat the knights who behaved in this
way had provocation and cause for those follies and penances; but what
cause has your worship for going mad? What lady has rejected you, or
what evidence have you found to prove that the lady Dulcinea del
Toboso has been trifling with Moor or Christian?

There is the point,replied Don Quixoteand that is the beauty
of this business of mine; no thanks to a knight-errant for going mad
when he has cause; the thing is to turn crazy without any provocation,
and let my lady know, if I do this in the dry, what I would do in
the moist; moreover I have abundant cause in the long separation I
have endured from my lady till death, Dulcinea del Toboso; for as thou
didst hear that shepherd Ambrosio say the other day, in absence all
ills are felt and feared; and so, friend Sancho, waste no time in
advising me against so rare, so happy, and so unheard-of an imitation;
mad I am, and mad I must be until thou returnest with the answer to
a letter that I mean to send by thee to my lady Dulcinea; and if it be
such as my constancy deserves, my insanity and penance will come to an
end; and if it be to the opposite effect, I shall become mad in
earnest, and, being so, I shall suffer no more; thus in whatever way
she may answer I shall escape from the struggle and affliction in
which thou wilt leave me, enjoying in my senses the boon thou
bearest me, or as a madman not feeling the evil thou bringest me.
But tell me, Sancho, hast thou got Mambrino's helmet safe? for I saw
thee take it up from the ground when that ungrateful wretch tried to
break it in pieces but could not, by which the fineness of its
temper may be seen.

To which Sancho made answerBy the living God, Sir Knight of the
Rueful Countenance, I cannot endure or bear with patience some of
the things that your worship says; and from them I begin to suspect
that all you tell me about chivalry, and winning kingdoms and empires,
and giving islands, and bestowing other rewards and dignities after
the custom of knights-errant, must be all made up of wind and lies,

and all pigments or figments, or whatever we may call them; for what
would anyone think that heard your worship calling a barber's basin
Mambrino's helmet without ever seeing the mistake all this time, but
that one who says and maintains such things must have his brains
addled? I have the basin in my sack all dinted, and I am taking it
home to have it mended, to trim my beard in it, if, by God's grace,
I am allowed to see my wife and children some day or other.

Look here, Sancho,said Don Quixoteby him thou didst swear by
just now I swear thou hast the most limited understanding that any
squire in the world has or ever had. Is it possible that all this time
thou hast been going about with me thou hast never found out that
all things belonging to knights-errant seem to be illusions and
nonsense and ravings, and to go always by contraries? And not
because it really is so, but because there is always a swarm of
enchanters in attendance upon us that change and alter everything with
us, and turn things as they please, and according as they are disposed
to aid or destroy us; thus what seems to thee a barber's basin seems
to me Mambrino's helmet, and to another it will seem something else;
and rare foresight it was in the sage who is on my side to make what
is really and truly Mambrine's helmet seem a basin to everybody,
for, being held in such estimation as it is, all the world would
pursue me to rob me of it; but when they see it is only a barber's
basin they do not take the trouble to obtain it; as was plainly
shown by him who tried to break it, and left it on the ground
without taking it, for, by my faith, had he known it he would never
have left it behind. Keep it safe, my friend, for just now I have no
need of it; indeed, I shall have to take off all this armour and
remain as naked as I was born, if I have a mind to follow Roland
rather than Amadis in my penance.

Thus talking they reached the foot of a high mountain which stood
like an isolated peak among the others that surrounded it. Past its
base there flowed a gentle brookall around it spread a meadow so
green and luxuriant that it was a delight to the eyes to look upon it
and forest trees in abundanceand shrubs and flowersadded to the
charms of the spot. Upon this place the Knight of the Rueful
Countenance fixed his choice for the performance of his penanceand
as he beheld it exclaimed in a loud voice as though he were out of his

This is the place, oh, ye heavens, that I select and choose for
bewailing the misfortune in which ye yourselves have plunged me:
this is the spot where the overflowings of mine eyes shall swell the
waters of yon little brook, and my deep and endless sighs shall stir
unceasingly the leaves of these mountain trees, in testimony and token
of the pain my persecuted heart is suffering. Oh, ye rural deities,
whoever ye be that haunt this lone spot, give ear to the complaint
of a wretched lover whom long absence and brooding jealousy have
driven to bewail his fate among these wilds and complain of the hard
heart of that fair and ungrateful one, the end and limit of all
human beauty! Oh, ye wood nymphs and dryads, that dwell in the
thickets of the forest, so may the nimble wanton satyrs by whom ye are
vainly wooed never disturb your sweet repose, help me to lament my
hard fate or at least weary not at listening to it! Oh, Dulcinea del
Toboso, day of my night, glory of my pain, guide of my path, star of
my fortune, so may Heaven grant thee in full all thou seekest of it,
bethink thee of the place and condition to which absence from thee has
brought me, and make that return in kindness that is due to my
fidelity! Oh, lonely trees, that from this day forward shall bear me
company in my solitude, give me some sign by the gentle movement of
your boughs that my presence is not distasteful to you! Oh, thou, my
squire, pleasant companion in my prosperous and adverse fortunes,
fix well in thy memory what thou shalt see me do here, so that thou

mayest relate and report it to the sole cause of all,and so saying
he dismounted from Rocinanteand in an instant relieved him of saddle
and bridleand giving him a slap on the croupsaidHe gives thee
freedom who is bereft of it himself, oh steed as excellent in deed
as thou art unfortunate in thy lot; begone where thou wilt, for thou
bearest written on thy forehead that neither Astolfo's hippogriff, nor
the famed Frontino that cost Bradamante so dear, could equal thee in

Seeing this Sancho saidGood luck to him who has saved us the
trouble of stripping the pack-saddle off Dapple! By my faith he
would not have gone without a slap on the croup and something said
in his praise; though if he were here I would not let anyone strip
him, for there would be no occasion, as he had nothing of the lover or
victim of despair about him, inasmuch as his master, which I was while
it was God's pleasure, was nothing of the sort; and indeed, Sir Knight
of the Rueful Countenance, if my departure and your worship's
madness are to come off in earnest, it will be as well to saddle
Rocinante again in order that he may supply the want of Dapple,
because it will save me time in going and returning: for if I go on
foot I don't know when I shall get there or when I shall get back,
as I am, in truth, a bad walker.

I declare, Sancho,returned Don Quixoteit shall be as thou
wilt, for thy plan does not seem to me a bad one, and three days hence
thou wilt depart, for I wish thee to observe in the meantime what I do
and say for her sake, that thou mayest be able to tell it.

But what more have I to see besides what I have seen?said Sancho.

Much thou knowest about it!said Don Quixote. "I have now got to
tear up my garmentsto scatter about my armourknock my head against
these rocksand more of the same sort of thingwhich thou must

For the love of God,said Sanchobe careful, your worship, how
you give yourself those knocks on the head, for you may come across
such a rock, and in such a way, that the very first may put an end
to the whole contrivance of this penance; and I should think, if
indeed knocks on the head seem necessary to you, and this business
cannot be done without them, you might be content -as the whole
thing is feigned, and counterfeit, and in joke- you might be
content, I say, with giving them to yourself in the water, or
against something soft, like cotton; and leave it all to me; for
I'll tell my lady that your worship knocked your head against a
point of rock harder than a diamond.

I thank thee for thy good intentions, friend Sancho,answered
Don Quixotebut I would have thee know that all these things I am
doing are not in joke, but very much in earnest, for anything else
would be a transgression of the ordinances of chivalry, which forbid
us to tell any lie whatever under the penalties due to apostasy; and
to do one thing instead of another is just the same as lying; so my
knocks on the head must be real, solid, and valid, without anything
sophisticated or fanciful about them, and it will be needful to
leave me some lint to dress my wounds, since fortune has compelled
us to do without the balsam we lost.

It was worse losing the ass,replied Sanchofor with him lint
and all were lost; but I beg of your worship not to remind me again of
that accursed liquor, for my soul, not to say my stomach, turns at
hearing the very name of it; and I beg of you, too, to reckon as
past the three days you allowed me for seeing the mad things you do,
for I take them as seen already and pronounced upon, and I will tell

wonderful stories to my lady; so write the letter and send me off at
once, for I long to return and take your worship out of this purgatory
where I am leaving you.

Purgatory dost thou call it, Sancho?said Don Quixoterather
call it hell, or even worse if there be anything worse.

For one who is in hell,said Sanchonulla est retentio, as I
have heard say.

I do not understand what retentio means,said Don Quixote.

Retentio,answered Sanchomeans that whoever is in hell never
comes nor can come out of it, which will be the opposite case with
your worship or my legs will be idle, that is if I have spurs to
enliven Rocinante: let me once get to El Toboso and into the
presence of my lady Dulcinea, and I will tell her such things of the
follies and madnesses (for it is all one) that your worship has done
and is still doing, that I will manage to make her softer than a glove
though I find her harder than a cork tree; and with her sweet and
honeyed answer I will come back through the air like a witch, and take
your worship out of this purgatory that seems to be hell but is not,
as there is hope of getting out of it; which, as I have said, those in
hell have not, and I believe your worship will not say anything to the

That is true,said he of the Rueful Countenancebut how shall we
manage to write the letter?

And the ass-colt order too,added Sancho.

All shall be included,said Don Quixote; "and as there is no
paperit would be well done to write it on the leaves of treesas
the ancients didor on tablets of wax; though that would be as hard
to find just now as paper. But it has just occurred to me how it may
be conveniently and even more than conveniently writtenand that is
in the note-book that belonged to Cardenioand thou wilt take care to
have it copied on paperin a good handat the first village thou
comest to where there is a schoolmasteror if notany sacristan will
copy it; but see thou give it not to any notary to copyfor they
write a law hand that Satan could not make out."

But what is to be done about the signature?said Sancho.

The letters of Amadis were never signed,said Don Quixote.

That is all very well,said Sanchobut the order must needs be
signed, and if it is copied they will say the signature is false,
and I shall be left without ass-colts.

The order shall go signed in the same book,said Don Quixoteand
on seeing it my niece will make no difficulty about obeying it; as
to the loveletter thou canst put by way of signature, 'Yours till
death, the Knight of the Rueful Countenance.' And it will be no
great matter if it is in some other person's hand, for as well as I
recollect Dulcinea can neither read nor write, nor in the whole course
of her life has she seen handwriting or letter of mine, for my love
and hers have been always platonic, not going beyond a modest look,
and even that so seldom that I can safely swear I have not seen her
four times in all these twelve years I have been loving her more
than the light of these eyes that the earth will one day devour; and
perhaps even of those four times she has not once perceived that I was
looking at her: such is the retirement and seclusion in which her
father Lorenzo Corchuelo and her mother Aldonza Nogales have brought

her up.

So, so!said Sancho; "Lorenzo Corchuelo's daughter is the lady
Dulcinea del Tobosootherwise called Aldonza Lorenzo?"

She it is,said Don Quixoteand she it is that is worthy to be
lady of the whole universe.

I know her well,said Sanchoand let me tell you she can fling a
crowbar as well as the lustiest lad in all the town. Giver of all
good! but she is a brave lass, and a right and stout one, and fit to
be helpmate to any knight-errant that is or is to be, who may make her
his lady: the whoreson wench, what sting she has and what a voice! I
can tell you one day she posted herself on the top of the belfry of
the village to call some labourers of theirs that were in a ploughed
field of her father's, and though they were better than half a
league off they heard her as well as if they were at the foot of the
tower; and the best of her is that she is not a bit prudish, for she
has plenty of affability, and jokes with everybody, and has a grin and
a jest for everything. So, Sir Knight of the Rueful Countenance, I say
you not only may and ought to do mad freaks for her sake, but you have
a good right to give way to despair and hang yourself; and no one
who knows of it but will say you did well, though the devil should
take you; and I wish I were on my road already, simply to see her, for
it is many a day since I saw her, and she must be altered by this
time, for going about the fields always, and the sun and the air spoil
women's looks greatly. But I must own the truth to your worship, Senor
Don Quixote; until now I have been under a great mistake, for I
believed truly and honestly that the lady Dulcinea must be some
princess your worship was in love with, or some person great enough to
deserve the rich presents you have sent her, such as the Biscayan
and the galley slaves, and many more no doubt, for your worship must
have won many victories in the time when I was not yet your squire.
But all things considered, what good can it do the lady Aldonza
Lorenzo, I mean the lady Dulcinea del Toboso, to have the vanquished
your worship sends or will send coming to her and going down on
their knees before her? Because may be when they came she'd be
hackling flax or threshing on the threshing floor, and they'd be
ashamed to see her, and she'd laugh, or resent the present.

I have before now told thee many times, Sancho,said Don
Quixotethat thou art a mighty great chatterer, and that with a
blunt wit thou art always striving at sharpness; but to show thee what
a fool thou art and how rational I am, I would have thee listen to a
short story. Thou must know that a certain widow, fair, young,
independent, and rich, and above all free and easy, fell in love
with a sturdy strapping young lay-brother; his superior came to know
of it, and one day said to the worthy widow by way of brotherly
remonstrance, 'I am surprised, senora, and not without good reason,
that a woman of such high standing, so fair, and so rich as you are,
should have fallen in love with such a mean, low, stupid fellow as
So-and-so, when in this house there are so many masters, graduates,
and divinity students from among whom you might choose as if they were
a lot of pears, saying this one I'll take, that I won't take;' but she
replied to him with great sprightliness and candour, 'My dear sir, you
are very much mistaken, and your ideas are very old-fashioned, if
you think that I have made a bad choice in So-and-so, fool as he
seems; because for all I want with him he knows as much and more
philosophy than Aristotle.' In the same way, Sancho, for all I want
with Dulcinea del Toboso she is just as good as the most exalted
princess on earth. It is not to be supposed that all those poets who
sang the praises of ladies under the fancy names they give them, had
any such mistresses. Thinkest thou that the Amarillises, the
Phillises, the Sylvias, the Dianas, the Galateas, the Filidas, and all

the rest of them, that the books, the ballads, the barber's shops, the
theatres are full of, were really and truly ladies of flesh and blood,
and mistresses of those that glorify and have glorified them?
Nothing of the kind; they only invent them for the most part to
furnish a subject for their verses, and that they may pass for lovers,
or for men valiant enough to be so; and so it suffices me to think and
believe that the good Aldonza Lorenzo is fair and virtuous; and as
to her pedigree it is very little matter, for no one will examine into
it for the purpose of conferring any order upon her, and I, for my
part, reckon her the most exalted princess in the world. For thou
shouldst know, Sancho, if thou dost not know, that two things alone
beyond all others are incentives to love, and these are great beauty
and a good name, and these two things are to be found in Dulcinea in
the highest degree, for in beauty no one equals her and in good name
few approach her; and to put the whole thing in a nutshell, I persuade
myself that all I say is as I say, neither more nor less, and I
picture her in my imagination as I would have her to be, as well in
beauty as in condition; Helen approaches her not nor does Lucretia
come up to her, nor any other of the famous women of times past,
Greek, Barbarian, or Latin; and let each say what he will, for if in
this I am taken to task by the ignorant, I shall not be censured by
the critical.

I say that your worship is entirely right,said Sanchoand
that I am an ass. But I know not how the name of ass came into my
mouth, for a rope is not to be mentioned in the house of him who has
been hanged; but now for the letter, and then, God be with you, I am

Don Quixote took out the note-bookandretiring to one side
very deliberately began to write the letterand when he had
finished it he called to Sanchosaying he wished to read it to him
so that he might commit it to memoryin case of losing it on the
road; for with evil fortune like his anything might be apprehended. To
which Sancho repliedWrite it two or three times there in the book
and give it to me, and I will carry it very carefully, because to
expect me to keep it in my memory is all nonsense, for I have such a
bad one that I often forget my own name; but for all that repeat it to
me, as I shall like to hear it, for surely it will run as if it was in

Listen,said Don Quixotethis is what it says:


Sovereign and exalted Lady,- The pierced by the point of absence,
the wounded to the heart's core, sends thee, sweetest Dulcinea del
Toboso, the health that he himself enjoys not. If thy beauty
despises me, if thy worth is not for me, if thy scorn is my
affliction, though I be sufficiently long-suffering, hardly shall I
endure this anxiety, which, besides being oppressive, is protracted.
My good squire Sancho will relate to thee in full, fair ingrate,
dear enemy, the condition to which I am reduced on thy account: if
it be thy pleasure to give me relief, I am thine; if not, do as may be
pleasing to thee; for by ending my life I shall satisfy thy cruelty
and my desire.

Thine till death

The Knight of the Rueful Countenance.

By the life of my father,said Sanchowhen he heard the letter
it is the loftiest thing I ever heard. Body of me! how your worship
says everything as you like in it! And how well you fit in 'The Knight
of the Rueful Countenance' into the signature. I declare your worship
is indeed the very devil, and there is nothing you don't know.

Everything is needed for the calling I follow,said Don Quixote.

Now then,said Sancholet your worship put the order for the
three ass-colts on the other side, and sign it very plainly, that they
may recognise it at first sight.

With all my heart,said Don Quixoteand as he had written it he
read it to this effect:

Mistress Niece,- By this first of ass-colts please pay to Sancho
Panza, my squire, three of the five I left at home in your charge:
said three ass-colts to be paid and delivered for the same number
received here in hand, which upon this and upon his receipt shall be
duly paid. Done in the heart of the Sierra Morena, the
twenty-seventh of August of this present year.

That will do,said Sancho; "now let your worship sign it."

There is no need to sign it,said Don Quixotebut merely to
put my flourish, which is the same as a signature, and enough for
three asses, or even three hundred.

I can trust your worship,returned Sancho; "let me go and saddle
Rocinanteand be ready to give me your blessingfor I mean to go
at once without seeing the fooleries your worship is going to do; I'll
say I saw you do so many that she will not want any more."

At any rate, Sancho,said Don QuixoteI should like- and there
is reason for it- I should like thee, I say, to see me stripped to the
skin and performing a dozen or two of insanities, which I can get done
in less than half an hour; for having seen them with thine own eyes,
thou canst then safely swear to the rest that thou wouldst add; and
I promise thee thou wilt not tell of as many as I mean to perform.

For the love of God, master mine,said Sancholet me not see
your worship stripped, for it will sorely grieve me, and I shall not
be able to keep from tears, and my head aches so with all I shed
last night for Dapple, that I am not fit to begin any fresh weeping;
but if it is your worship's pleasure that I should see some
insanities, do them in your clothes, short ones, and such as come
readiest to hand; for I myself want nothing of the sort, and, as I
have said, it will be a saving of time for my return, which will be
with the news your worship desires and deserves. If not, let the
lady Dulcinea look to it; if she does not answer reasonably, I swear
as solemnly as I can that I will fetch a fair answer out of her
stomach with kicks and cuffs; for why should it be borne that a
knight-errant as famous as your worship should go mad without rhyme or
reason for a -? Her ladyship had best not drive me to say it, for by
God I will speak out and let off everything cheap, even if it
doesn't sell: I am pretty good at that! she little knows me; faith, if
she knew me she'd be in awe of me.

In faith, Sancho,said Don Quixoteto all appearance thou art no
sounder in thy wits than I.

I am not so mad,answered Sanchobut I am more peppery; but
apart from all this, what has your worship to eat until I come back?

Will you sally out on the road like Cardenio to force it from the

Let not that anxiety trouble thee,replied Don Quixotefor
even if I had it I should not eat anything but the herbs and the
fruits which this meadow and these trees may yield me; the beauty of
this business of mine lies in not eating, and in performing other

Do you know what I am afraid of?said Sancho upon this; "that I
shall not be able to find my way back to this spot where I am
leaving youit is such an out-of-the-way place."

Observe the landmarks well,said Don Quixotefor I will try
not to go far from this neighbourhood, and I will even take care to
mount the highest of these rocks to see if I can discover thee
returning; however, not to miss me and lose thyself, the best plan
will be to cut some branches of the broom that is so abundant about
here, and as thou goest to lay them at intervals until thou hast
come out upon the plain; these will serve thee, after the fashion of
the clue in the labyrinth of Theseus, as marks and signs for finding
me on thy return.

So I will,said Sancho Panzaand having cut somehe asked his
master's blessingand not without many tears on both sidestook
his leave of himand mounting Rocinanteof whom Don Quixote
charged him earnestly to have as much care as of his own personhe
set out for the plainstrewing at intervals the branches of broom
as his master had recommended him; and so he went his waythough
Don Quixote still entreated him to see him do were it only a couple of
mad acts. He had not gone a hundred paceshoweverwhen he returned
and said:

I must say, senor, your worship said quite right, that in order
to be able to swear without a weight on my conscience that I had
seen you do mad things, it would be well for me to see if it were only
one; though in your worship's remaining here I have seen a very
great one.

Did I not tell thee so?said Don Quixote. "WaitSanchoand I
will do them in the saying of a credo and pulling off his breeches
in all haste he stripped himself to his skin and his shirt, and
then, without more ado, he cut a couple of gambados in the air, and
a couple of somersaults, heels over head, making such a display
that, not to see it a second time, Sancho wheeled Rocinante round, and
felt easy, and satisfied in his mind that he could swear he had left
his master mad; and so we will leave him to follow his road until
his return, which was a quick one.



Returning to the proceedings of him of the Rueful Countenance when
he found himself alone, the history says that when Don Quixote had
completed the performance of the somersaults or capers, naked from the
waist down and clothed from the waist up, and saw that Sancho had gone
off without waiting to see any more crazy feats, he climbed up to
the top of a high rock, and there set himself to consider what he
had several times before considered without ever coming to any

conclusion on the point, namely whether it would be better and more to
his purpose to imitate the outrageous madness of Roland, or the
melancholy madness of Amadis; and communing with himself he said:

What wonder is it if Roland was so good a knight and so valiant
as everyone says he waswhenafter allhe was enchantedand nobody
could kill him save by thrusting a corking pin into the sole of his
footand he always wore shoes with seven iron soles? Though cunning
devices did not avail him against Bernardo del Carpiowho knew all
about themand strangled him in his arms at Roncesvalles. But putting
the question of his valour asidelet us come to his losing his
witsfor certain it is that he did lose them in consequence of the
proofs he discovered at the fountainand the intelligence the
shepherd gave him of Angelica having slept more than two siestas
with Medoroa little curly-headed Moorand page to Agramante. If
he was persuaded that this was trueand that his lady had wronged
himit is no wonder that he should have gone mad; but Ihow am I
to imitate him in his madnessunless I can imitate him in the cause
of it? For my DulcineaI will venture to swearnever saw a Moor in
her lifeas he isin his proper costumeand she is this day as
the mother that bore herand I should plainly be doing her a wrong
iffancying anything elseI were to go mad with the same kind of
madness as Roland the Furious. On the other handI see that Amadis of
Gaulwithout losing his senses and without doing anything mad
acquired as a lover as much fame as the most famous; foraccording to
his historyon finding himself rejected by his lady Orianawho had
ordered him not to appear in her presence until it should be her
pleasureall he did was to retire to the Pena Pobre in company with a
hermitand there he took his fill of weeping until Heaven sent him
relief in the midst of his great grief and need. And if this be
trueas it iswhy should I now take the trouble to strip stark
nakedor do mischief to these trees which have done me no harmor
why am I to disturb the clear waters of these brooks which will give
me to drink whenever I have a mind? Long live the memory of Amadis and
let him be imitated so far as is possible by Don Quixote of La Mancha
of whom it will be saidas was said of the otherthat if he did
not achieve great thingshe died in attempting them; and if I am
not repulsed or rejected by my Dulcineait is enough for meas I
have saidto be absent from her. And sonow to business; come to
my memory ye deeds of Amadisand show me how I am to begin to imitate
you. I know already that what he chiefly did was to pray and commend
himself to God; but what am I to do for a rosaryfor I have not got

And then it occurred to him how he might make oneand that was by
tearing a great strip off the tail of his shirt which hung downand
making eleven knots on itone bigger than the restand this served
him for a rosary all the time he was thereduring which he repeated
countless ave-marias. But what distressed him greatly was not having
another hermit there to confess him and receive consolation from;
and so he solaced himself with pacing up and down the little meadow
and writing and carving on the bark of the trees and on the fine
sand a multitude of verses all in harmony with his sadnessand some
in praise of Dulcinea; butwhen he was found there afterwardsthe
only ones completely legible that could be discovered were those
that follow here:

Ye on the mountain side that grow
Ye green things alltreesshrubsand bushes
Are ye aweary of the woe
That this poor aching bosom crushes?
If it disturb youand I owe
Some reparationit may be a
Defence for me to let you know

Don Quixote's tears are on the flow
And all for distant Dulcinea
Del Toboso.

The lealest lover time can show
Doomed for a lady-love to languish
Among these solitudes doth go
A prey to every kind of anguish.
Why Love should like a spiteful foe

Thus use himhe hath no idea
But hogsheads full- this doth he know-
Don Quixote's tears are on the flow

And all for distant Dulcinea
Del Toboso.

Adventure-seeking doth he go
Up rugged heightsdown rocky valleys
But hill or daleor high or low
Mishap attendeth all his sallies:
Love still pursues him to and fro

And plies his cruel scourge- ah me! a
Relentless fatean endless woe;
Don Quixote's tears are on the flow

And all for distant Dulcinea
Del Toboso.

The addition of "Del Toboso" to Dulcinea's name gave rise to no
little laughter among those who found the above linesfor they
suspected Don Quixote must have fancied that unless he added "del
Toboso" when he introduced the name of Dulcinea the verse would be
unintelligible; which was indeed the factas he himself afterwards
admitted. He wrote many morebutas has been saidthese three
verses were all that could be plainly and perfectly deciphered. In
this wayand in sighing and calling on the fauns and satyrs of the
woods and the nymphs of the streamsand Echomoist and mournful
to answerconsoleand hear himas well as in looking for herbs to
sustain himhe passed his time until Sancho's return; and had that
been delayed three weeksas it was three daysthe Knight of the
Rueful Countenance would have worn such an altered countenance that
the mother that bore him would not have known him: and here it will be
well to leave himwrapped up in sighs and versesto relate how
Sancho Panza fared on his mission.

As for himcoming out upon the high roadhe made for El Toboso
and the next day reached the inn where the mishap of the blanket had
befallen him. As soon as he recognised it he felt as if he were once
more living through the airand he could not bring himself to enter
it though it was an hour when he might well have done sofor it was
dinner-timeand he longed to taste something hot as it had been all
cold fare with him for many days past. This craving drove him to
draw near to the innstill undecided whether to go in or notand
as he was hesitating there came out two persons who at once recognised
himand said one to the other:

Senor licentiate, is not he on the horse there Sancho Panza who,
our adventurer's housekeeper told us, went off with her master as

So it is,said the licentiateand that is our friend Don
Quixote's horse;and if they knew him so well it was because they
were the curate and the barber of his own villagethe same who had
carried out the scrutiny and sentence upon the books; and as soon as
they recognised Sancho Panza and Rocinantebeing anxious to hear of

Don Quixotethey approachedand calling him by his name the curate
saidFriend Sancho Panza, where is your master?

Sancho recognised them at onceand determined to keep secret the
place and circumstances where and under which he had left his
masterso he replied that his master was engaged in a certain quarter
on a certain matter of great importance to him which he could not
disclose for the eyes in his head.

Nay, nay,said the barberif you don't tell us where he is,
Sancho Panza, we will suspect as we suspect already, that you have
murdered and robbed him, for here you are mounted on his horse; in
fact, you must produce the master of the hack, or else take the

There is no need of threats with me,said Sanchofor I am not
a man to rob or murder anybody; let his own fate, or God who made him,
kill each one; my master is engaged very much to his taste doing
penance in the midst of these mountains; and then, offhand and without
stopping, he told them how he had left him, what adventures had
befallen him, and how he was carrying a letter to the lady Dulcinea
del Toboso, the daughter of Lorenzo Corchuelo, with whom he was over
head and ears in love. They were both amazed at what Sancho Panza told
them; for though they were aware of Don Quixote's madness and the
nature of it, each time they heard of it they were filled with fresh
wonder. They then asked Sancho Panza to show them the letter he was
carrying to the lady Dulcinea del Toboso. He said it was written in
a note-book, and that his master's directions were that he should have
it copied on paper at the first village he came to. On this the curate
said if he showed it to him, he himself would make a fair copy of
it. Sancho put his hand into his bosom in search of the note-book
but could not find it, nor, if he had been searching until now,
could he have found it, for Don Quixote had kept it, and had never
given it to him, nor had he himself thought of asking for it. When
Sancho discovered he could not find the book his face grew deadly
pale, and in great haste he again felt his body all over, and seeing
plainly it was not to be found, without more ado he seized his beard
with both hands and plucked away half of it, and then, as quick as
he could and without stopping, gave himself half a dozen cuffs on
the face and nose till they were bathed in blood.

Seeing this, the curate and the barber asked him what had happened
him that he gave himself such rough treatment.

What should happen me?" replied Sanchobut to have lost from
one hand to the other, in a moment, three ass-colts, each of them like
a castle?

How is that?said the barber.

I have lost the note-book,said Sanchothat contained the letter
to Dulcinea, and an order signed by my master in which he directed his
niece to give me three ass-colts out of four or five he had at
home;and he then told them about the loss of Dapple.

The curate consoled himtelling him that when his master was
found he would get him to renew the orderand make a fresh draft on
paperas was usual and customary; for those made in notebooks were
never accepted or honoured.

Sancho comforted himself with thisand said if that were so the
loss of Dulcinea's letter did not trouble him muchfor he had it
almost by heartand it could be taken down from him wherever and
whenever they liked.

Repeat it then, Sancho,said the barberand we will write it
down afterwards.

Sancho Panza stopped to scratch his head to bring back the letter to
his memoryand balanced himself now on one footnow the otherone
moment staring at the groundthe next at the skyand after having
half gnawed off the end of a finger and kept them in suspense
waiting for him to beginhe saidafter a long pauseBy God,
senor licentiate, devil a thing can I recollect of the letter; but
it said at the beginning, 'Exalted and scrubbing Lady.'

It cannot have said 'scrubbing,'said the barberbut
'superhuman' or 'sovereign.'

That is it,said Sancho; "thenas well as I rememberit went on
'The woundedand wanting of sleepand the piercedkisses your
worship's handsungrateful and very unrecognised fair one; and it
said something or other about health and sickness that he was
sending her; and from that it went tailing off until it ended with
'Yours till deaththe Knight of the Rueful Countenance."

It gave them no little amusementboth of themto see what a good
memory Sancho hadand they complimented him greatly upon itand
begged him to repeat the letter a couple of times moreso that they
too might get it by heart to write it out by-and-by. Sancho repeated
it three timesand as he diduttered three thousand more
absurdities; then he told them more about his master but he never said
a word about the blanketing that had befallen himself in that inn
into which he refused to enter. He told themmoreoverhow his
lordif he brought him a favourable answer from the lady Dulcinea del
Tobosowas to put himself in the way of endeavouring to become an
emperoror at least a monarch; for it had been so settled between
themand with his personal worth and the might of his arm it was an
easy matter to come to be one: and how on becoming one his lord was to
make a marriage for him (for he would be a widower by that timeas
a matter of course) and was to give him as a wife one of the damsels
of the empressthe heiress of some rich and grand state on the
mainlandhaving nothing to do with islands of any sortfor he did
not care for them now. All this Sancho delivered with so much
composure- wiping his nose from time to time- and with so little
common-sense that his two hearers were again filled with wonder at the
force of Don Quixote's madness that could run away with this poor
man's reason. They did not care to take the trouble of disabusing
him of his erroras they considered that since it did not in any
way hurt his conscience it would be better to leave him in itand
they would have all the more amusement in listening to his
simplicities; and so they bade him pray to God for his lord's
healthas it was a very likely and a very feasible thing for him in
course of time to come to be an emperoras he saidor at least an
archbishop or some other dignitary of equal rank.

To which Sancho made answerIf fortune, sirs, should bring
things about in such a way that my master should have a mind,
instead of being an emperor, to be an archbishop, I should like to
know what archbishops-errant commonly give their squires?

They commonly give them,said the curatesome simple benefice
or cureor some place as sacristan which brings them a good fixed
incomenot counting the altar feeswhich may be reckoned at as
much more."

But for that,said Sanchothe squire must be unmarried, and must
know, at any rate, how to help at mass, and if that be so, woe is

me, for I am married already and I don't know the first letter of
the A B C. What will become of me if my master takes a fancy to be
an archbishop and not an emperor, as is usual and customary with

Be not uneasy, friend Sancho,said the barberfor we will
entreat your master, and advise him, even urging it upon him as a case
of conscience, to become an emperor and not an archbishop, because
it will be easier for him as he is more valiant than lettered.

So I have thought,said Sancho; "though I can tell you he is fit
for anything: what I mean to do for my part is to pray to our Lord
to place him where it may be best for himand where he may be able to
bestow most favours upon me."

You speak like a man of sense,said the curateand you will be
acting like a good Christian; but what must now be done is to take
steps to coax your master out of that useless penance you say he is
performing; and we had best turn into this inn to consider what plan
to adopt, and also to dine, for it is now time.

Sancho said they might go inbut that he would wait there
outsideand that he would tell them afterwards the reason why he
was unwillingand why it did not suit him to enter it; but be
begged them to bring him out something to eatand to let it be hot
and also to bring barley for Rocinante. They left him and went inand
presently the barber brought him out something to eat. By-and-by
after they had between them carefully thought over what they should do
to carry out their objectthe curate hit upon an idea very well
adapted to humour Don Quixoteand effect their purpose; and his
notionwhich he explained to the barberwas that he himself should
assume the disguise of a wandering damselwhile the other should
try as best he could to pass for a squireand that they should thus
proceed to where Don Quixote wasand hepretending to be an
aggrieved and distressed damselshould ask a favour of himwhich
as a valiant knight-errant he could not refuse to grant; and the
favour he meant to ask him was that he should accompany her whither
she would conduct himin order to redress a wrong which a wicked
knight had done herwhile at the same time she should entreat him not
to require her to remove her masknor ask her any question touching
her circumstances until he had righted her with the wicked knight. And
he had no doubt that Don Quixote would comply with any request made in
these termsand that in this way they might remove him and take him
to his own villagewhere they would endeavour to find out if his
extraordinary madness admitted of any kind of remedy.



The curate's plan did not seem a bad one to the barberbut on the
contrary so good that they immediately set about putting it in
execution. They begged a petticoat and hood of the landladyleaving
her in pledge a new cassock of the curate's; and the barber made a
beard out of a grey-brown or red ox-tail in which the landlord used to
stick his comb. The landlady asked them what they wanted these
things forand the curate told her in a few words about the madness
of Don Quixoteand how this disguise was intended to get him away
from the mountain where he then was. The landlord and landlady
immediately came to the conclusion that the madman was their guest

the balsam man and master of the blanketed squireand they told the
curate all that had passed between him and themnot omitting what
Sancho had been so silent about. Finally the landlady dressed up the
curate in a style that left nothing to be desired; she put on him a
cloth petticoat with black velvet stripes a palm broadall slashed
and a bodice of green velvet set off by a binding of white satin
which as well as the petticoat must have been made in the time of king
Wamba. The curate would not let them hood himbut put on his head a
little quilted linen cap which he used for a night-capand bound
his forehead with a strip of black silkwhile with another he made
a mask with which he concealed his beard and face very well. He then
put on his hatwhich was broad enough to serve him for an umbrella
and enveloping himself in his cloak seated himself woman-fashion on
his mulewhile the barber mounted his with a beard down to the
waist of mingled red and whitefor it wasas has been saidthe tail
of a clay-red ox.

They took leave of alland of the good Maritorneswhosinner as
she waspromised to pray a rosary of prayers that God might grant
them success in such an arduous and Christian undertaking as that they
had in hand. But hardly had he sallied forth from the inn when it
struck the curate that he was doing wrong in rigging himself out in
that fashionas it was an indecorous thing for a priest to dress
himself that way even though much might depend upon it; and saying
so to the barber he begged him to change dressesas it was fitter
he should be the distressed damselwhile he himself would play the
squire's partwhich would be less derogatory to his dignity;
otherwise he was resolved to have nothing more to do with the
matterand let the devil take Don Quixote. Just at this moment Sancho
came upand on seeing the pair in such a costume he was unable to
restrain his laughter; the barberhoweveragreed to do as the curate
wishedandaltering their planthe curate went on to instruct him
how to play his part and what to say to Don Quixote to induce and
compel him to come with them and give up his fancy for the place he
had chosen for his idle penance. The barber told him he could manage
it properly without any instructionand as he did not care to dress
himself up until they were near where Don Quixote washe folded up
the garmentsand the curate adjusted his beardand they set out
under the guidance of Sancho Panzawho went along telling them of the
encounter with the madman they met in the Sierrasaying nothing
howeverabout the finding of the valise and its contents; for with
all his simplicity the lad was a trifle covetous.

The next day they reached the place where Sancho had laid the
broom-branches as marks to direct him to where he had left his master
and recognising it he told them that here was the entranceand that
they would do well to dress themselvesif that was required to
deliver his master; for they had already told him that going in this
guise and dressing in this way were of the highest importance in order
to rescue his master from the pernicious life he had adopted; and they
charged him strictly not to tell his master who they wereor that
he knew themand should he askas ask he wouldif he had given
the letter to Dulcineato say that he hadand thatas she did not
know how to readshe had given an answer by word of mouthsaying
that she commanded himon pain of her displeasureto come and see
her at once; and it was a very important matter for himselfbecause
in this way and with what they meant to say to him they felt sure of
bringing him back to a better mode of life and inducing him to take
immediate steps to become an emperor or monarchfor there was no fear
of his becoming an archbishop. All this Sancho listened to and fixed
it well in his memoryand thanked them heartily for intending to
recommend his master to be an emperor instead of an archbishopfor he
felt sure that in the way of bestowing rewards on their squires
emperors could do more than archbishops-errant. He saidtoothat

it would be as well for him to go on before them to find himand give
him his lady's answer; for that perhaps might be enough to bring him
away from the place without putting them to all this trouble. They
approved of what Sancho proposedand resolved to wait for him until
he brought back word of having found his master.

Sancho pushed on into the glens of the Sierraleaving them in one
through which there flowed a little gentle rivuletand where the
rocks and trees afforded a cool and grateful shade. It was an August
day with all the heat of oneand the heat in those parts is
intenseand the hour was three in the afternoonall which made the
spot the more inviting and tempted them to wait there for Sancho's
returnwhich they did. They were reposingthenin the shadewhen a
voice unaccompanied by the notes of any instrumentbut sweet and
pleasing in its tonereached their earsat which they were not a
little astonishedas the place did not seem to them likely quarters
for one who sang so well; for though it is often said that shepherds
of rare voice are to be found in the woods and fieldsthis is
rather a flight of the poet's fancy than the truth. And still more
surprised were they when they perceived that what they heard sung were
the verses not of rustic shepherdsbut of the polished wits of the
city; and so it provedfor the verses they heard were these:

What makes my quest of happiness seem vain?
What bids me to abandon hope of ease?
What holds my heart in anguish of suspense?

If that be sothen for my grief
Where shall I turn to seek relief
When hope on every side lies slain
By AbsenceJealousiesDisdain?

What the prime cause of all my woe doth prove?
What at my glory ever looks askance?
Whence is permission to afflict me given?

If that be soI but await
The stroke of a resistless fate
Sinceworking for my woethese three
LoveChance and Heavenin league I see.

What must I do to find a remedy?
What is the lure for love when coy and strange?
Whatif all failwill cure the heart of sadness?

If that be soit is but folly
To seek a cure for melancholy:
Ask where it lies; the answer saith
In Changein Madnessor in Death.

The hourthe summer seasonthe solitary placethe voice and skill
of the singerall contributed to the wonder and delight of the two
listenerswho remained still waiting to hear something more; finding
howeverthat the silence continued some little timethey resolved to
go in search of the musician who sang with so fine a voice; but just
as they were about to do so they were checked by the same voicewhich
once more fell upon their earssinging this


When heavenwardholy Friendshipthou didst go
Soaring to seek thy home beyond the sky
And take thy seat among the saints on high

It was thy will to leave on earth below

Thy semblanceand upon it to bestow
Thy veilwherewith at times hypocrisy
Parading in thy shapedeceives the eye

And makes its vileness bright as virtue show.
Friendshipreturn to usor force the cheat
That wears it nowthy livery to restore

By aid whereof sincerity is slain.
If thou wilt not unmask thy counterfeit
This earth will be the prey of strife once more
As when primaeval discord held its reign.

The song ended with a deep sighand again the listeners remained
waiting attentively for the singer to resume; but perceiving that
the music had now turned to sobs and heart-rending moans they
determined to find out who the unhappy being could be whose voice
was as rare as his sighs were piteousand they had not proceeded
far when on turning the corner of a rock they discovered a man of
the same aspect and appearance as Sancho had described to them when he
told them the story of Cardenio. Heshowing no astonishment when he
saw themstood still with his head bent down upon his breast like one
in deep thoughtwithout raising his eyes to look at them after the
first glance when they suddenly came upon him. The curatewho was
aware of his misfortune and recognised him by the descriptionbeing a
man of good addressapproached him and in a few sensible words
entreated and urged him to quit a life of such miserylest he
should end it therewhich would be the greatest of all misfortunes.
Cardenio was then in his right mindfree from any attack of that
madness which so frequently carried him awayand seeing them
dressed in a fashion so unusual among the frequenters of those
wildscould not help showing some surpriseespecially when he
heard them speak of his case as if it were a well-known matter (for
the curate's words gave him to understand as much) so he replied to
them thus:

I see plainly, sirs, whoever you may be, that Heaven, whose care it
is to succour the good, and even the wicked very often, here, in
this remote spot, cut off from human intercourse, sends me, though I
deserve it not, those who seek to draw me away from this to some
better retreat, showing me by many and forcible arguments how
unreasonably I act in leading the life I do; but as they know, that if
I escape from this evil I shall fall into another still greater,
perhaps they will set me down as a weak-minded man, or, what is worse,
one devoid of reason; nor would it be any wonder, for I myself can
perceive that the effect of the recollection of my misfortunes is so
great and works so powerfully to my ruin, that in spite of myself I
become at times like a stone, without feeling or consciousness; and
I come to feel the truth of it when they tell me and show me proofs of
the things I have done when the terrible fit overmasters me; and all I
can do is bewail my lot in vain, and idly curse my destiny, and
plead for my madness by telling how it was caused, to any that care to
hear it; for no reasonable beings on learning the cause will wonder at
the effects; and if they cannot help me at least they will not blame
me, and the repugnance they feel at my wild ways will turn into pity
for my woes. If it be, sirs, that you are here with the same design as
others have come wah, before you proceed with your wise arguments, I

entreat you to hear the story of my countless misfortunes, for perhaps
when you have heard it you will spare yourselves the trouble you would
take in offering consolation to grief that is beyond the reach of it.

As theyboth of themdesired nothing more than to hear from his
own lips the cause of his sufferingthey entreated him to tell it
promising not to do anything for his relief or comfort that he did not
wish; and thereupon the unhappy gentleman began his sad story in
nearly the same words and manner in which he had related it to Don
Quixote and the goatherd a few days beforewhenthrough Master
Elisabadand Don Quixote's scrupulous observance of what was due to
chivalrythe tale was left unfinishedas this history has already
recorded; but now fortunately the mad fit kept offallowed him to
tell it to the end; and socoming to the incident of the note which
Don Fernando had found in the volume of "Amadis of Gaul Cardenio
said that he remembered it perfectly and that it was in these words:

Luscinda to Cardenio.

Every day I discover merits in you that oblige and compel me to
hold you in higher estimation; so if you desire to relieve me of
this obligation without cost to my honour, you may easily do so. I
have a father who knows you and loves me dearly, who without putting
any constraint on my inclination will grant what will be reasonable
for you to have, if it be that you value me as you say and as I
believe you do.

By this letter I was induced, as I told you, to demand Luscinda for
my wife, and it was through it that Luscinda came to be regarded by
Don Fernando as one of the most discreet and prudent women of the day,
and this letter it was that suggested his design of ruining me
before mine could be carried into effect. I told Don Fernando that all
Luscinda's father was waiting for was that mine should ask her of him,
which I did not dare to suggest to him, fearing that he would not
consent to do so; not because he did not know perfectly well the rank,
goodness, virtue, and beauty of Luscinda, and that she had qualities
that would do honour to any family in Spain, but because I was aware
that he did not wish me to marry so soon, before seeing what the
Duke Ricardo would do for me. In short, I told him I did not venture
to mention it to my father, as well on account of that difficulty,
as of many others that discouraged me though I knew not well what they
were, only that it seemed to me that what I desired was never to
come to pass. To all this Don Fernando answered that he would take
it upon himself to speak to my father, and persuade him to speak to
Luscinda's father. O, ambitious Marius! O, cruel Catiline! O, wicked
Sylla! O, perfidious Ganelon! O, treacherous Vellido! O, vindictive
Julian! O, covetous Judas! Traitor, cruel, vindictive, and perfidious,
wherein had this poor wretch failed in his fidelity, who with such
frankness showed thee the secrets and the joys of his heart? What
offence did I commit? What words did I utter, or what counsels did I
give that had not the furtherance of thy honour and welfare for
their aim? But, woe is me, wherefore do I complain? for sure it is
that when misfortunes spring from the stars, descending from on high
they fall upon us with such fury and violence that no power on earth
can check their course nor human device stay their coming. Who could
have thought that Don Fernando, a highborn gentleman, intelligent,
bound to me by gratitude for my services, one that could win the
object of his love wherever he might set his affections, could have
become so obdurate, as they say, as to rob me of my one ewe lamb
that was not even yet in my possession? But laying aside these useless
and unavailing reflections, let us take up the broken thread of my

unhappy story.

To proceedthen: Don Fernando finding my presence an obstacle to
the execution of his treacherous and wicked designresolved to send
me to his elder brother under the pretext of asking money from him
to pay for six horses whichpurposelyand with the sole object of
sending me away that he might the better carry out his infernal
schemehe had purchased the very day he offered to speak to my
fatherand the price of which he now desired me to fetch. Could I
have anticipated this treachery? Could I by any chance have
suspected it? Nay; so far from thatI offered with the greatest
pleasure to go at oncein my satisfaction at the good bargain that
had been made. That night I spoke with Luscindaand told her what had
been agreed upon with Don Fernandoand how I had strong hopes of
our fair and reasonable wishes being realised. Sheas unsuspicious as
I was of the treachery of Don Fernandobade me try to return
speedilyas she believed the fulfilment of our desires would be
delayed only so long as my father put off speaking to hers. I know not
why it was that on saying this to me her eyes filled with tearsand
there came a lump in her throat that prevented her from uttering a
word of many more that it seemed to me she was striving to say to
me. I was astonished at this unusual turnwhich I never before
observed in her. for we always conversedwhenever good fortune and my
ingenuity gave us the chancewith the greatest gaiety and
cheerfulnessmingling tearssighsjealousiesdoubtsor fears with
our words; it was all on my part a eulogy of my good fortune that
Heaven should have given her to me for my mistress; I glorified her
beautyI extolled her worth and her understanding; and she paid me
back by praising in me what in her love for me she thought worthy of
praise; and besides we had a hundred thousand trifles and doings of
our neighbours and acquaintances to talk aboutand the utmost
extent of my boldness was to takealmost by forceone of her fair
white hands and carry it to my lipsas well as the closeness of the
low grating that separated us allowed me. But the night before the
unhappy day of my departure she weptshe moanedshe sighedand
she withdrew leaving me filled with perplexity and amazement
overwhelmed at the sight of such strange and affecting signs of
grief and sorrow in Luscinda; but not to dash my hopes I ascribed it
all to the depth of her love for me and the pain that separation gives
those who love tenderly. At last I took my departuresad and
dejectedmy heart filled with fancies and suspicionsbut not knowing
well what it was I suspected or fancied; plain omens pointing to the
sad event and misfortune that was awaiting me.

I reached the place whither I had been sent, gave the letter to Don
Fernando's brother, and was kindly received but not promptly
dismissed, for he desired me to wait, very much against my will, eight
days in some place where the duke his father was not likely to see me,
as his brother wrote that the money was to be sent without his
knowledge; all of which was a scheme of the treacherous Don
Fernando, for his brother had no want of money to enable him to
despatch me at once.

The command was one that exposed me to the temptation of disobeying
itas it seemed to me impossible to endure life for so many days
separated from Luscindaespecially after leaving her in the sorrowful
mood I have described to you; nevertheless as a dutiful servant I
obeyedthough I felt it would be at the cost of my well-being. But
four days later there came a man in quest of me with a letter which he
gave meand which by the address I perceived to be from Luscinda
as the writing was hers. I opened it with fear and trepidation
persuaded that it must be something serious that had impelled her to
write to me when at a distanceas she seldom did so when I was
near. Before reading it I asked the man who it was that had given it

to himand how long he had been upon the road; he told me that as
he happened to be passing through one of the streets of the city at
the hour of noona very beautiful lady called to him from a window
and with tears in her eyes said to him hurriedly'Brotherif you
areas you seem to bea Christianfor the love of God I entreat you
to have this letter despatched without a moment's delay to the place
and person named in the addressall which is well knownand by
this you will render a great service to our Lord; and that you may
be at no inconvenience in doing so take what is in this handkerchief;'
and said he'with this she threw me a handkerchief out of the
window in which were tied up a hundred reals and this gold ring
which I bring here together with the letter I have given you. And then
without waiting for any answer she left the windowthough not
before she saw me take the letter and the handkerchiefand I had by
signs let her know that I would do as she bade me; and soseeing
myself so well paid for the trouble I would have in bringing it to
youand knowing by the address that it was to you it was sent (for
senorI know you very well)and also unable to resist that beautiful
lady's tearsI resolved to trust no one elsebut to come myself
and give it to youand in sixteen hours from the time when it was
given me I have made the journeywhichas you knowis eighteen

All the while the good-natured improvised courier was telling me
this, I hung upon his words, my legs trembling under me so that I
could scarcely stand. However, I opened the letter and read these

'The promise Don Fernando gave you to urge your father to speak
to minehe has fulfilled much more to his own satisfaction than to
your advantage. I have to tell yousenorthat be has demanded me for
a wifeand my fatherled away by what he considers Don Fernando's
superiority over youhas favoured his suit so cordiallythat in
two days hence the betrothal is to take place with such secrecy and so
privately that the only witnesses are to be the Heavens above and a
few of the household. Picture to yourself the state I am in; judge
if it be urgent for you to come; the issue of the affair will show you
whether I love you or not. God grant this may come to your hand before
mine shall be forced to link itself with his who keeps so ill the
faith that he has pledged.'

Such, in brief, were the words of the letter, words that made me
set out at once without waiting any longer for reply or money; for I
now saw clearly that it was not the purchase of horses but of his
own pleasure that had made Don Fernando send me to his brother. The
exasperation I felt against Don Fernando, joined with the fear of
losing the prize I had won by so many years of love and devotion, lent
me wings; so that almost flying I reached home the same day, by the
hour which served for speaking with Luscinda. I arrived unobserved,
and left the mule on which I had come at the house of the worthy man
who had brought me the letter, and fortune was pleased to be for
once so kind that I found Luscinda at the grating that was the witness
of our loves. She recognised me at once, and I her, but not as she
ought to have recognised me, or I her. But who is there in the world
that can boast of having fathomed or understood the wavering mind
and unstable nature of a woman? Of a truth no one. To proceed: as soon
as Luscinda saw me she said, 'Cardenio, I am in my bridal dress, and
the treacherous Don Fernando and my covetous father are waiting for me
in the hall with the other witnesses, who shall be the witnesses of my
death before they witness my betrothal. Be not distressed, my
friend, but contrive to be present at this sacrifice, and if that
cannot be prevented by my words, I have a dagger concealed which

will prevent more deliberate violence, putting an end to my life and
giving thee a first proof of the love I have borne and bear thee.' I
replied to her distractedly and hastily, in fear lest I should not
have time to reply, 'May thy words be verified by thy deeds, lady; and
if thou hast a dagger to save thy honour, I have a sword to defend
thee or kill myself if fortune be against us.'

I think she could not have heard all these wordsfor I perceived
that they called her away in hasteas the bridegroom was waiting. Now
the night of my sorrow set inthe sun of my happiness went downI
felt my eyes bereft of sightmy mind of reason. I could not enter the
housenor was I capable of any movement; but reflecting how important
it was that I should be present at what might take place on the
occasionI nerved myself as best I could and went infor I well knew
all the entrances and outlets; and besideswith the confusion that in
secret pervaded the house no one took notice of mesowithout
being seenI found an opportunity of placing myself in the recess
formed by a window of the hall itselfand concealed by the ends and
borders of two tapestriesfrom between which I couldwithout being
seensee all that took place in the room. Who could describe the
agitation of heart I suffered as I stood there- the thoughts that came
to me- the reflections that passed through my mind? They were such
as cannot benor were it well they should betold. Suffice it to say
that the bridegroom entered the hall in his usual dresswithout
ornament of any kind; as groomsman he had with him a cousin of
Luscinda's and except the servants of the house there was no one
else in the chamber. Soon afterwards Luscinda came out from an
antechamberattended by her mother and two of her damselsarrayed
and adorned as became her rank and beautyand in full festival and
ceremonial attire. My anxiety and distraction did not allow me to
observe or notice particularly what she wore; I could only perceive
the colourswhich were crimson and whiteand the glitter of the gems
and jewels on her head dress and apparelsurpassed by the rare beauty
of her lovely auburn hair that vying with the precious stones and
the light of the four torches that stood in the hall shone with a
brighter gleam than all. Oh memorymortal foe of my peace! why
bring before me now the incomparable beauty of that adored enemy of
mine? Were it not bettercruel memoryto remind me and recall what
she then didthat stirred by a wrong so glaring I may seekif not
vengeance nowat least to rid myself of life? Be not wearysirs
of listening to these digressions; my sorrow is not one of those
that can or should be told tersely and brieflyfor to me each
incident seems to call for many words."

To this the curate replied that not only were they not weary of
listening to himbut that the details he mentioned interested them
greatlybeing of a kind by no means to be omitted and deserving of
the same attention as the main story.

To proceed, then,continued Cardenio: "all being assembled in
the hallthe priest of the parish came in and as he took the pair
by the hand to perform the requisite ceremonyat the words'Will
youSenora Luscindatake Senor Don Fernandohere presentfor
your lawful husbandas the holy Mother Church ordains?' I thrust my
head and neck out from between the tapestriesand with eager ears and
throbbing heart set myself to listen to Luscinda's answerawaiting in
her reply the sentence of death or the grant of life. Ohthat I had
but dared at that moment to rush forward crying aloud'Luscinda
Luscinda! have a care what thou dost; remember what thou owest me;
bethink thee thou art mine and canst not be another's; reflect that
thy utterance of "Yes" and the end of my life will come at the same
instant. Otreacherous Don Fernando! robber of my glorydeath of
my life! What seekest thou? Remember that thou canst not as a
Christian attain the object of thy wishesfor Luscinda is my bride

and I am her husband!' Fool that I am! now that I am far awayand out
of dangerI say I should have done what I did not do: now that I have
allowed my precious treasure to be robbed from meI curse the robber
on whom I might have taken vengeance had I as much heart for it as I
have for bewailing my fate; in shortas I was then a coward and a
foollittle wonder is it if I am now dying shame-stricken
remorsefuland mad.

The priest stood waiting for the answer of Luscinda, who for a long
time withheld it; and just as I thought she was taking out the
dagger to save her honour, or struggling for words to make some
declaration of the truth on my behalf, I heard her say in a faint
and feeble voice, 'I will:' Don Fernando said the same, and giving her
the ring they stood linked by a knot that could never be loosed. The
bridegroom then approached to embrace his bride; and she, pressing her
hand upon her heart, fell fainting in her mother's arms. It only
remains now for me to tell you the state I was in when in that consent
that I heard I saw all my hopes mocked, the words and promises of
Luscinda proved falsehoods, and the recovery of the prize I had that
instant lost rendered impossible for ever. I stood stupefied, wholly
abandoned, it seemed, by Heaven, declared the enemy of the earth
that bore me, the air refusing me breath for my sighs, the water
moisture for my tears; it was only the fire that gathered strength
so that my whole frame glowed with rage and jealousy. They were all
thrown into confusion by Luscinda's fainting, and as her mother was
unlacing her to give her air a sealed paper was discovered in her
bosom which Don Fernando seized at once and began to read by the light
of one of the torches. As soon as he had read it he seated himself
in a chair, leaning his cheek on his hand in the attitude of one
deep in thought, without taking any part in the efforts that were
being made to recover his bride from her fainting fit.

Seeing all the household in confusionI ventured to come out
regardless whether I were seen or notand determinedif I wereto
do some frenzied deed that would prove to all the world the
righteous indignation of my breast in the punishment of the
treacherous Don Fernandoand even in that of the fickle fainting
traitress. But my fatedoubtless reserving me for greater sorrowsif
such there beso ordered it that just then I had enough and to
spare of that reason which has since been wanting to me; and so
without seeking to take vengeance on my greatest enemies (which
might have been easily takenas all thought of me was so far from
their minds)I resolved to take it upon myselfand on myself to
inflict the pain they deservedperhaps with even greater severity
than I should have dealt out to them had I then slain them; for sudden
pain is soon overbut that which is protracted by tortures is ever
slaying without ending life. In a wordI quitted the house and
reached that of the man with whom I had left my mule; I made him
saddle it for memounted without bidding him farewelland rode out
of the citylike another Lotnot daring to turn my head to look back
upon it; and when I found myself alone in the open countryscreened
by the darkness of the nightand tempted by the stillness to give
vent to my grief without apprehension or fear of being heard or
seenthen I broke silence and lifted up my voice in maledictions upon
Luscinda and Don Fernandoas if I could thus avenge the wrong they
had done me. I called her cruelungratefulfalsethanklessbut
above all covetoussince the wealth of my enemy had blinded the
eyes of her affectionand turned it from me to transfer it to one
to whom fortune had been more generous and liberal. And yetin the
midst of this outburst of execration and upbraidingI found excuses
for hersaying it was no wonder that a young girl in the seclusion of
her parents' housetrained and schooled to obey them alwaysshould
have been ready to yield to their wishes when they offered her for a
husband a gentleman of such distinctionwealthand noble birththat

if she had refused to accept him she would have been thought out of
her sensesor to have set her affection elsewherea suspicion
injurious to her fair name and fame. But then againI saidhad she
declared I was her husbandthey would have seen that in choosing me
she had not chosen so ill but that they might excuse herfor before
Don Fernando had made his offerthey themselves could not have
desiredif their desires had been ruled by reasona more eligible
husband for their daughter than I was; and shebefore taking the last
fatal step of giving her handmight easily have said that I had
already given her minefor I should have come forward to support
any assertion of hers to that effect. In shortI came to the
conclusion that feeble lovelittle reflectiongreat ambitionand
a craving for rankhad made her forget the words with which she had
deceived meencouraged and supported by my firm hopes and
honourable passion.

Thus soliloquising and agitated, I journeyed onward for the
remainder of the night, and by daybreak I reached one of the passes of
these mountains, among which I wandered for three days more without
taking any path or road, until I came to some meadows lying on I
know not which side of the mountains, and there I inquired of some
herdsmen in what direction the most rugged part of the range lay. They
told me that it was in this quarter, and I at once directed my
course hither, intending to end my life here; but as I was making my
way among these crags, my mule dropped dead through fatigue and
hunger, or, as I think more likely, in order to have done with such
a worthless burden as it bore in me. I was left on foot, worn out,
famishing, without anyone to help me or any thought of seeking help:
and so thus I lay stretched on the ground, how long I know not,
after which I rose up free from hunger, and found beside me some
goatherds, who no doubt were the persons who had relieved me in my
need, for they told me how they had found me, and how I had been
uttering ravings that showed plainly I had lost my reason; and since
then I am conscious that I am not always in full possession of it, but
at times so deranged and crazed that I do a thousand mad things,
tearing my clothes, crying aloud in these solitudes, cursing my
fate, and idly calling on the dear name of her who is my enemy, and
only seeking to end my life in lamentation; and when I recover my
senses I find myself so exhausted and weary that I can scarcely
move. Most commonly my dwelling is the hollow of a cork tree large
enough to shelter this miserable body; the herdsmen and goatherds
who frequent these mountains, moved by compassion, furnish me with
food, leaving it by the wayside or on the rocks, where they think I
may perhaps pass and find it; and so, even though I may be then out of
my senses, the wants of nature teach me what is required to sustain
me, and make me crave it and eager to take it. At other times, so they
tell me when they find me in a rational mood, I sally out upon the
road, and though they would gladly give it me, I snatch food by
force from the shepherds bringing it from the village to their huts.
Thus do pass the wretched life that remains to me, until it be
Heaven's will to bring it to a close, or so to order my memory that
I no longer recollect the beauty and treachery of Luscinda, or the
wrong done me by Don Fernando; for if it will do this without
depriving me of life, I will turn my thoughts into some better
channel; if not, I can only implore it to have full mercy on my
soul, for in myself I feel no power or strength to release my body
from this strait in which I have of my own accord chosen to place it.

Suchsirsis the dismal story of my misfortune: say if it be
one that can be told with less emotion than you have seen in me; and
do not trouble yourselves with urging or pressing upon me what
reason suggests as likely to serve for my relieffor it will avail me
as much as the medicine prescribed by a wise physician avails the sick
man who will not take it. I have no wish for health without

Luscinda; and since it is her pleasure to be another'swhen she is or
should be minelet it be mine to be a prey to misery when I might
have enjoyed happiness. She by her fickleness strove to make my ruin
irretrievable; I will strive to gratify her wishes by seeking
destruction; and it will show generations to come that I alone was
deprived of that of which all others in misfortune have a
superabundancefor to them the impossibility of being consoled is
itself a consolationwhile to me it is the cause of greater sorrows
and sufferingsfor I think that even in death there will not be an
end of them."

Here Cardenio brought to a close his long discourse and storyas
full of misfortune as it was of love; but just as the curate was going
to address some words of comfort to himhe was stopped by a voice
that reached his earsaying in melancholy tones what will be told
in the Fourth Part of this narrative; for at this point the sage and
sagacious historianCide Hamete Benengelibrought the Third to a



Happy and fortunate were the times when that most daring knight
Don Quixote of La Mancha was sent into the world; for by reason of his
having formed a resolution so honourable as that of seeking to
revive and restore to the world the long-lost and almost defunct order
of knight-errantrywe now enjoy in this age of oursso poor in light
entertainmentnot only the charm of his veracious historybut also
of the tales and episodes contained in it which arein a measure
no less pleasingingeniousand truthfulthan the history itself;
whichresuming its threadcardedspunand woundrelates that just
as the curate was going to offer consolation to Cardeniohe was
interrupted by a voice that fell upon his ear saying in plaintive

O God! is it possible I have found a place that may serve as a
secret grave for the weary load of this body that I support so
unwillingly? If the solitude these mountains promise deceives me
not, it is so; ah! woe is me! how much more grateful to my mind will
be the society of these rocks and brakes that permit me to complain of
my misfortune to Heaven, than that of any human being, for there is
none on earth to look to for counsel in doubt, comfort in sorrow, or
relief in distress!

All this was heard distinctly by the curate and those with him
and as it seemed to them to be uttered close byas indeed it was
they got up to look for the speakerand before they had gone twenty
paces they discovered behind a rockseated at the foot of an ash
treea youth in the dress of a peasantwhose face they were unable
at the moment to see as he was leaning forwardbathing his feet in
the brook that flowed past. They approached so silently that he did
not perceive thembeing fully occupied in bathing his feetwhich
were so fair that they looked like two pieces of shining crystal
brought forth among the other stones of the brook. The whiteness and
beauty of these feet struck them with surprisefor they did not
seem to have been made to crush clods or to follow the plough and
the oxen as their owner's dress suggested; and sofinding they had
not been noticedthe curatewho was in frontmade a sign to the
other two to conceal themselves behind some fragments of rock that lay
there; which they didobserving closely what the youth was about.

He had on a loose double-skirted dark brown jacket bound tight to
his body with a white cloth; he wore besides breeches and gaiters of
brown clothand on his head a brown montera; and he had the gaiters
turned up as far as the middle of the legwhich verily seemed to be
of pure alabaster.

As soon as he had done bathing his beautiful feethe wiped them
with a towel he took from under the monteraon taking off which he
raised his faceand those who were watching him had an opportunity of
seeing a beauty so exquisite that Cardenio said to the curate in a

As this is not Luscinda, it is no human creature but a divine

The youth then took off the monteraand shaking his head from
side to side there broke loose and spread out a mass of hair that
the beams of the sun might have envied; by this they knew that what
had seemed a peasant was a lovely womannay the most beautiful the
eyes of two of them had ever beheldor even Cardenio's if they had
not seen and known Luscindafor he afterwards declared that only
the beauty of Luscinda could compare with this. The long auburn
tresses not only covered her shouldersbut such was their length
and abundanceconcealed her all round beneath their massesso that
except the feet nothing of her form was visible. She now used her
hands as a comband if her feet had seemed like bits of crystal in
the waterher hands looked like pieces of driven snow among her
locks; all which increased not only the admiration of the three
beholdersbut their anxiety to learn who she was. With this object
they resolved to show themselvesand at the stir they made in getting
upon their feet the fair damsel raised her headand parting her
hair from before her eyes with both handsshe looked to see who had
made the noiseand the instant she perceived them she started to
her feetand without waiting to put on her shoes or gather up her
hairhastily snatched up a bundle as though of clothes that she had
beside herandscared and alarmedendeavoured to take flight; but
before she had gone six paces she fell to the groundher delicate
feet being unable to bear the roughness of the stones; seeing which
the three hastened towards herand the curate addressing her first

Stay, senora, whoever you may be, for those whom you see here
only desire to be of service to you; you have no need to attempt a
flight so heedless, for neither can your feet bear it, nor we allow

Taken by surprise and bewilderedshe made no reply to these
words. Theyhowevercame towards herand the curate taking her hand
went on to say:

What your dress would hide, senora, is made known to us by your
hair; a clear proof that it can be no trifling cause that has
disguised your beauty in a garb so unworthy of it, and sent it into
solitudes like these where we have had the good fortune to find you,
if not to relieve your distress, at least to offer you comfort; for no
distress, so long as life lasts, can be so oppressive or reach such
a height as to make the sufferer refuse to listen to comfort offered
with good intention. And so, senora, or senor, or whatever you
prefer to be, dismiss the fears that our appearance has caused you and
make us acquainted with your good or evil fortunes, for from all of us
together, or from each one of us, you will receive sympathy in your

While the curate was speakingthe disguised damsel stood as if

spell-boundlooking at them without opening her lips or uttering a
wordjust like a village rustic to whom something strange that he has
never seen before has been suddenly shown; but on the curate
addressing some further words to the same effect to hersighing
deeply she broke silence and said:

Since the solitude of these mountains has been unable to conceal
me, and the escape of my dishevelled tresses will not allow my
tongue to deal in falsehoods, it would be idle for me now to make
any further pretence of what, if you were to believe me, you would
believe more out of courtesy than for any other reason. This being so,
I say I thank you, sirs, for the offer you have made me, which
places me under the obligation of complying with the request you
have made of me; though I fear the account I shall give you of my
misfortunes will excite in you as much concern as compassion, for
you will be unable to suggest anything to remedy them or any
consolation to alleviate them. However, that my honour may not be left
a matter of doubt in your minds, now that you have discovered me to be
a woman, and see that I am young, alone, and in this dress, things
that taken together or separately would be enough to destroy any
good name, I feel bound to tell what I would willingly keep secret
if I could.

All this she who was now seen to be a lovely woman delivered without
any hesitationwith so much ease and in so sweet a voice that they
were not less charmed by her intelligence than by her beautyand as
they again repeated their offers and entreaties to her to fulfil her
promiseshe without further pressingfirst modestly covering her
feet and gathering up her hairseated herself on a stone with the
three placed around herandafter an effort to restrain some tears
that came to her eyesin a clear and steady voice began her story

In this Andalusia there is a town from which a duke takes a title
which makes him one of those that are called Grandees of Spain. This
nobleman has two sons, the elder heir to his dignity and apparently to
his good qualities; the younger heir to I know not what, unless it
be the treachery of Vellido and the falsehood of Ganelon. My parents
are this lord's vassals, lowly in origin, but so wealthy that if birth
had conferred as much on them as fortune, they would have had
nothing left to desire, nor should I have had reason to fear trouble
like that in which I find myself now; for it may be that my ill
fortune came of theirs in not having been nobly born. It is true
they are not so low that they have any reason to be ashamed of their
condition, but neither are they so high as to remove from my mind
the impression that my mishap comes of their humble birth. They are,
in short, peasants, plain homely people, without any taint of
disreputable blood, and, as the saying is, old rusty Christians, but
so rich that by their wealth and free-handed way of life they are
coming by degrees to be considered gentlefolk by birth, and even by
position; though the wealth and nobility they thought most of was
having me for their daughter; and as they have no other child to
make their heir, and are affectionate parents, I was one of the most
indulged daughters that ever parents indulged.

I was the mirror in which they beheld themselvesthe staff of
their old ageand the object in whichwith submission to Heavenall
their wishes centredand mine were in accordance with theirsfor I
knew their worth; and as I was mistress of their heartsso was I also
of their possessions. Through me they engaged or dismissed their
servants; through my hands passed the accounts and returns of what was
sown and reaped; the oil-millsthe wine-pressesthe count of the
flocks and herdsthe beehivesall in short that a rich farmer like
my father has or can haveI had under my careand I acted as steward

and mistress with an assiduity on my part and satisfaction on theirs
that I cannot well describe to you. The leisure hours left to me after
I had given the requisite orders to the head-shepherdsoverseersand
other labourersI passed in such employments as are not only
allowable but necessary for young girlsthose that the needle
embroidery cushionand spinning wheel usually affordand if to
refresh my mind I quitted them for a whileI found recreation in
reading some devotional book or playing the harpfor experience
taught me that music soothes the troubled mind and relieves
weariness of spirit. Such was the life I led in my parents' house
and if I have depicted it thus minutelyit is not out of ostentation
or to let you know that I am richbut that you may see howwithout
any fault of mineI have fallen from the happy condition I have
describedto the misery I am in at present. The truth isthat
while I was leading this busy lifein a retirement that might compare
with that of a monasteryand unseen as I thought by any except the
servants of the house (for when I went to Mass it was so early in
the morningand I was so closely attended by my mother and the
women of the householdand so thickly veiled and so shythat my eyes
scarcely saw more ground than I trod on)in spite of all thisthe
eyes of loveor idlenessmore properly speakingthat the lynx's
cannot rivaldiscovered mewith the help of the assiduity of Don
Fernando; for that is the name of the younger son of the duke I told

The moment the speaker mentioned the name of Don Fernando
Cardenio changed colour and broke into a sweatwith such signs of
emotion that the curate and the barberwho observed itfeared that
one of the mad fits which they heard attacked him sometimes was coming
upon him; but Cardenio showed no further agitation and remained quiet
regarding the peasant girl with fixed attentionfor he began to
suspect who she was. Shehoweverwithout noticing the excitement
of Cardeniocontinuing her storywent on to say:

And they had hardly discovered me, when, as he owned afterwards, he
was smitten with a violent love for me, as the manner in which it
displayed itself plainly showed. But to shorten the long recital of my
woes, I will pass over in silence all the artifices employed by Don
Fernando for declaring his passion for me. He bribed all the
household, he gave and offered gifts and presents to my parents; every
day was like a holiday or a merry-making in our street; by night no
one could sleep for the music; the love letters that used to come to
my hand, no one knew how, were innumerable, full of tender pleadings
and pledges, containing more promises and oaths than there were
letters in them; all which not only did not soften me, but hardened my
heart against him, as if he had been my mortal enemy, and as if
everything he did to make me yield were done with the opposite
intention. Not that the high-bred bearing of Don Fernando was
disagreeable to me, or that I found his importunities wearisome; for
it gave me a certain sort of satisfaction to find myself so sought and
prized by a gentleman of such distinction, and I was not displeased at
seeing my praises in his letters (for however ugly we women may be, it
seems to me it always pleases us to hear ourselves called beautiful)
but that my own sense of right was opposed to all this, as well as the
repeated advice of my parents, who now very plainly perceived Don
Fernando's purpose, for he cared very little if all the world knew it.
They told me they trusted and confided their honour and good name to
my virtue and rectitude alone, and bade me consider the disparity
between Don Fernando and myself, from which I might conclude that
his intentions, whatever he might say to the contrary, had for their
aim his own pleasure rather than my advantage; and if I were at all
desirous of opposing an obstacle to his unreasonable suit, they were
ready, they said, to marry me at once to anyone I preferred, either
among the leading people of our own town, or of any of those in the

neighbourhood; for with their wealth and my good name, a match might
be looked for in any quarter. This offer, and their sound advice
strengthened my resolution, and I never gave Don Fernando a word in
reply that could hold out to him any hope of success, however remote.

All this caution of minewhich he must have taken for coynesshad
apparently the effect of increasing his wanton appetite- for that is
the name I give to his passion for me; had it been what he declared it
to beyou would not know of it nowbecause there would have been
no occasion to tell you of it. At length he learned that my parents
were contemplating marriage for me in order to put an end to his hopes
of obtaining possession of meor at least to secure additional
protectors to watch over meand this intelligence or suspicion made
him act as you shall hear. One nightas I was in my chamber with no
other companion than a damsel who waited on mewith the doors
carefully locked lest my honour should be imperilled through any
carelessnessI know not nor can conceive how it happenedbutwith
all this seclusion and these precautionsand in the solitude and
silence of my retirementI found him standing before mea vision
that so astounded me that it deprived my eyes of sightand my
tongue of speech. I had no power to utter a crynorI thinkdid
he give me time to utter oneas he immediately approached meand
taking me in his arms (foroverwhelmed as I wasI was powerlessI
sayto help myself)he began to make such professions to me that I
know not how falsehood could have had the power of dressing them up to
seem so like truth; and the traitor contrived that his tears should
vouch for his wordsand his sighs for his sincerity.

I, a poor young creature alone, ill versed among my people in cases
such as this, began, I know not how, to think all these lying
protestations true, though without being moved by his sighs and
tears to anything more than pure compassion; and so, as the first
feeling of bewilderment passed away, and I began in some degree to
recover myself, I said to him with more courage than I thought I could
have possessed, 'If, as I am now in your arms, senor, I were in the
claws of a fierce lion, and my deliverance could be procured by
doing or saying anything to the prejudice of my honour, it would no
more be in my power to do it or say it, than it would be possible that
what was should not have been; so then, if you hold my body clasped in
your arms, I hold my soul secured by virtuous intentions, very
different from yours, as you will see if you attempt to carry them
into effect by force. I am your vassal, but I am not your slave;
your nobility neither has nor should have any right to dishonour or
degrade my humble birth; and low-born peasant as I am, I have my
self-respect as much as you, a lord and gentleman: with me your
violence will be to no purpose, your wealth will have no weight,
your words will have no power to deceive me, nor your sighs or tears
to soften me: were I to see any of the things I speak of in him whom
my parents gave me as a husband, his will should be mine, and mine
should be bounded by his; and my honour being preserved even though my
inclinations were not would willingly yield him what you, senor, would
now obtain by force; and this I say lest you should suppose that any
but my lawful husband shall ever win anything of me.' 'If that,'
said this disloyal gentleman, 'be the only scruple you feel, fairest
Dorothea' (for that is the name of this unhappy being), 'see here I
give you my hand to be yours, and let Heaven, from which nothing is
hid, and this image of Our Lady you have here, be witnesses of this

When Cardenio heard her say she was called Dorotheahe showed fresh
agitation and felt convinced of the truth of his former suspicionbut
he was unwilling to interrupt the storyand wished to hear the end of
what he already all but knewso he merely said:

What! is Dorothea your name, senora? I have heard of another of the
same name who can perhaps match your misfortunes. But proceed;
by-and-by I may tell you something that will astonish you as much as
it will excite your compassion.

Dorothea was struck by Cardenio's words as well as by his strange
and miserable attireand begged him if he knew anything concerning
her to tell it to her at oncefor if fortune had left her any
blessing it was courage to bear whatever calamity might fall upon her
as she felt sure that none could reach her capable of increasing in
any degree what she endured already.

I would not let the occasion pass, senora,replied Cardenioof
telling you what I think, if what I suspect were the truth, but so far
there has been no opportunity, nor is it of any importance to you to
know it.

Be it as it may,replied Dorotheawhat happened in my story
was that Don Fernando, taking an image that stood in the chamber,
placed it as a witness of our betrothal, and with the most binding
words and extravagant oaths gave me his promise to become my
husband; though before he had made an end of pledging himself I bade
him consider well what he was doing, and think of the anger his father
would feel at seeing him married to a peasant girl and one of his
vassals; I told him not to let my beauty, such as it was, blind him,
for that was not enough to furnish an excuse for his transgression;
and if in the love he bore me he wished to do me any kindness, it
would be to leave my lot to follow its course at the level my
condition required; for marriages so unequal never brought
happiness, nor did they continue long to afford the enjoyment they
began with.

All this that I have now repeated I said to himand much more
which I cannot recollect; but it had no effect in inducing him to
forego his purpose; he who has no intention of paying does not trouble
himself about difficulties when he is striking the bargain. At the
same time I argued the matter briefly in my own mindsaying to
myself'I shall not be the first who has risen through marriage
from a lowly to a lofty stationnor will Don Fernando be the first
whom beauty oras is more likelya blind attachmenthas led to mate
himself below his rank. Thensince I am introducing no new usage or
practiceI may as well avail myself of the honour that chance
offers mefor even though his inclination for me should not outlast
the attainment of his wishesI shall beafter allhis wife before
God. And if I strive to repel him by scornI can see thatfair means
failinghe is in a mood to use forceand I shall be left dishonoured
and without any means of proving my innocence to those who cannot know
how innocently I have come to be in this position; for what
arguments would persuade my parents that this gentleman entered my
chamber without my consent?'

All these questions and answers passed through my mind in a moment;
but the oaths of Don Fernando, the witnesses he appealed to, the tears
he shed, and lastly the charms of his person and his high-bred
grace, which, accompanied by such signs of genuine love, might well
have conquered a heart even more free and coy than mine- these were
the things that more than all began to influence me and lead me
unawares to my ruin. I called my waiting-maid to me, that there
might be a witness on earth besides those in Heaven, and again Don
Fernando renewed and repeated his oaths, invoked as witnesses fresh
saints in addition to the former ones, called down upon himself a
thousand curses hereafter should he fail to keep his promise, shed
more tears, redoubled his sighs and pressed me closer in his arms,
from which he had never allowed me to escape; and so I was left by

my maid, and ceased to be one, and he became a traitor and a
perjured man.

The day which followed the night of my misfortune did not come so
quicklyI imagineas Don Fernando wishedfor when desire has
attained its objectthe greatest pleasure is to fly from the scene of
pleasure. I say so because Don Fernando made all haste to leave me
and by the adroitness of my maidwho was indeed the one who had
admitted himgained the street before daybreak; but on taking leave
of me he told methough not with as much earnestness and fervour as
when he camethat I might rest assured of his faith and of the
sanctity and sincerity of his oaths; and to confirm his words he
drew a rich ring off his finger and placed it upon mine. He then
took his departure and I was leftI know not whether sorrowful or
happy; all I can say isI was left agitated and troubled in mind
and almost bewildered by what had taken placeand I had not the
spiritor else it did not occur to meto chide my maid for the
treachery she had been guilty of in concealing Don Fernando in my
chamber; for as yet I was unable to make up my mind whether what had
befallen me was for good or evil. I told Don Fernando at partingthat
as I was now hishe might see me on other nights in the same way
until it should be his pleasure to let the matter become known; but
except the following nighthe came no morenor for more than a month
could I catch a glimpse of him in the street or in churchwhile I
wearied myself with watching for one; although I knew he was in the
townand almost every day went out huntinga pastime he was very
fond of. I remember well how sad and dreary those days and hours
were to me; I remember well how I began to doubt as they went by
and even to lose confidence in the faith of Don Fernando; and I
remembertoohow my maid heard those words in reproof of her
audacity that she had not heard beforeand how I was forced to put
a constraint on my tears and on the expression of my countenance
not to give my parents cause to ask me why I was so melancholyand
drive me to invent falsehoods in reply. But all this was suddenly
brought to an endfor the time came when all such considerations were
disregardedand there was no further question of honourwhen my
patience gave way and the secret of my heart became known abroad.
The reason wasthat a few days later it was reported in the town that
Don Fernando had been married in a neighbouring city to a maiden of
rare beautythe daughter of parents of distinguished positionthough
not so rich that her portion would entitle her to look for so
brilliant a match; it was saidtoothat her name was Luscindaand
that at the betrothal some strange things had happened."

Cardenio heard the name of Luscindabut he only shrugged his
shouldersbit his lipsbent his browsand before long two streams
of tears escaped from his eyes. Dorotheahoweverdid not interrupt
her storybut went on in these words:

This sad intelligence reached my ears, and, instead of being struck
with a chill, with such wrath and fury did my heart burn that I
scarcely restrained myself from rushing out into the streets, crying
aloud and proclaiming openly the perfidy and treachery of which I
was the victim; but this transport of rage was for the time checked by
a resolution I formed, to be carried out the same night, and that
was to assume this dress, which I got from a servant of my father's,
one of the zagals, as they are called in farmhouses, to whom I
confided the whole of my misfortune, and whom I entreated to accompany
me to the city where I heard my enemy was. He, though he
remonstrated with me for my boldness, and condemned my resolution,
when he saw me bent upon my purpose, offered to bear me company, as he
said, to the end of the world. I at once packed up in a linen
pillow-case a woman's dress, and some jewels and money to provide
for emergencies, and in the silence of the night, without letting my

treacherous maid know, I sallied forth from the house, accompanied
by my servant and abundant anxieties, and on foot set out for the
city, but borne as it were on wings by my eagerness to reach it, if
not to prevent what I presumed to be already done, at least to call
upon Don Fernando to tell me with what conscience he had done it. I
reached my destination in two days and a half, and on entering the
city inquired for the house of Luscinda's parents. The first person
I asked gave me more in reply than I sought to know; he showed me
the house, and told me all that had occurred at the betrothal of the
daughter of the family, an affair of such notoriety in the city that
it was the talk of every knot of idlers in the street. He said that on
the night of Don Fernando's betrothal with Luscinda, as soon as she
had consented to be his bride by saying 'Yes,' she was taken with a
sudden fainting fit, and that on the bridegroom approaching to
unlace the bosom of her dress to give her air, he found a paper in her
own handwriting, in which she said and declared that she could not
be Don Fernando's bride, because she was already Cardenio's, who,
according to the man's account, was a gentleman of distinction of
the same city; and that if she had accepted Don Fernando, it was
only in obedience to her parents. In short, he said, the words of
the paper made it clear she meant to kill herself on the completion of
the betrothal, and gave her reasons for putting an end to herself
all which was confirmed, it was said, by a dagger they found somewhere
in her clothes. On seeing this, Don Fernando, persuaded that
Luscinda had befooled, slighted, and trifled with him, assailed her
before she had recovered from her swoon, and tried to stab her with
the dagger that had been found, and would have succeeded had not her
parents and those who were present prevented him. It was said,
moreover, that Don Fernando went away at once, and that Luscinda did
not recover from her prostration until the next day, when she told her
parents how she was really the bride of that Cardenio I have
mentioned. I learned besides that Cardenio, according to report, had
been present at the betrothal; and that upon seeing her betrothed
contrary to his expectation, he had quitted the city in despair,
leaving behind him a letter declaring the wrong Luscinda had done him,
and his intention of going where no one should ever see him again. All
this was a matter of notoriety in the city, and everyone spoke of
it; especially when it became known that Luscinda was missing from her
father's house and from the city, for she was not to be found
anywhere, to the distraction of her parents, who knew not what steps
to take to recover her. What I learned revived my hopes, and I was
better pleased not to have found Don Fernando than to find him
married, for it seemed to me that the door was not yet entirely shut
upon relief in my case, and I thought that perhaps Heaven had put this
impediment in the way of the second marriage, to lead him to recognise
his obligations under the former one, and reflect that as a
Christian he was bound to consider his soul above all human objects.
All this passed through my mind, and I strove to comfort myself
without comfort, indulging in faint and distant hopes of cherishing
that life that I now abhor.

But while I was in the cityuncertain what to doas I could not
find Don FernandoI heard notice given by the public crier offering a
great reward to anyone who should find meand giving the
particulars of my age and of the very dress I wore; and I heard it
said that the lad who came with me had taken me away from my
father's house; a thing that cut me to the heartshowing how low my
good name had fallensince it was not enough that I should lose it by
my flightbut they must add with whom I had fledand that one so
much beneath me and so unworthy of my consideration. The instant I
heard the notice I quitted the city with my servantwho now began
to show signs of wavering in his fidelity to meand the same night
for fear of discoverywe entered the most thickly wooded part of
these mountains. Butas is commonly saidone evil calls up another

and the end of one misfortune is apt to be the beginning of one
still greaterand so it proved in my case; for my worthy servant
until then so faithful and trusty when he found me in this lonely
spotmoved more by his own villainy than by my beautysought to take
advantage of the opportunity which these solitudes seemed to present
himand with little shame and less fear of God and respect for me
began to make overtures to me; and finding that I replied to the
effrontery of his proposals with justly severe languagehe laid aside
the entreaties which he had employed at firstand began to use
violence. But just Heaventhat seldom fails to watch over and aid
good intentionsso aided mine that with my slight strength and with
little exertion I pushed him over a precipicewhere I left him
whether dead or alive I know not; and thenwith greater speed than
seemed possible in my terror and fatigueI made my way into the
mountainswithout any other thought or purpose save that of hiding
myself among themand escaping my father and those despatched in
search of me by his orders. It is now I know not how many months since
with this object I came herewhere I met a herdsman who engaged me as
his servant at a place in the heart of this Sierraand all this
time I have been serving him as herdstriving to keep always afield
to hide these locks which have now unexpectedly betrayed me. But all
my care and pains were unavailingfor my master made the discovery
that I was not a manand harboured the same base designs as my
servant; and as fortune does not always supply a remedy in cases of
difficultyand I had no precipice or ravine at hand down which to
fling the master and cure his passionas I had in the servant's case
I thought it a lesser evil to leave him and again conceal myself among
these cragsthan make trial of my strength and argument with him. So
as I sayonce more I went into hiding to seek for some place where
I might with sighs and tears implore Heaven to have pity on my misery
and grant me help and strength to escape from itor let me die
among the solitudesleaving no trace of an unhappy being whoby no
fault of hershas furnished matter for talk and scandal at home and



Such, sirs, is the true story of my sad adventures; judge for
yourselves now whether the sighs and lamentations you heard, and the
tears that flowed from my eyes, had not sufficient cause even if I had
indulged in them more freely; and if you consider the nature of my
misfortune you will see that consolation is idle, as there is no
possible remedy for it. All I ask of you is, what you may easily and
reasonably do, to show me where I may pass my life unharassed by the
fear and dread of discovery by those who are in search of me; for
though the great love my parents bear me makes me feel sure of being
kindly received by them, so great is my feeling of shame at the mere
thought that I cannot present myself before them as they expect,
that I had rather banish myself from their sight for ever than look
them in the face with the reflection that they beheld mine stripped of
that purity they had a right to expect in me.

With these words she became silentand the colour that overspread
her face showed plainly the pain and shame she was suffering at heart.
In theirs the listeners felt as much pity as wonder at her
misfortunes; but as the curate was just about to offer her some
consolation and advice Cardenio forestalled himsayingSo then,
senora, you are the fair Dorothea, the only daughter of the rich

Clenardo?Dorothea was astonished at hearing her father's nameand
at the miserable appearance of him who mentioned itfor it has been
already said how wretchedly clad Cardenio was; so she said to him:

And who may you be, brother, who seem to know my father's name so
well? For so far, if I remember rightly, I have not mentioned it in
the whole story of my misfortunes.

I am that unhappy being, senora,replied Cardeniowhom, as you
have said, Luscinda declared to be her husband; I am the unfortunate
Cardenio, whom the wrong-doing of him who has brought you to your
present condition has reduced to the state you see me in, bare,
ragged, bereft of all human comfort, and what is worse, of reason, for
I only possess it when Heaven is pleased for some short space to
restore it to me. I, Dorothea, am he who witnessed the wrong done by
Don Fernando, and waited to hear the 'Yes' uttered by which Luscinda
owned herself his betrothed: I am he who had not courage enough to see
how her fainting fit ended, or what came of the paper that was found
in her bosom, because my heart had not the fortitude to endure so many
strokes of ill-fortune at once; and so losing patience I quitted the
house, and leaving a letter with my host, which I entreated him to
place in Luscinda's hands, I betook myself to these solitudes,
resolved to end here the life I hated as if it were my mortal enemy.
But fate would not rid me of it, contenting itself with robbing me
of my reason, perhaps to preserve me for the good fortune I have had
in meeting you; for if that which you have just told us be true, as
I believe it to be, it may be that Heaven has yet in store for both of
us a happier termination to our misfortunes than we look for;
because seeing that Luscinda cannot marry Don Fernando, being mine, as
she has herself so openly declared, and that Don Fernando cannot marry
her as he is yours, we may reasonably hope that Heaven will restore to
us what is ours, as it is still in existence and not yet alienated
or destroyed. And as we have this consolation springing from no very
visionary hope or wild fancy, I entreat you, senora, to form new
resolutions in your better mind, as I mean to do in mine, preparing
yourself to look forward to happier fortunes; for I swear to you by
the faith of a gentleman and a Christian not to desert you until I see
you in possession of Don Fernando, and if I cannot by words induce him
to recognise his obligation to you, in that case to avail myself of
the right which my rank as a gentleman gives me, and with just cause
challenge him on account of the injury he has done you, not
regarding my own wrongs, which I shall leave to Heaven to avenge,
while I on earth devote myself to yours.

Cardenio's words completed the astonishment of Dorotheaand not
knowing how to return thanks for such an offershe attempted to
kiss his feet; but Cardenio would not permit itand the licentiate
replied for bothcommended the sound reasoning of Cardenioand
lastlybeggedadvisedand urged them to come with him to his
villagewhere they might furnish themselves with what they needed
and take measures to discover Don Fernandoor restore Dorothea to her
parentsor do what seemed to them most advisable. Cardenio and
Dorothea thanked himand accepted the kind offer he made them; and
the barberwho had been listening to all attentively and in
silenceon his part some kindly words alsoand with no less
good-will than the curate offered his services in any way that might
be of use to them. He also explained to them in a few words the object
that had brought them thereand the strange nature of Don Quixote's
madnessand how they were waiting for his squirewho had gone in
search of him. Like the recollection of a dreamthe quarrel he had
had with Don Quixote came back to Cardenio's memoryand he
described it to the others; but he was unable to say what the
dispute was about.

At this moment they heard a shoutand recognised it as coming
from Sancho Panzawhonot finding them where he had left themwas
calling aloud to them. They went to meet himand in answer to their
inquiries about Don Quixotebe told them how he had found him
stripped to his shirtlankyellowhalf dead with hungerand
sighing for his lady Dulcinea; and although he had told him that she
commanded him to quit that place and come to El Tobosowhere she
was expecting himhe had answered that he was determined not to
appear in the presence of her beauty until he had done deeds to make
him worthy of her favour; and if this went onSancho saidhe ran the
risk of not becoming an emperor as in duty boundor even an
archbishopwhich was the least he could be; for which reason they
ought to consider what was to be done to get him away from there.
The licentiate in reply told him not to be uneasyfor they would
fetch him away in spite of himself. He then told Cardenio and Dorothea
what they had proposed to do to cure Don Quixoteor at any rate
take him home; upon which Dorothea said that she could play the
distressed damsel better than the barber; especially as she had
there the dress in which to do it to the lifeand that they might
trust to her acting the part in every particular requisite for
carrying out their schemefor she had read a great many books of
chivalryand knew exactly the style in which afflicted damsels begged
boons of knights-errant.

In that case,said the curatethere is nothing more required
than to set about it at once, for beyond a doubt fortune is
declaring itself in our favour, since it has so unexpectedly begun
to open a door for your relief, and smoothed the way for us to our

Dorothea then took out of her pillow-case a complete petticoat of
some rich stuffand a green mantle of some other fine materialand a
necklace and other ornaments out of a little boxand with these in an
instant she so arrayed herself that she looked like a great and rich
lady. All thisand moreshe saidshe had taken from home in case of
needbut that until then she had had no occasion to make use of it.
They were all highly delighted with her graceairand beautyand
declared Don Fernando to be a man of very little taste when he
rejected such charms. But the one who admired her most was Sancho
Panzafor it seemed to him (what indeed was true) that in all the
days of his life he had never seen such a lovely creature; and he
asked the curate with great eagerness who this beautiful lady wasand
what she wanted in these out-of-the-way quarters.

This fair lady, brother Sancho,replied the curateis no less
a personage than the heiress in the direct male line of the great
kingdom of Micomicon, who has come in search of your master to beg a
boon of him, which is that he redress a wrong or injury that a
wicked giant has done her; and from the fame as a good knight which
your master has acquired far and wide, this princess has come from
Guinea to seek him.

A lucky seeking and a lucky finding!said Sancho Panza at this;
especially if my master has the good fortune to redress that
injury, and right that wrong, and kill that son of a bitch of a
giant your worship speaks of; as kill him he will if he meets him,
unless, indeed, he happens to be a phantom; for my master has no power
at all against phantoms. But one thing among others I would beg of
you, senor licentiate, which is, that, to prevent my master taking a
fancy to be an archbishop, for that is what I'm afraid of, your
worship would recommend him to marry this princess at once; for in
this way he will be disabled from taking archbishop's orders, and will
easily come into his empire, and I to the end of my desires; I have
been thinking over the matter carefully, and by what I can make out

I find it will not do for me that my master should become an
archbishop, because I am no good for the Church, as I am married;
and for me now, having as I have a wife and children, to set about
obtaining dispensations to enable me to hold a place of profit under
the Church, would be endless work; so that, senor, it all turns on
my master marrying this lady at once- for as yet I do not know her
grace, and so I cannot call her by her name.

She is called the Princess Micomicona,said the curate; "for as
her kingdom is Micomiconit is clear that must be her name."

There's no doubt of that,replied Sanchofor I have known many
to take their name and title from the place where they were born and
call themselves Pedro of Alcala, Juan of Ubeda, and Diego of
Valladolid; and it may be that over there in Guinea queens have the
same way of taking the names of their kingdoms.

So it may,said the curate; "and as for your master's marrying
I will do all in my power towards it:" with which Sancho was as much
pleased as the curate was amazed at his simplicity and at seeing
what a hold the absurdities of his master had taken of his fancy
for he had evidently persuaded himself that he was going to be an

By this time Dorothea had seated herself upon the curate's muleand
the barber had fitted the ox-tail beard to his faceand they now told
Sancho to conduct them to where Don Quixote waswarning him not to
say that he knew either the licentiate or the barberas his
master's becoming an emperor entirely depended on his not
recognising them; neither the curate nor Cardeniohoweverthought
fit to go with them; Cardenio lest he should remind Don Quixote of the
quarrel he had with himand the curate as there was no necessity
for his presence just yetso they allowed the others to go on
before themwhile they themselves followed slowly on foot. The curate
did not forget to instruct Dorothea how to actbut she said they
might make their minds easyas everything would be done exactly as
the books of chivalry required and described.

They had gone about three-quarters of a league when they
discovered Don Quixote in a wilderness of rocksby this time clothed
but without his armour; and as soon as Dorothea saw him and was told
by Sancho that that was Don Quixoteshe whipped her palfreythe
well-bearded barber following herand on coming up to him her
squire sprang from his mule and came forward to receive her in his
armsand she dismounting with great ease of manner advanced to
kneel before the feet of Don Quixote; and though he strove to raise
her upshe without rising addressed him in this fashion:

From this spot I will not rise, valiant and doughty knight, until
your goodness and courtesy grant me a boon, which will redound to
the honour and renown of your person and render a service to the
most disconsolate and afflicted damsel the sun has seen; and if the
might of your strong arm corresponds to the repute of your immortal
fame, you are bound to aid the helpless being who, led by the savour
of your renowned name, hath come from far distant lands to seek your
aid in her misfortunes.

I will not answer a word, beauteous lady,replied Don Quixote
nor will I listen to anything further concerning you, until you
rise from the earth.

I will not rise, senor,answered the afflicted damselunless
of your courtesy the boon I ask is first granted me.

I grant and accord it,said Don Quixoteprovided without
detriment or prejudice to my king, my country, or her who holds the
key of my heart and freedom, it may be complied with.

It will not be to the detriment or prejudice of any of them, my
worthy lord,said the afflicted damsel; and here Sancho Panza drew
close to his master's ear and said to him very softlyYour worship
may very safely grant the boon she asks; it's nothing at all; only
to kill a big giant; and she who asks it is the exalted Princess
Micomicona, queen of the great kingdom of Micomicon of Ethiopia.

Let her be who she may,replied Don QuixoteI will do what is my
bounden duty, and what my conscience bids me, in conformity with
what I have professed;and turning to the damsel he saidLet your
great beauty rise, for I grant the boon which you would ask of me.

Then what I ask,said the damselis that your magnanimous person
accompany me at once whither I will conduct you, and that you
promise not to engage in any other adventure or quest until you have
avenged me of a traitor who against all human and divine law, has
usurped my kingdom.

I repeat that I grant it,replied Don Quixote; "and solady
you may from this day forth lay aside the melancholy that distresses
youand let your failing hopes gather new life and strengthfor with
the help of God and of my arm you will soon see yourself restored to
your kingdomand seated upon the throne of your ancient and mighty
realmnotwithstanding and despite of the felons who would gainsay it;
and now hands to the workfor in delay there is apt to be danger."

The distressed damsel strove with much pertinacity to kiss his
hands; but Don Quixotewho was in all things a polished and courteous
knightwould by no means allow itbut made her rise and embraced her
with great courtesy and politenessand ordered Sancho to look to
Rocinante's girthsand to arm him without a moment's delay. Sancho
took down the armourwhich was hung up on a tree like a trophyand
having seen to the girths armed his master in a tricewho as soon
as he found himself in his armour exclaimed:

Let us be gone in the name of God to bring aid to this great lady.

The barber was all this time on his knees at great pains to hide his
laughter and not let his beard fallfor had it fallen maybe their
fine scheme would have come to nothing; but now seeing the boon
grantedand the promptitude with which Don Quixote prepared to set
out in compliance with ithe rose and took his lady's handand
between them they placed her upon the mule. Don Quixote then mounted
Rocinanteand the barber settled himself on his beastSancho being
left to go on footwhich made him feel anew the loss of his Dapple
finding the want of him now. But he bore all with cheerfulness
being persuaded that his master had now fairly started and was just on
the point of becoming an emperor; for he felt no doubt at all that
he would marry this princessand be king of Micomicon at least. The
only thing that troubled him was the reflection that this kingdom
was in the land of the blacksand that the people they would give him
for vassals would be all black; but for this he soon found a remedy in
his fancyand said he to himselfWhat is it to me if my vassals are
blacks? What more have I to do than make a cargo of them and carry
them to Spain, where I can sell them and get ready money for them, and
with it buy some title or some office in which to live at ease all the
days of my life? Not unless you go to sleep and haven't the wit or
skill to turn things to account and sell three, six, or ten thousand
vassals while you would he talking about it! By God I will stir them
up, big and little, or as best I can, and let them be ever so black

I'll turn them into white or yellow. Come, come, what a fool I am!
And so he jogged onso occupied with his thoughts and easy in his
mind that he forgot all about the hardship of travelling on foot.

Cardenio and the curate were watching all this from among some
bushesnot knowing how to join company with the others; but the
curatewho was very fertile in devicessoon hit upon a way of
effecting their purposeand with a pair of scissors he had in a
case he quickly cut off Cardenio's beardand putting on him a grey
jerkin of his own he gave him a black cloakleaving himself in his
breeches and doubletwhile Cardenio's appearance was so different
from what it had been that he would not have known himself had he seen
himself in a mirror. Having effected thisalthough the others had
gone on ahead while they were disguising themselvesthey easily
came out on the high road before themfor the brambles and awkward
places they encountered did not allow those on horseback to go as fast
as those on foot. They then posted themselves on the level ground at
the outlet of the Sierraand as soon as Don Quixote and his
companions emerged from it the curate began to examine him very
deliberatelyas though he were striving to recognise himand after
having stared at him for some time he hastened towards him with open
arms exclaimingA happy meeting with the mirror of chivalry, my
worthy compatriot Don Quixote of La Mancha, the flower and cream of
high breeding, the protection and relief of the distressed, the
quintessence of knights-errant!And so saying he clasped in his
arms the knee of Don Quixote's left leg. Heastonished at the
stranger's words and behaviourlooked at him attentivelyand at
length recognised himvery much surprised to see him thereand
made great efforts to dismount. Thishoweverthe curate would not
allowon which Don Quixote saidPermit me, senor licentiate, for it
is not fitting that I should be on horseback and so reverend a
person as your worship on foot.

On no account will I allow it,said the curate; "your mightiness
must remain on horsebackfor it is on horseback you achieve the
greatest deeds and adventures that have been beheld in our age; as for
mean unworthy priestit will serve me well enough to mount on the
haunches of one of the mules of these gentlefolk who accompany your
worshipif they have no objectionand I will fancy I am mounted on
the steed Pegasusor on the zebra or charger that bore the famous
MoorMuzaraquewho to this day lies enchanted in the great hill of
Zulemaa little distance from the great Complutum."

Nor even that will I consent to, senor licentiate,answered Don
Quixoteand I know it will be the good pleasure of my lady the
princess, out of love for me, to order her squire to give up the
saddle of his mule to your worship, and he can sit behind if the beast
will bear it.

It will, I am sure,said the princessand I am sure, too, that I
need not order my squire, for he is too courteous and considerate to
allow a Churchman to go on foot when he might be mounted.

That he is,said the barberand at once alightinghe offered his
saddle to the curatewho accepted it without much entreaty; but
unfortunately as the barber was mounting behindthe mulebeing as it
happened a hired onewhich is the same thing as saying
ill-conditionedlifted its hind hoofs and let fly a couple of kicks
in the airwhich would have made Master Nicholas wish his
expedition in quest of Don Quixote at the devil had they caught him on
the breast or head. As it wasthey so took him by surprise that he
came to the groundgiving so little heed to his beard that it fell
offand all he could do when he found himself without it was to cover
his face hastily with both his hands and moan that his teeth were

knocked out. Don Quixote when he saw all that bundle of beard
detachedwithout jaws or bloodfrom the face of the fallen squire

By the living God, but this is a great miracle! it has knocked
off and plucked away the beard from his face as if it had been
shaved off designedly.

The curateseeing the danger of discovery that threatened his
schemeat once pounced upon the beard and hastened with it to where
Master Nicholas laystill uttering moansand drawing his head to his
breast had it on in an instantmuttering over him some words which he
said were a certain special charm for sticking on beardsas they
would see; and as soon as he had it fixed he left himand the
squire appeared well bearded and whole as beforewhereat Don
Quixote was beyond measure astonishedand begged the curate to
teach him that charm when he had an opportunityas he was persuaded
its virtue must extend beyond the sticking on of beardsfor it was
clear that where the beard had been stripped off the flesh must have
remained torn and laceratedand when it could heal all that it must
be good for more than beards.

And so it is,said the curateand he promised to teach it to
him on the first opportunity. They then agreed that for the present
the curate should mountand that the three should ride by turns until
they reached the innwhich might be about six leagues from where they

Three then being mountedthat is to sayDon Quixotethe princess
and the curateand three on footCardeniothe barberand Sancho
PanzaDon Quixote said to the damsel:

Let your highness, lady, lead on whithersoever is most pleasing
to you;but before she could answer the licentiate said:

Towards what kingdom would your ladyship direct our course? Is it
perchance towards that of Micomicon? It must be, or else I know little
about kingdoms.

Shebeing ready on all pointsunderstood that she was to answer
Yes,so she said "Yessenormy way lies towards that kingdom."

In that case,said the curatewe must pass right through my
village, and there your worship will take the road to Cartagena, where
you will be able to embark, fortune favouring; and if the wind be fair
and the sea smooth and tranquil, in somewhat less than nine years
you may come in sight of the great lake Meona, I mean Meotides,
which is little more than a hundred days' journey this side of your
highness's kingdom.

Your worship is mistaken, senor,said she; "for it is not two
years since I set out from itand though I never had good weather
nevertheless I am here to behold what I so longed forand that is
my lord Don Quixote of La Manchawhose fame came to my ears as soon
as I set foot in Spain and impelled me to go in search of himto
commend myself to his courtesyand entrust the justice of my cause to
the might of his invincible arm."

Enough; no more praise,said Don Quixote at thisfor I hate
all flattery; and though this may not be so, still language of the
kind is offensive to my chaste ears. I will only say, senora, that
whether it has might or not, that which it may or may not have shall
be devoted to your service even to death; and now, leaving this to its
proper season, I would ask the senor licentiate to tell me what it

is that has brought him into these parts, alone, unattended, and so
lightly clad that I am filled with amazement.

I will answer that briefly,replied the curate; "you must know
thenSenor Don Quixotethat Master Nicholasour friend and
barberand I were going to Seville to receive some money that a
relative of mine who went to the Indies many years ago had sent me
and not such a small sum but that it was over sixty thousand pieces of
eightfull weightwhich is something; and passing by this place
yesterday we were attacked by four footpadswho stripped us even to
our beardsand them they stripped off so that the barber found it
necessary to put on a false oneand even this young man here"pointing
to Cardenio- "they completely transformed. But the best of it
isthe story goes in the neighbourhood that those who attacked us
belong to a number of galley slaves whothey saywere set free
almost on the very same spot by a man of such valour thatin spite of
the commissary and of the guardshe released the whole of them; and
beyond all doubt he must have been out of his sensesor he must be as
great a scoundrel as theyor some man without heart or conscience
to let the wolf loose among the sheepthe fox among the hensthe fly
among the honey. He has defrauded justiceand opposed his king and
lawful masterfor he opposed his just commands; he hasI sayrobbed
the galleys of their feetstirred up the Holy Brotherhood which for
many years past has been quietandlastlyhas done a deed by
which his soul may be lost without any gain to his body." Sancho had
told the curate and the barber of the adventure of the galley
slaveswhichso much to his gloryhis master had achievedand
hence the curate in alluding to it made the most of it to see what
would be said or done by Don Quixote; who changed colour at every
wordnot daring to say that it was he who had been the liberator of
those worthy people. "Thesethen said the curate, were they who
robbed us; and God in his mercy pardon him who would not let them go
to the punishment they deserved."



The curate had hardly ceased speakingwhen Sancho saidIn
faith, then, senor licentiate, he who did that deed was my master; and
it was not for want of my telling him beforehand and warning him to
mind what he was about, and that it was a sin to set them at
liberty, as they were all on the march there because they were special

Blockhead!said Don Quixote at thisit is no business or concern
of knights-errant to inquire whether any persons in affliction, in
chains, or oppressed that they may meet on the high roads go that
way and suffer as they do because of their faults or because of
their misfortunes. It only concerns them to aid them as persons in
need of help, having regard to their sufferings and not to their
rascalities. I encountered a chaplet or string of miserable and
unfortunate people, and did for them what my sense of duty demands
of me, and as for the rest be that as it may; and whoever takes
objection to it, saving the sacred dignity of the senor licentiate and
his honoured person, I say he knows little about chivalry and lies
like a whoreson villain, and this I will give him to know to the
fullest extent with my sword;and so saying he settled himself in his
stirrups and pressed down his morion; for the barber's basinwhich
according to him was Mambrino's helmethe carried hanging at the
saddle-bow until he could repair the damage done to it by the galley

Dorotheawho was shrewd and sprightlyand by this time
thoroughly understood Don Quixote's crazy turnand that all except
Sancho Panza were making game of himnot to be behind the rest said
to himon observing his irritationSir Knight, remember the boon
you have promised me, and that in accordance with it you must not
engage in any other adventure, be it ever so pressing; calm
yourself, for if the licentiate had known that the galley slaves had
been set free by that unconquered arm he would have stopped his
mouth thrice over, or even bitten his tongue three times before he
would have said a word that tended towards disrespect of your

That I swear heartily,said the curateand I would have even
plucked off a moustache.

I will hold my peace, senora,said Don Quixoteand I will curb
the natural anger that had arisen in my breast, and will proceed in
peace and quietness until I have fulfilled my promise; but in return
for this consideration I entreat you to tell me, if you have no
objection to do so, what is the nature of your trouble, and how
many, who, and what are the persons of whom I am to require due
satisfaction, and on whom I am to take vengeance on your behalf?

That I will do with all my heart,replied Dorotheaif it will
not be wearisome to you to hear of miseries and misfortunes.

It will not be wearisome, senora,said Don Quixote; to which
Dorothea repliedWell, if that be so, give me your attention.As
soon as she said thisCardenio and the barber drew close to her side
eager to hear what sort of story the quick-witted Dorothea would
invent for herself; and Sancho did the samefor he was as much
taken in by her as his master; and she having settled herself
comfortably in the saddleand with the help of coughing and other
preliminaries taken time to thinkbegan with great sprightliness of
manner in this fashion.

First of all, I would have you know, sirs, that my name is-and
here she stopped for a momentfor she forgot the name the curate
had given her; but he came to her reliefseeing what her difficulty
wasand saidIt is no wonder, senora, that your highness should
be confused and embarrassed in telling the tale of your misfortunes;
for such afflictions often have the effect of depriving the
sufferers of memory, so that they do not even remember their own
names, as is the case now with your ladyship, who has forgotten that
she is called the Princess Micomicona, lawful heiress of the great
kingdom of Micomicon; and with this cue your highness may now recall
to your sorrowful recollection all you may wish to tell us.

That is the truth,said the damsel; "but I think from this on I
shall have no need of any promptingand I shall bring my true story
safe into portand here it is. The king my fatherwho was called
Tinacrio the Sapientwas very learned in what they call magic arts
and became aware by his craft that my motherwho was called Queen
Jaramillawas to die before he didand that soon after he too was to
depart this lifeand I was to be left an orphan without father or
mother. But all thishe declareddid not so much grieve or
distress him as his certain knowledge that a prodigious giantthe
lord of a great island close to our kingdomPandafilando of the Scowl
by name -for it is averred thatthough his eyes are properly placed
and straighthe always looks askew as if he squintedand this he
does out of malignityto strike fear and terror into those he looks
at- that he knewI saythat this giant on becoming aware of my
orphan condition would overrun my kingdom with a mighty force and

strip me of allnot leaving me even a small village to shelter me;
but that I could avoid all this ruin and misfortune if I were
willing to marry him; howeveras far as he could seehe never
expected that I would consent to a marriage so unequal; and he said no
more than the truth in thisfor it has never entered my mind to marry
that giantor any otherlet him be ever so great or enormous. My
father saidtoothat when he was deadand I saw Pandafilando
about to invade my kingdomI was not to wait and attempt to defend
myselffor that would be destructive to mebut that I should leave
the kingdom entirely open to him if I wished to avoid the death and
total destruction of my good and loyal vassalsfor there would be
no possibility of defending myself against the giant's devilish power;
and that I should at once with some of my followers set out for Spain
where I should obtain relief in my distress on finding a certain
knight-errant whose fame by that time would extend over the whole
kingdomand who would be calledif I remember rightlyDon Azote
or Don Gigote."

'Don Quixote,' he must have said, senora,observed Sancho at this
otherwise called the Knight of the Rueful Countenance.

That is it,said Dorothea; "he saidmoreoverthat he would be
tall of stature and lank featured; and that on his right side under
the left shoulderor thereaboutshe would have a grey mole with
hairs like bristles."

On hearing thisDon Quixote said to his squireHere, Sancho my
son, bear a hand and help me to strip, for I want to see if I am the
knight that sage king foretold.

What does your worship want to strip for?said Dorothea.

To see if I have that mole your father spoke of,answered Don

There is no occasion to strip,said Sancho; "for I know your
worship has just such a mole on the middle of your backbonewhich
is the mark of a strong man."

That is enough,said Dorotheafor with friends we must not
look too closely into trifles; and whether it be on the shoulder or on
the backbone matters little; it is enough if there is a mole, be it
where it may, for it is all the same flesh; no doubt my good father
hit the truth in every particular, and I have made a lucky hit in
commending myself to Don Quixote; for he is the one my father spoke
of, as the features of his countenance correspond with those
assigned to this knight by that wide fame he has acquired not only
in Spain but in all La Mancha; for I had scarcely landed at Osuna when
I heard such accounts of his achievements, that at once my heart
told me he was the very one I had come in search of.

But how did you land at Osuna, senora,asked Don Quixotewhen it
is not a seaport?

But before Dorothea could reply the curate anticipated her
sayingThe princess meant to say that after she had landed at Malaga
the first place where she heard of your worship was Osuna.

That is what I meant to say,said Dorothea.

And that would be only natural,said the curate. "Will your
majesty please proceed?"

There is no more to add,said Dorotheasave that in finding

Don Quixote I have had such good fortune, that I already reckon and
regard myself queen and mistress of my entire dominions, since of
his courtesy and magnanimity he has granted me the boon of
accompanying me whithersoever I may conduct him, which will be only to
bring him face to face with Pandafilando of the Scowl, that he may
slay him and restore to me what has been unjustly usurped by him:
for all this must come to pass satisfactorily since my good father
Tinacrio the Sapient foretold it, who likewise left it declared in
writing in Chaldee or Greek characters (for I cannot read them),
that if this predicted knight, after having cut the giant's throat,
should be disposed to marry me I was to offer myself at once without
demur as his lawful wife, and yield him possession of my kingdom
together with my person.

What thinkest thou now, friend Sancho?said Don Quixote at this.
Hearest thou that? Did I not tell thee so? See how we have already
got a kingdom to govern and a queen to marry!

On my oath it is so,said Sancho; "and foul fortune to him who
won't marry after slitting Senor Pandahilado's windpipe! And thenhow
illfavoured the queen is! I wish the fleas in my bed were that sort!"

And so saying he cut a couple of capers in the air with every sign
of extreme satisfactionand then ran to seize the bridle of
Dorothea's muleand checking it fell on his knees before herbegging
her to give him her hand to kiss in token of his acknowledgment of her
as his queen and mistress. Which of the bystanders could have helped
laughing to see the madness of the master and the simplicity of the
servant? Dorothea therefore gave her handand promised to make him
a great lord in her kingdomwhen Heaven should be so good as to
permit her to recover and enjoy itfor which Sancho returned thanks
in words that set them all laughing again.

This, sirs,continued Dorotheais my story; it only remains to
tell you that of all the attendants I took with me from my kingdom I
have none left except this well-bearded squire, for all were drowned
in a great tempest we encountered when in sight of port; and he and
I came to land on a couple of planks as if by a miracle; and indeed
the whole course of my life is a miracle and a mystery as you may have
observed; and if I have been over minute in any respect or not as
precise as I ought, let it be accounted for by what the licentiate
said at the beginning of my tale, that constant and excessive troubles
deprive the sufferers of their memory.

They shall not deprive me of mine, exalted and worthy princess,
said Don Quixotehowever great and unexampled those which I shall
endure in your service may be; and here I confirm anew the boon I have
promised you, and I swear to go with you to the end of the world until
I find myself in the presence of your fierce enemy, whose haughty head
I trust by the aid of my arm to cut off with the edge of this- I
will not say good sword, thanks to Gines de Pasamonte who carried away
mine- (this he said between his teethand then continued)and when
it has been cut off and you have been put in peaceful possession of
your realm it shall be left to your own decision to dispose of your
person as may be most pleasing to you; for so long as my memory is
occupied, my will enslaved, and my understanding enthralled by her-
I say no more- it is impossible for me for a moment to contemplate
marriage, even with a Phoenix.

The last words of his master about not wanting to marry were so
disagreeable to Sancho that raising his voice he exclaimed with
great irritation:

By my oath, Senor Don Quixote, you are not in your right senses;

for how can your worship possibly object to marrying such an exalted
princess as this? Do you think Fortune will offer you behind every
stone such a piece of luck as is offered you now? Is my lady
Dulcinea fairer, perchance? Not she; nor half as fair; and I will even
go so far as to say she does not come up to the shoe of this one here.
A poor chance I have of getting that county I am waiting for if your
worship goes looking for dainties in the bottom of the sea. In the
devil's name, marry, marry, and take this kingdom that comes to hand
without any trouble, and when you are king make me a marquis or
governor of a province, and for the rest let the devil take it all.

Don Quixotewhen he heard such blasphemies uttered against his lady
Dulcineacould not endure itand lifting his pikewithout saying
anything to Sancho or uttering a wordhe gave him two such thwacks
that he brought him to the ground; and had it not been that Dorothea
cried out to him to spare him he would have no doubt taken his life on
the spot.

Do you think,he said to him after a pauseyou scurvy clown,
that you are to be always interfering with me, and that you are to
be always offending and I always pardoning? Don't fancy it, impious
scoundrel, for that beyond a doubt thou art, since thou hast set thy
tongue going against the peerless Dulcinea. Know you not, lout,
vagabond, beggar, that were it not for the might that she infuses into
my arm I should not have strength enough to kill a flea? Say,
scoffer with a viper's tongue, what think you has won this kingdom and
cut off this giant's head and made you a marquis (for all this I count
as already accomplished and decided), but the might of Dulcinea,
employing my arm as the instrument of her achievements? She fights
in me and conquers in me, and I live and breathe in her, and owe my
life and being to her. O whoreson scoundrel, how ungrateful you are,
you see yourself raised from the dust of the earth to be a titled
lord, and the return you make for so great a benefit is to speak
evil of her who has conferred it upon you!

Sancho was not so stunned but that he heard all his master saidand
rising with some degree of nimbleness he ran to place himself behind
Dorothea's palfreyand from that position he said to his master:

Tell me, senor; if your worship is resolved not to marry this great
princess, it is plain the kingdom will not be yours; and not being so,
how can you bestow favours upon me? That is what I complain of. Let
your worship at any rate marry this queen, now that we have got her
here as if showered down from heaven, and afterwards you may go back
to my lady Dulcinea; for there must have been kings in the world who
kept mistresses. As to beauty, I have nothing to do with it; and if
the truth is to be told, I like them both; though I have never seen
the lady Dulcinea.

How! never seen her, blasphemous traitor!exclaimed Don Quixote;
hast thou not just now brought me a message from her?

I mean,said Sanchothat I did not see her so much at my leisure
that I could take particular notice of her beauty, or of her charms
piecemeal; but taken in the lump I like her.

Now I forgive thee,said Don Quixote; "and do thou forgive me
the injury I have done thee; for our first impulses are not in our

That I see,replied Sanchoand with me the wish to speak is
always the first impulse, and I cannot help saying, once at any
rate, what I have on the tip of my tongue.

For all that, Sancho,said Don Quixotetake heed of what thou
sayest, for the pitcher goes so often to the well- I need say no
more to thee.

Well, well,said SanchoGod is in heaven, and sees all tricks,
and will judge who does most harm, I in not speaking right, or your
worship in not doing it.

That is enough,said Dorothea; "runSanchoand kiss your
lord's hand and beg his pardonand henceforward be more circumspect
with your praise and abuse; and say nothing in disparagement of that
lady Tobosoof whom I know nothing save that I am her servant; and
put your trust in Godfor you will not fail to obtain some dignity so
as to live like a prince."

Sancho advanced hanging his head and begged his master's handwhich
Don Quixote with dignity presented to himgiving him his blessing
as soon as he had kissed it; he then bade him go on ahead a littleas
he had questions to ask him and matters of great importance to discuss
with him. Sancho obeyedand when the two had gone some distance in
advance Don Quixote said to himSince thy return I have had no
opportunity or time to ask thee many particulars touching thy
mission and the answer thou hast brought back, and now that chance has
granted us the time and opportunity, deny me not the happiness thou
canst give me by such good news.

Let your worship ask what you will,answered Sanchofor I
shall find a way out of all as as I found a way in; but I implore you,
senor, not not to be so revengeful in future.

Why dost thou say that, Sancho?said Don Quixote.

I say it,he returnedbecause those blows just now were more
because of the quarrel the devil stirred up between us both the
other night, than for what I said against my lady Dulcinea, whom I
love and reverence as I would a relic- though there is nothing of that
about her- merely as something belonging to your worship.

Say no more on that subject for thy life, Sancho,said Don
Quixotefor it is displeasing to me; I have already pardoned thee
for that, and thou knowest the common saying, 'for a fresh sin a fresh

While this was going on they saw coming along the road they were
following a man mounted on an asswho when he came close seemed to be
a gipsy; but Sancho Panzawhose eyes and heart were there wherever he
saw assesno sooner beheld the man than he knew him to be Gines de
Pasamonte; and by the thread of the gipsy he got at the ballhis ass
for it wasin factDapple that carried Pasamontewho to escape
recognition and to sell the ass had disguised himself as a gipsy
being able to speak the gipsy languageand many moreas well as if
they were his own. Sancho saw him and recognised himand the
instant he did so he shouted to himGinesillo, you thief, give up my
treasure, release my life, embarrass thyself not with my repose,
quit my ass, leave my delight, be off, rip, get thee gone, thief,
and give up what is not thine.

There was no necessity for so many words or objurgationsfor at the
first one Gines jumped downand at a like racing speed made off and
got clear of them all. Sancho hastened to his Dappleand embracing
him he saidHow hast thou fared, my blessing, Dapple of my eyes,
my comrade?all the while kissing him and caressing him as if he were
a human being. The ass held his peaceand let himself be kissed and
caressed by Sancho without answering a single word. They all came up

and congratulated him on having found DappleDon Quixote
especiallywho told him that notwithstanding this he would not cancel
the order for the three ass-coltsfor which Sancho thanked him.

While the two had been going along conversing in this fashionthe
curate observed to Dorothea that she had shown great clevernessas
well in the story itself as in its concisenessand the resemblance it
bore to those of the books of chivalry. She said that she had many
times amused herself reading them; but that she did not know the
situation of the provinces or seaportsand so she had said at
haphazard that she had landed at Osuna.

So I saw,said the curateand for that reason I made haste to
say what I did, by which it was all set right. But is it not a strange
thing to see how readily this unhappy gentleman believes all these
figments and lies, simply because they are in the style and manner
of the absurdities of his books?

So it is,said Cardenio; "and so uncommon and unexampledthat
were one to attempt to invent and concoct it in fictionI doubt if
there be any wit keen enough to imagine it."

But another strange thing about it,said the curateis that,
apart from the silly things which this worthy gentleman says in
connection with his craze, when other subjects are dealt with, he
can discuss them in a perfectly rational manner, showing that his mind
is quite clear and composed; so that, provided his chivalry is not
touched upon, no one would take him to be anything but a man of
thoroughly sound understanding.

While they were holding this conversation Don Quixote continued
his with Sanchosaying:

Friend Panza, let us forgive and forget as to our quarrels, and
tell me now, dismissing anger and irritation, where, how, and when
didst thou find Dulcinea? What was she doing? What didst thou say to
her? What did she answer? How did she look when she was reading my
letter? Who copied it out for thee? and everything in the matter
that seems to thee worth knowing, asking, and learning; neither adding
nor falsifying to give me pleasure, nor yet curtailing lest you should
deprive me of it.

Senor,replied Sanchoif the truth is to be told, nobody
copied out the letter for me, for I carried no letter at all.

It is as thou sayest,said Don Quixotefor the note-book in
which I wrote it I found in my own possession two days after thy
departure, which gave me very great vexation, as I knew not what
thou wouldst do on finding thyself without any letter; and I made sure
thou wouldst return from the place where thou didst first miss it.

So I should have done,said Sanchoif I had not got it by
heart when your worship read it to me, so that I repeated it to a
sacristan, who copied it out for me from hearing it, so exactly that
he said in all the days of his life, though he had read many a
letter of excommunication, he had never seen or read so pretty a
letter as that.

And hast thou got it still in thy memory, Sancho?said Don

No, senor,replied Sanchofor as soon as I had repeated it,
seeing there was no further use for it, I set about forgetting it; and
if I recollect any of it, it is that about 'Scrubbing,'I mean to say

'Sovereign Lady,' and the end 'Yours till death, the Knight of the
Rueful Countenance;' and between these two I put into it more than
three hundred 'my souls' and 'my life's' and 'my eyes.



All that is not unsatisfactory to me,said Don Quixote. "Go on;
thou didst reach her; and what was that queen of beauty doing?
Surely thou didst find her stringing pearlsor embroidering some
device in gold thread for this her enslaved knight."

I did not,said Sanchobut I found her winnowing two bushels
of wheat in the yard of her house.

Then depend upon it,said Don Quixotethe grains of that wheat
were pearls when touched by her hands; and didst thou look, friend?
was it white wheat or brown?

It was neither, but red,said Sancho.

Then I promise thee,said Don Quixotethat, winnowed by her
hands, beyond a doubt the bread it made was of the whitest; but go on;
when thou gavest her my letter, did she kiss it? Did she place it on
her head? Did she perform any ceremony befitting it, or what did she

When I went to give it to her,replied Sanchoshe was hard at it
swaying from side to side with a lot of wheat she had in the sieve,
and she said to me, 'Lay the letter, friend, on the top of that
sack, for I cannot read it until I have done sifting all this.

Discreet lady!said Don Quixote; "that was in order to read it
at her leisure and enjoy it; proceedSancho; while she was engaged in
her occupation what converse did she hold with thee? What did she
ask about meand what answer didst thou give? Make haste; tell me
alland let not an atom be left behind in the ink-bottle."

She asked me nothing,said Sancho; "but I told her how your
worship was left doing penance in her servicenaked from the waist
upin among these mountains like a savagesleeping on the ground
not eating bread off a tablecloth nor combing your beardweeping
and cursing your fortune."

In saying I cursed my fortune thou saidst wrong,said Don Quixote;
for rather do I bless it and shall bless it all the days of my life
for having made me worthy of aspiring to love so lofty a lady as
Dulcinea del Toboso.

And so lofty she is,said Sanchothat she overtops me by more
than a hand's-breadth.

What! Sancho,said Don Quixotedidst thou measure with her?

I measured in this way,said Sancho; "going to help her to put a
sack of wheat on the back of an asswe came so close together that
I could see she stood more than a good palm over me."

Well!said Don Quixoteand doth she not of a truth accompany and

adorn this greatness with a thousand million charms of mind! But one
thing thou wilt not deny, Sancho; when thou camest close to her
didst thou not perceive a Sabaean odour, an aromatic fragrance, a, I
know not what, delicious, that I cannot find a name for; I mean a
redolence, an exhalation, as if thou wert in the shop of some dainty

All I can say is,said Sanchothat I did perceive a little
odour, something goaty; it must have been that she was all in a
sweat with hard work.

It could not be that,said Don Quixotebut thou must have been
suffering from cold in the head, or must have smelt thyself; for I
know well what would be the scent of that rose among thorns, that lily
of the field, that dissolved amber.

Maybe so,replied Sancho; "there often comes from myself that same
odour which then seemed to me to come from her grace the lady
Dulcinea; but that's no wonderfor one devil is like another."

Well then,continued Don Quixotenow she has done sifting the
corn and sent it to the mill; what did she do when she read the

As for the letter,said Sanchoshe did not read it, for she said
she could neither read nor write; instead of that she tore it up
into small pieces, saying that she did not want to let anyone read
it lest her secrets should become known in the village, and that
what I had told her by word of mouth about the love your worship
bore her, and the extraordinary penance you were doing for her sake,
was enough; and, to make an end of it, she told me to tell your
worship that she kissed your hands, and that she had a greater
desire to see you than to write to you; and that therefore she
entreated and commanded you, on sight of this present, to come out
of these thickets, and to have done with carrying on absurdities,
and to set out at once for El Toboso, unless something else of greater
importance should happen, for she had a great desire to see your
worship. She laughed greatly when I told her how your worship was
called The Knight of the Rueful Countenance; I asked her if that
Biscayan the other day had been there; and she told me he had, and
that he was an honest fellow; I asked her too about the galley slaves,
but she said she had not seen any as yet.

So far all goes well,said Don Quixote; "but tell me what jewel
was it that she gave thee on taking thy leavein return for thy
tidings of me? For it is a usual and ancient custom with knights and
ladies errant to give the squiresdamselsor dwarfs who bring
tidings of their ladies to the knightsor of their knights to the
ladiessome rich jewel as a guerdon for good news' and
acknowledgment of the message."

That is very likely,said Sanchoand a good custom it was, to my
mind; but that must have been in days gone by, for now it would seem
to be the custom only to give a piece of bread and cheese; because
that was what my lady Dulcinea gave me over the top of the yard-wall
when I took leave of her; and more by token it was sheep's-milk

She is generous in the extreme,said Don Quixoteand if she
did not give thee a jewel of gold, no doubt it must have been
because she had not one to hand there to give thee; but sleeves are
good after Easter; I shall see her and all shall be made right. But
knowest thou what amazes me, Sancho? It seems to me thou must have
gone and come through the air, for thou hast taken but little more

than three days to go to El Toboso and return, though it is more
than thirty leagues from here to there. From which I am inclined to
think that the sage magician who is my friend, and watches over my
interests (for of necessity there is and must be one, or else I should
not be a right knight-errant), that this same, I say, must have helped
thee to travel without thy knowledge; for some of these sages will
catch up a knight-errant sleeping in his bed, and without his
knowing how or in what way it happened, he wakes up the next day
more than a thousand leagues away from the place where he went to
sleep. And if it were not for this, knights-errant would not be able
to give aid to one another in peril, as they do at every turn. For a
knight, maybe, is fighting in the mountains of Armenia with some
dragon, or fierce serpent, or another knight, and gets the worst of
the battle, and is at the point of death; but when he least looks
for it, there appears over against him on a cloud, or chariot of fire,
another knight, a friend of his, who just before had been in
England, and who takes his part, and delivers him from death; and at
night he finds himself in his own quarters supping very much to his
satisfaction; and yet from one place to the other will have been two
or three thousand leagues. And all this is done by the craft and skill
of the sage enchanters who take care of those valiant knights; so
that, friend Sancho, I find no difficulty in believing that thou
mayest have gone from this place to El Toboso and returned in such a
short time, since, as I have said, some friendly sage must have
carried thee through the air without thee perceiving it.

That must have been it,said Sanchofor indeed Rocinante went
like a gipsy's ass with quicksilver in his ears.

Quicksilver!said Don Quixoteaye and what is more, a legion
of devils, folk that can travel and make others travel without being
weary, exactly as the whim seizes them. But putting this aside, what
thinkest thou I ought to do about my lady's command to go and see her?
For though I feel that I am bound to obey her mandate, I feel too that
I am debarred by the boon I have accorded to the princess that
accompanies us, and the law of chivalry compels me to have regard
for my word in preference to my inclination; on the one hand the
desire to see my lady pursues and harasses me, on the other my
solemn promise and the glory I shall win in this enterprise urge and
call me; but what I think I shall do is to travel with all speed and
reach quickly the place where this giant is, and on my arrival I shall
cut off his head, and establish the princess peacefully in her
realm, and forthwith I shall return to behold the light that
lightens my senses, to whom I shall make such excuses that she will be
led to approve of my delay, for she will see that it entirely tends to
increase her glory and fame; for all that I have won, am winning, or
shall win by arms in this life, comes to me of the favour she
extends to me, and because I am hers.

Ah! what a sad state your worship's brains are in!said Sancho.
Tell me, senor, do you mean to travel all that way for nothing, and
to let slip and lose so rich and great a match as this where they give
as a portion a kingdom that in sober truth I have heard say is more
than twenty thousand leagues round about, and abounds with all
things necessary to support human life, and is bigger than Portugal
and Castile put together? Peace, for the love of God! Blush for what
you have said, and take my advice, and forgive me, and marry at once
in the first village where there is a curate; if not, here is our
licentiate who will do the business beautifully; remember, I am old
enough to give advice, and this I am giving comes pat to the
purpose; for a sparrow in the hand is better than a vulture on the
wing, and he who has the good to his hand and chooses the bad, that
the good he complains of may not come to him.

Look here, Sancho,said Don Quixote. "If thou art advising me to
marryin order that immediately on slaying the giant I may become
kingand be able to confer favours on theeand give thee what I have
promisedlet me tell thee I shall be able very easily to satisfy
thy desires without marrying; for before going into battle I will make
it a stipulation thatif I come out of it victoriouseven I do not
marrythey shall give me a portion portion of the kingdomthat I may
bestow it upon whomsoever I chooseand when they give it to me upon
whom wouldst thou have me bestow it but upon thee?"

That is plain speaking,said Sancho; "but let your worship take
care to choose it on the seacoastso that if I don't like the lifeI
may be able to ship off my black vassals and deal with them as I
have said; don't mind going to see my lady Dulcinea nowbut go and
kill this giant and let us finish off this business; for by God it
strikes me it will be one of great honour and great profit."

I hold thou art in the right of it, Sancho,said Don Quixoteand
I will take thy advice as to accompanying the princess before going to
see Dulcinea; but I counsel thee not to say anything to any one, or to
those who are with us, about what we have considered and discussed,
for as Dulcinea is so decorous that she does not wish her thoughts
to be known it is not right that I or anyone for me should disclose

Well then, if that be so,said Sanchohow is it that your
worship makes all those you overcome by your arm go to present
themselves before my lady Dulcinea, this being the same thing as
signing your name to it that you love her and are her lover? And as
those who go must perforce kneel before her and say they come from
your worship to submit themselves to her, how can the thoughts of both
of you be hid?

O, how silly and simple thou art!said Don Quixote; "seest thou
notSanchothat this tends to her greater exaltation? For thou
must know that according to our way of thinking in chivalryit is a
high honour to a lady to have many knights-errant in her service
whose thoughts never go beyond serving her for her own sakeand who
look for no other reward for their great and true devotion than that
she should be willing to accept them as her knights."

It is with that kind of love,said SanchoI have heard preachers
say we ought to love our Lord, for himself alone, without being
moved by the hope of glory or the fear of punishment; though for my
part, I would rather love and serve him for what he could do.

The devil take thee for a clown!said Don Quixoteand what
shrewd things thou sayest at times! One would think thou hadst

In faith, then, I cannot even read.

Master Nicholas here called out to them to wait a whileas they
wanted to halt and drink at a little spring there was there. Don
Quixote drew upnot a little to the satisfaction of Sanchofor he
was by this time weary of telling so many liesand in dread of his
master catching him trippingfor though he knew that Dulcinea was a
peasant girl of El Tobosohe had never seen her in all his life.
Cardenio had now put on the clothes which Dorothea was wearing when
they found herand though they were not very goodthey were far
better than those he put off. They dismounted together by the side
of the springand with what the curate had provided himself with at
the inn they appeasedthough not very wellthe keen appetite they
all of them brought with them.

While they were so employed there happened to come by a youth
passing on his waywho stopping to examine the party at the spring
the next moment ran to Don Quixote and clasping him round the legs
began to weep freelysayingO, senor, do you not know me? Look at
me well; I am that lad Andres that your worship released from the
oak-tree where I was tied.

Don Quixote recognised himand taking his hand he turned to those
present and said: "That your worships may see how important it is to
have knights-errant to redress the wrongs and injuries done by
tyrannical and wicked men in this worldI may tell you that some days
ago passing through a woodI heard cries and piteous complaints as of
a person in pain and distress; I immediately hastenedimpelled by
my bounden dutyto the quarter whence the plaintive accents seemed to
me to proceedand I found tied to an oak this lad who now stands
before youwhich in my heart I rejoice atfor his testimony will not
permit me to depart from the truth in any particular. He wasI say
tied to an oaknaked from the waist upand a clownwhom I
afterwards found to be his masterwas scarifying him by lashes with
the reins of his mare. As soon as I saw him I asked the reason of so
cruel a flagellation. The boor replied that he was flogging him
because he was his servant and because of carelessness that
proceeded rather from dishonesty than stupidity; on which this boy
said'Senorhe flogs me only because I ask for my wages.' The master
made I know not what speeches and explanationswhichthough I
listened to themI did not accept. In shortI compelled the clown to
unbind himand to swear he would take him with himand pay him
real by realand perfumed into the bargain. Is not all this true
Andres my son? Didst thou not mark with what authority I commanded
himand with what humility he promised to do all I enjoined
specifiedand required of him? Answer without hesitation; tell
these gentlemen what took placethat they may see that it is as great
an advantage as I say to have knights-errant abroad."

All that your worship has said is quite true,answered the lad;
but the end of the business turned out just the opposite of what your
worship supposes.

How! the opposite?said Don Quixote; "did not the clown pay thee

Not only did he not pay me,replied the ladbut as soon as
your worship had passed out of the wood and we were alone, he tied
me up again to the same oak and gave me a fresh flogging, that left me
like a flayed Saint Bartholomew; and every stroke he gave me he
followed up with some jest or gibe about having made a fool of your
worship, and but for the pain I was suffering I should have laughed at
the things he said. In short he left me in such a condition that I
have been until now in a hospital getting cured of the injuries
which that rascally clown inflicted on me then; for all which your
worship is to blame; for if you had gone your own way and not come
where there was no call for you, nor meddled in other people's
affairs, my master would have been content with giving me one or two
dozen lashes, and would have then loosed me and paid me what he owed
me; but when your worship abused him so out of measure, and gave him
so many hard words, his anger was kindled; and as he could not revenge
himself on you, as soon as he saw you had left him the storm burst
upon me in such a way, that I feel as if I should never be a man

The mischief,said Don Quixotelay in my going away; for I
should not have gone until I had seen thee paid; because I ought to
have known well by long experience that there is no clown who will

keep his word if he finds it will not suit him to keep it; but thou
rememberest, Andres, that I swore if he did not pay thee I would go
and seek him, and find him though he were to hide himself in the
whale's belly.

That is true,said Andres; "but it was of no use."

Thou shalt see now whether it is of use or not,said Don
Quixote; and so sayinghe got up hastily and bade Sancho bridle
Rocinantewho was browsing while they were eating. Dorothea asked him
what he meant to do. He replied that he meant to go in search of
this clown and chastise him for such iniquitous conductand see
Andres paid to the last maravedidespite and in the teeth of all
the clowns in the world. To which she replied that he must remember
that in accordance with his promise he could not engage in any
enterprise until he had concluded hers; and that as he knew this
better than anyonehe should restrain his ardour until his return
from her kingdom.

That is true,said Don Quixoteand Andres must have patience
until my return as you say, senora; but I once more swear and
promise not to stop until I have seen him avenged and paid.

I have no faith in those oaths,said Andres; "I would rather
have now something to help me to get to Seville than all the
revenges in the world; if you have here anything to eat that I can
take with megive it meand God be with your worship and all
knights-errant; and may their errands turn out as well for
themselves as they have for me."

Sancho took out from his store a piece of bread and another of
cheeseand giving them to the lad he saidHere, take this,
brother Andres, for we have all of us a share in your misfortune.

Why, what share have you got?

This share of bread and cheese I am giving you,answered Sancho;
and God knows whether I shall feel the want of it myself or not;
for I would have you know, friend, that we squires to knights-errant
have to bear a great deal of hunger and hard fortune, and even other
things more easily felt than told.

Andres seized his bread and cheeseand seeing that nobody gave
him anything morebent his headand took hold of the roadas the
saying is. Howeverbefore leaving he saidFor the love of God,
sir knight-errant, if you ever meet me again, though you may see
them cutting me to pieces, give me no aid or succour, but leave me
to my misfortune, which will not be so great but that a greater will
come to me by being helped by your worship, on whom and all the
knights-errant that have ever been born God send his curse.

Don Quixote was getting up to chastise himbut he took to his heels
at such a pace that no one attempted to follow him; and mightily
chapfallen was Don Quixote at Andres' storyand the others had to
take great care to restrain their laughter so as not to put him
entirely out of countenance.



Their dainty repast being finishedthey saddled at onceand
without any adventure worth mentioning they reached next day the
innthe object of Sancho Panza's fear and dread; but though he
would have rather not entered itthere was no help for it. The
landladythe landlordtheir daughterand Maritorneswhen they
saw Don Quixote and Sancho comingwent out to welcome them with signs
of hearty satisfactionwhich Don Quixote received with dignity and
gravityand bade them make up a better bed for him than the last
time: to which the landlady replied that if he paid better than he did
the last time she would give him one fit for a prince. Don Quixote
said he wouldso they made up a tolerable one for him in the same
garret as before; and he lay down at oncebeing sorely shaken and
in want of sleep.

No sooner was the door shut upon him than the landlady made at the
barberand seizing him by the beardsaid:

By my faith you are not going to make a beard of my tail any
longer; you must give me back tail, for it is a shame the way that
thing of my husband's goes tossing about on the floor; I mean the comb
that I used to stick in my good tail.

But for all she tugged at it the barber would not give it up until
the licentiate told him to let her have itas there was now no
further occasion for that stratagembecause he might declare
himself and appear in his own characterand tell Don Quixote that
he had fled to this inn when those thieves the galley slaves robbed
him; and should he ask for the princess's squirethey could tell
him that she had sent him on before her to give notice to the people
of her kingdom that she was comingand bringing with her the
deliverer of them all. On this the barber cheerfully restored the tail
to the landladyand at the same time they returned all the
accessories they had borrowed to effect Don Quixote's deliverance. All
the people of the inn were struck with astonishment at the beauty of
Dorotheaand even at the comely figure of the shepherd Cardenio.
The curate made them get ready such fare as there was in the inn
and the landlordin hope of better paymentserved them up a
tolerably good dinner. All this time Don Quixote was asleepand
they thought it best not to waken himas sleeping would now do him
more good than eating.

While at dinnerthe company consisting of the landlordhis wife
their daughterMaritornesand all the travellersthey discussed the
strange craze of Don Quixote and the manner in which he had been
found; and the landlady told them what had taken place between him and
the carrier; and thenlooking round to see if Sancho was there
when she saw he was notshe gave them the whole story of his
blanketingwhich they received with no little amusement. But on the
curate observing that it was the books of chivalry which Don Quixote
had read that had turned his brainthe landlord said:

I cannot understand how that can be, for in truth to my mind
there is no better reading in the world, and I have here two or
three of them, with other writings that are the very life, not only of
myself but of plenty more; for when it is harvest-time, the reapers
flock here on holidays, and there is always one among them who can
read and who takes up one of these books, and we gather round him,
thirty or more of us, and stay listening to him with a delight that
makes our grey hairs grow young again. At least I can say for myself
that when I hear of what furious and terrible blows the knights
deliver, I am seized with the longing to do the same, and I would like
to be hearing about them night and day.

And I just as much,said the landladybecause I never have a

quiet moment in my house except when you are listening to some one
reading; for then you are so taken up that for the time being you
forget to scold.

That is true,said Maritornes; "andfaithI relish hearing these
things greatly toofor they are very pretty; especially when they
describe some lady or another in the arms of her knight under the
orange treesand the duenna who is keeping watch for them half dead
with envy and fright; all this I say is as good as honey."

And you, what do you think, young lady?said the curate turning to
the landlord's daughter.

I don't know indeed, senor,said she; "I listen tooand to tell
the truththough I do not understand itI like hearing it; but it is
not the blows that my father likes that I likebut the laments the
knights utter when they are separated from their ladies; and indeed
they sometimes make me weep with the pity I feel for them."

Then you would console them if it was for you they wept, young
lady?said Dorothea.

I don't know what I should do,said the girl; "I only know that
there are some of those ladies so cruel that they call their knights
tigers and lions and a thousand other foul names: and Jesus! I don't
know what sort of folk they can beso unfeeling and heartlessthat
rather than bestow a glance upon a worthy man they leave him to die or
go mad. I don't know what is the good of such prudery; if it is for
honour's sakewhy not marry them? That's all they want."

Hush, child,said the landlady; "it seems to me thou knowest a
great deal about these thingsand it is not fit for girls to know
or talk so much."

As the gentleman asked me, I could not help answering him,said
the girl.

Well then,said the curatebring me these books, senor landlord,
for I should like to see them.

With all my heart,said heand going into his own room he brought
out an old valise secured with a little chainon opening which the
curate found in it three large books and some manuscripts written in a
very good hand. The first that he opened he found to be "Don
Cirongilio of Thrace and the second Don Felixmarte of Hircania
and the other the History of the Great Captain Gonzalo Hernandez de
Cordovawith the Life of Diego Garcia de Paredes."

When the curate read the two first titles he looked over at the
barber and saidWe want my friend's housekeeper and niece here now.

Nay,said the barberI can do just as well to carry them to
the yard or to the hearth, and there is a very good fire there.

What! your worship would burn my books!said the landlord.

Only these two,said the curateDon Cirongilio, and Felixmarte.

Are my books, then, heretics or phlegmaties that you want to burn
them?said the landlord.

Schismatics you mean, friend,said the barbernot phlegmatics.

That's it,said the landlord; "but if you want to burn anylet it

be that about the Great Captain and that Diego Garcia; for I would
rather have a child of mine burnt than either of the others."

Brother,said the curatethose two books are made up of lies,
and are full of folly and nonsense; but this of the Great Captain is a
true history, and contains the deeds of Gonzalo Hernandez of
Cordova, who by his many and great achievements earned the title all
over the world of the Great Captain, a famous and illustrious name,
and deserved by him alone; and this Diego Garcia de Paredes was a
distinguished knight of the city of Trujillo in Estremadura, a most
gallant soldier, and of such bodily strength that with one finger he
stopped a mill-wheel in full motion; and posted with a two-handed
sword at the foot of a bridge he kept the whole of an immense army
from passing over it, and achieved such other exploits that if,
instead of his relating them himself with the modesty of a knight
and of one writing his own history, some free and unbiassed writer had
recorded them, they would have thrown into the shade all the deeds
of the Hectors, Achilleses, and Rolands.

Tell that to my father,said the landlord. "There's a thing to
be astonished at! Stopping a mill-wheel! By God your worship should
read what I have read of Felixmarte of Hircaniahow with one single
backstroke he cleft five giants asunder through the middle as if
they had been made of bean-pods like the little friars the children
make; and another time he attacked a very great and powerful army
in which there were more than a million six hundred thousand soldiers
all armed from head to footand he routed them all as if they had
been flocks of sheep. And thenwhat do you say to the good Cirongilio
of Thracethat was so stout and bold; as may be seen in the book
where it is related that as he was sailing along a river there came up
out of the midst of the water against him a fiery serpentand he
as soon as he saw itflung himself upon it and got astride of its
scaly shouldersand squeezed its throat with both hands with such
force that the serpentfinding he was throttling ithad nothing
for it but to let itself sink to the bottom of the rivercarrying
with it the knight who would not let go his hold; and when they got
down there he found himself among palaces and gardens so pretty that
it was a wonder to see; and then the serpent changed itself into an
old ancient manwho told him such things as were never heard. Hold
your peacesenor; for if you were to hear this you would go mad
with delight. A couple of figs for your Great Captain and your Diego

Hearing this Dorothea said in a whisper to CardenioOur landlord
is almost fit to play a second part to Don Quixote.

I think so,said Cardeniofor, as he shows, he accepts it as a
certainty that everything those books relate took place exactly as
it is written down; and the barefooted friars themselves would not
persuade him to the contrary.

But consider, brother, said the curate once more, there never
was any Felixmarte of Hircania in the worldnor any Cirongilio of
Thraceor any of the other knights of the same sortthat the books
of chivalry talk of; the whole thing is the fabrication and
invention of idle witsdevised by them for the purpose you describe
of beguiling the timeas your reapers do when they read; for I
swear to you in all seriousness there never were any such knights in
the worldand no such exploits or nonsense ever happened anywhere."

Try that bone on another dog,said the landlord; "as if I did
not know how many make fiveand where my shoe pinches me; don't think
to feed me with papfor by God I am no fool. It is a good joke for
your worship to try and persuade me that everything these good books

say is nonsense and liesand they printed by the license of the Lords
of the Royal Councilas if they were people who would allow such a
lot of lies to be printed all togetherand so many battles and
enchantments that they take away one's senses."

I have told you, friend,said the curatethat this is done to
divert our idle thoughts; and as in well-ordered states games of
chess, fives, and billiards are allowed for the diversion of those who
do not care, or are not obliged, or are unable to work, so books of
this kind are allowed to be printed, on the supposition that, what
indeed is the truth, there can be nobody so ignorant as to take any of
them for true stories; and if it were permitted me now, and the
present company desired it, I could say something about the
qualities books of chivalry should possess to be good ones, that would
be to the advantage and even to the taste of some; but I hope the time
will come when I can communicate my ideas to some one who may be
able to mend matters; and in the meantime, senor landlord, believe
what I have said, and take your books, and make up your mind about
their truth or falsehood, and much good may they do you; and God grant
you may not fall lame of the same foot your guest Don Quixote halts

No fear of that,returned the landlord; "I shall not be so mad
as to make a knight-errant of myself; for I see well enough that
things are not now as they used to be in those dayswhen they say
those famous knights roamed about the world."

Sancho had made his appearance in the middle of this conversation
and he was very much troubled and cast down by what he heard said
about knights-errant being now no longer in vogueand all books of
chivalry being folly and lies; and he resolved in his heart to wait
and see what came of this journey of his master'sand if it did not
turn out as happily as his master expectedhe determined to leave him
and go back to his wife and children and his ordinary labour.

The landlord was carrying away the valise and the booksbut the
curate said to himWait; I want to see what those papers are that
are written in such a good hand.The landlord taking them out
handed them to him to readand he perceived they were a work of about
eight sheets of manuscriptwithin large letters at the beginning
the title of "Novel of the Ill-advised Curiosity." The curate read
three or four lines to himselfand saidI must say the title of
this novel does not seem to me a bad one, and I feel an inclination to
read it all.To which the landlord repliedThen your reverence will
do well to read it, for I can tell you that some guests who have
read it here have been much pleased with it, and have begged it of
me very earnestly; but I would not give it, meaning to return it to
the person who forgot the valise, books, and papers here, for maybe he
will return here some time or other; and though I know I shall miss
the books, faith I mean to return them; for though I am an
innkeeper, still I am a Christian.

You are very right, friend,said the curate; "but for all thatif
the novel pleases me you must let me copy it."

With all my heart,replied the host.

While they were talking Cardenio had taken up the novel and begun to
read itand forming the same opinion of it as the curatehe begged
him to read it so that they might all hear it.

I would read it,said the curateif the time would not be better
spent in sleeping.

It will be rest enough for me,said Dorotheato while away the
time by listening to some tale, for my spirits are not yet tranquil
enough to let me sleep when it would be seasonable.

Well then, in that case,said the curateI will read it, if it
were only out of curiosity; perhaps it may contain something

Master Nicholas added his entreaties to the same effectand
Sancho too; seeing whichand considering that he would give
pleasure to alland receive it himselfthe curate saidWell
then, attend to me everyone, for the novel begins thus.



In Florencea rich and famous city of Italy in the province
called Tuscanythere lived two gentlemen of wealth and quality
Anselmo and Lothariosuch great friends that by way of distinction
they were called by all that knew them "The Two Friends." They were
unmarriedyoungof the same age and of the same tasteswhich was
enough to account for the reciprocal friendship between them. Anselmo
it is truewas somewhat more inclined to seek pleasure in love than
Lothariofor whom the pleasures of the chase had more attraction; but
on occasion Anselmo would forego his own tastes to yield to those of
Lotharioand Lothario would surrender his to fall in with those of
Anselmoand in this way their inclinations kept pace one with the
other with a concord so perfect that the best regulated clock could
not surpass it.

Anselmo was deep in love with a high-born and beautiful maiden of
the same citythe daughter of parents so estimableand so
estimable herselfthat he resolvedwith the approval of his friend
Lothariowithout whom he did nothingto ask her of them in marriage
and did soLothario being the bearer of the demandand conducting
the negotiation so much to the satisfaction of his friend that in a
short time he was in possession of the object of his desiresand
Camilla so happy in having won Anselmo for her husbandthat she
gave thanks unceasingly to heaven and to Lotharioby whose means such
good fortune had fallen to her. The first few daysthose of a wedding
being usually days of merry-makingLothario frequented his friend
Anselmo's house as he had been wontstriving to do honour to him
and to the occasionand to gratify him in every way he could; but
when the wedding days were over and the succession of visits and
congratulations had slackenedhe began purposely to leave off going
to the house of Anselmofor it seemed to himas it naturally would
to all men of sensethat friends' houses ought not to be visited
after marriage with the same frequency as in their masters' bachelor
days: becausethough true and genuine friendship cannot and should
not be in any way suspiciousstill a married man's honour is a
thing of such delicacy that it is held liable to injury from brothers
much more from friends. Anselmo remarked the cessation of Lothario's
visitsand complained of it to himsaying that if he had known
that marriage was to keep him from enjoying his society as he usedhe
would have never married; and thatif by the thorough harmony that
subsisted between them while he was a bachelor they had earned such
a sweet name as that of "The Two Friends he should not allow a title
so rare and so delightful to be lost through a needless anxiety to act
circumspectly; and so he entreated him, if such a phrase was allowable
between them, to be once more master of his house and to come in and

go out as formerly, assuring him that his wife Camilla had no other
desire or inclination than that which he would wish her to have, and
that knowing how sincerely they loved one another she was grieved to
see such coldness in him.

To all this and much more that Anselmo said to Lothario to
persuade him to come to his house as he had been in the habit of
doing, Lothario replied with so much prudence, sense, and judgment,
that Anselmo was satisfied of his friend's good intentions, and it was
agreed that on two days in the week, and on holidays, Lothario
should come to dine with him; but though this arrangement was made
between them Lothario resolved to observe it no further than he
considered to be in accordance with the honour of his friend, whose
good name was more to him than his own. He said, and justly, that a
married man upon whom heaven had bestowed a beautiful wife should
consider as carefully what friends he brought to his house as what
female friends his wife associated with, for what cannot be done or
arranged in the market-place, in church, at public festivals or at
stations (opportunities that husbands cannot always deny their wives),
may be easily managed in the house of the female friend or relative in
whom most confidence is reposed. Lothario said, too, that every
married man should have some friend who would point out to him any
negligence he might be guilty of in his conduct, for it will sometimes
happen that owing to the deep affection the husband bears his wife
either he does not caution her, or, not to vex her, refrains from
telling her to do or not to do certain things, doing or avoiding which
may be a matter of honour or reproach to him; and errors of this
kind he could easily correct if warned by a friend. But where is
such a friend to be found as Lothario would have, so judicious, so
loyal, and so true?

Of a truth I know not; Lothario alone was such a one, for with the
utmost care and vigilance he watched over the honour of his friend,
and strove to diminish, cut down, and reduce the number of days for
going to his house according to their agreement, lest the visits of
a young man, wealthy, high-born, and with the attractions he was
conscious of possessing, at the house of a woman so beautiful as
Camilla, should be regarded with suspicion by the inquisitive and
malicious eyes of the idle public. For though his integrity and
reputation might bridle slanderous tongues, still he was unwilling
to hazard either his own good name or that of his friend; and for this
reason most of the days agreed upon he devoted to some other
business which he pretended was unavoidable; so that a great portion
of the day was taken up with complaints on one side and excuses on the
other. It happened, however, that on one occasion when the two were
strolling together outside the city, Anselmo addressed the following
words to Lothario.

Thou mayest supposeLothario my friendthat I am unable to give
sufficient thanks for the favours God has rendered me in making me the
son of such parents as mine wereand bestowing upon me with no
niggard hand what are called the gifts of nature as well as those of
fortuneand above all for what he has done in giving me thee for a
friend and Camilla for a wife- two treasures that I valueif not as
highly as I oughtat least as highly as I am able. And yetwith
all these good thingswhich are commonly all that men need to
enable them to live happilyI am the most discontented and
dissatisfied man in the whole world; forI know not how long sinceI
have been harassed and oppressed by a desire so strange and so
unusualthat I wonder at myself and blame and chide myself when I
am aloneand strive to stifle it and hide it from my own thoughts
and with no better success than if I were endeavouring deliberately to
publish it to all the world; and asin shortit must come outI
would confide it to thy safe keepingfeeling sure that by this means

and by thy readiness as a true friend to afford me reliefI shall
soon find myself freed from the distress it causes meand that thy
care will give me happiness in the same degree as my own folly has
caused me misery."

The words of Anselmo struck Lothario with astonishmentunable as he
was to conjecture the purport of such a lengthy preamble; and though
be strove to imagine what desire it could be that so troubled his
friendhis conjectures were all far from the truthand to relieve
the anxiety which this perplexity was causing himhe told him he
was doing a flagrant injustice to their great friendship in seeking
circuitous methods of confiding to him his most hidden thoughtsfor
be well knew he might reckon upon his counsel in diverting themor
his help in carrying them into effect.

That is the truth,replied Anselmoand relying upon that I
will tell thee, friend Lothario, that the desire which harasses me
is that of knowing whether my wife Camilla is as good and as perfect
as I think her to be; and I cannot satisfy myself of the truth on this
point except by testing her in such a way that the trial may prove the
purity of her virtue as the fire proves that of gold; because I am
persuaded, my friend, that a woman is virtuous only in proportion as
she is or is not tempted; and that she alone is strong who does not
yield to the promises, gifts, tears, and importunities of earnest
lovers; for what thanks does a woman deserve for being good if no
one urges her to be bad, and what wonder is it that she is reserved
and circumspect to whom no opportunity is given of going wrong and who
knows she has a husband that will take her life the first time he
detects her in an impropriety? I do not therefore hold her who is
virtuous through fear or want of opportunity in the same estimation as
her who comes out of temptation and trial with a crown of victory; and
so, for these reasons and many others that I could give thee to
justify and support the opinion I hold, I am desirous that my wife
Camilla should pass this crisis, and be refined and tested by the fire
of finding herself wooed and by one worthy to set his affections
upon her; and if she comes out, as I know she will, victorious from
this struggle, I shall look upon my good fortune as unequalled, I
shall be able to say that the cup of my desire is full, and that the
virtuous woman of whom the sage says 'Who shall find her?' has
fallen to my lot. And if the result be the contrary of what I
expect, in the satisfaction of knowing that I have been right in my
opinion, I shall bear without complaint the pain which my so dearly
bought experience will naturally cause me. And, as nothing of all thou
wilt urge in opposition to my wish will avail to keep me from carrying
it into effect, it is my desire, friend Lothario, that thou shouldst
consent to become the instrument for effecting this purpose that I
am bent upon, for I will afford thee opportunities to that end, and
nothing shall be wanting that I may think necessary for the pursuit of
a virtuous, honourable, modest and high-minded woman. And among
other reasons, I am induced to entrust this arduous task to thee by
the consideration that if Camilla be conquered by thee the conquest
will not be pushed to extremes, but only far enough to account that
accomplished which from a sense of honour will be left undone; thus
I shall not be wronged in anything more than intention, and my wrong
will remain buried in the integrity of thy silence, which I know
well will be as lasting as that of death in what concerns me. If,
therefore, thou wouldst have me enjoy what can be called life, thou
wilt at once engage in this love struggle, not lukewarmly nor
slothfully, but with the energy and zeal that my desire demands, and
with the loyalty our friendship assures me of.

Such were the words Anselmo addressed to Lothariowho listened to
them with such attention thatexcept to say what has been already
mentionedhe did not open his lips until the other had finished. Then

perceiving that he had no more to sayafter regarding him for awhile
as one would regard something never before seen that excited wonder
and amazementhe said to himI cannot persuade myself, Anselmo my
friend, that what thou hast said to me is not in jest; if I thought
that thou wert speaking seriously I would not have allowed thee to
go so far; so as to put a stop to thy long harangue by not listening
to thee I verily suspect that either thou dost not know me, or I do
not know thee; but no, I know well thou art Anselmo, and thou
knowest that I am Lothario; the misfortune is, it seems to me, that
thou art not the Anselmo thou wert, and must have thought that I am
not the Lothario I should be; for the things that thou hast said to me
are not those of that Anselmo who was my friend, nor are those that
thou demandest of me what should be asked of the Lothario thou
knowest. True friends will prove their friends and make use of them,
as a poet has said, usque ad aras; whereby he meant that they will not
make use of their friendship in things that are contrary to God's
will. If this, then, was a heathen's feeling about friendship, how
much more should it be a Christian's, who knows that the divine must
not be forfeited for the sake of any human friendship? And if a friend
should go so far as to put aside his duty to Heaven to fulfil his duty
to his friend, it should not be in matters that are trifling or of
little moment, but in such as affect the friend's life and honour. Now
tell me, Anselmo, in which of these two art thou imperilled, that I
should hazard myself to gratify thee, and do a thing so detestable
as that thou seekest of me? Neither forsooth; on the contrary, thou
dost ask of me, so far as I understand, to strive and labour to rob
thee of honour and life, and to rob myself of them at the same time;
for if I take away thy honour it is plain I take away thy life, as a
man without honour is worse than dead; and being the instrument, as
thou wilt have it so, of so much wrong to thee, shall not I, too, be
left without honour, and consequently without life? Listen to me,
Anselmo my friend, and be not impatient to answer me until I have said
what occurs to me touching the object of thy desire, for there will be
time enough left for thee to reply and for me to hear.

Be it so,said Anselmosay what thou wilt.

Lothario then went on to sayIt seems to me, Anselmo, that thine
is just now the temper of mind which is always that of the Moors,
who can never be brought to see the error of their creed by quotations
from the Holy Scriptures, or by reasons which depend upon the
examination of the understanding or are founded upon the articles of
faith, but must have examples that are palpable, easy, intelligible,
capable of proof, not admitting of doubt, with mathematical
demonstrations that cannot be denied, like, 'If equals be taken from
equals, the remainders are equal:' and if they do not understand
this in words, and indeed they do not, it has to be shown to them with
the hands, and put before their eyes, and even with all this no one
succeeds in convincing them of the truth of our holy religion. This
same mode of proceeding I shall have to adopt with thee, for the
desire which has sprung up in thee is so absurd and remote from
everything that has a semblance of reason, that I feel it would be a
waste of time to employ it in reasoning with thy simplicity, for at
present I will call it by no other name; and I am even tempted to
leave thee in thy folly as a punishment for thy pernicious desire; but
the friendship I bear thee, which will not allow me to desert thee
in such manifest danger of destruction, keeps me from dealing so
harshly by thee. And that thou mayest clearly see this, say,
Anselmo, hast thou not told me that I must force my suit upon a modest
woman, decoy one that is virtuous, make overtures to one that is
pure-minded, pay court to one that is prudent? Yes, thou hast told
me so. Then, if thou knowest that thou hast a wife, modest,
virtuous, pure-minded and prudent, what is it that thou seekest? And
if thou believest that she will come forth victorious from all my

attacks- as doubtless she would- what higher titles than those she
possesses now dost thou think thou canst upon her then, or in what
will she be better then than she is now? Either thou dost not hold her
to be what thou sayest, or thou knowest not what thou dost demand.
If thou dost not hold her to be what thou why dost thou seek to
prove her instead of treating her as guilty in the way that may seem
best to thee? but if she be as virtuous as thou believest, it is an
uncalled-for proceeding to make trial of truth itself, for, after
trial, it will but be in the same estimation as before. Thus, then, it
is conclusive that to attempt things from which harm rather than
advantage may come to us is the part of unreasoning and reckless
minds, more especially when they are things which we are not forced or
compelled to attempt, and which show from afar that it is plainly
madness to attempt them.

Difficulties are attempted either for the sake of God or for the
sake of the worldor for both; those undertaken for God's sake are
those which the saints undertake when they attempt to live the lives
of angels in human bodies; those undertaken for the sake of the
world are those of the men who traverse such a vast expanse of
watersuch a variety of climatesso many strange countriesto
acquire what are called the blessings of fortune; and those undertaken
for the sake of God and the world together are those of brave
soldierswho no sooner do they see in the enemy's wall a breach as
wide as a cannon ball could makethancasting aside all fear
without hesitatingor heeding the manifest peril that threatens them
borne onward by the desire of defending their faiththeir country
and their kingthey fling themselves dauntlessly into the midst of
the thousand opposing deaths that await them. Such are the things that
men are wont to attemptand there is honourglorygainin
attempting themhowever full of difficulty and peril they may be; but
that which thou sayest it is thy wish to attempt and carry out will
not win thee the glory of God nor the blessings of fortune nor fame
among men; for even if the issue he as thou wouldst have itthou wilt
be no happierricheror more honoured than thou art this moment; and
if it be otherwise thou wilt be reduced to misery greater than can
be imaginedfor then it will avail thee nothing to reflect that no
one is aware of the misfortune that has befallen thee; it will suffice
to torture and crush thee that thou knowest it thyself. And in
confirmation of the truth of what I saylet me repeat to thee a
stanza made by the famous poet Luigi Tansillo at the end of the
first part of his 'Tears of Saint Peter' which says thus:

The anguish and the shame but greater grew

In Peter's heart as morning slowly came;
No eye was there to see himwell he knew

Yet he himself was to himself a shame;
Exposed to all men's gazeor screened from view

A noble heart will feel the pang the same;
A prey to shame the sinning soul will be
Though none but heaven and earth its shame can see.

Thus by keeping it secret thou wilt not escape thy sorrowbut
rather thou wilt shed tears unceasinglyif not tears of the eyes
tears of blood from the heartlike those shed by that simple doctor
our poet tells us ofthat tried the test of the cupwhich the wise
Rinaldobetter advisedrefused to do; for though this may be a
poetic fiction it contains a moral lesson worthy of attention and
study and imitation. Moreover by what I am about to say to thee thou
wilt be led to see the great error thou wouldst commit.

Tell me, Anselmo, if Heaven or good fortune had made thee master
and lawful owner of a diamond of the finest quality, with the
excellence and purity of which all the lapidaries that had seen it had

been satisfied, saying with one voice and common consent that in
purity, quality, and fineness, it was all that a stone of the kind
could possibly be, thou thyself too being of the same belief, as
knowing nothing to the contrary, would it be reasonable in thee to
desire to take that diamond and place it between an anvil and a
hammer, and by mere force of blows and strength of arm try if it
were as hard and as fine as they said? And if thou didst, and if the
stone should resist so silly a test, that would add nothing to its
value or reputation; and if it were broken, as it might be, would
not all be lost? Undoubtedly it would, leaving its owner to be rated
as a fool in the opinion of all. Consider, then, Anselmo my friend,
that Camilla is a diamond of the finest quality as well in thy
estimation as in that of others, and that it is contrary to reason
to expose her to the risk of being broken; for if she remains intact
she cannot rise to a higher value than she now possesses; and if she
give way and be unable to resist, bethink thee now how thou wilt be
deprived of her, and with what good reason thou wilt complain of
thyself for having been the cause of her ruin and thine own.
Remember there is no jewel in the world so precious as a chaste and
virtuous woman, and that the whole honour of women consists in
reputation; and since thy wife's is of that high excellence that
thou knowest, wherefore shouldst thou seek to call that truth in
question? Remember, my friend, that woman is an imperfect animal,
and that impediments are not to be placed in her way to make her
trip and fall, but that they should be removed, and her path left
clear of all obstacles, so that without hindrance she may run her
course freely to attain the desired perfection, which consists in
being virtuous. Naturalists tell us that the ermine is a little animal
which has a fur of purest white, and that when the hunters wish to
take it, they make use of this artifice. Having ascertained the places
which it frequents and passes, they stop the way to them with mud, and
then rousing it, drive it towards the spot, and as soon as the
ermine comes to the mud it halts, and allows itself to be taken
captive rather than pass through the mire, and spoil and sully its
whiteness, which it values more than life and liberty. The virtuous
and chaste woman is an ermine, and whiter and purer than snow is the
virtue of modesty; and he who wishes her not to lose it, but to keep
and preserve it, must adopt a course different from that employed with
the ermine; he must not put before her the mire of the gifts and
attentions of persevering lovers, because perhaps- and even without
a perhaps- she may not have sufficient virtue and natural strength
in herself to pass through and tread under foot these impediments;
they must be removed, and the brightness of virtue and the beauty of a
fair fame must be put before her. A virtuous woman, too, is like a
mirror, of clear shining crystal, liable to be tarnished and dimmed by
every breath that touches it. She must be treated as relics are;
adored, not touched. She must be protected and prized as one
protects and prizes a fair garden full of roses and flowers, the owner
of which allows no one to trespass or pluck a blossom; enough for
others that from afar and through the iron grating they may enjoy
its fragrance and its beauty. Finally let me repeat to thee some
verses that come to my mind; I heard them in a modern comedy, and it
seems to me they bear upon the point we are discussing. A prudent
old man was giving advice to another, the father of a young girl, to
lock her up, watch over her and keep her in seclusion, and among other
arguments he used these:

Woman is a thing of glass;
But her brittleness 'tis best
Not too curiously to test:

Who knows what may come to pass?

Breaking is an easy matter,
And it's folly to expose

What you cannot mend to blows;
What you can't make whole to shatter.

This, then, all may hold as true,

And the reason's plain to see;

For if Danaes there be,

There are golden showers too.

All that I have said to thee so farAnselmohas had reference
to what concerns thee; now it is right that I should say something
of what regards myself; and if I be prolixpardon mefor the
labyrinth into which thou hast entered and from which thou wouldst
have me extricate thee makes it necessary.

Thou dost reckon me thy friend, and thou wouldst rob me of
honour, a thing wholly inconsistent with friendship; and not only dost
thou aim at this, but thou wouldst have me rob thee of it also. That
thou wouldst rob me of it is clear, for when Camilla sees that I pay
court to her as thou requirest, she will certainly regard me as a
man without honour or right feeling, since I attempt and do a thing so
much opposed to what I owe to my own position and thy friendship. That
thou wouldst have me rob thee of it is beyond a doubt, for Camilla,
seeing that I press my suit upon her, will suppose that I have
perceived in her something light that has encouraged me to make
known to her my base desire; and if she holds herself dishonoured, her
dishonour touches thee as belonging to her; and hence arises what so
commonly takes place, that the husband of the adulterous woman, though
he may not be aware of or have given any cause for his wife's
failure in her duty, or (being careless or negligent) have had it in
his power to prevent his dishonour, nevertheless is stigmatised by a
vile and reproachful name, and in a manner regarded with eyes of
contempt instead of pity by all who know of his wife's guilt, though
they see that he is unfortunate not by his own fault, but by the
lust of a vicious consort. But I will tell thee why with good reason
dishonour attaches to the husband of the unchaste wife, though he know
not that she is so, nor be to blame, nor have done anything, or
given any provocation to make her so; and be not weary with
listening to me, for it will be for thy good.

When God created our first parent in the earthly paradisethe Holy
Scripture says that he infused sleep into Adam and while he slept took
a rib from his left side of which he formed our mother Eveand when
Adam awoke and beheld her he said'This is flesh of my fleshand
bone of my bone.' And God said 'For this shall a man leave his
father and his motherand they shall be two in one flesh; and then
was instituted the divine sacrament of marriagewith such ties that
death alone can loose them. And such is the force and virtue of this
miraculous sacrament that it makes two different persons one and the
same flesh; and even more than this when the virtuous are married; for
though they have two souls they have but one will. And hence it
follows that as the flesh of the wife is one and the same with that of
her husband the stains that may come upon itor the injuries it
incurs fall upon the husband's fleshthough heas has been saidmay
have given no cause for them; for as the pain of the foot or any
member of the body is felt by the whole bodybecause all is one
fleshas the head feels the hurt to the ankle without having caused
itso the husbandbeing one with hershares the dishonour of the
wife; and as all worldly honour or dishonour comes of flesh and blood
and the erring wife's is of that kindthe husband must needs bear his
part of it and be held dishonoured without knowing it. Seethen
Anselmothe peril thou art encountering in seeking to disturb the
peace of thy virtuous consort; see for what an empty and ill-advised
curiosity thou wouldst rouse up passions that now repose in quiet in

the breast of thy chaste wife; reflect that what thou art staking
all to win is littleand what thou wilt lose so much that I leave
it undescribednot having the words to express it. But if all I
have said be not enough to turn thee from thy vile purposethou
must seek some other instrument for thy dishonour and misfortune;
for such I will not consent to bethough I lose thy friendshipthe
greatest loss that I can conceive."

Having said thisthe wise and virtuous Lothario was silentand
Anselmotroubled in mind and deep in thoughtwas unable for a
while to utter a word in reply; but at length he saidI have
listened, Lothario my friend, attentively, as thou hast seen, to
what thou hast chosen to say to me, and in thy arguments, examples,
and comparisons I have seen that high intelligence thou dost
possess, and the perfection of true friendship thou hast reached;
and likewise I see and confess that if I am not guided by thy opinion,
but follow my own, I am flying from the good and pursuing the evil.
This being so, thou must remember that I am now labouring under that
infirmity which women sometimes suffer from, when the craving seizes
them to eat clay, plaster, charcoal, and things even worse, disgusting
to look at, much more to eat; so that it will be necessary to have
recourse to some artifice to cure me; and this can be easily
effected if only thou wilt make a beginning, even though it be in a
lukewarm and make-believe fashion, to pay court to Camilla, who will
not be so yielding that her virtue will give way at the first
attack: with this mere attempt I shall rest satisfied, and thou wilt
have done what our friendship binds thee to do, not only in giving
me life, but in persuading me not to discard my honour. And this
thou art bound to do for one reason alone, that, being, as I am,
resolved to apply this test, it is not for thee to permit me to reveal
my weakness to another, and so imperil that honour thou art striving
to keep me from losing; and if thine may not stand as high as it ought
in the estimation of Camilla while thou art paying court to her,
that is of little or no importance, because ere long, on finding in
her that constancy which we expect, thou canst tell her the plain
truth as regards our stratagem, and so regain thy place in her esteem;
and as thou art venturing so little, and by the venture canst afford
me so much satisfaction, refuse not to undertake it, even if further
difficulties present themselves to thee; for, as I have said, if
thou wilt only make a beginning I will acknowledge the issue decided.

Lothario seeing the fixed determination of Anselmoand not
knowing what further examples to offer or arguments to urge in order
to dissuade him from itand perceiving that he threatened to
confide his pernicious scheme to some one elseto avoid a greater
evil resolved to gratify him and do what he askedintending to manage
the business so as to satisfy Anselmo without corrupting the mind of
Camilla; so in reply he told him not to communicate his purpose to any
otherfor he would undertake the task himselfand would begin it
as soon as he pleased. Anselmo embraced him warmly and affectionately
and thanked him for his offer as if he had bestowed some great
favour upon him; and it was agreed between them to set about it the
next dayAnselmo affording opportunity and time to Lothario to
converse alone with Camillaand furnishing him with money and
jewels to offer and present to her. He suggestedtoothat he
should treat her to musicand write verses in her praiseand if he
was unwilling to take the trouble of composing themhe offered to
do it himself. Lothario agreed to all with an intention very different
from what Anselmo supposedand with this understanding they
returned to Anselmo's housewhere they found Camilla awaiting her
husband anxiously and uneasilyfor he was later than usual in
returning that day. Lothario repaired to his own houseand Anselmo
remained in hisas well satisfied as Lothario was troubled in mind;
for he could see no satisfactory way out of this ill-advised business.

That nighthoweverhe thought of a plan by which he might deceive
Anselmo without any injury to Camilla. The next day he went to dine
with his friendand was welcomed by Camillawho received and treated
him with great cordialityknowing the affection her husband felt
for him. When dinner was over and the cloth removedAnselmo told
Lothario to stay there with Camilla while he attended to some pressing
businessas he would return in an hour and a half. Camilla begged him
not to goand Lothario offered to accompany himbut nothing could
persuade Anselmowho on the contrary pressed Lothario to remain
waiting for him as he had a matter of great importance to discuss with
him. At the same time he bade Camilla not to leave Lothario alone
until he came back. In short he contrived to put so good a face on the
reasonor the follyof his absence that no one could have
suspected it was a pretence.

Anselmo took his departureand Camilla and Lothario were left alone
at the tablefor the rest of the household had gone to dinner.
Lothario saw himself in the lists according to his friend's wish
and facing an enemy that could by her beauty alone vanquish a squadron
of armed knights; judge whether he had good reason to fear; but what
he did was to lean his elbow on the arm of the chairand his cheek
upon his handandasking Camilla's pardon for his ill mannershe
said he wished to take a little sleep until Anselmo returned.
Camilla in reply said he could repose more at his ease in the
reception-room than in his chairand begged of him to go in and sleep
there; but Lothario declinedand there he remained asleep until the
return of Anselmowho finding Camilla in her own roomand Lothario
asleepimagined that he had stayed away so long as to have afforded
them time enough for conversation and even for sleepand was all
impatience until Lothario should wake upthat he might go out with
him and question him as to his success. Everything fell out as he
wished; Lothario awokeand the two at once left the houseand
Anselmo asked what he was anxious to knowand Lothario in answer told
him that he had not thought it advisable to declare himself entirely
the first timeand therefore had only extolled the charms of Camilla
telling her that all the city spoke of nothing else but her beauty and
witfor this seemed to him an excellent way of beginning to gain
her good-will and render her disposed to listen to him with pleasure
the next timethus availing himself of the device the devil has
recourse to when he would deceive one who is on the watch; for he
being the angel of darkness transforms himself into an angel of light
andunder cover of a fair seemingdiscloses himself at lengthand
effects his purpose if at the beginning his wiles are not
discovered. All this gave great satisfaction to Anselmoand he said
he would afford the same opportunity every daybut without leaving
the housefor he would find things to do at home so that Camilla
should not detect the plot.

Thusthenseveral days went byand Lothariowithout uttering a
word to Camillareported to Anselmo that he had talked with her and
that he had never been able to draw from her the slightest
indication of consent to anything dishonourablenor even a sign or
shadow of hope; on the contraryhe said she would inform her
husband of it.

So far well,said Anselmo; "Camilla has thus far resisted words;
we must now see how she will resist deeds. I will give you to-morrow
two thousand crowns in gold for you to offer or even presentand as
many more to buy jewels to lure herfor women are fond of being
becomingly attired and going gaily dressedand all the more so if
they are beautifulhowever chaste they may be; and if she resists
this temptationI will rest satisfied and will give you no more

Lothario replied that now he had begun he would carry on the
undertaking to the endthough he perceived he was to come out of it
wearied and vanquished. The next day he received the four thousand
crownsand with them four thousand perplexitiesfor he knew not what
to say by way of a new falsehood; but in the end he made up his mind
to tell him that Camilla stood as firm against gifts and promises as
against wordsand that there was no use in taking any further
troublefor the time was all spent to no purpose.

But chancedirecting things in a different mannerso ordered it
that Anselmohaving left Lothario and Camilla alone as on other
occasionsshut himself into a chamber and posted himself to watch and
listen through the keyhole to what passed between themand
perceived that for more than half an hour Lothario did not utter a
word to Camillanor would utter a word though he were to be there for
an age; and he came to the conclusion that what his friend had told
him about the replies of Camilla was all invention and falsehood
and to ascertain if it were sohe came outand calling Lothario
aside asked him what news he had and in what humour Camilla was.
Lothario replied that he was not disposed to go on with the
businessfor she had answered him so angrily and harshly that he
had no heart to say anything more to her.

Ah, Lothario, Lothario,said Anselmohow ill dost thou meet
thy obligations to me, and the great confidence I repose in thee! I
have been just now watching through this keyhole, and I have seen that
thou has not said a word to Camilla, whence I conclude that on the
former occasions thou hast not spoken to her either, and if this be
so, as no doubt it is, why dost thou deceive me, or wherefore
seekest thou by craft to deprive me of the means I might find of
attaining my desire?

Anselmo said no morebut he had said enough to cover Lothario
with shame and confusionand hefeeling as it were his honour
touched by having been detected in a lieswore to Anselmo that he
would from that moment devote himself to satisfying him without any
deceptionas he would see if he had the curiosity to watch; though he
need not take the troublefor the pains he would take to satisfy
him would remove all suspicions from his mind. Anselmo believed him
and to afford him an opportunity more free and less liable to
surprisehe resolved to absent himself from his house for eight days
betaking himself to that of a friend of his who lived in a village not
far from the city; andthe better to account for his departure to
Camillahe so arranged it that the friend should send him a very
pressing invitation.

Unhappyshortsighted Anselmowhat art thou doingwhat art thou
plottingwhat art thou devising? Bethink thee thou art working
against thyselfplotting thine own dishonourdevising thine own
ruin. Thy wife Camilla is virtuousthou dost possess her in peace and
quietnessno one assails thy happinessher thoughts wander not
beyond the walls of thy housethou art her heaven on earththe
object of her wishesthe fulfilment of her desiresthe measure
wherewith she measures her willmaking it conform in all things to
thine and Heaven's. Ifthenthe mine of her honourbeauty
virtueand modesty yields thee without labour all the wealth it
contains and thou canst wish forwhy wilt thou dig the earth in
search of fresh veinsof new unknown treasurerisking the collapse
of allsince it but rests on the feeble props of her weak nature?
Bethink thee that from him who seeks impossibilities that which is
possible may with justice be withheldas was better expressed by a
poet who said:
'Tis mine to seek for life in death

Health in disease seek II seek in prison freedom's breath

In traitors loyalty.

So Fate that ever scorns to grant
Or grace or boon to meSince what can never be I want
Denies me what might be.

The next day Anselmo took his departure for the villageleaving
instructions with Camilla that during his absence Lothario would
come to look after his house and to dine with herand that she was to
treat him as she would himself. Camilla was distressedas a
discreet and right-minded woman would beat the orders her husband
left herand bade him remember that it was not becoming that anyone
should occupy his seat at the table during his absenceand if he
acted thus from not feeling confidence that she would be able to
manage his houselet him try her this timeand he would find by
experience that she was equal to greater responsibilities. Anselmo
replied that it was his pleasure to have it soand that she had
only to submit and obey. Camilla said she would do sothough
against her will.

Anselmo wentand the next day Lothario came to his housewhere
he was received by Camilla with a friendly and modest welcome; but she
never suffered Lothario to see her alonefor she was always
attended by her men and women servantsespecially by a handmaid of
hersLeonela by nameto whom she was much attached (for they had
been brought up together from childhood in her father's house)and
whom she had kept with her after her marriage with Anselmo. The
first three days Lothario did not speak to herthough he might have
done so when they removed the cloth and the servants retired to dine
hastily; for such were Camilla's orders; nay moreLeonela had
directions to dine earlier than Camilla and never to leave her side.
Shehoweverhaving her thoughts fixed upon other things more to
her tasteand wanting that time and opportunity for her own
pleasuresdid not always obey her mistress's commandsbut on the
contrary left them aloneas if they had ordered her to do so; but the
modest bearing of Camillathe calmness of her countenancethe
composure of her aspect were enough to bridle the tongue of
Lothario. But the influence which the many virtues of Camilla
exerted in imposing silence on Lothario's tongue proved mischievous
for both of themfor if his tongue was silent his thoughts were busy
and could dwell at leisure upon the perfections of Camilla's
goodness and beauty one by onecharms enough to warm with love a
marble statuenot to say a heart of flesh. Lothario gazed upon her
when he might have been speaking to herand thought how worthy of
being loved she was; and thus reflection began little by little to
assail his allegiance to Anselmoand a thousand times he thought of
withdrawing from the city and going where Anselmo should never see him
nor he see Camilla. But already the delight he found in gazing on
her interposed and held him fast. He put a constraint upon himself
and struggled to repel and repress the pleasure he found in
contemplating Camilla; when alone he blamed himself for his
weaknesscalled himself a bad friendnay a bad Christian; then he
argued the matter and compared himself with Anselmo; always coming
to the conclusion that the folly and rashness of Anselmo had been
worse than his faithlessnessand that if he could excuse his
intentions as easily before God as with manhe had no reason to
fear any punishment for his offence.

In short the beauty and goodness of Camillajoined with the
opportunity which the blind husband had placed in his handsoverthrew
the loyalty of Lothario; and giving heed to nothing save the object
towards which his inclinations led himafter Anselmo had been three
days absentduring which he had been carrying on a continual struggle
with his passionhe began to make love to Camilla with so much

vehemence and warmth of language that she was overwhelmed with
amazementand could only rise from her place and retire to her room
without answering him a word. But the hope which always springs up
with love was not weakened in Lothario by this repelling demeanour; on
the contrary his passion for Camilla increasedand she discovering in
him what she had never expectedknew not what to do; and
considering it neither safe nor right to give him the chance or
opportunity of speaking to her againshe resolved to sendas she did
that very nightone of her servants with a letter to Anselmoin
which she addressed the following words to him.



It is commonly said that an army looks ill without its general
and a castle without its castellan, and I say that a young married
woman looks still worse without her husband unless there are very good
reasons for it. I find myself so ill at ease without you, and so
incapable of enduring this separation, that unless you return
quickly I shall have to go for relief to my parents' house, even if
I leave yours without a protector; for the one you left me, if
indeed he deserved that title, has, I think, more regard to his own
pleasure than to what concerns you: as you are possessed of
discernment I need say no more to you, nor indeed is it fitting I
should say more.

Anselmo received this letterand from it he gathered that
Lothario had already begun his task and that Camilla must have replied
to him as he would have wished; and delighted beyond measure at such
intelligence he sent word to her not to leave his house on any
accountas he would very shortly return. Camilla was astonished at
Anselmo's replywhich placed her in greater perplexity than before
for she neither dared to remain in her own housenor yet to go to her
parents'; for in remaining her virtue was imperilledand in going she
was opposing her husband's commands. Finally she decided upon what was
the worse course for herto remainresolving not to fly from the
presence of Lothariothat she might not give food for gossip to her
servants; and she now began to regret having written as she had to her
husbandfearing he might imagine that Lothario had perceived in her
some lightness which had impelled him to lay aside the respect he owed
her; but confident of her rectitude she put her trust in God and in
her own virtuous intentionswith which she hoped to resist in silence
all the solicitations of Lothariowithout saying anything to her
husband so as not to involve him in any quarrel or trouble; and she
even began to consider how to excuse Lothario to Anselmo when he
should ask her what it was that induced her to write that letter. With
these resolutionsmore honourable than judicious or effectualshe
remained the next day listening to Lothariowho pressed his suit so
strenuously that Camilla's firmness began to waverand her virtue had
enough to do to come to the rescue of her eyes and keep them from
showing signs of a certain tender compassion which the tears and
appeals of Lothario had awakened in her bosom. Lothario observed all
thisand it inflamed him all the more. In short he felt that while
Anselmo's absence afforded time and opportunity he must press the
siege of the fortressand so he assailed her self-esteem with praises
of her beautyfor there is nothing that more quickly reduces and
levels the castle towers of fair women's vanity than vanity itself
upon the tongue of flattery. In fact with the utmost assiduity he
undermined the rock of her purity with such engines that had Camilla
been of brass she must have fallen. He wepthe entreatedhe
promisedhe flatteredhe importunedhe pretended with so much

feeling and apparent sinceritythat he overthrew the virtuous
resolves of Camilla and won the triumph he least expected and most
longed for. Camilla yieldedCamilla fell; but what wonder if the
friendship of Lothario could not stand firm? A clear proof to us
that the passion of love is to be conquered only by flying from it
and that no one should engage in a struggle with an enemy so mighty;
for divine strength is needed to overcome his human power. Leonela
alone knew of her mistress's weaknessfor the two false friends and
new lovers were unable to conceal it. Lothario did not care to tell
Camilla the object Anselmo had in viewnor that he had afforded him
the opportunity of attaining such a resultlest she should undervalue
his love and think that it was by chance and without intending it
and not of his own accord that he had made love to her.

A few days later Anselmo returned to his house and did not
perceive what it had lostthat which he so lightly treated and so
highly prized. He went at once to see Lotharioand found him at home;
they embraced each otherand Anselmo asked for the tidings of his
life or his death.

The tidings I have to give thee, Anselmo my friend,said Lothario
are that thou dost possess a wife that is worthy to be the pattern
and crown of all good wives. The words that I have addressed to her
were borne away on the wind, my promises have been despised, my
presents have been refused, such feigned tears as I shed have been
turned into open ridicule. In short, as Camilla is the essence of
all beauty, so is she the treasure-house where purity dwells, and
gentleness and modesty abide with all the virtues that can confer
praise, honour, and happiness upon a woman. Take back thy money, my
friend; here it is, and I have had no need to touch it, for the
chastity of Camilla yields not to things so base as gifts or promises.
Be content, Anselmo, and refrain from making further proof; and as
thou hast passed dryshod through the sea of those doubts and
suspicions that are and may be entertained of women, seek not to
plunge again into the deep ocean of new embarrassments, or with
another pilot make trial of the goodness and strength of the bark that
Heaven has granted thee for thy passage across the sea of this
world; but reckon thyself now safe in port, moor thyself with the
anchor of sound reflection, and rest in peace until thou art called
upon to pay that debt which no nobility on earth can escape paying.

Anselmo was completely satisfied by the words of Lotharioand
believed them as fully as if they had been spoken by an oracle;
nevertheless he begged of him not to relinquish the undertaking
were it but for the sake of curiosity and amusement; though
thenceforward he need not make use of the same earnest endeavours as
before; all he wished him to do was to write some verses to her
praising her under the name of Chlorisfor he himself would give
her to understand that he was in love with a lady to whom he had given
that name to enable him to sing her praises with the decorum due to
her modesty; and if Lothario were unwilling to take the trouble of
writing the verses he would compose them himself.

That will not be necessary,said Lothariofor the muses are
not such enemies of mine but that they visit me now and then in the
course of the year. Do thou tell Camilla what thou hast proposed about
a pretended amour of mine; as for the verses will make them, and if
not as good as the subject deserves, they shall be at least the best I
can produce.An agreement to this effect was made between the
friendsthe ill-advised one and the treacherousand Anselmo
returning to his house asked Camilla the question she already wondered
he had not asked before- what it was that had caused her to write
the letter she had sent him. Camilla replied that it had seemed to her
that Lothario looked at her somewhat more freely than when he had been

at home; but that now she was undeceived and believed it to have
been only her own imaginationfor Lothario now avoided seeing heror
being alone with her. Anselmo told her she might be quite easy on
the score of that suspicionfor he knew that Lothario was in love
with a damsel of rank in the city whom he celebrated under the name of
Chlorisand that even if he were nothis fidelity and their great
friendship left no room for fear. Had not Camillahoweverbeen
informed beforehand by Lothario that this love for Chloris was a
pretenceand that he himself had told Anselmo of it in order to be
able sometimes to give utterance to the praises of Camilla herselfno
doubt she would have fallen into the despairing toils of jealousy; but
being forewarned she received the startling news without uneasiness.

The next day as the three were at table Anselmo asked Lothario to
recite something of what he had composed for his mistress Chloris; for
as Camilla did not know herhe might safely say what he liked.

Even did she know her,returned LotharioI would hide nothing,
for when a lover praises his lady's beauty, and charges her with
cruelty, he casts no imputation upon her fair name; at any rate, all I
can say is that yesterday I made a sonnet on the ingratitude of this
Chloris, which goes thus:


At midnight, in the silence, when the eyes
Of happier mortals balmy slumbers close,
The weary tale of my unnumbered woes

To Chloris and to Heaven is wont to rise.

And when the light of day returning dyes
The portals of the east with tints of rose,
With undiminished force my sorrow flows

In broken accents and in burning sighs.
And when the sun ascends his star-girt throne,
And on the earth pours down his midday beams,
Noon but renews my wailing and my tears;
And with the night again goes up my moan.
Yet ever in my agony it seems
To me that neither Heaven nor Chloris hears.

The sonnet pleased Camillaand still more Anselmofor he praised
it and said the lady was excessively cruel who made no return for
sincerity so manifest. On which Camilla saidThen all that
love-smitten poets say is true?

As poets they do not tell the truth,replied Lothario; "but as
lovers they are not more defective in expression than they are

There is no doubt of that,observed Anselmoanxious to support
and uphold Lothario's ideas with Camillawho was as regardless of his
design as she was deep in love with Lothario; and so taking delight in
anything that was hisand knowing that his thoughts and writings
had her for their objectand that she herself was the real Chloris
she asked him to repeat some other sonnet or verses if he
recollected any.

I do,replied Lothariobut I do not think it as good as the
first one, or, more correctly speaking, less bad; but you can easily
judge, for it is this.


I know that I am doomed; death is to me
As certain as that thou, ungrateful fair,
Dead at thy feet shouldst see me lying, ere

My heart repented of its love for thee.

If buried in oblivion I should be,
Bereft of life, fame, favour, even there
It would be found that I thy image bear

Deep graven in my breast for all to see.
This like some holy relic do I prize
To save me from the fate my truth entails,
Truth that to thy hard heart its vigour owes.
Alas for him that under lowering skies,
In peril o'er a trackless ocean sails,
Where neither friendly port nor pole-star shows.

Anselmo praised this second sonnet tooas he had praised the first;
and so he went on adding link after link to the chain with which he
was binding himself and making his dishonour secure; for when Lothario
was doing most to dishonour him he told him he was most honoured;
and thus each step that Camilla descended towards the depths of her
abasementshe mountedin his opiniontowards the summit of virtue
and fair fame.

It so happened that finding herself on one occasion alone with her
maidCamilla said to herI am ashamed to think, my dear Leonela,
how lightly I have valued myself that I did not compel Lothario to
purchase by at least some expenditure of time that full possession
of me that I so quickly yielded him of my own free will. I fear that
he will think ill of my pliancy or lightness, not considering the
irresistible influence he brought to bear upon me.

Let not that trouble you, my lady,said Leonelafor it does
not take away the value of the thing given or make it the less
precious to give it quickly if it be really valuable and worthy of
being prized; nay, they are wont to say that he who gives quickly
gives twice.

They say also,said Camillathat what costs little is valued

That saying does not hold good in your case,replied Leonelafor
love, as I have heard say, sometimes flies and sometimes walks; with
this one it runs, with that it moves slowly; some it cools, others
it burns; some it wounds, others it slays; it begins the course of its
desires, and at the same moment completes and ends it; in the
morning it will lay siege to a fortress and by night will have taken
it, for there is no power that can resist it; so what are you in dread
of, what do you fear, when the same must have befallen Lothario,
love having chosen the absence of my lord as the instrument for
subduing you? and it was absolutely necessary to complete then what
love had resolved upon, without affording the time to let Anselmo
return and by his presence compel the work to be left unfinished;
for love has no better agent for carrying out his designs than
opportunity; and of opportunity he avails himself in all his feats,
especially at the outset. All this I know well myself, more by
experience than by hearsay, and some day, senora, I will enlighten you
on the subject, for I am of your flesh and blood too. Moreover, lady
Camilla, you did not surrender yourself or yield so quickly but that
first you saw Lothario's whole soul in his eyes, in his sighs, in
his words, his promises and his gifts, and by it and his good
qualities perceived how worthy he was of your love. This, then,

being the case, let not these scrupulous and prudish ideas trouble
your imagination, but be assured that Lothario prizes you as you do
him, and rest content and satisfied that as you are caught in the
noose of love it is one of worth and merit that has taken you, and one
that has not only the four S's that they say true lovers ought to
have, but a complete alphabet; only listen to me and you will see
how I can repeat it by rote. He is to my eyes and thinking, Amiable,
Brave, Courteous, Distinguished, Elegant, Fond, Gay, Honourable,
Illustrious, Loyal, Manly, Noble, Open, Polite, Quickwitted, Rich, and
the S's according to the saying, and then Tender, Veracious: X does
not suit him, for it is a rough letter; Y has been given already;
and Z Zealous for your honour.

Camilla laughed at her maid's alphabetand perceived her to be more
experienced in love affairs than she saidwhich she admitted
confessing to Camilla that she had love passages with a young man of
good birth of the same city. Camilla was uneasy at thisdreading lest
it might prove the means of endangering her honourand asked
whether her intrigue had gone beyond wordsand she with little
shame and much effrontery said it had; for certain it is that
ladies' imprudences make servants shamelesswhowhen they see
their mistresses make a false stepthink nothing of going astray
themselvesor of its being known. All that Camilla could do was to
entreat Leonela to say nothing about her doings to him whom she called
her loverand to conduct her own affairs secretly lest they should
come to the knowledge of Anselmo or of Lothario. Leonela said she
wouldbut kept her word in such a way that she confirmed Camilla's
apprehension of losing her reputation through her means; for this
abandoned and bold Leonelaas soon as she perceived that her
mistress's demeanour was not what it was wont to behad the
audacity to introduce her lover into the houseconfident that even if
her mistress saw him she would not dare to expose him; for the sins of
mistresses entail this mischief among others; they make themselves the
slaves of their own servantsand are obliged to hide their laxities
and depravities; as was the case with Camillawho though she
perceivednot once but many timesthat Leonela was with her lover in
some room of the housenot only did not dare to chide herbut
afforded her opportunities for concealing him and removed all
difficultieslest he should be seen by her husband. She was unable
howeverto prevent him from being seen on one occasionas he sallied
forth at daybreakby Lothariowhonot knowing who he wasat
first took him for a spectre; butas soon as he saw him hasten
awaymuffling his face with his cloak and concealing himself
carefully and cautiouslyhe rejected this foolish ideaand adopted
anotherwhich would have been the ruin of all had not Camilla found a
remedy. It did not occur to Lothario that this man he had seen issuing
at such an untimely hour from Anselmo's house could have entered it on
Leonela's accountnor did he even remember there was such a person as
Leonela; all he thought was that as Camilla had been light and
yielding with himso she had been with another; for this further
penalty the erring woman's sin brings with itthat her honour is
distrusted even by him to whose overtures and persuasions she has
yielded; and he believes her to have surrendered more easily to
othersand gives implicit credence to every suspicion that comes into
his mind. All Lothario's good sense seems to have failed him at this
juncture; all his prudent maxims escaped his memory; for without
once reflecting rationallyand without more adoin his impatience
and in the blindness of the jealous rage that gnawed his heartand
dying to revenge himself upon Camillawho had done him no wrong
before Anselmo had risen he hastened to him and said to himKnow,
Anselmo, that for several days past I have been struggling with
myself, striving to withhold from thee what it is no longer possible
or right that I should conceal from thee. Know that Camilla's fortress
has surrendered and is ready to submit to my will; and if I have

been slow to reveal this fact to thee, it was in order to see if it
were some light caprice of hers, or if she sought to try me and
ascertain if the love I began to make to her with thy permission was
made with a serious intention. I thought, too, that she, if she were
what she ought to be, and what we both believed her, would have ere
this given thee information of my addresses; but seeing that she
delays, I believe the truth of the promise she has given me that the
next time thou art absent from the house she will grant me an
interview in the closet where thy jewels are kept (and it was true
that Camilla used to meet him there); but I do not wish thee to rush
precipitately to take vengeance, for the sin is as yet only
committed in intention, and Camilla's may change perhaps between
this and the appointed time, and repentance spring up in its place. As
hitherto thou hast always followed my advice wholly or in part, follow
and observe this that I will give thee now, so that, without
mistake, and with mature deliberation, thou mayest satisfy thyself
as to what may seem the best course; pretend to absent thyself for two
or three days as thou hast been wont to do on other occasions, and
contrive to hide thyself in the closet; for the tapestries and other
things there afford great facilities for thy concealment, and then
thou wilt see with thine own eyes and I with mine what Camilla's
purpose may be. And if it be a guilty one, which may be feared
rather than expected, with silence, prudence, and discretion thou
canst thyself become the instrument of punishment for the wrong done

Anselmo was amazedoverwhelmedand astounded at the words of
Lothariowhich came upon him at a time when he least expected to hear
themfor he now looked upon Camilla as having triumphed over the
pretended attacks of Lotharioand was beginning to enjoy the glory of
her victory. He remained silent for a considerable timelooking on
the ground with fixed gazeand at length saidThou hast behaved,
Lothario, as I expected of thy friendship: I will follow thy advice in
everything; do as thou wilt, and keep this secret as thou seest it
should be kept in circumstances so unlooked for.

Lothario gave him his wordbut after leaving him he repented
altogether of what he had said to himperceiving how foolishly he had
actedas he might have revenged himself upon Camilla in some less
cruel and degrading way. He cursed his want of sensecondemned his
hasty resolutionand knew not what course to take to undo the
mischief or find some ready escape from it. At last he decided upon
revealing all to Camillaandas there was no want of opportunity for
doing sohe found her alone the same day; but sheas soon as she had
the chance of speaking to himsaidLothario my friend, I must
tell thee I have a sorrow in my heart which fills it so that it
seems ready to burst; and it will be a wonder if it does not; for
the audacity of Leonela has now reached such a pitch that every
night she conceals a gallant of hers in this house and remains with
him till morning, at the expense of my reputation; inasmuch as it is
open to anyone to question it who may see him quitting my house at
such unseasonable hours; but what distresses me is that I cannot
punish or chide her, for her privity to our intrigue bridles my
mouth and keeps me silent about hers, while I am dreading that some
catastrophe will come of it.

As Camilla said this Lothario at first imagined it was some device
to delude him into the idea that the man he had seen going out was
Leonela's lover and not hers; but when he saw how she wept and
sufferedand begged him to help herhe became convinced of the
truthand the conviction completed his confusion and remorse;
howeverhe told Camilla not to distress herselfas he would take
measures to put a stop to the insolence of Leonela. At the same time
he told her whatdriven by the fierce rage of jealousyhe had said

to Anselmoand how he had arranged to hide himself in the closet that
he might there see plainly how little she preserved her fidelity to
him; and he entreated her pardon for this madnessand her advice as
to how to repair itand escape safely from the intricate labyrinth in
which his imprudence had involved him. Camilla was struck with alarm
at hearing what Lothario saidand with much angerand great good
senseshe reproved him and rebuked his base design and the foolish
and mischievous resolution he had made; but as woman has by nature a
nimbler wit than man for good and for evilthough it is apt to fail
when she sets herself deliberately to reasonCamilla on the spur of
the moment thought of a way to remedy what was to all appearance
irremediableand told Lothario to contrive that the next day
Anselmo should conceal himself in the place he mentionedfor she
hoped from his concealment to obtain the means of their enjoying
themselves for the future without any apprehension; and without
revealing her purpose to him entirely she charged him to be careful
as soon as Anselmo was concealedto come to her when Leonela should
call himand to all she said to him to answer as he would have
answered had he not known that Anselmo was listening. Lothario pressed
her to explain her intention fullyso that he might with more
certainty and precaution take care to do what he saw to be needful.

I tell you,said Camillathere is nothing to take care of except
to answer me what I shall ask you;for she did not wish to explain to
him beforehand what she meant to dofearing lest he should be
unwilling to follow out an idea which seemed to her such a good one
and should try or devise some other less practicable plan.

Lothario then retiredand the next day Anselmounder pretence of
going to his friend's country housetook his departureand then
returned to conceal himselfwhich he was able to do easilyas
Camilla and Leonela took care to give him the opportunity; and so he
placed himself in hiding in the state of agitation that it may be
imagined he would feel who expected to see the vitals of his honour
laid bare before his eyesand found himself on the point of losing
the supreme blessing he thought he possessed in his beloved Camilla.
Having made sure of Anselmo's being in his hiding-placeCamilla and
Leonela entered the closetand the instant she set foot within it
Camilla saidwith a deep sighAh! dear Leonela, would it not be
better, before I do what I am unwilling you should know lest you
should seek to prevent it, that you should take Anselmo's dagger
that I have asked of you and with it pierce this vile heart of mine?
But no; there is no reason why I should suffer the punishment of
another's fault. I will first know what it is that the bold licentious
eyes of Lothario have seen in me that could have encouraged him to
reveal to me a design so base as that which he has disclosed
regardless of his friend and of my honour. Go to the window,
Leonela, and call him, for no doubt he is in the street waiting to
carry out his vile project; but mine, cruel it may be, but honourable,
shall be carried out first.

Ah, senora,said the crafty Leonelawho knew her partwhat is
it you want to do with this dagger? Can it be that you mean to take
your own life, or Lothario's? for whichever you mean to do, it will
lead to the loss of your reputation and good name. It is better to
dissemble your wrong and not give this wicked man the chance of
entering the house now and finding us alone; consider, senora, we
are weak women and he is a man, and determined, and as he comes with
such a base purpose, blind and urged by passion, perhaps before you
can put yours into execution he may do what will be worse for you than
taking your life. Ill betide my master, Anselmo, for giving such
authority in his house to this shameless fellow! And supposing you
kill him, senora, as I suspect you mean to do, what shall we do with
him when he is dead?

What, my friend?replied Camillawe shall leave him for
Anselmo to bury him; for in reason it will be to him a light labour to
hide his own infamy under ground. Summon him, make haste, for all
the time I delay in taking vengeance for my wrong seems to me an
offence against the loyalty I owe my husband.

Anselmo was listening to all thisand every word that Camilla
uttered made him change his mind; but when he heard that it was
resolved to kill Lothario his first impulse was to come out and show
himself to avert such a disaster; but in his anxiety to see the
issue of a resolution so bold and virtuous he restrained himself
intending to come forth in time to prevent the deed. At this moment
Camillathrowing herself upon a bed that was close byswooned
awayand Leonela began to weep bitterlyexclaimingWoe is me! that
I should be fated to have dying here in my arms the flower of virtue
upon earth, the crown of true wives, the pattern of chastity!with
more to the same effectso that anyone who heard her would have taken
her for the most tender-hearted and faithful handmaid in the world
and her mistress for another persecuted Penelope.

Camilla was not long in recovering from her fainting fit and on
coming to herself she saidWhy do you not go, Leonela, to call
hither that friend, the falsest to his friend the sun ever shone
upon or night concealed? Away, run, haste, speed! lest the fire of
my wrath burn itself out with delay, and the righteous vengeance
that I hope for melt away in menaces and maledictions.

I am just going to call him, senora,said Leonela; "but you must
first give me that daggerlest while I am gone you should by means of
it give cause to all who love you to weep all their lives."

Go in peace, dear Leonela, I will not do so,said Camillafor
rash and foolish as I may be, to your mind, in defending my honour,
I am not going to be so much so as that Lucretia who they say killed
herself without having done anything wrong, and without having first
killed him on whom the guilt of her misfortune lay. I shall die, if
I am to die; but it must be after full vengeance upon him who has
brought me here to weep over audacity that no fault of mine gave birth

Leonela required much pressing before she would go to summon
Lothariobut at last she wentand while awaiting her return
Camilla continuedas if speaking to herselfGood God! would it
not have been more prudent to have repulsed Lothario, as I have done
many a time before, than to allow him, as I am now doing, to think
me unchaste and vile, even for the short time I must wait until I
undeceive him? No doubt it would have been better; but I should not be
avenged, nor the honour of my husband vindicated, should he find so
clear and easy an escape from the strait into which his depravity
has led him. Let the traitor pay with his life for the temerity of his
wanton wishes, and let the world know (if haply it shall ever come
to know) that Camilla not only preserved her allegiance to her
husband, but avenged him of the man who dared to wrong him. Still, I
think it might be better to disclose this to Anselmo. But then I
have called his attention to it in the letter I wrote to him in the
country, and, if he did nothing to prevent the mischief I there
pointed out to him, I suppose it was that from pure goodness of
heart and trustfulness he would not and could not believe that any
thought against his honour could harbour in the breast of so stanch
a friend; nor indeed did I myself believe it for many days, nor should
I have ever believed it if his insolence had not gone so far as to
make it manifest by open presents, lavish promises, and ceaseless
tears. But why do I argue thus? Does a bold determination stand in

need of arguments? Surely not. Then traitors avaunt! Vengeance to my
aid! Let the false one come, approach, advance, die, yield up his
life, and then befall what may. Pure I came to him whom Heaven
bestowed upon me, pure I shall leave him; and at the worst bathed in
my own chaste blood and in the foul blood of the falsest friend that
friendship ever saw in the world;and as she uttered these words
she paced the room holding the unsheathed daggerwith such
irregular and disordered stepsand such gestures that one would
have supposed her to have lost her sensesand taken her for some
violent desperado instead of a delicate woman.

Anselmohidden behind some tapestries where he had concealed
himselfbeheld and was amazed at alland already felt that what he
had seen and heard was a sufficient answer to even greater suspicions;
and he would have been now well pleased if the proof afforded by
Lothario's coming were dispensed withas he feared some sudden
mishap; but as he was on the point of showing himself and coming forth
to embrace and undeceive his wife he paused as he saw Leonela
returningleading Lothario. Camilla when she saw himdrawing a
long line in front of her on the floor with the daggersaid to him
Lothario, pay attention to what I say to thee: if by any chance
thou darest to cross this line thou seest, or even approach it, the
instant I see thee attempt it that same instant will I pierce my bosom
with this dagger that I hold in my hand; and before thou answerest
me a word desire thee to listen to a few from me, and afterwards
thou shalt reply as may please thee. First, I desire thee to tell
me, Lothario, if thou knowest my husband Anselmo, and in what light
thou regardest him; and secondly I desire to know if thou knowest me
too. Answer me this, without embarrassment or reflecting deeply what
thou wilt answer, for they are no riddles I put to thee.

Lothario was not so dull but that from the first moment when Camilla
directed him to make Anselmo hide himself he understood what she
intended to doand therefore he fell in with her idea so readily
and promptly that between them they made the imposture look more
true than truth; so he answered her thus: "I did not thinkfair
Camillathat thou wert calling me to ask questions so remote from the
object with which I come; but if it is to defer the promised reward
thou art doing sothou mightst have put it off still longerfor
the longing for happiness gives the more distress the nearer comes the
hope of gaining it; but lest thou shouldst say that I do not answer
thy questionsI say that I know thy husband Anselmoand that we have
known each other from our earliest years; I will not speak of what
thou too knowestof our friendshipthat I may not compel myself to
testify against the wrong that lovethe mighty excuse for greater
errorsmakes me inflict upon him. Thee I know and hold in the same
estimation as he doesfor were it not so I had not for a lesser prize
acted in opposition to what I owe to my station and the holy laws of
true friendshipnow broken and violated by me through that powerful

If thou dost confess that,returned Camillamortal enemy of
all that rightly deserves to be loved, with what face dost thou dare
to come before one whom thou knowest to be the mirror wherein he is
reflected on whom thou shouldst look to see how unworthily thou him?
But, woe is me, I now comprehend what has made thee give so little
heed to what thou owest to thyself; it must have been some freedom
of mine, for I will not call it immodesty, as it did not proceed
from any deliberate intention, but from some heedlessness such as
women are guilty of through inadvertence when they think they have
no occasion for reserve. But tell me, traitor, when did I by word or
sign give a reply to thy prayers that could awaken in thee a shadow of
hope of attaining thy base wishes? When were not thy professions of
love sternly and scornfully rejected and rebuked? When were thy

frequent pledges and still more frequent gifts believed or accepted?
But as I am persuaded that no one can long persevere in the attempt to
win love unsustained by some hope, I am willing to attribute to myself
the blame of thy assurance, for no doubt some thoughtlessness of
mine has all this time fostered thy hopes; and therefore will I punish
myself and inflict upon myself the penalty thy guilt deserves. And
that thou mayest see that being so relentless to myself I cannot
possibly be otherwise to thee, I have summoned thee to be a witness of
the sacrifice I mean to offer to the injured honour of my honoured
husband, wronged by thee with all the assiduity thou wert capable
of, and by me too through want of caution in avoiding every
occasion, if I have given any, of encouraging and sanctioning thy base
designs. Once more I say the suspicion in my mind that some imprudence
of mine has engendered these lawless thoughts in thee, is what
causes me most distress and what I desire most to punish with my own
hands, for were any other instrument of punishment employed my error
might become perhaps more widely known; but before I do so, in my
death I mean to inflict death, and take with me one that will fully
satisfy my longing for the revenge I hope for and have; for I shall
see, wheresoever it may be that I go, the penalty awarded by
inflexible, unswerving justice on him who has placed me in a
position so desperate.

As she uttered these wordswith incredible energy and swiftness she
flew upon Lothario with the naked daggerso manifestly bent on
burying it in his breast that he was almost uncertain whether these
demonstrations were real or feignedfor he was obliged to have
recourse to all his skill and strength to prevent her from striking
him; and with such reality did she act this strange farce and
mystification thatto give it a colour of truthshe determined to
stain it with her own blood; for perceivingor pretendingthat she
could not wound Lotharioshe saidFate, it seems, will not grant my
just desire complete satisfaction, but it will not be able to keep
me from satisfying it partially at least;and making an effort to
free the hand with the dagger which Lothario held in his graspshe
released itand directing the point to a place where it could not
inflict a deep woundshe plunged it into her left side high up
close to the shoulderand then allowed herself to fall to the
ground as if in a faint.

Leonela and Lothario stood amazed and astounded at the
catastropheand seeing Camilla stretched on the ground and bathed
in her blood they were still uncertain as to the true nature of the
act. Lotharioterrified and breathlessran in haste to pluck out the
dagger; but when he saw how slight the wound was he was relieved of
his fears and once more admired the subtletycoolnessand ready
wit of the fair Camilla; and the better to support the part he had
to play he began to utter profuse and doleful lamentations over her
body as if she were deadinvoking maledictions not only on himself
but also on him who had been the means of placing him in such a
position: and knowing that his friend Anselmo heard him he spoke in
such a way as to make a listener feel much more pity for him than
for Camillaeven though he supposed her dead. Leonela took her up
in her arms and laid her on the bedentreating Lothario to go in
quest of some one to attend to her wound in secretand at the same
time asking his advice and opinion as to what they should say to
Anselmo about his lady's wound if he should chance to return before it
was healed. He replied they might say what they likedfor he was
not in a state to give advice that would be of any use; all he could
tell her was to try and stanch the bloodas he was going where he
should never more be seen; and with every appearance of deep grief and
sorrow he left the house; but when he found himself aloneand where
there was nobody to see himhe crossed himself unceasinglylost in
wonder at the adroitness of Camilla and the consistent acting of

Leonela. He reflected how convinced Anselmo would be that he had a
second Portia for a wifeand he looked forward anxiously to meeting
him in order to rejoice together over falsehood and truth the most
craftily veiled that could be imagined.

Leonelaas he told herstanched her lady's bloodwhich was no
more than sufficed to support her deception; and washing the wound
with a little wine she bound it up to the best of her skilltalking
all the time she was tending her in a strain thateven if nothing
else had been said beforewould have been enough to assure Anselmo
that he had in Camilla a model of purity. To Leonela's words Camilla
added her owncalling herself cowardly and wanting in spiritsince
she had not enough at the time she had most need of it to rid
herself of the life she so much loathed. She asked her attendant's
advice as to whether or not she ought to inform her beloved husband of
all that had happenedbut the other bade her say nothing about itas
she would lay upon him the obligation of taking vengeance on Lothario
which he could not do but at great risk to himself; and it was the
duty of a true wife not to give her husband provocation to quarrel
buton the contraryto remove it as far as possible from him.

Camilla replied that she believed she was right and that she would
follow her advicebut at any rate it would be well to consider how
she was to explain the wound to Anselmofor he could not help
seeing it; to which Leonela answered that she did not know how to tell
a lie even in jest.

How then can I know, my dear?said Camillafor I should not dare
to forge or keep up a falsehood if my life depended on it. If we can
think of no escape from this difficulty, it will be better to tell him
the plain truth than that he should find us out in an untrue story.

Be not uneasy, senora,said Leonela; "between this and to-morrow I
will think of what we must say to himand perhaps the wound being
where it is it can be hidden from his sightand Heaven will be
pleased to aid us in a purpose so good and honourable. Compose
yourselfsenoraand endeavour to calm your excitement lest my lord
find you agitated; and leave the rest to my care and God'swho always
supports good intentions."

Anselmo had with the deepest attention listened to and seen played
out the tragedy of the death of his honourwhich the performers acted
with such wonderfully effective truth that it seemed as if they had
become the realities of the parts they played. He longed for night and
an opportunity of escaping from the house to go and see his good
friend Lotharioand with him give vent to his joy over the precious
pearl he had gained in having established his wife's purity. Both
mistress and maid took care to give him time and opportunity to get
awayand taking advantage of it he made his escapeand at once
went in quest of Lotharioand it would be impossible to describe
how he embraced him when he found himand the things he said to him
in the joy of his heartand the praises he bestowed upon Camilla; all
which Lothario listened to without being able to show any pleasure
for he could not forget how deceived his friend wasand how
dishonourably he had wronged him; and though Anselmo could see that
Lothario was not gladstill he imagined it was only because he had
left Camilla wounded and had been himself the cause of it; and so
among other things he told him not to be distressed about Camilla's
accidentforas they had agreed to hide it from himthe wound was
evidently trifling; and that being sohe had no cause for fearbut
should henceforward be of good cheer and rejoice with himseeing that
by his means and adroitness he found himself raised to the greatest
height of happiness that he could have ventured to hope forand
desired no better pastime than making verses in praise of Camilla that

would preserve her name for all time to come. Lothario commended his
purposeand promised on his own part to aid him in raising a monument
so glorious.

And so Anselmo was left the most charmingly hoodwinked man there
could be in the world. He himselfpersuaded he was conducting the
instrument of his gloryled home by the hand him who had been the
utter destruction of his good name; whom Camilla received with averted
countenancethough with smiles in her heart. The deception was
carried on for some timeuntil at the end of a few months Fortune
turned her wheel and the guilt which had been until then so
skilfully concealed was published abroadand Anselmo paid with his
life the penalty of his ill-advised curiosity.



There remained but little more of the novel to be readwhen
Sancho Panza burst forth in wild excitement from the garret where
Don Quixote was lyingshoutingRun, sirs! quick; and help my
master, who is in the thick of the toughest and stiffest battle I ever
laid eyes on. By the living God he has given the giant, the enemy of
my lady the Princess Micomicona, such a slash that he has sliced his
head clean off as if it were a turnip.

What are you talking about, brother?said the curatepausing as
he was about to read the remainder of the novel. "Are you in your
sensesSancho? How the devil can it be as you saywhen the giant
is two thousand leagues away?"

Here they heard a loud noise in the chamberand Don Quixote
shouting outStand, thief, brigand, villain; now I have got thee,
and thy scimitar shall not avail thee!And then it seemed as though
he were slashing vigorously at the wall.

Don't stop to listen,said Sanchobut go in and part them or
help my master: though there is no need of that now, for no doubt
the giant is dead by this time and giving account to God of his past
wicked life; for I saw the blood flowing on the ground, and the head
cut off and fallen on one side, and it is as big as a large

May I die,said the landlord at thisif Don Quixote or Don Devil
has not been slashing some of the skins of red wine that stand full at
his bed's head, and the spilt wine must be what this good fellow takes
for blood;and so saying he went into the room and the rest after
himand there they found Don Quixote in the strangest costume in
the world. He was in his shirtwhich was not long enough in front
to cover his thighs completely and was six fingers shorter behind; his
legs were very long and leancovered with hairand anything but
clean; on his head he had a little greasy red cap that belonged to the
hostround his left arm he had rolled the blanket of the bedto
which Sanchofor reasons best known to himselfowed a grudgeand in
his right hand he held his unsheathed swordwith which he was
slashing about on all sidesuttering exclamations as if he were
actually fighting some giant: and the best of it was his eyes were not
openfor he was fast asleepand dreaming that he was doing battle
with the giant. For his imagination was so wrought upon by the

adventure he was going to accomplishthat it made him dream he had
already reached the kingdom of Micomiconand was engaged in combat
with his enemy; and believing he was laying on the gianthe had given
so many sword cuts to the skins that the whole room was full of
wine. On seeing this the landlord was so enraged that he fell on Don
Quixoteand with his clenched fist began to pummel him in such a way
that if Cardenio and the curate had not dragged him offhe would have
brought the war of the giant to an end. But in spite of all the poor
gentleman never woke until the barber brought a great pot of cold
water from the well and flung it with one dash all over his bodyon
which Don Quixote woke upbut not so completely as to understand what
was the matter. Dorotheaseeing how short and slight his attire
waswould not go in to witness the battle between her champion and
her opponent. As for Sanchohe went searching all over the floor
for the head of the giantand not finding it he saidI see now that
it's all enchantment in this house; for the last time, on this very
spot where I am now, I got ever so many thumps without knowing who
gave them to me, or being able to see anybody; and now this head is
not to be seen anywhere about, though I saw it cut off with my own
eyes and the blood running from the body as if from a fountain.

What blood and fountains are you talking about, enemy of God and
his saints?said the landlord. "Don't you seeyou thiefthat the
blood and the fountain are only these skins here that have been
stabbed and the red wine swimming all over the room?- and I wish I saw
the soul of him that stabbed them swimming in hell."

I know nothing about that,said Sancho; "all I know is it will
be my bad luck that through not finding this head my county will
melt away like salt in water;"- for Sancho awake was worse than his
master asleepso much had his master's promises addled his wits.

The landlord was beside himself at the coolness of the squire and
the mischievous doings of the masterand swore it should not be
like the last time when they went without paying; and that their
privileges of chivalry should not hold good this time to let one or
other of them off without payingeven to the cost of the plugs that
would have to be put to the damaged wine-skins. The curate was holding
Don Quixote's handswhofancying he had now ended the adventure
and was in the presence of the Princess Micomiconaknelt before the
curate and saidExalted and beauteous lady, your highness may live
from this day forth fearless of any harm this base being could do you;
and I too from this day forth am released from the promise I gave you,
since by the help of God on high and by the favour of her by whom I
live and breathe, I have fulfilled it so successfully.

Did not I say so?said Sancho on hearing this. "You see I wasn't
drunk; there you see my master has already salted the giant; there's
no doubt about the bulls; my county is all right!"

Who could have helped laughing at the absurdities of the pair
master and man? And laugh they didall except the landlordwho
cursed himself; but at length the barberCardenioand the curate
contrived with no small trouble to get Don Quixote on the bedand
he fell asleep with every appearance of excessive weariness. They left
him to sleepand came out to the gate of the inn to console Sancho
Panza on not having found the head of the giant; but much more work
had they to appease the landlordwho was furious at the sudden
death of his wine-skins; and said the landlady half scoldinghalf
cryingAt an evil moment and in an unlucky hour he came into my
house, this knight-errant- would that I had never set eyes on him, for
dear he has cost me; the last time he went off with the overnight
score against him for supper, bed, straw, and barley, for himself
and his squire and a hack and an ass, saying he was a knight

adventurer- God send unlucky adventures to him and all the adventurers
in the world- and therefore not bound to pay anything, for it was so
settled by the knight-errantry tariff: and then, all because of him,
came the other gentleman and carried off my tail, and gives it back
more than two cuartillos the worse, all stripped of its hair, so
that it is no use for my husband's purpose; and then, for a
finishing touch to all, to burst my wine-skins and spill my wine! I
wish I saw his own blood spilt! But let him not deceive himself,
for, by the bones of my father and the shade of my mother, they
shall pay me down every quarts; or my name is not what it is, and I am
not my father's daughter.All this and more to the same effect the
landlady delivered with great irritationand her good maid Maritornes
backed her upwhile the daughter held her peace and smiled from
time to time. The curate smoothed matters by promising to make good
all losses to the best of his powernot only as regarded the
wine-skins but also the wineand above all the depreciation of the
tail which they set such store by. Dorothea comforted Sancho
telling him that she pledged herselfas soon as it should appear
certain that his master had decapitated the giantand she found
herself peacefully established in her kingdomto bestow upon him
the best county there was in it. With this Sancho consoled himself
and assured the princess she might rely upon it that he had seen the
head of the giantand more by token it had a beard that reached to
the girdleand that if it was not to be seen now it was because
everything that happened in that house went by enchantmentas he
himself had proved the last time he had lodged there. Dorothea said
she fully believed itand that he need not be uneasyfor all would
go well and turn out as he wished. All therefore being appeasedthe
curate was anxious to go on with the novelas he saw there was but
little more left to read. Dorothea and the others begged him to finish
itand heas he was willing to please themand enjoyed reading it
himselfcontinued the tale in these words:

The result wasthat from the confidence Anselmo felt in Camilla's
virtuehe lived happy and free from anxietyand Camilla purposely
looked coldly on Lothariothat Anselmo might suppose her feelings
towards him to be the opposite of what they were; and the better to
support the positionLothario begged to be excused from coming to the
houseas the displeasure with which Camilla regarded his presence was
plain to be seen. But the befooled Anselmo said he would on no account
allow such a thingand so in a thousand ways he became the author
of his own dishonourwhile he believed he was insuring his happiness.
Meanwhile the satisfaction with which Leonela saw herself empowered to
carry on her amour reached such a height thatregardless of
everything elseshe followed her inclinations unrestrainedlyfeeling
confident that her mistress would screen herand even show her how to
manage it safely. At last one night Anselmo heard footsteps in
Leonela's roomand on trying to enter to see who it washe found
that the door was held against himwhich made him all the more
determined to open it; and exerting his strength he forced it open
and entered the room in time to see a man leaping through the window
into the street. He ran quickly to seize him or discover who he was
but he was unable to effect either purposefor Leonela flung her arms
round him cryingBe calm, senor; do not give way to passion or
follow him who has escaped from this; he belongs to me, and in fact he
is my husband.

Anselmo would not believe itbut blind with rage drew a dagger
and threatened to stab Leonelabidding her tell the truth or he would
kill her. Shein her fearnot knowing what she was saying
exclaimedDo not kill me, senor, for I can tell you things more
important than any you can imagine.

Tell me then at once or thou diest,said Anselmo.

It would be impossible for me now,said LeonelaI am so
agitated: leave me till to-morrow, and then you shall hear from me
what will fill you with astonishment; but rest assured that he who
leaped through the window is a young man of this city, who has given
me his promise to become my husband.

Anselmo was appeased with thisand was content to wait the time she
asked of himfor he never expected to hear anything against
Camillaso satisfied and sure of her virtue was he; and so he quitted
the roomand left Leonela locked intelling her she should not
come out until she had told him all she had to make known to him. He
went at once to see Camillaand tell heras he didall that had
passed between him and her handmaidand the promise she had given him
to inform him matters of serious importance.

There is no need of saying whether Camilla was agitated or not
for so great was her fear and dismaythatmaking sureas she had
good reason to dothat Leonela would tell Anselmo all she knew of her
faithlessnessshe had not the courage to wait and see if her
suspicions were confirmed; and that same nightas soon as she thought
that Anselmo was asleepshe packed up the most valuable jewels she
had and some moneyand without being observed by anybody escaped from
the house and betook herself to Lothario'sto whom she related what
had occurredimploring him to convey her to some place of safety or
fly with her where they might be safe from Anselmo. The state of
perplexity to which Camilla reduced Lothario was such that he was
unable to utter a word in replystill less to decide upon what he
should do. At length he resolved to conduct her to a convent of
which a sister of his was prioress; Camilla agreed to thisand with
the speed which the circumstances demandedLothario took her to the
convent and left her thereand then himself quitted the city
without letting anyone know of his departure.

As soon as daylight came Anselmowithout missing Camilla from his
siderose cager to learn what Leonela had to tell himand hastened
to the room where he had locked her in. He opened the doorentered
but found no Leonela; all he found was some sheets knotted to the
windowa plain proof that she had let herself down from it and
escaped. He returneduneasyto tell Camillabut not finding her
in bed or anywhere in the house he was lost in amazement. He asked the
servants of the house about herbut none of them could give him any
explanation. As he was going in search of Camilla it happened by
chance that he observed her boxes were lying openand that the
greater part of her jewels were gone; and now he became fully aware of
his disgraceand that Leonela was not the cause of his misfortune;
andjust as he waswithout delaying to dress himself completely
he repairedsad at heart and dejectedto his friend Lothario to make
known his sorrow to him; but when he failed to find him and the
servants reported that he had been absent from his house all night and
had taken with him all the money he hadhe felt as though he were
losing his senses; and to make all complete on returning to his own
house he found it deserted and emptynot one of all his servants
male or femaleremaining in it. He knew not what to thinkor sayor
doand his reason seemed to be deserting him little by little. He
reviewed his positionand saw himself in a moment left without
wifefriendor servantsabandonedhe feltby the heaven above
himand more than all robbed of his honourfor in Camilla's
disappearance he saw his own ruin. After long reflection he resolved
at last to go to his friend's villagewhere he had been staying
when he afforded opportunities for the contrivance of this
complication of misfortune. He locked the doors of his house
mounted his horseand with a broken spirit set out on his journey;

but he had hardly gone half-way whenharassed by his reflections
he had to dismount and tie his horse to a treeat the foot of which
he threw himselfgiving vent to piteous heartrending sighs; and there
he remained till nearly nightfallwhen he observed a man
approaching on horseback from the cityof whomafter saluting him
he asked what was the news in Florence.

The citizen repliedThe strangest that have been heard for many
a day; for it is reported abroad that Lothario, the great friend of
the wealthy Anselmo, who lived at San Giovanni, carried off last night
Camilla, the wife of Anselmo, who also has disappeared. All this has
been told by a maid-servant of Camilla's, whom the governor found last
night lowering herself by a sheet from the windows of Anselmo's house.
I know not indeed, precisely, how the affair came to pass; all I
know is that the whole city is wondering at the occurrence, for no one
could have expected a thing of the kind, seeing the great and intimate
friendship that existed between them, so great, they say, that they
were called 'The Two Friends.'

Is it known at all,said Anselmowhat road Lothario and
Camilla took?

Not in the least,said the citizenthough the governor has
been very active in searching for them.

God speed you, senor,said Anselmo.

God be with you,said the citizen and went his way.

This disastrous intelligence almost robbed Anselmo not only of his
senses but of his life. He got up as well as he was able and reached
the house of his friendwho as yet knew nothing of his misfortune
but seeing him come palewornand haggardperceived that he was
suffering some heavy affliction. Anselmo at once begged to be
allowed to retire to restand to be given writing materials. His wish
was complied with and he was left lying down and alonefor he desired
thisand even that the door should be locked. Finding himself alone
he so took to heart the thought of his misfortune that by the signs of
death he felt within him he knew well his life was drawing to a close
and therefore he resolved to leave behind him a declaration of the
cause of his strange end. He began to writebut before he had put
down all he meant to sayhis breath failed him and he yielded up
his lifea victim to the suffering which his ill-advised curiosity
had entailed upon him. The master of the house observing that it was
now late and that Anselmo did not calldetermined to go in and
ascertain if his indisposition was increasingand found him lying
on his facehis body partly in the bedpartly on the
writing-tableon which he lay with the written paper open and the pen
still in his hand. Having first called to him without receiving any
answerhis host approached himand taking him by the handfound
that it was coldand saw that he was dead. Greatly surprised and
distressed he summoned the household to witness the sad fate which had
befallen Anselmo; and then he read the paperthe handwriting of which
he recognised as hisand which contained these words:

A foolish and ill-advised desire has robbed me of life. If the news
of my death should reach the ears of Camilla, let her know that I
forgive her, for she was not bound to perform miracles, nor ought I to
have required her to perform them; and since I have been the author of
my own dishonour, there is no reason why-

So far Anselmo had writtenand thus it was plain that at this
pointbefore he could finish what he had to sayhis life came to
an end. The next day his friend sent intelligence of his death to

his relativeswho had already ascertained his misfortuneas well
as the convent where Camilla lay almost on the point of accompanying
her husband on that inevitable journeynot on account of the
tidings of his deathbut because of those she received of her lover's
departure. Although she saw herself a widowit is said she refused
either to quit the convent or take the veiluntilnot long
afterwardsintelligence reached her that Lothario had been killed
in a battle in which M. de Lautrec had been recently engaged with
the Great Captain Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova in the kingdom of
Napleswhither her too late repentant lover had repaired. On learning
this Camilla took the veiland shortly afterwards diedworn out by
grief and melancholy. This was the end of all threean end that
came of a thoughtless beginning.

I like this novel,said the curate; "but I cannot persuade
myself of its truth; and if it has been inventedthe author's
invention is faultyfor it is impossible to imagine any husband so
foolish as to try such a costly experiment as Anselmo's. If it had
been represented as occurring between a gallant and his mistress it
might pass; but between husband and wife there is something of an
impossibility about it. As to the way in which the story is told
howeverI have no fault to find."



Just at that instant the landlordwho was standing at the gate of
the innexclaimedHere comes a fine troop of guests; if they stop
here we may say gaudeamus.

What are they?said Cardenio.

Four men,said the landlordriding a la jineta, with lances
and bucklers, and all with black veils, and with them there is a woman
in white on a side-saddle, whose face is also veiled, and two
attendants on foot.

Are they very near?said the curate.

So near,answered the landlordthat here they come.

Hearing this Dorothea covered her faceand Cardenio retreated
into Don Quixote's roomand they hardly had time to do so before
the whole party the host had described entered the innand the four
that were on horsebackwho were of highbred appearance and bearing
dismountedand came forward to take down the woman who rode on the
side-saddleand one of them taking her in his arms placed her in a
chair that stood at the entrance of the room where Cardenio had hidden
himself. All this time neither she nor they had removed their veils or
spoken a wordonly on sitting down on the chair the woman gave a deep
sigh and let her arms fall like one that was ill and weak. The
attendants on foot then led the horses away to the stable. Observing
this the curatecurious to know who these people in such a dress
and preserving such silence werewent to where the servants were
standing and put the question to one of themwho answered him.

Faith, sir, I cannot tell you who they are, I only know they seem
to be people of distinction, particularly he who advanced to take
the lady you saw in his arms; and I say so because all the rest show

him respect, and nothing is done except what he directs and orders.

And the lady, who is she?asked the curate.

That I cannot tell you either,said the servantfor I have not
seen her face all the way: I have indeed heard her sigh many times and
utter such groans that she seems to be giving up the ghost every time;
but it is no wonder if we do not know more than we have told you, as
my comrade and I have only been in their company two days, for
having met us on the road they begged and persuaded us to accompany
them to Andalusia, promising to pay us well.

And have you heard any of them called by his name?asked the

No, indeed,replied the servant; "they all preserve a marvellous
silence on the roadfor not a sound is to be heard among them
except the poor lady's sighs and sobswhich make us pity her; and
we feel sure that wherever it is she is goingit is against her will
and as far as one can judge from her dress she is a nun orwhat is
more likelyabout to become one; and perhaps it is because taking the
vows is not of her own free willthat she is so unhappy as she
seems to be."

That may well be,said the curateand leaving them he returned to
where Dorothea waswhohearing the veiled lady sighmoved by
natural compassion drew near to her and saidWhat are you
suffering from, senora? If it be anything that women are accustomed
and know how to relieve, I offer you my services with all my heart.

To this the unhappy lady made no reply; and though Dorothea repeated
her offers more earnestly she still kept silenceuntil the
gentleman with the veilwhothe servant saidwas obeyed by the
restapproached and said to DorotheaDo not give yourself the
trouble, senora, of making any offers to that woman, for it is her way
to give no thanks for anything that is done for her; and do not try to
make her answer unless you want to hear some lie from her lips.

I have never told a lie,was the immediate reply of her who had
been silent until now; "on the contraryit is because I am so
truthful and so ignorant of lying devices that I am now in this
miserable condition; and this I call you yourself to witnessfor it
is my unstained truth that has made you false and a liar."

Cardenio heard these words clearly and distinctlybeing quite close
to the speakerfor there was only the door of Don Quixote's room
between themand the instant he did souttering a loud exclamation
he criedGood God! what is this I hear? What voice is this that
has reached my ears?Startled at the voice the lady turned her
head; and not seeing the speaker she stood up and attempted to enter
the room; observing which the gentleman held her backpreventing
her from moving a step. In her agitation and sudden movement the
silk with which she had covered her face fell off and disclosed a
countenance of incomparable and marvellous beautybut pale and
terrified; for she kept turning her eyeseverywhere she could
direct her gazewith an eagerness that made her look as if she had
lost her sensesand so marked that it excited the pity of Dorothea
and all who beheld herthough they knew not what caused it. The
gentleman grasped her firmly by the shouldersand being so fully
occupied with holding her backhe was unable to put a hand to his
veil which was falling offas it did at length entirelyand
Dorotheawho was holding the lady in her armsraising her eyes saw
that he who likewise held her was her husbandDon Fernando. The
instant she recognised himwith a prolonged plaintive cry drawn

from the depths of her heartshe fell backwards faintingand but for
the barber being close by to catch her in his armsshe would have
fallen completely to the ground. The curate at once hastened to
uncover her face and throw water on itand as he did so Don Fernando
for he it was who held the other in his armsrecognised her and stood
as if death-stricken by the sight; nothoweverrelaxing his grasp of
Luscindafor it was she that was struggling to release herself from
his holdhaving recognised Cardenio by his voiceas he had
recognised her. Cardenio also heard Dorothea's cry as she fell
faintingand imagining that it came from his Luscinda burst forth
in terror from the roomand the first thing he saw was Don Fernando
with Luscinda in his arms. Don Fernandotooknew Cardenio at once;
and all threeLuscindaCardenioand Dorotheastood in silent
amazement scarcely knowing what had happened to them.

They gazed at one another without speakingDorothea at Don
FernandoDon Fernando at CardenioCardenio at Luscindaand Luscinda
at Cardenio. The first to break silence was Luscindawho thus
addressed Don Fernando: "Leave meSenor Don Fernandofor the sake of
what you owe to yourself; if no other reason will induce youleave me
to cling to the wall of which I am the ivyto the support from
which neither your importunitiesnor your threatsnor your promises
nor your gifts have been able to detach me. See how Heavenby ways
strange and hidden from our sighthas brought me face to face with my
true husband; and well you know by dear-bought experience that death
alone will be able to efface him from my memory. May this plain
declarationthenlead youas you can do nothing elseto turn
your love into rageyour affection into resentmentand so to take my
life; for if I yield it up in the presence of my beloved husband I
count it well bestowed; it may be by my death he will be convinced
that I kept my faith to him to the last moment of life."

Meanwhile Dorothea had come to herselfand had heard Luscinda's
wordsby means of which she divined who she was; but seeing that
Don Fernando did not yet release her or reply to hersummoning up her
resolution as well as she could she rose and knelt at his feetand
with a flood of bright and touching tears addressed him thus:

If, my lord, the beams of that sun that thou holdest eclipsed in
thine arms did not dazzle and rob thine eyes of sight thou wouldst
have seen by this time that she who kneels at thy feet is, so long
as thou wilt have it so, the unhappy and unfortunate Dorothea. I am
that lowly peasant girl whom thou in thy goodness or for thy
pleasure wouldst raise high enough to call herself thine; I am she who
in the seclusion of innocence led a contented life until at the
voice of thy importunity, and thy true and tender passion, as it
seemed, she opened the gates of her modesty and surrendered to thee
the keys of her liberty; a gift received by thee but thanklessly, as
is clearly shown by my forced retreat to the place where thou dost
find me, and by thy appearance under the circumstances in which I
see thee. Nevertheless, I would not have thee suppose that I have come
here driven by my shame; it is only grief and sorrow at seeing
myself forgotten by thee that have led me. It was thy will to make
me thine, and thou didst so follow thy will, that now, even though
thou repentest, thou canst not help being mine. Bethink thee, my lord,
the unsurpassable affection I bear thee may compensate for the
beauty and noble birth for which thou wouldst desert me. Thou canst
not be the fair Luscinda's because thou art mine, nor can she be thine
because she is Cardenio's; and it will be easier, remember, to bend
thy will to love one who adores thee, than to lead one to love thee
who abhors thee now. Thou didst address thyself to my simplicity, thou
didst lay siege to my virtue, thou wert not ignorant of my station,
well dost thou know how I yielded wholly to thy will; there is no
ground or reason for thee to plead deception, and if it be so, as it

is, and if thou art a Christian as thou art a gentleman, why dost thou
by such subterfuges put off making me as happy at last as thou didst
at first? And if thou wilt not have me for what I am, thy true and
lawful wife, at least take and accept me as thy slave, for so long
as I am thine I will count myself happy and fortunate. Do not by
deserting me let my shame become the talk of the gossips in the
streets; make not the old age of my parents miserable; for the loyal
services they as faithful vassals have ever rendered thine are not
deserving of such a return; and if thou thinkest it will debase thy
blood to mingle it with mine, reflect that there is little or no
nobility in the world that has not travelled the same road, and that
in illustrious lineages it is not the woman's blood that is of
account; and, moreover, that true nobility consists in virtue, and
if thou art wanting in that, refusing me what in justice thou owest
me, then even I have higher claims to nobility than thine. To make
an end, senor, these are my last words to thee: whether thou wilt,
or wilt not, I am thy wife; witness thy words, which must not and
ought not to be false, if thou dost pride thyself on that for want
of which thou scornest me; witness the pledge which thou didst give
me, and witness Heaven, which thou thyself didst call to witness the
promise thou hadst made me; and if all this fail, thy own conscience
will not fail to lift up its silent voice in the midst of all thy
gaiety, and vindicate the truth of what I say and mar thy highest
pleasure and enjoyment.

All this and more the injured Dorothea delivered with such earnest
feeling and such tears that all presenteven those who came with
Don Fernandowere constrained to join her in them. Don Fernando
listened to her without replyinguntilceasing to speakshe gave
way to such sobs and sighs that it must have been a heart of brass
that was not softened by the sight of so great sorrow. Luscinda
stood regarding her with no less compassion for her sufferings than
admiration for her intelligence and beautyand would have gone to her
to say some words of comfort to herbut was prevented by Don
Fernando's grasp which held her fast. Heoverwhelmed with confusion
and astonishmentafter regarding Dorothea for some moments with a
fixed gazeopened his armsandreleasing Luscindaexclaimed:

Thou hast conquered, fair Dorothea, thou hast conquered, for it
is impossible to have the heart to deny the united force of so many

Luscinda in her feebleness was on the point of falling to the ground
when Don Fernando released herbut Cardeniowho stood nearhaving
retreated behind Don Fernando to escape recognitioncasting fear
aside and regardless of what might happenran forward to support her
and said as he clasped her in his armsIf Heaven in its compassion
is willing to let thee rest at last, mistress of my heart, true,
constant, and fair, nowhere canst thou rest more safely than in
these arms that now receive thee, and received thee before when
fortune permitted me to call thee mine.

At these words Luscinda looked up at Cardenioat first beginning to
recognise him by his voice and then satisfying herself by her eyes
that it was heand hardly knowing what she didand heedless of all
considerations of decorumshe flung her arms around his neck and
pressing her face close to hissaidYes, my dear lord, you are
the true master of this your slave, even though adverse fate interpose
again, and fresh dangers threaten this life that hangs on yours.

A strange sight was this for Don Fernando and those that stood
aroundfilled with surprise at an incident so unlooked for.
Dorothea fancied that Don Fernando changed colour and looked as though
he meant to take vengeance on Cardeniofor she observed him put his

hand to his sword; and the instant the idea struck herwith wonderful
quickness she clasped him round the kneesand kissing them and
holding him so as to prevent his movingshe saidwhile her tears
continued to flowWhat is it thou wouldst do, my only refuge, in
this unforeseen event? Thou hast thy wife at thy feet, and she whom
thou wouldst have for thy wife is in the arms of her husband:
reflect whether it will be right for thee, whether it will be possible
for thee to undo what Heaven has done, or whether it will be
becoming in thee to seek to raise her to be thy mate who in spite of
every obstacle, and strong in her truth and constancy, is before thine
eyes, bathing with the tears of love the face and bosom of her
lawful husband. For God's sake I entreat of thee, for thine own I
implore thee, let not this open manifestation rouse thy anger; but
rather so calm it as to allow these two lovers to live in peace and
quiet without any interference from thee so long as Heaven permits
them; and in so doing thou wilt prove the generosity of thy lofty
noble spirit, and the world shall see that with thee reason has more
influence than passion.

All the time Dorothea was speakingCardeniothough he held
Luscinda in his armsnever took his eyes off Don Fernando
determinedif he saw him make any hostile movementto try and defend
himself and resist as best he could all who might assail himthough
it should cost him his life. But now Don Fernando's friendsas well
as the curate and the barberwho had been present all the while
not forgetting the worthy Sancho Panzaran forward and gathered round
Don Fernandoentreating him to have regard for the tears of Dorothea
and not suffer her reasonable hopes to be disappointedsinceas they
firmly believedwhat she said was but the truth; and bidding him
observe that it was notas it might seemby accidentbut by a
special disposition of Providence that they had all met in a place
where no one could have expected a meeting. And the curate bade him
remember that only death could part Luscinda from Cardenio; that
even if some sword were to separate them they would think their
death most happy; and that in a case that admitted of no remedy his
wisest course wasby conquering and putting a constraint upon
himselfto show a generous mindand of his own accord suffer these
two to enjoy the happiness Heaven had granted them. He bade him
tooturn his eyes upon the beauty of Dorothea and he would see that
few if any could equal much less excel her; while to that beauty
should be added her modesty and the surpassing love she bore him.
But besides all thishe reminded him that if he prided himself on
being a gentleman and a Christianhe could not do otherwise than keep
his plighted word; and that in doing so he would obey God and meet the
approval of all sensible peoplewho know and recognised it to be
the privilege of beautyeven in one of humble birthprovided
virtue accompany itto be able to raise itself to the level of any
rankwithout any slur upon him who places it upon an equality with
himself; and furthermore that when the potent sway of passion
asserts itselfso long as there be no mixture of sin in ithe is not
to be blamed who gives way to it.

To be briefthey added to these such other forcible arguments
that Don Fernando's manly heartbeing after all nourished by noble
bloodwas touchedand yielded to the truth whicheven had he wished
ithe could not gainsay; and he showed his submissionand acceptance
of the good advice that had been offered to himby stooping down
and embracing Dorotheasaying to herRise, dear lady, it is not
right that what I hold in my heart should be kneeling at my feet;
and if until now I have shown no sign of what I own, it may have
been by Heaven's decree in order that, seeing the constancy with which
you love me, I may learn to value you as you deserve. What I entreat
of you is that you reproach me not with my transgression and
grievous wrong-doing; for the same cause and force that drove me to

make you mine impelled me to struggle against being yours; and to
prove this, turn and look at the eyes of the now happy Luscinda, and
you will see in them an excuse for all my errors: and as she has found
and gained the object of her desires, and I have found in you what
satisfies all my wishes, may she live in peace and contentment as many
happy years with her Cardenio, as on my knees I pray Heaven to allow
me to live with my Dorothea;and with these words he once more
embraced her and pressed his face to hers with so much tenderness that
he had to take great heed to keep his tears from completing the
proof of his love and repentance in the sight of all. Not so Luscinda
and Cardenioand almost all the othersfor they shed so many
tearssome in their own happinesssome at that of the othersthat
one would have supposed a heavy calamity had fallen upon them all.
Even Sancho Panza was weeping; though afterwards he said he only
wept because he saw that Dorothea was not as he fancied the queen
Micomiconaof whom he expected such great favours. Their wonder as
well as their weeping lasted some timeand then Cardenio and Luscinda
went and fell on their knees before Don Fernandoreturning him thanks
for the favour he had rendered them in language so grateful that he
knew not how to answer themand raising them up embraced them with
every mark of affection and courtesy.

He then asked Dorothea how she had managed to reach a place so far
removed from her own homeand she in a few fitting words told all
that she had previously related to Cardeniowith which Don Fernando
and his companions were so delighted that they wished the story had
been longer; so charmingly did Dorothea describe her misadventures.
When she had finished Don Fernando recounted what had befallen him
in the city after he had found in Luscinda's bosom the paper in
which she declared that she was Cardenio's wifeand never could be
his. He said he meant to kill herand would have done so had he not
been prevented by her parentsand that he quitted the house full of
rage and shameand resolved to avenge himself when a more
convenient opportunity should offer. The next day he learned that
Luscinda had disappeared from her father's houseand that no one
could tell whither she had gone. Finallyat the end of some months he
ascertained that she was in a convent and meant to remain there all
the rest of her lifeif she were not to share it with Cardenio; and
as soon as he had learned thistaking these three gentlemen as his
companionshe arrived at the place where she wasbut avoided
speaking to herfearing that if it were known he was there stricter
precautions would be taken in the convent; and watching a time when
the porter's lodge was open he left two to guard the gateand he
and the other entered the convent in quest of Luscindawhom they
found in the cloisters in conversation with one of the nunsand
carrying her off without giving her time to resistthey reached a
place with her where they provided themselves with what they
required for taking her away; all which they were able to do in
complete safetyas the convent was in the country at a considerable
distance from the city. He added that when Luscinda found herself in
his power she lost all consciousnessand after returning to herself
did nothing but weep and sigh without speaking a word; and thus in
silence and tears they reached that innwhich for him was reaching
heaven where all the mischances of earth are over and at an end.



To all this Sancho listened with no little sorrow at heart to see

how his hopes of dignity were fading away and vanishing in smoke
and how the fair Princess Micomicona had turned into Dorotheaand the
giant into Don Fernandowhile his master was sleeping tranquilly
totally unconscious of all that had come to pass. Dorothea was
unable to persuade herself that her present happiness was not all a
dream; Cardenio was in a similar state of mindand Luscinda's
thoughts ran in the same direction. Don Fernando gave thanks to Heaven
for the favour shown to him and for having been rescued from the
intricate labyrinth in which he had been brought so near the
destruction of his good name and of his soul; and in short everybody
in the inn was full of contentment and satisfaction at the happy issue
of such a complicated and hopeless business. The curate as a
sensible man made sound reflections upon the whole affairand
congratulated each upon his good fortune; but the one that was in
the highest spirits and good humour was the landladybecause of the
promise Cardenio and the curate had given her to pay for all the
losses and damage she had sustained through Don Quixote's means.
Sanchoas has been already saidwas the only one who was distressed
unhappyand dejected; and so with a long face he went in to his
masterwho had just awokeand said to him:

Sir Rueful Countenance, your worship may as well sleep on as much
as you like, without troubling yourself about killing any giant or
restoring her kingdom to the princess; for that is all over and
settled now.

I should think it was,replied Don Quixotefor I have had the
most prodigious and stupendous battle with the giant that I ever
remember having had all the days of my life; and with one back-strokeswish!-
I brought his head tumbling to the ground, and so much blood
gushed forth from him that it ran in rivulets over the earth like

Like red wine, your worship had better say,replied Sancho;
for I would have you know, if you don't know it, that the dead
giant is a hacked wine-skin, and the blood four-and-twenty gallons
of red wine that it had in its belly, and the cut-off head is the
bitch that bore me; and the devil take it all.

What art thou talking about, fool?said Don Quixote; "art thou
in thy senses?"

Let your worship get up,said Sanchoand you will see the nice
business you have made of it, and what we have to pay; and you will
see the queen turned into a private lady called Dorothea, and other
things that will astonish you, if you understand them.

I shall not be surprised at anything of the kind,returned Don
Quixote; "for if thou dost remember the last time we were here I
told thee that everything that happened here was a matter of
enchantmentand it would be no wonder if it were the same now."

I could believe all that,replied Sanchoif my blanketing was
the same sort of thing also; only it wasn't, but real and genuine; for
I saw the landlord, Who is here to-day, holding one end of the blanket
and jerking me up to the skies very neatly and smartly, and with as
much laughter as strength; and when it comes to be a case of knowing
people, I hold for my part, simple and sinner as I am, that there is
no enchantment about it at all, but a great deal of bruising and bad

Well, well, God will give a remedy,said Don Quixote; "hand me
my clothes and let me go outfor I want to see these
transformations and things thou speakest of."

Sancho fetched him his clothes; and while he was dressingthe
curate gave Don Fernando and the others present an account of Don
Quixote's madness and of the stratagem they had made use of to
withdraw him from that Pena Pobre where he fancied himself stationed
because of his lady's scorn. He described to them also nearly all
the adventures that Sancho had mentionedat which they marvelled
and laughed not a littlethinking itas all didthe strangest
form of madness a crazy intellect could be capable of. But nowthe
curate saidthat the lady Dorothea's good fortune prevented her
from proceeding with their purposeit would be necessary to devise or
discover some other way of getting him home.

Cardenio proposed to carry out the scheme they had begunand
suggested that Luscinda would act and support Dorothea's part
sufficiently well.

No,said Don Fernandothat must not be, for I want Dorothea to
follow out this idea of hers; and if the worthy gentleman's village is
not very far off, I shall be happy if I can do anything for his

It is not more than two days' journey from this,said the curate.

Even if it were more,said Don FernandoI would gladly travel so
far for the sake of doing so good a work.

At this moment Don Quixote came out in full panoplywith
Mambrino's helmetall dinted as it wason his headhis buckler on
his armand leaning on his staff or pike. The strange figure he
presented filled Don Fernando and the rest with amazement as they
contemplated his lean yellow face half a league longhis armour of
all sortsand the solemnity of his deportment. They stood silent
waiting to see what he would sayand hefixing his eyes on the air
Dorotheaaddressed her with great gravity and composure:

I am informed, fair lady, by my squire here that your greatness has
been annihilated and your being abolished, since, from a queen and
lady of high degree as you used to be, you have been turned into a
private maiden. If this has been done by the command of the magician
king your father, through fear that I should not afford you the aid
you need and are entitled to, I may tell you he did not know and
does not know half the mass, and was little versed in the annals of
chivalry; for, if he had read and gone through them as attentively and
deliberately as I have, he would have found at every turn that knights
of less renown than mine have accomplished things more difficult: it
is no great matter to kill a whelp of a giant, however arrogant he may
be; for it is not many hours since I myself was engaged with one, and-
I will not speak of it, that they may not say I am lying; time,
however, that reveals all, will tell the tale when we least expect

You were engaged with a couple of wine-skins, and not a giant,
said the landlord at this; but Don Fernando told him to hold his
tongue and on no account interrupt Don Quixotewho continuedI
say in conclusion, high and disinherited lady, that if your father has
brought about this metamorphosis in your person for the reason I
have mentioned, you ought not to attach any importance to it; for
there is no peril on earth through which my sword will not force a
way, and with it, before many days are over, I will bring your enemy's
head to the ground and place on yours the crown of your kingdom.

Don Quixote said no moreand waited for the reply of the
princesswho aware of Don Fernando's determination to carry on the

deception until Don Quixote had been conveyed to his homewith
great ease of manner and gravity made answerWhoever told you,
valiant Knight of the Rueful Countenance, that I had undergone any
change or transformation did not tell you the truth, for I am the same
as I was yesterday. It is true that certain strokes of good fortune,
that have given me more than I could have hoped for, have made some
alteration in me; but I have not therefore ceased to be what I was
before, or to entertain the same desire I have had all through of
availing myself of the might of your valiant and invincible arm. And
so, senor, let your goodness reinstate the father that begot me in
your good opinion, and be assured that he was a wise and prudent
man, since by his craft he found out such a sure and easy way of
remedying my misfortune; for I believe, senor, that had it not been
for you I should never have lit upon the good fortune I now possess;
and in this I am saying what is perfectly true; as most of these
gentlemen who are present can fully testify. All that remains is to
set out on our journey to-morrow, for to-day we could not make much
way; and for the rest of the happy result I am looking forward to, I
trust to God and the valour of your heart.

So said the sprightly Dorotheaand on hearing her Don Quixote
turned to Sanchoand said to himwith an angry airI declare
now, little Sancho, thou art the greatest little villain in Spain.
Say, thief and vagabond, hast thou not just now told me that this
princess had been turned into a maiden called Dorothea, and that the
head which I am persuaded I cut off from a giant was the bitch that
bore thee, and other nonsense that put me in the greatest perplexity I
have ever been in all my life? I vow(and here he looked to heaven
and ground his teeth) "I have a mind to play the mischief with thee
in a way that will teach sense for the future to all lying squires
of knights-errant in the world."

Let your worship be calm, senor,returned Sanchofor it may well
be that I have been mistaken as to the change of the lady princess
Micomicona; but as to the giant's head, or at least as to the piercing
of the wine-skins, and the blood being red wine, I make no mistake, as
sure as there is a God; because the wounded skins are there at the
head of your worship's bed, and the wine has made a lake of the
room; if not you will see when the eggs come to be fried; I mean
when his worship the landlord calls for all the damages: for the rest,
I am heartily glad that her ladyship the queen is as she was, for it
concerns me as much as anyone.

I tell thee again, Sancho, thou art a fool,said Don Quixote;
forgive me, and that will do.

That will do,said Don Fernando; "let us say no more about it; and
as her ladyship the princess proposes to set out to-morrow because
it is too late to-dayso be itand we will pass the night in
pleasant conversationand to-morrow we will all accompany Senor Don
Quixote; for we wish to witness the valiant and unparalleled
achievements he is about to perform in the course of this mighty
enterprise which he has undertaken."

It is I who shall wait upon and accompany you,said Don Quixote;
and I am much gratified by the favour that is bestowed upon me, and
the good opinion entertained of me, which I shall strive to justify or
it shall cost me my life, or even more, if it can possibly cost me

Many were the compliments and expressions of politeness that
passed between Don Quixote and Don Fernando; but they were brought
to an end by a traveller who at this moment entered the innand who
seemed from his attire to be a Christian lately come from the

country of the Moorsfor he was dressed in a short-skirted coat of
blue cloth with half-sleeves and without a collar; his breeches were
also of blue clothand his cap of the same colourand he wore yellow
buskins and had a Moorish cutlass slung from a baldric across his
breast. Behind himmounted upon an assthere came a woman dressed in
Moorish fashionwith her face veiled and a scarf on her headand
wearing a little brocaded capand a mantle that covered her from
her shoulders to her feet. The man was of a robust and
well-proportioned framein age a little over fortyrather swarthy in
complexionwith long moustaches and a full beardandin short
his appearance was such that if he had been well dressed he would have
been taken for a person of quality and good birth. On entering he
asked for a roomand when they told him there was none in the inn
he seemed distressedand approaching her who by her dress seemed to
be a Moor he her down from saddle in his arms. LuscindaDorotheathe
landladyher daughter and Maritornesattracted by the strangeand
to them entirely new costumegathered round her; and Dorotheawho
was always kindlycourteousand quick-wittedperceiving that both
she and the man who had brought her were annoyed at not finding a
roomsaid to herDo not be put out, senora, by the discomfort and
want of luxuries here, for it is the way of road-side inns to be
without them; still, if you will be pleased to share our lodging
with us (pointing to Luscinda) perhaps you will have found worse
accommodation in the course of your journey.

To this the veiled lady made no reply; all she did was to rise
from her seatcrossing her hands upon her bosombowing her head
and bending her body as a sign that she returned thanks. From her
silence they concluded that she must be a Moor and unable to speak a
Christian tongue.

At this moment the captive came uphaving been until now
otherwise engagedand seeing that they all stood round his
companion and that she made no reply to what they addressed to herhe
saidLadies, this damsel hardly understands my language and can
speak none but that of her own country, for which reason she does
not and cannot answer what has been asked of her.

Nothing has been asked of her,returned Luscinda; "she has only
been offered our company for this evening and a share of the
quarters we occupywhere she shall be made as comfortable as the
circumstances allowwith the good-will we are bound to show all
strangers that stand in need of itespecially if it be a woman to
whom the service is rendered."

On her part and my own, senora,replied the captiveI kiss
your hands, and I esteem highly, as I ought, the favour you have
offered, which, on such an occasion and coming from persons of your
appearance, is, it is plain to see, a very great one.

Tell me, senor,said Dorotheais this lady a Christian or a
Moor? for her dress and her silence lead us to imagine that she is
what we could wish she was not.

In dress and outwardly,said heshe is a Moor, but at heart
she is a thoroughly good Christian, for she has the greatest desire to
become one.

Then she has not been baptised?returned Luscinda.

There has been no opportunity for that,replied the captive
since she left Algiers, her native country and home; and up to the
present she has not found herself in any such imminent danger of death
as to make it necessary to baptise her before she has been

instructed in all the ceremonies our holy mother Church ordains;
but, please God, ere long she shall be baptised with the solemnity
befitting her which is higher than her dress or mine indicates.

By these words he excited a desire in all who heard himto know who
the Moorish lady and the captive werebut no one liked to ask just
thenseeing that it was a fitter moment for helping them to rest
themselves than for questioning them about their lives. Dorothea
took the Moorish lady by the hand and leading her to a seat beside
herselfrequested her to remove her veil. She looked at the captive
as if to ask him what they meant and what she was to do. He said to
her in Arabic that they asked her to take off her veiland
thereupon she removed it and disclosed a countenance so lovelythat
to Dorothea she seemed more beautiful than Luscindaand to Luscinda
more beautiful than Dorotheaand all the bystanders felt that if
any beauty could compare with theirs it was the Moorish lady'sand
there were even those who were inclined to give it somewhat the
preference. And as it is the privilege and charm of beauty to win
the heart and secure good-willall forthwith became eager to show
kindness and attention to the lovely Moor.

Don Fernando asked the captive what her name wasand he replied
that it was Lela Zoraida; but the instant she heard himshe guessed
what the Christian had askedand said hastilywith some
displeasure and energyNo, not Zoraida; Maria, Maria!giving them
to understand that she was called "Maria" and not "Zoraida." These
wordsand the touching earnestness with which she uttered them
drew more than one tear from some of the listenersparticularly the
womenwho are by nature tender-hearted and compassionate. Luscinda
embraced her affectionatelysayingYes, yes, Maria, Maria,to
which the Moor repliedYes, yes, Maria; Zoraida macange,which
means "not Zoraida."

Night was now approachingand by the orders of those who
accompanied Don Fernando the landlord had taken care and pains to
prepare for them the best supper that was in his power. The hour
therefore having arrived they all took their seats at a long table
like a refectory onefor round or square table there was none in
the innand the seat of honour at the head of itthough he was for
refusing itthey assigned to Don Quixotewho desired the lady
Micomicona to place herself by his sideas he was her protector.
Luscinda and Zoraida took their places next heropposite to them were
Don Fernando and Cardenioand next the captive and the other
gentlemenand by the side of the ladiesthe curate and the barber.
And so they supped in high enjoymentwhich was increased when they
observed Don Quixote leave off eatingandmoved by an impulse like
that which made him deliver himself at such length when he supped with
the goatherdsbegin to address them:

Verily, gentlemen, if we reflect upon it, great and marvellous
are the things they see, who make profession of the order of
knight-errantry. Say, what being is there in this world, who
entering the gate of this castle at this moment, and seeing us as we
are here, would suppose or imagine us to be what we are? Who would say
that this lady who is beside me was the great queen that we all know
her to be, or that I am that Knight of the Rueful Countenance,
trumpeted far and wide by the mouth of Fame? Now, there can be no
doubt that this art and calling surpasses all those that mankind has
invented, and is the more deserving of being held in honour in
proportion as it is the more exposed to peril. Away with those who
assert that letters have the preeminence over arms; I will tell
them, whosoever they may be, that they know not what they say. For the
reason which such persons commonly assign, and upon which they chiefly
rest, is, that the labours of the mind are greater than those of the

body, and that arms give employment to the body alone; as if the
calling were a porter's trade, for which nothing more is required than
sturdy strength; or as if, in what we who profess them call arms,
there were not included acts of vigour for the execution of which high
intelligence is requisite; or as if the soul of the warrior, when he
has an army, or the defence of a city under his care, did not exert
itself as much by mind as by body. Nay; see whether by bodily strength
it be possible to learn or divine the intentions of the enemy, his
plans, stratagems, or obstacles, or to ward off impending mischief;
for all these are the work of the mind, and in them the body has no
share whatever. Since, therefore, arms have need of the mind, as
much as letters, let us see now which of the two minds, that of the
man of letters or that of the warrior, has most to do; and this will
be seen by the end and goal that each seeks to attain; for that
purpose is the more estimable which has for its aim the nobler object.
The end and goal of letters- I am not speaking now of divine
letters, the aim of which is to raise and direct the soul to Heaven;
for with an end so infinite no other can be compared- I speak of human
letters, the end of which is to establish distributive justice, give
to every man that which is his, and see and take care that good laws
are observed: an end undoubtedly noble, lofty, and deserving of high
praise, but not such as should be given to that sought by arms,
which have for their end and object peace, the greatest boon that
men can desire in this life. The first good news the world and mankind
received was that which the angels announced on the night that was our
day, when they sang in the air, 'Glory to God in the highest, and
peace on earth to men of good-will;' and the salutation which the
great Master of heaven and earth taught his disciples and chosen
followers when they entered any house, was to say, 'Peace be on this
house;' and many other times he said to them, 'My peace I give unto
you, my peace I leave you, peace be with you;' a jewel and a
precious gift given and left by such a hand: a jewel without which
there can be no happiness either on earth or in heaven. This peace
is the true end of war; and war is only another name for arms. This,
then, being admitted, that the end of war is peace, and that so far it
has the advantage of the end of letters, let us turn to the bodily
labours of the man of letters, and those of him who follows the
profession of arms, and see which are the greater.

Don Quixote delivered his discourse in such a manner and in such
correct languagethat for the time being he made it impossible for
any of his hearers to consider him a madman; on the contraryas
they were mostly gentlemento whom arms are an appurtenance by birth
they listened to him with great pleasure as he continued: "Herethen
I say is what the student has to undergo; first of all poverty: not
that all are poorbut to put the case as strongly as possible: and
when I have said that he endures povertyI think nothing more need be
said about his hard fortunefor he who is poor has no share of the
good things of life. This poverty he suffers from in various ways
hungeror coldor nakednessor all together; but for all that it is
not so extreme but that he gets something to eatthough it may be
at somewhat unseasonable hours and from the leavings of the rich;
for the greatest misery of the student is what they themselves call
'going out for soup' and there is always some neighbour's brazier
or hearth for themwhichif it does not warmat least tempers the
cold to themand lastlythey sleep comfortably at night under a
roof. I will not go into other particularsas for example want of
shirtsand no superabundance of shoesthin and threadbare
garmentsand gorging themselves to surfeit in their voracity when
good luck has treated them to a banquet of some sort. By this road
that I have describedrough and hardstumbling herefalling
theregetting up again to fall againthey reach the rank they
desireand that once attainedwe have seen many who have passed
these Syrtes and Scyllas and Charybdisesas if borne flying on the

wings of favouring fortune; we have seen themI sayruling and
governing the world from a chairtheir hunger turned into satiety
their cold into comforttheir nakedness into fine raimenttheir
sleep on a mat into repose in holland and damaskthe justly earned
reward of their virtue; butcontrasted and compared with what the
warrior undergoesall they have undergone falls far short of itas I
am now about to show."



Continuing his discourse Don Quixote said: "As we began in the
student's case with poverty and its accompanimentslet us see now
if the soldier is richerand we shall find that in poverty itself
there is no one poorer; for he is dependent on his miserable pay
which comes late or neveror else on what he can plunderseriously
imperilling his life and conscience; and sometimes his nakedness
will be so great that a slashed doublet serves him for uniform and
shirtand in the depth of winter he has to defend himself against the
inclemency of the weather in the open field with nothing better than
the breath of his mouthwhich I need not saycoming from an empty
placemust come out coldcontrary to the laws of nature. To be
sure he looks forward to the approach of night to make up for all
these discomforts on the bed that awaits himwhichunless by some
fault of hisnever sins by being over narrowfor he can easily
measure out on the ground as he likesand roll himself about in it to
his heart's content without any fear of the sheets slipping away
from him. Thenafter all thissuppose the day and hour for taking
his degree in his calling to have come; suppose the day of battle to
have arrivedwhen they invest him with the doctor's cap made of lint
to mend some bullet-holeperhapsthat has gone through his
templesor left him with a crippled arm or leg. Or if this does not
happenand merciful Heaven watches over him and keeps him safe and
soundit may be he will be in the same poverty he was in before
and he must go through more engagements and more battlesand come
victorious out of all before he betters himself; but miracles of
that sort are seldom seen. For tell mesirsif you have ever
reflected upon itby how much do those who have gained by war fall
short of the number of those who have perished in it? No doubt you
will reply that there can be no comparisonthat the dead cannot be
numberedwhile the living who have been rewarded may be summed up
with three figures. All which is the reverse in the case of men of
letters; for by skirtsto say nothing of sleevesthey all find means
of support; so that though the soldier has more to endurehis
reward is much less. But against all this it may be urged that it is
easier to reward two thousand soldiersfor the former may be
remunerated by giving them placeswhich must perforce be conferred
upon men of their callingwhile the latter can only be recompensed
out of the very property of the master they serve; but this
impossibility only strengthens my argument.

Putting this, however, aside, for it is a puzzling question for
which it is difficult to find a solution, let us return to the
superiority of arms over letters, a matter still undecided, so many
are the arguments put forward on each side; for besides those I have
mentioned, letters say that without them arms cannot maintain
themselves, for war, too, has its laws and is governed by them, and
laws belong to the domain of letters and men of letters. To this
arms make answer that without them laws cannot be maintained, for by

arms states are defended, kingdoms preserved, cities protected,
roads made safe, seas cleared of pirates; and, in short, if it were
not for them, states, kingdoms, monarchies, cities, ways by sea and
land would be exposed to the violence and confusion which war brings
with it, so long as it lasts and is free to make use of its privileges
and powers. And then it is plain that whatever costs most is valued
and deserves to be valued most. To attain to eminence in letters costs
a man time, watching, hunger, nakedness, headaches, indigestions,
and other things of the sort, some of which I have already referred
to. But for a man to come in the ordinary course of things to be a
good soldier costs him all the student suffers, and in an incomparably
higher degree, for at every step he runs the risk of losing his
life. For what dread of want or poverty that can reach or harass the
student can compare with what the soldier feels, who finds himself
beleaguered in some stronghold mounting guard in some ravelin or
cavalier, knows that the enemy is pushing a mine towards the post
where he is stationed, and cannot under any circumstances retire or
fly from the imminent danger that threatens him? All he can do is to
inform his captain of what is going on so that he may try to remedy it
by a counter-mine, and then stand his ground in fear and expectation
of the moment when he will fly up to the clouds without wings and
descend into the deep against his will. And if this seems a trifling
risk, let us see whether it is equalled or surpassed by the
encounter of two galleys stem to stem, in the midst of the open sea,
locked and entangled one with the other, when the soldier has no
more standing room than two feet of the plank of the spur; and yet,
though he sees before him threatening him as many ministers of death
as there are cannon of the foe pointed at him, not a lance length from
his body, and sees too that with the first heedless step he will go
down to visit the profundities of Neptune's bosom, still with
dauntless heart, urged on by honour that nerves him, he makes
himself a target for all that musketry, and struggles to cross that
narrow path to the enemy's ship. And what is still more marvellous, no
sooner has one gone down into the depths he will never rise from
till the end of the world, than another takes his place; and if he too
falls into the sea that waits for him like an enemy, another and
another will succeed him without a moment's pause between their
deaths: courage and daring the greatest that all the chances of war
can show. Happy the blest ages that knew not the dread fury of those
devilish engines of artillery, whose inventor I am persuaded is in
hell receiving the reward of his diabolical invention, by which he
made it easy for a base and cowardly arm to take the life of a gallant
gentleman; and that, when he knows not how or whence, in the height of
the ardour and enthusiasm that fire and animate brave hearts, there
should come some random bullet, discharged perhaps by one who fled
in terror at the flash when he fired off his accursed machine, which
in an instant puts an end to the projects and cuts off the life of one
who deserved to live for ages to come. And thus when I reflect on
this, I am almost tempted to say that in my heart I repent of having
adopted this profession of knight-errant in so detestable an age as we
live in now; for though no peril can make me fear, still it gives me
some uneasiness to think that powder and lead may rob me of the
opportunity of making myself famous and renowned throughout the
known earth by the might of my arm and the edge of my sword. But
Heaven's will be done; if I succeed in my attempt I shall be all the
more honoured, as I have faced greater dangers than the knights-errant
of yore exposed themselves to.

All this lengthy discourse Don Quixote delivered while the others
suppedforgetting to raise a morsel to his lipsthough Sancho more
than once told him to eat his supperas he would have time enough
afterwards to say all he wanted. It excited fresh pity in those who
had heard him to see a man of apparently sound senseand with
rational views on every subject he discussedso hopelessly wanting in

allwhen his wretched unlucky chivalry was in question. The curate
told him he was quite right in all he had said in favour of arms
and that he himselfthough a man of letters and a graduatewas of
the same opinion.

They finished their supperthe cloth was removedand while the
hostessher daughterand Maritornes were getting Don Quixote of La
Mancha's garret readyin which it was arranged that the women were to
be quartered by themselves for the nightDon Fernando begged the
captive to tell them the story of his lifefor it could not fail to
be strange and interestingto judge by the hints he had let fall on
his arrival in company with Zoraida. To this the captive replied
that he would very willingly yield to his requestonly he feared
his tale would not give them as much pleasure as he wished;
neverthelessnot to be wanting in compliancehe would tell it. The
curate and the others thanked him and added their entreatiesand he
finding himself so pressed said there was no occasion askwhere a
command had such weightand addedIf your worships will give me
your attention you will hear a true story which, perhaps, fictitious
ones constructed with ingenious and studied art cannot come up to.
These words made them settle themselves in their places and preserve a
deep silenceand he seeing them waiting on his words in mute
expectationbegan thus in a pleasant quiet voice.



My family had its origin in a village in the mountains of Leon
and nature had been kinder and more generous to it than fortune;
though in the general poverty of those communities my father passed
for being even a rich man; and he would have been so in reality had he
been as clever in preserving his property as he was in spending it.
This tendency of his to be liberal and profuse he had acquired from
having been a soldier in his youthfor the soldier's life is a school
in which the niggard becomes free-handed and the free-handed prodigal;
and if any soldiers are to be found who are misersthey are
monsters of rare occurrence. My father went beyond liberality and
bordered on prodigalitya disposition by no means advantageous to a
married man who has children to succeed to his name and position. My
father had threeall sonsand all of sufficient age to make choice
of a profession. Findingthenthat he was unable to resist his
propensityhe resolved to divest himself of the instrument and
cause of his prodigality and lavishnessto divest himself of
wealthwithout which Alexander himself would have seemed
parsimonious; and so calling us all three aside one day into a room
he addressed us in words somewhat to the following effect:

My sons, to assure you that I love you, no more need be known or
said than that you are my sons; and to encourage a suspicion that I do
not love you, no more is needed than the knowledge that I have no
self-control as far as preservation of your patrimony is concerned;
therefore, that you may for the future feel sure that I love you
like a father, and have no wish to ruin you like a stepfather, I
propose to do with you what I have for some time back meditated, and
after mature deliberation decided upon. You are now of an age to
choose your line of life or at least make choice of a calling that
will bring you honour and profit when you are older; and what I have
resolved to do is to divide my property into four parts; three I
will give to you, to each his portion without making any difference,
and the other I will retain to live upon and support myself for

whatever remainder of life Heaven may be pleased to grant me. But I
wish each of you on taking possession of the share that falls to him
to follow one of the paths I shall indicate. In this Spain of ours
there is a proverb, to my mind very true- as they all are, being short
aphorisms drawn from long practical experience- and the one I refer to
says, 'The church, or the sea, or the king's house;' as much as to
say, in plainer language, whoever wants to flourish and become rich,
let him follow the church, or go to sea, adopting commerce as his
calling, or go into the king's service in his household, for they say,
'Better a king's crumb than a lord's favour.' I say so because it is
my will and pleasure that one of you should follow letters, another
trade, and the third serve the king in the wars, for it is a difficult
matter to gain admission to his service in his household, and if war
does not bring much wealth it confers great distinction and fame.
Eight days hence I will give you your full shares in money, without
defrauding you of a farthing, as you will see in the end. Now tell
me if you are willing to follow out my idea and advice as I have
laid it before you.

Having called upon me as the eldest to answerIafter urging him
not to strip himself of his property but to spend it all as he
pleasedfor we were young men able to gain our livingconsented to
comply with his wishesand said that mine were to follow the
profession of arms and thereby serve God and my king. My second
brother having made the same proposaldecided upon going to the
Indiesembarking the portion that fell to him in trade. The youngest
and in my opinion the wisestsaid he would rather follow the
churchor go to complete his studies at Salamanca. As soon as we
had come to an understandingand made choice of our professionsmy
father embraced us alland in the short time he mentioned carried
into effect all he had promised; and when he had given to each his
sharewhich as well as I remember was three thousand ducats apiece in
cash (for an uncle of ours bought the estate and paid for it downnot
to let it go out of the family)we all three on the same day took
leave of our good father; and at the same timeas it seemed to me
inhuman to leave my father with such scanty means in his old ageI
induced him to take two of my three thousand ducatsas the
remainder would be enough to provide me with all a soldier needed.
My two brothersmoved by my examplegave him each a thousand ducats
so that there was left for my father four thousand ducats in money
besides three thousandthe value of the portion that fell to him
which he preferred to retain in land instead of selling it. Finally
as I saidwe took leave of himand of our uncle whom I have
mentionednot without sorrow and tears on both sidesthey charging
us to let them know whenever an opportunity offered how we fared
whether well or ill. We promised to do soand when he had embraced us
and given us his blessingone set out for Salamancathe other for
Sevilleand I for Alicantewhere I had heard there was a Genoese
vessel taking in a cargo of wool for Genoa.

It is now some twenty-two years since I left my father's house
and all that timethough I have written several lettersI have had
no news whatever of him or of my brothers; my own adventures during
that period I will now relate briefly. I embarked at Alicantereached
Genoa after a prosperous voyageand proceeded thence to Milan
where I provided myself with arms and a few soldier's accoutrements;
thence it was my intention to go and take service in Piedmontbut
as I was already on the road to Alessandria della PagliaI learned
that the great Duke of Alva was on his way to Flanders. I changed my
plansjoined himserved under him in the campaigns he madewas
present at the deaths of the Counts Egmont and Hornand was
promoted to be ensign under a famous captain of GuadalajaraDiego
de Urbina by name. Some time after my arrival in Flanders news came of
the league that his Holiness Pope Pius V of happy memoryhad made

with Venice and Spain against the common enemythe Turkwho had just
then with his fleet taken the famous island of Cypruswhich
belonged to the Venetiansa loss deplorable and disastrous. It was
known as a fact that the Most Serene Don John of Austrianatural
brother of our good king Don Philipwas coming as
commander-in-chief of the allied forcesand rumours were abroad of
the vast warlike preparations which were being madeall which stirred
my heart and filled me with a longing to take part in the campaign
which was expected; and though I had reason to believeand almost
certain promisesthat on the first opportunity that presented
itself I should be promoted to be captainI preferred to leave all
and betake myselfas I didto Italy; and it was my good fortune that
Don John had just arrived at Genoaand was going on to Naples to join
the Venetian fleetas he afterwards did at Messina. I may sayin
shortthat I took part in that glorious expeditionpromoted by
this time to be a captain of infantryto which honourable charge my
good luck rather than my merits raised me; and that day- so
fortunate for Christendombecause then all the nations of the earth
were disabused of the error under which they lay in imagining the
Turks to be invincible on sea-on that dayI sayon which the Ottoman
pride and arrogance were brokenamong all that were there made
happy (for the Christians who died that day were happier than those
who remained alive and victorious) I alone was miserable; forinstead
of some naval crown that I might have expected had it been in Roman
timeson the night that followed that famous day I found myself
with fetters on my feet and manacles on my hands.

It happened in this way: El Uchalithe king of Algiersa daring
and successful corsairhaving attacked and taken the leading
Maltese galley (only three knights being left alive in itand they
badly wounded)the chief galley of John Andreaon board of which I
and my company were placedcame to its reliefand doing as was bound
to do in such a caseI leaped on board the enemy's galleywhich
sheering off from that which had attacked itprevented my men from
following meand so I found myself alone in the midst of my
enemieswho were in such numbers that I was unable to resist; in
short I was takencovered with wounds; El Uchalias you know
sirsmade his escape with his entire squadronand I was left a
prisoner in his powerthe only sad being among so many filled with
joyand the only captive among so many free; for there were fifteen
thousand Christiansall at the oar in the Turkish fleetthat
regained their longed-for liberty that day.

They carried me to Constantinoplewhere the Grand TurkSelimmade
my master general at sea for having done his duty in the battle and
carried off as evidence of his bravery the standard of the Order of
Malta. The following yearwhich was the year seventy-twoI found
myself at Navarino rowing in the leading galley with the three
lanterns. There I saw and observed how the opportunity of capturing
the whole Turkish fleet in harbour was lost; for all the marines and
janizzaries that belonged to it made sure that they were about to be
attacked inside the very harbourand had their kits and pasamaques
or shoesready to flee at once on shore without waiting to be
assailedin so great fear did they stand of our fleet. But Heaven
ordered it otherwisenot for any fault or neglect of the general
who commanded on our sidebut for the sins of Christendomand
because it was God's will and pleasure that we should always have
instruments of punishment to chastise us. As it wasEl Uchali took
refuge at Modonwhich is an island near Navarinoand landing
forces fortified the mouth of the harbour and waited quietly until Don
John retired. On this expedition was taken the galley called the
Prizewhose captain was a son of the famous corsair Barbarossa. It
was taken by the chief Neapolitan galley called the She-wolf
commanded by that thunderbolt of warthat father of his menthat

successful and unconquered captain Don Alvaro de BazanMarquis of
Santa Cruz; and I cannot help telling you what took place at the
capture of the Prize.

The son of Barbarossa was so crueland treated his slaves so badly
thatwhen those who were at the oars saw that the She-wolf galley was
bearing down upon them and gaining upon themthey all at once dropped
their oars and seized their captain who stood on the stage at the
end of the gangway shouting to them to row lustily; and passing him on
from bench to benchfrom the poop to the prowthey so bit him that
before he had got much past the mast his soul had already got to hell;
so greatas I saidwas the cruelty with which he treated themand
the hatred with which they hated him.

We returned to Constantinopleand the following year
seventy-threeit became known that Don John had seized Tunis and
taken the kingdom from the Turksand placed Muley Hamet in
possessionputting an end to the hopes which Muley Hamidathe
cruelest and bravest Moor in the worldentertained of returning to
reign there. The Grand Turk took the loss greatly to heartand with
the cunning which all his race possesshe made peace with the
Venetians (who were much more eager for it than he was)and the
following yearseventy-fourhe attacked the Goletta and the fort
which Don John had left half built near Tunis. While all these
events were occurringI was labouring at the oar without any hope
of freedom; at least I had no hope of obtaining it by ransomfor I
was firmly resolved not to write to my father telling him of my
misfortunes. At length the Goletta felland the fort fellbefore
which places there were seventy-five thousand regular Turkish
soldiersand more than four hundred thousand Moors and Arabs from all
parts of Africaand in the train of all this great host such
munitions and engines of warand so many pioneers that with their
hands they might have covered the Goletta and the fort with handfuls
of earth. The first to fall was the Golettauntil then reckoned
impregnableand it fellnot by any fault of its defenderswho did
all that they could and should have donebut because experiment
proved how easily entrenchments could be made in the desert sand
there; for water used to be found at two palms depthwhile the
Turks found none at two yards; and so by means of a quantity of
sandbags they raised their works so high that they commanded the walls
of the fortsweeping them as if from a cavalierso that no one was
able to make a stand or maintain the defence.

It was a common opinion that our men should not have shut themselves
up in the Golettabut should have waited in the open at the
landing-place; but those who say so talk at random and with little
knowledge of such matters; for if in the Goletta and in the fort there
were barely seven thousand soldiershow could such a small number
however resolutesally out and hold their own against numbers like
those of the enemy? And how is it possible to help losing a stronghold
that is not relievedabove all when surrounded by a host of
determined enemies in their own country? But many thoughtand I
thought so toothat it was special favour and mercy which Heaven
showed to Spain in permitting the destruction of that source and
hiding place of mischiefthat devourerspongeand moth of countless
moneyfruitlessly wasted there to no other purpose save preserving
the memory of its capture by the invincible Charles V; as if to make
that eternalas it is and will bethese stones were needed to
support it. The fort also fell; but the Turks had to win it inch by
inchfor the soldiers who defended it fought so gallantly and stoutly
that the number of the enemy killed in twenty-two general assaults
exceeded twenty-five thousand. Of three hundred that remained alive
not one was taken unwoundeda clear and manifest proof of their
gallantry and resolutionand how sturdily they had defended

themselves and held their post. A small fort or tower which was in the
middle of the lagoon under the command of Don Juan Zanogueraa
Valencian gentleman and a famous soldiercapitulated upon terms. They
took prisoner Don Pedro Puertocarrerocommandant of the Goletta
who had done all in his power to defend his fortressand took the
loss of it so much to heart that he died of grief on the way to
Constantinoplewhere they were carrying him a prisoner. They also
took the commandant of the fortGabrio Cerbellon by namea
Milanese gentlemana great engineer and a very brave soldier. In
these two fortresses perished many persons of noteamong whom was
Pagano Doriaknight of the Order of St. Johna man of generous
dispositionas was shown by his extreme liberality to his brother
the famous John Andrea Doria; and what made his death the more sad was
that he was slain by some Arabs to whomseeing that the fort was
now losthe entrusted himselfand who offered to conduct him in
the disguise of a Moor to Tabarcaa small fort or station on the
coast held by the Genoese employed in the coral fishery. These Arabs
cut off his head and carried it to the commander of the Turkish fleet
who proved on them the truth of our Castilian proverbthat "though
the treason may pleasethe traitor is hated;" for they say he ordered
those who brought him the present to be hanged for not having
brought him alive.

Among the Christians who were taken in the fort was one named Don
Pedro de Aguilara native of some placeI know not whatin
Andalusiawho had been ensign in the forta soldier of great
repute and rare intelligencewho had in particular a special gift for
what they call poetry. I say so because his fate brought him to my
galley and to my benchand made him a slave to the same master; and
before we left the port this gentleman composed two sonnets by way
of epitaphsone on the Goletta and the other on the fort; indeedI
may as well repeat themfor I have them by heartand I think they
will be liked rather than disliked.

The instant the captive mentioned the name of Don Pedro de
AguilarDon Fernando looked at his companions and they all three
smiled; and when he came to speak of the sonnets one of them said
Before your worship proceeds any further I entreat you to tell me
what became of that Don Pedro de Aguilar you have spoken of.

All I know is,replied the captivethat after having been in
Constantinople two years, he escaped in the disguise of an Arnaut,
in company with a Greek spy; but whether he regained his liberty or
not I cannot tell, though I fancy he did, because a year afterwards
I saw the Greek at Constantinople, though I was unable to ask him what
the result of the journey was.

Well then, you are right,returned the gentlemanfor that Don
Pedro is my brother, and he is now in our village in good health,
rich, married, and with three children.

Thanks be to God for all the mercies he has shown him,said the
captive; "for to my mind there is no happiness on earth to compare
with recovering lost liberty."

And what is more,said the gentlemanI know the sonnets my
brother made.

Then let your worship repeat them,said the captivefor you will
recite them better than I can.

With all my heart,said the gentleman; "that on the Goletta runs




Blest souls, that, from this mortal husk set free,

In guerdon of brave deeds beatified,

Above this lowly orb of ours abide
Made heirs of heaven and immortality,
With noble rage and ardour glowing ye

Your strength, while strength was yours, in battle plied,

And with your own blood and the foeman's dyed
The sandy soil and the encircling sea.
It was the ebbing life-blood first that failed
The weary arms; the stout hearts never quailed.

Though vanquished, yet ye earned the victor's crown:
Though mourned, yet still triumphant was your fall
For there ye won, between the sword and wall,

In Heaven glory and on earth renown.

That is it exactly, according to my recollection,said the

Well then, that on the fort,said the gentlemanif my memory
serves me, goes thus:


Up from this wasted soilthis shattered shell

Whose walls and towers here in ruin lie

Three thousand soldier souls took wing on high
In the bright mansions of the blest to dwell.
The onslaught of the foeman to repel

By might of arm all vainly did they try

And when at length 'twas left them but to die
Wearied and few the last defenders fell.
And this same arid soil hath ever been
A haunt of countless mournful memories

As well in our day as in days of yore.
But never yet to Heaven it sentI ween
From its hard bosom purer souls than these

Or braver bodies on its surface bore."

The sonnets were not dislikedand the captive was rejoiced at
the tidings they gave him of his comradeand continuing his tale
he went on to say:

The Goletta and the fort being thus in their handsthe Turks gave
orders to dismantle the Goletta- for the fort was reduced to such a
state that there was nothing left to level- and to do the work more
quickly and easily they mined it in three places; but nowhere were
they able to blow up the part which seemed to be the least strong
that is to saythe old wallswhile all that remained standing of the

new fortifications that the Fratin had made came to the ground with
the greatest ease. Finally the fleet returned victorious and
triumphant to Constantinopleand a few months later died my master
El Uchaliotherwise Uchali Fartaxwhich means in Turkish "the scabby
renegade;" for that he was; it is the practice with the Turks to
name people from some defect or virtue they may possess; the reason
being that there are among them only four surnames belonging to
families tracing their descent from the Ottoman houseand the others
as I have saidtake their names and surnames either from bodily
blemishes or moral qualities. This "scabby one" rowed at the oar as
a slave of the Grand Signor's for fourteen yearsand when over
thirty-four years of agein resentment at having been struck by a
Turk while at the oarturned renegade and renounced his faith in
order to be able to revenge himself; and such was his valour that
without owing his advancement to the base ways and means by which most
favourites of the Grand Signor rise to powerhe came to be king of
Algiersand afterwards general-on-seawhich is the third place of
trust in the realm. He was a Calabrian by birthand a worthy man
morallyand he treated his slaves with great humanity. He had three
thousand of themand after his death they were dividedas he
directed by his willbetween the Grand Signor (who is heir of all who
die and shares with the children of the deceased) and his renegades. I
fell to the lot of a Venetian renegade whowhen a cabin boy on
board a shiphad been taken by Uchali and was so much beloved by
him that he became one of his most favoured youths. He came to be
the most cruel renegade I ever saw: his name was Hassan Agaand he
grew very rich and became king of Algiers. With him I went there
from Constantinoplerather glad to be so near Spainnot that I
intended to write to anyone about my unhappy lotbut to try if
fortune would be kinder to me in Algiers than in Constantinoplewhere
I had attempted in a thousand ways to escape without ever finding a
favourable time or chance; but in Algiers I resolved to seek for other
means of effecting the purpose I cherished so dearly; for the hope
of obtaining my liberty never deserted me; and when in my plots and
schemes and attempts the result did not answer my expectations
without giving way to despair I immediately began to look out for or
conjure up some new hope to support mehowever faint or feeble it
might be.

In this way I lived on immured in a building or prison called by the
Turks a bano in which they confine the Christian captivesas well
those that are the king's as those belonging to private individuals
and also what they call those of the Almacenwhich is as much as to
say the slaves of the municipalitywho serve the city in the public
works and other employments; but captives of this kind recover their
liberty with great difficultyforas they are public property and
have no particular masterthere is no one with whom to treat for
their ransomeven though they may have the means. To these banos
as I have saidsome private individuals of the town are in the
habit of bringing their captivesespecially when they are to be
ransomed; because there they can keep them in safety and comfort until
their ransom arrives. The king's captives alsothat are on ransomdo
not go out to work with the rest of the crewunless when their ransom
is delayed; for thento make them write for it more pressingly
they compel them to work and go for woodwhich is no light labour.

Ihoweverwas one of those on ransomfor when it was discovered
that I was a captainalthough I declared my scanty means and want
of fortunenothing could dissuade them from including me among the
gentlemen and those waiting to be ransomed. They put a chain on me
more as a mark of this than to keep me safeand so I passed my life
in that bano with several other gentlemen and persons of quality
marked out as held to ransom; but though at timesor rather almost
alwayswe suffered from hunger and scanty clothingnothing

distressed us so much as hearing and seeing at every turn the
unexampled and unheard-of cruelties my master inflicted upon the
Christians. Every day he hanged a manimpaled onecut off the ears
of another; and all with so little provocationor so entirely without
anythat the Turks acknowledged he did it merely for the sake of
doing itand because he was by nature murderously disposed towards
the whole human race. The only one that fared at all well with him was
a Spanish soldiersomething de Saavedra by nameto whom he never
gave a blow himselfor ordered a blow to be givenor addressed a
hard wordalthough he had done things that will dwell in the memory
of the people there for many a yearand all to recover his liberty;
and for the least of the many things he did we all dreaded that he
would be impaledand he himself was in fear of it more than once; and
only that time does not allowI could tell you now something of
what that soldier didthat would interest and astonish you much
more than the narration of my own tale.

To go on with my story; the courtyard of our prison was overlooked
by the windows of the house belonging to a wealthy Moor of high
position; and theseas is usual in Moorish houseswere rather
loopholes than windowsand besides were covered with thick and
close lattice-work. It so happenedthenthat as I was one day on the
terrace of our prison with three other comradestryingto pass
away the timehow far we could leap with our chainswe being
alonefor all the other Christians had gone out to workI chanced to
raise my eyesand from one of these little closed windows I saw a
reed appear with a cloth attached to the end of itand it kept waving
to and froand moving as if making signs to us to come and take it.
We watched itand one of those who were with me went and stood
under the reed to see whether they would let it dropor what they
would dobut as he did so the reed was raised and moved from side
to sideas if they meant to say "no" by a shake of the head. The
Christian came backand it was again loweredmaking the same
movements as before. Another of my comrades wentand with him the
same happened as with the firstand then the third went forward
but with the same result as the first and second. Seeing this I did
not like not to try my luckand as soon as I came under the reed it
was dropped and fell inside the bano at my feet. I hastened to untie
the clothin which I perceived a knotand in this were ten cianis
which are coins of base goldcurrent among the Moorsand each
worth ten reals of our money.

It is needless to say I rejoiced over this godsendand my joy was
not less than my wonder as I strove to imagine how this good fortune
could have come to usbut to me specially; for the evident
unwillingness to drop the reed for any but me showed that it was for
me the favour was intended. I took my welcome moneybroke the reed
and returned to the terraceand looking up at the windowI saw a
very white hand put out that opened and shut very quickly. From this
we gathered or fancied that it must be some woman living in that house
that had done us this kindnessand to show that we were grateful
for itwe made salaams after the fashion of the Moorsbowing the
headbending the bodyand crossing the arms on the breast. Shortly
afterwards at the same window a small cross made of reeds was put
out and immediately withdrawn. This sign led us to believe that some
Christian woman was a captive in the houseand that it was she who
had been so good to us; but the whiteness of the hand and the
bracelets we had perceived made us dismiss that ideathough we
thought it might be one of the Christian renegades whom their
masters very often take as lawful wivesand gladlyfor they prefer
them to the women of their own nation. In all our conjectures we
were wide of the truth; so from that time forward our sole
occupation was watching and gazing at the window where the cross had
appeared to usas if it were our pole-star; but at least fifteen days

passed without our seeing either it or the handor any other sign and
though meanwhile we endeavoured with the utmost pains to ascertain who
it was that lived in the houseand whether there were any Christian
renegade in itnobody could ever tell us anything more than that he
who lived there was a rich Moor of high positionHadji Morato by
nameformerly alcaide of La Pataan office of high dignity among
them. But when we least thought it was going to rain any more cianis
from that quarterwe saw the reed suddenly appear with another
cloth tied in a larger knot attached to itand this at a time when
as on the former occasionthe bano was deserted and unoccupied.

We made trial as beforeeach of the same three going forward before
I did; but the reed was delivered to none but meand on my approach
it was let drop. I untied the knot and I found forty Spanish gold
crowns with a paper written in Arabicand at the end of the writing
there was a large cross drawn. I kissed the crosstook the crowns and
returned to the terraceand we all made our salaams; again the hand
appearedI made signs that I would read the paperand then the
window was closed. We were all puzzledthough filled with joy at what
had taken place; and as none of us understood Arabicgreat was our
curiosity to know what the paper containedand still greater the
difficulty of finding some one to read it. At last I resolved to
confide in a renegadea native of Murciawho professed a very
great friendship for meand had given pledges that bound him to
keep any secret I might entrust to him; for it is the custom with some
renegadeswhen they intend to return to Christian territoryto carry
about them certificates from captives of mark testifyingin
whatever form they canthat such and such a renegade is a worthy
man who has always shown kindness to Christiansand is anxious to
escape on the first opportunity that may present itself. Some obtain
these testimonials with good intentionsothers put them to a
cunning use; for when they go to pillage on Christian territoryif
they chance to be cast awayor taken prisonersthey produce their
certificates and say that from these papers may be seen the object
they came forwhich was to remain on Christian groundand that it
was to this end they joined the Turks in their foray. In this way they
escape the consequences of the first outburst and make their peace
with the Church before it does them any harmand then when they
have the chance they return to Barbary to become what they were
before. Othershoweverthere are who procure these papers and make
use of them honestlyand remain on Christian soil. This friend of
minethenwas one of these renegades that I have described; he had
certificates from all our comradesin which we testified in his
favour as strongly as we could; and if the Moors had found the
papers they would have burned him alive.

I knew that he understood Arabic very welland could not only speak
but also write it; but before I disclosed the whole matter to himI
asked him to read for me this paper which I had found by accident in a
hole in my cell. He opened it and remained some time examining it
and muttering to himself as he translated it. I asked him if he
understood itand he told me he did perfectly welland that if I
wished him to tell me its meaning word for wordI must give him pen
and ink that he might do it more satisfactorily. We at once gave him
what he requiredand he set about translating it bit by bitand when
he had done he said:

All that is here in Spanish is what the Moorish paper contains, and
you must bear in mind that when it says 'Lela
Marien' it means 'Our Lady the Virgin Mary.'

We read the paper and it ran thus:

When I was a child my father had a slave who taught me to pray

the Christian prayer in my own language, and told me many things about
Lela Marien. The Christian died, and I know that she did not go to the
fire, but to Allah, because since then I have seen her twice, and
she told me to go to the land of the Christians to see Lela Marien,
who had great love for me. I know not how to go. I have seen many
Christians, but except thyself none has seemed to me to be a
gentleman. I am young and beautiful, and have plenty of money to
take with me. See if thou canst contrive how we may go, and if thou
wilt thou shalt be my husband there, and if thou wilt not it will
not distress me, for Lela Marien will find me some one to marry me.
I myself have written this: have a care to whom thou givest it to
read: trust no Moor, for they are all perfidious. I am greatly
troubled on this account, for I would not have thee confide in anyone,
because if my father knew it he would at once fling me down a well and
cover me with stones. I will put a thread to the reed; tie the
answer to it, and if thou hast no one to write for thee in Arabic,
tell it to me by signs, for Lela Marien will make me understand
thee. She and Allah and this cross, which I often kiss as the
captive bade me, protect thee.

Judgesirswhether we had reason for surprise and joy at the words
of this paper; and both one and the other were so greatthat the
renegade perceived that the paper had not been found by chancebut
had been in reality addressed to some one of usand he begged us
if what he suspected were the truthto trust him and tell him all
for he would risk his life for our freedom; and so saying he took
out from his breast a metal crucifixand with many tears swore by the
God the image representedin whomsinful and wicked as he washe
truly and faithfully believedto be loyal to us and keep secret
whatever we chose to reveal to him; for he thought and almost
foresaw that by means of her who had written that paperhe and all of
us would obtain our libertyand he himself obtain the object he so
much desiredhis restoration to the bosom of the Holy Mother
Churchfrom which by his own sin and ignorance he was now severed
like a corrupt limb. The renegade said this with so many tears and
such signs of repentancethat with one consent we all agreed to
tell him the whole truth of the matterand so we gave him a full
account of allwithout hiding anything from him. We pointed out to
him the window at which the reed appearedand he by that means took
note of the houseand resolved to ascertain with particular care
who lived in it. We agreed also that it would be advisable to answer
the Moorish lady's letterand the renegade without a moment's delay
took down the words I dictated to himwhich were exactly what I shall
tell youfor nothing of importance that took place in this affair has
escaped my memoryor ever will while life lasts. Thisthenwas
the answer returned to the Moorish lady:

The true Allah protect thee, Lady, and that blessed Marien who is
the true mother of God, and who has put it into thy heart to go to the
land of the Christians, because she loves thee. Entreat her that she
be pleased to show thee how thou canst execute the command she gives
thee, for she will, such is her goodness. On my own part, and on
that of all these Christians who are with me, I promise to do all that
we can for thee, even to death. Fail not to write to me and inform
me what thou dost mean to do, and I will always answer thee; for the
great Allah has given us a Christian captive who can speak and write
thy language well, as thou mayest see by this paper; without fear,
therefore, thou canst inform us of all thou wouldst. As to what thou
sayest, that if thou dost reach the land of the Christians thou wilt
be my wife, I give thee my promise upon it as a good Christian; and
know that the Christians keep their promises better than the Moors.
Allah and Marien his mother watch over thee, my Lady.

The paper being written and folded I waited two days until the

bano was empty as beforeand immediately repaired to the usual walk
on the terrace to see if there were any sign of the reedwhich was
not long in making its appearance. As soon as I saw italthough I
could not distinguish who put it outI showed the paper as a sign
to attach the threadbut it was already fixed to the reedand to
it I tied the paper; and shortly afterwards our star once more made
its appearance with the white flag of peacethe little bundle. It was
droppedand I picked it upand found in the clothin gold and
silver coins of all sortsmore than fifty crownswhich fifty times
more strengthened our joy and doubled our hope of gaining our liberty.
That very night our renegade returned and said he had learned that the
Moor we had been told of lived in that housethat his name was
Hadji Moratothat he was enormously richthat he had one only
daughter the heiress of all his wealthand that it was the general
opinion throughout the city that she was the most beautiful woman in
Barbaryand that several of the viceroys who came there had sought
her for a wifebut that she had been always unwilling to marry; and
he had learnedmoreoverthat she had a Christian slave who was now
dead; all which agreed with the contents of the paper. We
immediately took counsel with the renegade as to what means would have
to be adopted in order to carry off the Moorish lady and bring us
all to Christian territory; and in the end it was agreed that for
the present we should wait for a second communication from Zoraida
(for that was the name of her who now desires to be called Maria)
because we saw clearly that she and no one else could find a way out
of all these difficulties. When we had decided upon this the
renegade told us not to be uneasyfor he would lose his life or
restore us to liberty. For four days the bano was filled with
peoplefor which reason the reed delayed its appearance for four
daysbut at the end of that timewhen the bano wasas it
generally wasemptyit appeared with the cloth so bulky that it
promised a happy birth. Reed and cloth came down to meand I found
another paper and a hundred crowns in goldwithout any other coin.
The renegade was presentand in our cell we gave him the paper to
readwhich was to this effect:

I cannot think of a plan, senor, for our going to Spain, nor has
Lela Marien shown me one, though I have asked her. All that can be
done is for me to give you plenty of money in gold from this window.
With it ransom yourself and your friends, and let one of you go to the
land of the Christians, and there buy a vessel and come back for the
others; and he will find me in my father's garden, which is at the
Babazon gate near the seashore, where I shall be all this summer
with my father and my servants. You can carry me away from there by
night without any danger, and bring me to the vessel. And remember
thou art to be my husband, else I will pray to Marien to punish
thee. If thou canst not trust anyone to go for the vessel, ransom
thyself and do thou go, for I know thou wilt return more surely than
any other, as thou art a gentleman and a Christian. Endeavour to
make thyself acquainted with the garden; and when I see thee walking
yonder I shall know that the bano is empty and I will give thee
abundance of money. Allah protect thee, senor.

These were the words and contents of the second paperand on
hearing themeach declared himself willing to be the ransomed one
and promised to go and return with scrupulous good faith; and I too
made the same offer; but to all this the renegade objectedsaying
that he would not on any account consent to one being set free
before all went togetheras experience had taught him how ill those
who have been set free keep promises which they made in captivity; for
captives of distinction frequently had recourse to this planpaying
the ransom of one who was to go to Valencia or Majorca with money to
enable him to arm a bark and return for the others who had ransomed
himbut who never came back; for recovered liberty and the dread of

losing it again efface from the memory all the obligations in the
world. And to prove the truth of what he saidhe told us briefly what
had happened to a certain Christian gentleman almost at that very
timethe strangest case that had ever occurred even therewhere
astonishing and marvellous things are happening every instant. In
shorthe ended by saying that what could and ought to be done was
to give the money intended for the ransom of one of us Christians to
himso that he might with it buy a vessel there in Algiers under
the pretence of becoming a merchant and trader at Tetuan and along the
coast; and when master of the vesselit would be easy for him to
hit on some way of getting us all out of the bano and putting us on
board; especially if the Moorish lady gaveas she saidmoney
enough to ransom allbecause once free it would be the easiest
thing in the world for us to embark even in open day; but the greatest
difficulty was that the Moors do not allow any renegade to buy or
own any craftunless it be a large vessel for going on roving
expeditionsbecause they are afraid that anyone who buys a small
vesselespecially if he be a Spaniardonly wants it for the
purpose of escaping to Christian territory. This however he could
get over by arranging with a Tagarin Moor to go shares with him in the
purchase of the vesseland in the profit on the cargo; and under
cover of this he could become master of the vesselin which case he
looked upon all the rest as accomplished. But though to me and my
comrades it had seemed a better plan to send to Majorca for the
vesselas the Moorish lady suggestedwe did not dare to oppose
himfearing that if we did not do as he said he would denounce us
and place us in danger of losing all our lives if he were to
disclose our dealings with Zoraidafor whose life we would have all
given our own. We therefore resolved to put ourselves in the hands
of God and in the renegade's; and at the same time an answer was given
to Zoraidatelling her that we would do all she recommendedfor
she had given as good advice as if Lela Marien had delivered itand
that it depended on her alone whether we were to defer the business or
put it in execution at once. I renewed my promise to be her husband;
and thus the next day that the bano chanced to be empty she at
different times gave us by means of the reed and cloth two thousand
gold crowns and a paper in which she said that the next Jumathat
is to say Fridayshe was going to her father's gardenbut that
before she went she would give us more money; and if it were not
enough we were to let her knowas she would give us as much as we
askedfor her father had so much he would not miss itand besides
she kept all the keys.

We at once gave the renegade five hundred crowns to buy the
vesseland with eight hundred I ransomed myselfgiving the money
to a Valencian merchant who happened to be in Algiers at the timeand
who had me released on his wordpledging it that on the arrival of
the first ship from Valencia he would pay my ransom; for if he had
given the money at once it would have made the king suspect that my
ransom money had been for a long time in Algiersand that the
merchant had for his own advantage kept it secret. In fact my master
was so difficult to deal with that I dared not on any account pay down
the money at once. The Thursday before the Friday on which the fair
Zoraida was to go to the garden she gave us a thousand crowns more
and warned us of her departurebegging meif I were ransomedto
find out her father's garden at onceand by all means to seek an
opportunity of going there to see her. I answered in a few words
that I would do soand that she must remember to commend us to Lela
Marien with all the prayers the captive had taught her. This having
been donesteps were taken to ransom our three comradesso as to
enable them to quit the banoand lestseeing me ransomed and
themselves notthough the money was forthcomingthey should make a
disturbance about it and the devil should prompt them to do
something that might injure Zoraida; for though their position might

be sufficient to relieve me from this apprehensionnevertheless I was
unwilling to run any risk in the matter; and so I had them ransomed in
the same way as I washanding over all the money to the merchant so
that he might with safety and confidence give security; without
howeverconfiding our arrangement and secret to himwhich might have
been dangerous.



Before fifteen days were over our renegade had already purchased
an excellent vessel with room for more than thirty persons; and to
make the transaction safe and lend a colour to ithe thought it
well to makeas he dida voyage to a place called Shersheltwenty
leagues from Algiers on the Oran sidewhere there is an extensive
trade in dried figs. Two or three times he made this voyage in company
with the Tagarin already mentioned. The Moors of Aragon are called
Tagarins in Barbaryand those of Granada Mudejars; but in the Kingdom
of Fez they call the Mudejars Elchesand they are the people the king
chiefly employs in war. To proceed: every time he passed with his
vessel he anchored in a cove that was not two crossbow shots from
the garden where Zoraida was waiting; and there the renegadetogether
with the two Moorish lads that rowedused purposely to station
himselfeither going through his prayersor else practising as a
part what he meant to perform in earnest. And thus he would go to
Zoraida's garden and ask for fruitwhich her father gave himnot
knowing him; but thoughas he afterwards told mehe sought to
speak to Zoraidaand tell her who he wasand that by my orders he
was to take her to the land of the Christiansso that she might
feel satisfied and easyhe had never been able to do so; for the
Moorish women do not allow themselves to be seen by any Moor or
Turkunless their husband or father bid them: with Christian captives
they permit freedom of intercourse and communicationeven more than
might be considered proper. But for my part I should have been sorry
if he had spoken to herfor perhaps it might have alarmed her to find
her affairs talked of by renegades. But Godwho ordered it otherwise
afforded no opportunity for our renegade's well-meant purpose; and he
seeing how safely he could go to Shershel and returnand anchor
when and how and where he likedand that the Tagarin his partner
had no will but hisand thatnow I was ransomedall we wanted was
to find some Christians to rowtold me to look out for any I should
he willing to take with meover and above those who had been
ransomedand to engage them for the next Fridaywhich he fixed
upon for our departure. On this I spoke to twelve Spaniardsall stout
rowersand such as could most easily leave the city; but it was no
easy matter to find so many just thenbecause there were twenty ships
out on a cruise and they had taken all the rowers with them; and these
would not have been found were it not that their master remained at
home that summer without going to sea in order to finish a galliot
that he had upon the stocks. To these men I said nothing more than
that the next Friday in the evening they were to come out stealthily
one by one and hang about Hadji Morato's gardenwaiting for me
there until I came. These directions I gave each one separately
with orders that if they saw any other Christians there they were
not to say anything to them except that I had directed them to wait at
that spot.

This preliminary having been settledanother still more necessary
step had to be takenwhich was to let Zoraida know how matters
stood that she might be prepared and forewarnedso as not to be taken

by surprise if we were suddenly to seize upon her before she thought
the Christians' vessel could have returned. I determinedtherefore
to go to the garden and try if I could speak to her; and the day
before my departure I went there under the pretence of gathering
herbs. The first person I met was her fatherwho addressed me in
the language that all over Barbary and even in Constantinople is the
medium between captives and Moorsand is neither Morisco nor
Castiliannor of any other nationbut a mixture of all languagesby
means of which we can all understand one another. In this sort of
languageI sayhe asked me what I wanted in his gardenand to
whom I belonged. I replied that I was a slave of the Arnaut Mami
(for I knew as a certainty that he was a very great friend of his)
and that I wanted some herbs to make a salad. He asked me then whether
I were on ransom or notand what my master demanded for me. While
these questions and answers were proceedingthe fair Zoraidawho had
already perceived me some time beforecame out of the house in the
gardenand as Moorish women are by no means particular about
letting themselves be seen by Christiansoras I have said before
at all coyshe had no hesitation in coming to where her father
stood with me; moreover her fatherseeing her approaching slowly
called to her to come. It would be beyond my power now to describe
to you the great beautythe high-bred airthe brilliant attire of my
beloved Zoraida as she presented herself before my eyes. I will
content myself with saying that more pearls hung from her fair neck
her earsand her hair than she had hairs on her head. On her
ankleswhich as is customary were bareshe had carcajes (for so
bracelets or anklets are called in Morisco) of the purest goldset
with so many diamonds that she told me afterwards her father valued
them at ten thousand doubloonsand those she had on her wrists were
worth as much more. The pearls were in profusion and very finefor
the highest display and adornment of the Moorish women is decking
themselves with rich pearls and seed-pearls; and of these there are
therefore more among the Moors than among any other people.
Zoraida's father had to the reputation of possessing a great number
and the purest in all Algiersand of possessing also more than two
hundred thousand Spanish crowns; and shewho is now mistress of me
onlywas mistress of all this. Whether thus adorned she would have
been beautiful or notand what she must have been in her
prosperitymay be imagined from the beauty remaining to her after
so many hardships; foras everyone knowsthe beauty of some women
has its times and its seasonsand is increased or diminished by
chance causes; and naturally the emotions of the mind will heighten or
impair itthough indeed more frequently they totally destroy it. In a
word she presented herself before me that day attired with the
utmost splendourand supremely beautiful; at any rateshe seemed
to me the most beautiful object I had ever seen; and whenbesides
I thought of all I owed to her I felt as though I had before me some
heavenly being come to earth to bring me relief and happiness.

As she approached her father told her in his own language that I was
a captive belonging to his friend the Arnaut Mamiand that I had come
for salad.

She took up the conversationand in that mixture of tongues I
have spoken of she asked me if I was a gentlemanand why I was not

I answered that I was already ransomedand that by the price it
might be seen what value my master set on meas I had given one
thousand five hundred zoltanis for me; to which she repliedHadst
thou been my father's, I can tell thee, I would not have let him
part with thee for twice as much, for you Christians always tell
lies about yourselves and make yourselves out poor to cheat the

That may be, lady,said I; "but indeed I dealt truthfully with
my masteras I do and mean to do with everybody in the world."

And when dost thou go?said Zoraida.

To-morrow, I think,said Ifor there is a vessel here from
France which sails to-morrow, and I think I shall go in her.

Would it not be better,said Zoraidato wait for the arrival
of ships from Spain and go with them and not with the French who are
not your friends?

No,said I; "though if there were intelligence that a vessel
were now coming from Spain it is true I mightperhapswait for it;
howeverit is more likely I shall depart to-morrowfor the longing I
feel to return to my country and to those I love is so great that it
will not allow me to wait for another opportunityhowever more
convenientif it be delayed."

No doubt thou art married in thine own country,said Zoraidaand
for that reason thou art anxious to go and see thy wife.

I am not married,I repliedbut I have given my promise to marry
on my arrival there.

And is the lady beautiful to whom thou hast given it?said

So beautiful,said Ithat, to describe her worthily and tell
thee the truth, she is very like thee.

At this her father laughed very heartily and saidBy Allah,
Christian, she must be very beautiful if she is like my daughter,
who is the most beautiful woman in all this kingdom: only look at
her well and thou wilt see I am telling the truth.

Zoraida's father as the better linguist helped to interpret most
of these words and phrasesfor though she spoke the bastard language
thatas I have saidis employed thereshe expressed her meaning
more by signs than by words.

While we were still engaged in this conversationa Moor came
running upexclaiming that four Turks had leaped over the fence or
wall of the gardenand were gathering the fruit though it was not yet
ripe. The old man was alarmed and Zoraida toofor the Moors commonly
andso to speakinstinctively have a dread of the Turksbut
particularly of the soldierswho are so insolent and domineering to
the Moors who are under their power that they treat them worse than if
they were their slaves. Her father said to ZoraidaDaughter,
retire into the house and shut thyself in while I go and speak to
these dogs; and thou, Christian, pick thy herbs, and go in peace,
and Allah bring thee safe to thy own country.

I bowedand he went away to look for the Turksleaving me alone
with Zoraidawho made as if she were about to retire as her father
bade her; but the moment he was concealed by the trees of the
gardenturning to me with her eyes full of tears she saidTameji
cristianotameji?" that is to sayArt thou going, Christian, art
thou going?

I made answerYes, lady, but not without thee, come what may: be
on the watch for me on the next Juma, and be not alarmed when thou
seest us; for most surely we shall go to the land of the Christians.

This I said in such a way that she understood perfectly all that
passed between usand throwing her arm round my neck she began with
feeble steps to move towards the house; but as fate would have it (and
it might have been very unfortunate if Heaven had not otherwise
ordered it)just as we were moving on in the manner and position I
have describedwith her arm round my neckher fatheras he returned
after having sent away the Turkssaw how we were walking and we
perceived that he saw us; but Zoraidaready and quickwittedtook
care not to remove her arm from my neckbut on the contrary drew
closer to me and laid her head on my breastbending her knees a
little and showing all the signs and tokens of aintingwhile I at the
same time made it seem as though I were supporting her against my
will. Her father came running up to where we wereand seeing his
daughter in this state asked what was the matter with her; she
howevergiving no answerhe saidNo doubt she has fainted in alarm
at the entrance of those dogs,and taking her from mine he drew her
to his own breastwhile she sighingher eyes still wet with tears
said againAmeji, cristiano, ameji- "GoChristiango." To this
her father repliedThere is no need, daughter, for the Christian
to go, for he has done thee no harm, and the Turks have now gone; feel
no alarm, there is nothing to hurt thee, for as I say, the Turks at my
request have gone back the way they came.

It was they who terrified her, as thou hast said, senor,said I to
her father; "but since she tells me to goI have no wish to displease
her: peace be with theeand with thy leave I will come back to this
garden for herbs if need befor my master says there are nowhere
better herbs for salad then here."

Come back for any thou hast need of,replied Hadji Morato; "for my
daughter does not speak thus because she is displeased with thee or
any Christian: she only meant that the Turks should gonot thou; or
that it was time for thee to look for thy herbs."

With this I at once took my leave of both; and shelooking as
though her heart were breakingretired with her father. While
pretending to look for herbs I made the round of the garden at my
easeand studied carefully all the approaches and outletsand the
fastenings of the house and everything that could be taken advantage
of to make our task easy. Having done so I went and gave an account of
all that had taken place to the renegade and my comradesand looked
forward with impatience to the hour whenall fear at an endI should
find myself in possession of the prize which fortune held out to me in
the fair and lovely Zoraida. The time passed at lengthand the
appointed day we so longed for arrived; andall following out the
arrangement and plan whichafter careful consideration and many a
long discussionwe had decided uponwe succeeded as fully as we
could have wished; for on the Friday following the day upon which I
spoke to Zoraida in the gardenthe renegade anchored his vessel at
nightfall almost opposite the spot where she was. The Christians who
were to row were ready and in hiding in different places round
aboutall waiting for meanxious and elatedand eager to attack the
vessel they had before their eyes; for they did not know the
renegade's planbut expected that they were to gain their liberty
by force of arms and by killing the Moors who were on board the
vessel. As soonthenas I and my comrades made our appearanceall
those that were in hiding seeing us came and joined us. It was now the
time when the city gates are shutand there was no one to be seen
in all the space outside. When we were collected together we debated
whether it would be better first to go for Zoraidaor to make
prisoners of the Moorish rowers who rowed in the vessel; but while
we were still uncertain our renegade came up asking us what kept us
as it was now the timeand all the Moors were off their guard and

most of them asleep. We told him why we hesitatedbut he said it
was of more importance first to secure the vesselwhich could be done
with the greatest ease and without any dangerand then we could go
for Zoraida. We all approved of what he saidand so without further
delayguided by him we made for the vesseland he leaping on board
firstdrew his cutlass and said in MoriscoLet no one stir from
this if he does not want it to cost him his life.By this almost
all the Christians were on boardand the Moorswho were
faintheartedhearing their captain speak in this waywere cowedand
without any one of them taking to his arms (and indeed they had few or
hardly any) they submitted without saying a word to be bound by the
Christianswho quickly secured themthreatening them that if they
raised any kind of outcry they would be all put to the sword. This
having been accomplishedand half of our party being left to keep
guard over themthe rest of usagain taking the renegade as our
guidehastened towards Hadji Morato's gardenand as good luck
would have iton trying the gate it opened as easily as if it had not
been locked; and soquite quietly and in silencewe reached the
house without being perceived by anybody. The lovely Zoraida was
watching for us at a windowand as soon as she perceived that there
were people thereshe asked in a low voice if we were "Nizarani
as much as to say or ask if we were Christians. I answered that we
were, and begged her to come down. As soon as she recognised me she
did not delay an instant, but without answering a word came down
immediately, opened the door and presented herself before us all, so
beautiful and so richly attired that I cannot attempt to describe her.
The moment I saw her I took her hand and kissed it, and the renegade
and my two comrades did the same; and the rest, who knew nothing of
the circumstances, did as they saw us do, for it only seemed as if
we were returning thanks to her, and recognising her as the giver of
our liberty. The renegade asked her in the Morisco language if her
father was in the house. She replied that he was and that he was

Then it will be necessary to waken him and take him with us
said the renegade, and everything of value in this fair mansion."

Nay,said shemy father must not on any account be touched,
and there is nothing in the house except what I shall take, and that
will be quite enough to enrich and satisfy all of you; wait a little
and you shall see,and so saying she went intelling us she would
return immediately and bidding us keep quiet making any noise.

I asked the renegade what had passed between themand when he
told meI declared that nothing should be done except in accordance
with the wishes of Zoraidawho now came back with a little trunk so
full of gold crowns that she could scarcely carry it. Unfortunately
her father awoke while this was going onand hearing a noise in the
gardencame to the windowand at once perceiving that all those
who were there were Christiansraising a prodigiously loud outcryhe
began to call out in ArabicChristians, Christians! thieves,
thieves!by which cries we were all thrown into the greatest fear and
embarrassment; but the renegade seeing the danger we were in and how
important it was for him to effect his purpose before we were heard
mounted with the utmost quickness to where Hadji Morato wasand
with him went some of our party; Ihoweverdid not dare to leave
Zoraidawho had fallen almost fainting in my arms. To be briefthose
who had gone upstairs acted so promptly that in an instant they came
downcarrying Hadji Morato with his hands bound and a napkin tied
over his mouthwhich prevented him from uttering a wordwarning
him at the same time that to attempt to speak would cost him his life.
When his daughter caught sight of him she covered her eyes so as not
to see himand her father was horror-strickennot knowing how
willingly she had placed herself in our hands. But it was now most

essential for us to be on the moveand carefully and quickly we
regained the vesselwhere those who had remained on board were
waiting for us in apprehension of some mishap having befallen us. It
was barely two hours after night set in when we were all on board
the vesselwhere the cords were removed from the hands of Zoraida's
fatherand the napkin from his mouth; but the renegade once more told
him not to utter a wordor they would take his life. Hewhen he
saw his daughter therebegan to sigh piteouslyand still more when
he perceived that I held her closely embraced and that she lay quiet
without resisting or complainingor showing any reluctance;
nevertheless he remained silent lest they should carry into effect the
repeated threats the renegade had addressed to him.

Finding herself now on boardand that we were about to give way
with the oarsZoraidaseeing her father thereand the other Moors
boundbade the renegade ask me to do her the favour of releasing
the Moors and setting her father at libertyfor she would rather
drown herself in the sea than suffer a father that had loved her so
dearly to be carried away captive before her eyes and on her
account. The renegade repeated this to meand I replied that I was
very willing to do so; but he replied that it was not advisable
because if they were left there they would at once raise the country
and stir up the cityand lead to the despatch of swift cruisers in
pursuitand our being takenby sea or landwithout any
possibility of escape; and that all that could be done was to set them
free on the first Christian ground we reached. On this point we all
agreed; and Zoraidato whom it was explainedtogether with the
reasons that prevented us from doing at once what she desiredwas
satisfied likewise; and then in glad silence and with cheerful
alacrity each of our stout rowers took his oarand commending
ourselves to God with all our heartswe began to shape our course for
the island of Majorcathe nearest Christian land. Owinghowever
to the Tramontana rising a littleand the sea growing somewhat rough
it was impossible for us to keep a straight course for Majorcaand we
were compelled to coast in the direction of Orannot without great
uneasiness on our part lest we should be observed from the town of
Shershelwhich lies on that coastnot more than sixty miles from
Algiers. Moreover we were afraid of meeting on that course one of
the galliots that usually come with goods from Tetuan; although each
of us for himself and all of us together felt confident thatif we
were to meet a merchant galliotso that it were not a cruisernot
only should we not be lostbut that we should take a vessel in
which we could more safely accomplish our voyage. As we pursued our
course Zoraida kept her head between my hands so as not to see her
fatherand I felt that she was praying to Lela Marien to help us.

We might have made about thirty miles when daybreak found us some
three musket-shots off the landwhich seemed to us desertedand
without anyone to see us. For all thathoweverby hard rowing we put
out a little to seafor it was now somewhat calmerand having gained
about two leagues the word was given to row by batcheswhile we ate
somethingfor the vessel was well provided; but the rowers said it
was not a time to take any rest; let food be served out to those who
were not rowingbut they would not leave their oars on any account.
This was donebut now a stiff breeze began to blowwhich obliged
us to leave off rowing and make sail at once and steer for Oranas it
was impossible to make any other course. All this was done very
promptlyand under sail we ran more than eight miles an hour
without any fearexcept that of coming across some vessel out on a
roving expedition. We gave the Moorish rowers some foodand the
renegade comforted them by telling them that they were not held as
captivesas we should set them free on the first opportunity.

The same was said to Zoraida's fatherwho repliedAnything

else, Christian, I might hope for or think likely from your generosity
and good behaviour, but do not think me so simple as to imagine you
will give me my liberty; for you would have never exposed yourselves
to the danger of depriving me of it only to restore it to me so
generously, especially as you know who I am and the sum you may expect
to receive on restoring it; and if you will only name that, I here
offer you all you require for myself and for my unhappy daughter
there; or else for her alone, for she is the greatest and most
precious part of my soul.

As he said this he began to weep so bitterly that he filled us all
with compassion and forced Zoraida to look at himand when she saw
him weeping she was so moved that she rose from my feet and ran to
throw her arms round himand pressing her face to histhey both gave
way to such an outburst of tears that several of us were constrained
to keep them company.

But when her father saw her in full dress and with all her jewels
about herhe said to her in his own languageWhat means this, my
daughter? Last night, before this terrible misfortune in which we
are plunged befell us, I saw thee in thy everyday and indoor garments;
and now, without having had time to attire thyself, and without my
bringing thee any joyful tidings to furnish an occasion for adorning
and bedecking thyself, I see thee arrayed in the finest attire it
would be in my power to give thee when fortune was most kind to us.
Answer me this; for it causes me greater anxiety and surprise than
even this misfortune itself.

The renegade interpreted to us what the Moor said to his daughter;
shehoweverreturned him no answer. But when he observed in one
corner of the vessel the little trunk in which she used to keep her
jewelswhich he well knew he had left in Algiers and had not
brought to the gardenhe was still more amazedand asked her how
that trunk had come into our handsand what there was in it. To which
the renegadewithout waiting for Zoraida to replymade answerDo
not trouble thyself by asking thy daughter Zoraida so many
questions, senor, for the one answer I will give thee will serve for
all; I would have thee know that she is a Christian, and that it is
she who has been the file for our chains and our deliverer from
captivity. She is here of her own free will, as glad, I imagine, to
find herself in this position as he who escapes from darkness into the
light, from death to life, and from suffering to glory.

Daughter, is this true, what he says?cried the Moor.

It is,replied Zoraida.

That thou art in truth a Christian,said the old manand that
thou hast given thy father into the power of his enemies?

To which Zoraida made answerA Christian I am, but it is not I who
have placed thee in this position, for it never was my wish to leave
thee or do thee harm, but only to do good to myself.

And what good hast thou done thyself, daughter?said he.

Ask thou that,said sheof Lela Marien, for she can tell thee
better than I.

The Moor had hardly heard these words when with marvellous quickness
he flung himself headforemost into the seawhere no doubt he would
have been drowned had not the long and full dress he wore held him
up for a little on the surface of the water. Zoraida cried aloud to us
to save himand we all hastened to helpand seizing him by his

robe we drew him in half drowned and insensibleat which Zoraida
was in such distress that she wept over him as piteously and
bitterly as though he were already dead. We turned him upon his face
and he voided a great quantity of waterand at the end of two hours
came to himself. Meanwhilethe wind having changed we were
compelled to head for the landand ply our oars to avoid being driven
on shore; but it was our good fortune to reach a creek that lies on
one side of a small promontory or capecalled by the Moors that of
the "Cava rumia which in our language means the wicked Christian
woman;" for it is a tradition among them that La Cavathrough whom
Spain was lostlies buried at that spot; "cava" in their language
meaning "wicked woman and rumia" "Christian;" moreoverthey
count it unlucky to anchor there when necessity compels themand they
never do so otherwise. For ushoweverit was not the resting-place
of the wicked woman but a haven of safety for our reliefso much
had the sea now got up. We posted a look-out on shoreand never let
the oars out of our handsand ate of the stores the renegade had laid
inimploring God and Our Lady with all our hearts to help and protect
usthat we might give a happy ending to a beginning so prosperous. At
the entreaty of Zoraida orders were given to set on shore her father
and the other Moors who were still boundfor she could not endure
nor could her tender heart bear to see her father in bonds and her
fellow-countrymen prisoners before her eyes. We promised her to do
this at the moment of departurefor as it was uninhabited we ran no
risk in releasing them at that place.

Our prayers were not so far in vain as to be unheard by Heaven
for after a while the wind changed in our favourand made the sea
calminviting us once more to resume our voyage with a good heart.
Seeing this we unbound the Moorsand one by one put them on shoreat
which they were filled with amazement; but when we came to land
Zoraida's fatherwho had now completely recovered his senseshe

Why is it, think ye, Christians, that this wicked woman is rejoiced
at your giving me my liberty? Think ye it is because of the
affection she bears me? Nay verily, it is only because of the
hindrance my presence offers to the execution of her base designs. And
think not that it is her belief that yours is better than ours that
has led her to change her religion; it is only because she knows
that immodesty is more freely practised in your country than in ours.
Then turning to Zoraidawhile I and another of the Christians held
him fast by both armslest he should do some mad acthe said to her
Infamous girl, misguided maiden, whither in thy blindness and madness
art thou going in the hands of these dogs, our natural enemies? Cursed
be the hour when I begot thee! Cursed the luxury and indulgence in
which I reared thee!

But seeing that he was not likely soon to cease I made haste to
put him on shoreand thence he continued his maledictions and
lamentations aloud; calling on Mohammed to pray to Allah to destroy
usto confound usto make an end of us; and whenin consequence
of having made sailwe could no longer hear what he said we could see
what he did; how he plucked out his beard and tore his hair and lay
writhing on the ground. But once he raised his voice to such a pitch
that we were able to hear what he said. "Come backdear daughter
come back to shore; I forgive thee all; let those men have the
moneyfor it is theirs nowand come back to comfort thy sorrowing
fatherwho will yield up his life on this barren strand if thou
dost leave him."

All this Zoraida heardand heard with sorrow and tearsand all she
could say in answer wasAllah grant that Lela Marien, who has made
me become a Christian, give thee comfort in thy sorrow, my father.

Allah knows that I could not do otherwise than I have done, and that
these Christians owe nothing to my will; for even had I wished not
to accompany them, but remain at home, it would have been impossible
for me, so eagerly did my soul urge me on to the accomplishment of
this purpose, which I feel to be as righteous as to thee, dear father,
it seems wicked.

But neither could her father hear her nor we see him when she said
this; and sowhile I consoled Zoraidawe turned our attention to our
voyagein which a breeze from the right point so favoured us that
we made sure of finding ourselves off the coast of Spain on the morrow
by daybreak. Butas good seldom or never comes pure and unmixed
without being attended or followed by some disturbing evil that
gives a shock to itour fortuneor perhaps the curses which the Moor
had hurled at his daughter (for whatever kind of father they may
come from these are always to be dreaded)brought it about that
when we were now in mid-seaand the night about three hours spentas
we were running with all sail set and oars lashedfor the favouring
breeze saved us the trouble of using themwe saw by the light of
the moonwhich shone brilliantlya square-rigged vessel in full sail
close to usluffing up and standing across our courseand so close
that we had to strike sail to avoid running foul of herwhile they
too put the helm hard up to let us pass. They came to the side of
the ship to ask who we werewhither we were boundand whence we
camebut as they asked this in French our renegade saidLet no
one answer, for no doubt these are French corsairs who plunder all
comers.Acting on this warning no one answered a wordbut after we
had gone a little aheadand the vessel was now lying to leeward
suddenly they fired two gunsand apparently both loaded with
chain-shotfor with one they cut our mast in half and brought down
both it and the sail into the seaand the otherdischarged at the
same momentsent a ball into our vessel amidshipsstaving her in
completelybut without doing any further damage. Wehoweverfinding
ourselves sinking began to shout for help and call upon those in the
ship to pick us up as we were beginning to fill. They then lay toand
lowering a skiff or boatas many as a dozen Frenchmenwell armed
with match-locksand their matches burninggot into it and came
alongside; and seeing how few we wereand that our vessel was going
downthey took us intelling us that this had come to us through our
incivility in not giving them an answer. Our renegade took the trunk
containing Zoraida's wealth and dropped it into the sea without anyone
perceiving what he did. In short we went on board with the
Frenchmenwhoafter having ascertained all they wanted to know about
usrifled us of everything we hadas if they had been our
bitterest enemiesand from Zoraida they took even the anklets she
wore on her feet; but the distress they caused her did not distress me
so much as the fear I was in that from robbing her of her rich and
precious jewels they would proceed to rob her of the most precious
jewel that she valued more than all. The desireshoweverof those
people do not go beyond moneybut of that their covetousness is
insatiableand on this occasion it was carried to such a pitch that
they would have taken even the clothes we wore as captives if they had
been worth anything to them. It was the advice of some of them to
throw us all into the sea wrapped up in a sail; for their purpose
was to trade at some of the ports of Spaingiving themselves out as
Bretonsand if they brought us alive they would be punished as soon
as the robbery was discovered; but the captain (who was the one who
had plundered my beloved Zoraida) said he was satisfied with the prize
he had gotand that he would not touch at any Spanish portbut
pass the Straits of Gibraltar by nightor as best he couldand
make for La Rochellefrom which he had sailed. So they agreed by
common consent to give us the skiff belonging to their ship and all we
required for the short voyage that remained to usand this they did
the next day on coming in sight of the Spanish coastwith which

and the joy we feltall our sufferings and miseries were as
completely forgotten as if they had never been endured by ussuch
is the delight of recovering lost liberty.

It may have been about mid-day when they placed us in the boat
giving us two kegs of water and some biscuit; and the captainmoved
by I know not what compassionas the lovely Zoraida was about to
embarkgave her some forty gold crownsand would not permit his
men to take from her those same garments which she has on now. We
got into the boatreturning them thanks for their kindness to usand
showing ourselves grateful rather than indignant. They stood out to
seasteering for the straits; wewithout looking to any compass save
the land we had before usset ourselves to row with such energy
that by sunset we were so near that we might easilywe thought
land before the night was far advanced. But as the moon did not show
that nightand the sky was cloudedand as we knew not whereabouts we
wereit did not seem to us a prudent thing to make for the shore
as several of us advisedsaying we ought to run ourselves ashore even
if it were on rocks and far from any habitationfor in this way we
should be relieved from the apprehensions we naturally felt of the
prowling vessels of the Tetuan corsairswho leave Barbary at
nightfall and are on the Spanish coast by daybreakwhere they
commonly take some prizeand then go home to sleep in their own
houses. But of the conflicting counsels the one which was adopted
was that we should approach graduallyand land where we could if
the sea were calm enough to permit us. This was doneand a little
before midnight we drew near to the foot of a huge and lofty mountain
not so close to the sea but that it left a narrow space on which to
land conveniently. We ran our boat up on the sandand all sprang
out and kissed the groundand with tears of joyful satisfaction
returned thanks to God our Lord for all his incomparable goodness to
us on our voyage. We took out of the boat the provisions it contained
and drew it up on the shoreand then climbed a long way up the
mountainfor even there we could not feel easy in our heartsor
persuade ourselves that it was Christian soil that was now under our

The dawn camemore slowlyI thinkthan we could have wished; we
completed the ascent in order to see if from the summit any habitation
or any shepherds' huts could be discoveredbut strain our eyes as
we mightneither dwellingnor human beingnor path nor road could
we perceive. Howeverwe determined to push on fartheras it could
not but be that ere long we must see some one who could tell us
where we were. But what distressed me most was to see Zoraida going on
foot over that rough ground; for though I once carried her on my
shouldersshe was more wearied by my weariness than rested by the
rest; and so she would never again allow me to undergo the exertion
and went on very patiently and cheerfullywhile I led her by the
hand. We had gone rather less than a quarter of a league when the
sound of a little bell fell on our earsa clear proof that there were
flocks hard byand looking about carefully to see if any were
within viewwe observed a young shepherd tranquilly and
unsuspiciously trimming a stick with his knife at the foot of a cork
tree. We called to himand heraising his headsprang nimbly to his
feetforas we afterwards learnedthe first who presented
themselves to his sight were the renegade and Zoraidaand seeing them
in Moorish dress he imagined that all the Moors of Barbary were upon
him; and plunging with marvellous swiftness into the thicket in
front of himhe began to raise a prodigious outcryexclaiming
The Moors- the Moors have landed! To arms, to arms!We were all
thrown into perplexity by these criesnot knowing what to do; but
reflecting that the shouts of the shepherd would raise the country and
that the mounted coast-guard would come at once to see what was the
matterwe agreed that the renegade must strip off his Turkish

garments and put on a captive's jacket or coat which one of our
party gave him at oncethough he himself was reduced to his shirt;
and so commending ourselves to Godwe followed the same road which we
saw the shepherd takeexpecting every moment that the coast-guard
would be down upon us. Nor did our expectation deceive usfor two
hours had not passed whencoming out of the brushwood into the open
groundwe perceived some fifty mounted men swiftly approaching us
at a hand-gallop. As soon as we saw them we stood stillwaiting for
them; but as they came close andinstead of the Moors they were in
quest ofsaw a set of poor Christiansthey were taken abackand one
of them asked if it could be we who were the cause of the shepherd
having raised the call to arms. I said "Yes and as I was about to
explain to him what had occurred, and whence we came and who we
were, one of the Christians of our party recognised the horseman who
had put the question to us, and before I could say anything more he

Thanks be to Godsirsfor bringing us to such good quarters; for
if I do not deceive myselfthe ground we stand on is that of Velez
Malaga unlessindeedall my years of captivity have made me unable
to recollect that yousenorwho ask who we areare Pedro de
Bustamantemy uncle."

The Christian captive had hardly uttered these wordswhen the
horseman threw himself off his horseand ran to embrace the young

Nephew of my soul and life! I recognise thee now; and long have I
mourned thee as dead, I, and my sister, thy mother, and all thy kin
that are still alive, and whom God has been pleased to preserve that
they may enjoy the happiness of seeing thee. We knew long since that
thou wert in Algiers, and from the appearance of thy garments and
those of all this company, I conclude that ye have had a miraculous
restoration to liberty.

It is true,replied the young manand by-and-by we will tell you

As soon as the horsemen understood that we were Christian
captivesthey dismounted from their horsesand each offered his to
carry us to the city of Velez Malagawhich was a league and a half
distant. Some of them went to bring the boat to the citywe having
told them where we had left it; others took us up behind themand
Zoraida was placed on the horse of the young man's uncle. The whole
town came out to meet usfor they had by this time heard of our
arrival from one who had gone on in advance. They were not
astonished to see liberated captives or captive Moorsfor people on
that coast are well used to see both one and the other; but they
were astonished at the beauty of Zoraidawhich was just then
heightenedas well by the exertion of travelling as by joy at finding
herself on Christian soiland relieved of all fear of being lost; for
this had brought such a glow upon her facethat unless my affection
for her were deceiving meI would venture to say that there was not a
more beautiful creature in the world- at leastthat I had ever seen.

We went straight to the church to return thanks to God for the
mercies we had receivedand when Zoraida entered it she said there
were faces there like Lela Marien's. We told her they were her images;
and as well as he could the renegade explained to her what they meant
that she might adore them as if each of them were the very same Lela
Marien that had spoken to her; and shehaving great intelligence
and a quick and clear instinctunderstood at once all he said to
her about them. Thence they took us away and distributed us all in
different houses in the town; but as for the renegadeZoraidaand
myselfthe Christian who came with us brought us to the house of

his parentswho had a fair share of the gifts of fortuneand treated
us with as much kindness as they did their own son.

We remained six days in Velezat the end of which the renegade
having informed himself of all that was requisite for him to doset
out for the city of Granada to restore himself to the sacred bosom
of the Church through the medium of the Holy Inquisition. The other
released captives took their departureseach the way that seemed best
to himand Zoraida and I were left alonewith nothing more than
the crowns which the courtesy of the Frenchman had bestowed upon
Zoraidaout of which I bought the beast on which she rides; andI
for the present attending her as her father and squire and not as
her husbandwe are now going to ascertain if my father is living
or if any of my brothers has had better fortune than mine has been;
thoughas Heaven has made me the companion of ZoraidaI think no
other lot could be assigned to mehowever happythat I would
rather have. The patience with which she endures the hardships that
poverty brings with itand the eagerness she shows to become a
Christianare such that they fill me with admirationand bind me
to serve her all my life; though the happiness I feel in seeing myself
hersand her mineis disturbed and marred by not knowing whether I
shall find any corner to shelter her in my own countryor whether
time and death may not have made such changes in the fortunes and
lives of my father and brothersthat I shall hardly find anyone who
knows meif they are not alive.

I have no more of my story to tell yougentlemen; whether it be
an interesting or a curious one let your better judgments decide;
all I can say is I would gladly have told it to you more briefly;
although my fear of wearying you has made me leave out more than one



With these words the captive held his peaceand Don Fernando said
to himIn truth, captain, the manner in which you have related
this remarkable adventure has been such as befitted the novelty and
strangeness of the matter. The whole story is curious and uncommon,
and abounds with incidents that fill the hearers with wonder and
astonishment; and so great is the pleasure we have found in
listening to it that we should be glad if it were to begin again, even
though to-morrow were to find us still occupied with the same tale.
And while he said this Cardenio and the rest of them offered to be
of service to him in any way that lay in their powerand in words and
language so kindly and sincere that the captain was much gratified
by their good-will. In particular Don Fernando offeredif he would go
back with himto get his brother the marquis to become godfather at
the baptism of Zoraidaand on his own part to provide him with the
means of making his appearance in his own country with the credit
and comfort he was entitled to. For all this the captive returned
thanks very courteouslyalthough he would not accept any of their
generous offers.

By this time night closed inand as it didthere came up to the
inn a coach attended by some men on horsebackwho demanded
accommodation; to which the landlady replied that there was not a
hand's breadth of the whole inn unoccupied.

Still, for all that,said one of those who had entered on
horsebackroom must be found for his lordship the Judge here.

At this name the landlady was taken abackand saidSenor, the
fact is I have no beds; but if his lordship the Judge carries one with
him, as no doubt he does, let him come in and welcome; for my
husband and I will give up our room to accommodate his worship.

Very good, so be it,said the squire; but in the meantime a man
had got out of the coach whose dress indicated at a glance the
office and post he heldfor the long robe with ruffled sleeves that
he wore showed that he wasas his servant saida Judge of appeal. He
led by the hand a young girl in a travelling dressapparently about
sixteen years of ageand of such a high-bred airso beautiful and so
gracefulthat all were filled with admiration when she made her
appearanceand but for having seen DorotheaLuscindaand Zoraida
who were there in the innthey would have fancied that a beauty
like that of this maiden's would have been hard to find. Don Quixote
was present at the entrance of the Judge with the young ladyand as
soon as he saw him he saidYour worship may with confidence enter
and take your ease in this castle; for though the accommodation be
scanty and poor, there are no quarters so cramped or inconvenient that
they cannot make room for arms and letters; above all if arms and
letters have beauty for a guide and leader, as letters represented
by your worship have in this fair maiden, to whom not only ought
castles to throw themselves open and yield themselves up, but rocks
should rend themselves asunder and mountains divide and bow themselves
down to give her a reception. Enter, your worship, I say, into this
paradise, for here you will find stars and suns to accompany the
heaven your worship brings with you, here you will find arms in
their supreme excellence, and beauty in its highest perfection.

The Judge was struck with amazement at the language of Don
Quixotewhom he scrutinized very carefullyno less astonished by his
figure than by his talk; and before he could find words to answer
him he had a fresh surprisewhen he saw opposite to him Luscinda
Dorotheaand Zoraidawhohaving heard of the new guests and of
the beauty of the young ladyhad come to see her and welcome her; Don
FernandoCardenioand the curatehowevergreeted him in a more
intelligible and polished style. In shortthe Judge made his entrance
in a state of bewildermentas well with what he saw as what he heard
and the fair ladies of the inn gave the fair damsel a cordial welcome.
On the whole he could perceive that all who were there were people
of quality; but with the figurecountenanceand bearing of Don
Quixote he was at his wits' end; and all civilities having been
exchangedand the accommodation of the inn inquired intoit was
settledas it had been before settledthat all the women should
retire to the garret that has been already mentionedand that the men
should remain outside as if to guard them; the Judgethereforewas
very well pleased to allow his daughterfor such the damsel wasto
go with the ladieswhich she did very willingly; and with part of the
host's narrow bed and half of what the Judge had brought with him
they made a more comfortable arrangement for the night than they had

The captivewhose heart had leaped within him the instant he saw
the Judgetelling him somehow that this was his brotherasked one of
the servants who accompanied him what his name wasand whether he
knew from what part of the country he came. The servant replied that
he was called the Licentiate Juan Perez de Viedmaand that he had
heard it said he came from a village in the mountains of Leon. From
this statementand what he himself had seenhe felt convinced that
this was his brother who had adopted letters by his father's advice;
and excited and rejoicedhe called Don Fernando and Cardenio and

the curate asideand told them how the matter stoodassuring them
that the judge was his brother. The servant had further informed him
that he was now going to the Indies with the appointment of Judge of
the Supreme Court of Mexico; and he had learnedlikewisethat the
young lady was his daughterwhose mother had died in giving birth
to herand that he was very rich in consequence of the dowry left
to him with the daughter. He asked their advice as to what means he
should adopt to make himself knownor to ascertain beforehand
whetherwhen he had made himself knownhis brotherseeing him so
poorwould be ashamed of himor would receive him with a warm heart.

Leave it to me to find out that,said the curate; "though there is
no reason for supposingsenor captainthat you will not be kindly
receivedbecause the worth and wisdom that your brother's bearing
shows him to possess do not make it likely that he will prove
haughty or insensibleor that he will not know how to estimate the
accidents of fortune at their proper value."

Still,said the captainI would not make myself known
abruptly, but in some indirect way.

I have told you already,said the curatethat I will manage it
in a way to satisfy us all.

By this time supper was readyand they all took their seats at
the tableexcept the captiveand the ladieswho supped by
themselves in their own room. In the middle of supper the curate said:

I had a comrade of your worship's name, Senor Judge, in
Constantinople, where I was a captive for several years, and that same
comrade was one of the stoutest soldiers and captains in the whole
Spanish infantry; but he had as large a share of misfortune as he
had of gallantry and courage.

And how was the captain called, senor?asked the Judge.

He was called Ruy Perez de Viedma,replied the curateand he was
born in a village in the mountains of Leon; and he mentioned a
circumstance connected with his father and his brothers which, had
it not been told me by so truthful a man as he was, I should have
set down as one of those fables the old women tell over the fire in
winter; for he said his father had divided his property among his
three sons and had addressed words of advice to them sounder than
any of Cato's. But I can say this much, that the choice he made of
going to the wars was attended with such success, that by his
gallant conduct and courage, and without any help save his own
merit, he rose in a few years to be captain of infantry, and to see
himself on the high-road and in position to be given the command of
a corps before long; but Fortune was against him, for where he might
have expected her favour he lost it, and with it his liberty, on
that glorious day when so many recovered theirs, at the battle of
Lepanto. I lost mine at the Goletta, and after a variety of adventures
we found ourselves comrades at Constantinople. Thence he went to
Algiers, where he met with one of the most extraordinary adventures
that ever befell anyone in the world.

Here the curate went on to relate briefly his brother's adventure
with Zoraida; to all which the Judge gave such an attentive hearing
that he never before had been so much of a hearer. The curate
howeveronly went so far as to describe how the Frenchmen plundered
those who were in the boatand the poverty and distress in which
his comrade and the fair Moor were leftof whom he said he had not
been able to learn what became of themor whether they had reached
Spainor been carried to France by the Frenchmen.

The captainstanding a little to one sidewas listening to all the
curate saidand watching every movement of his brotherwhoas
soon as he perceived the curate had made an end of his storygave a
deep sigh and said with his eyes full of tearsOh, senor, if you
only knew what news you have given me and how it comes home to me,
making me show how I feel it with these tears that spring from my eyes
in spite of all my worldly wisdom and self-restraint! That brave
captain that you speak of is my eldest brother, who, being of a bolder
and loftier mind than my other brother or myself, chose the honourable
and worthy calling of arms, which was one of the three careers our
father proposed to us, as your comrade mentioned in that fable you
thought he was telling you. I followed that of letters, in which God
and my own exertions have raised me to the position in which you see
me. My second brother is in Peru, so wealthy that with what he has
sent to my father and to me he has fully repaid the portion he took
with him, and has even furnished my father's hands with the means of
gratifying his natural generosity, while I too have been enabled to
pursue my studies in a more becoming and creditable fashion, and so to
attain my present standing. My father is still alive, though dying
with anxiety to hear of his eldest son, and he prays God unceasingly
that death may not close his eyes until he has looked upon those of
his son; but with regard to him what surprises me is, that having so
much common sense as he had, he should have neglected to give any
intelligence about himself, either in his troubles and sufferings,
or in his prosperity, for if his father or any of us had known of
his condition he need not have waited for that miracle of the reed
to obtain his ransom; but what now disquiets me is the uncertainty
whether those Frenchmen may have restored him to liberty, or
murdered him to hide the robbery. All this will make me continue my
journey, not with the satisfaction in which I began it, but in the
deepest melancholy and sadness. Oh dear brother! that I only knew
where thou art now, and I would hasten to seek thee out and deliver
thee from thy sufferings, though it were to cost me suffering
myself! Oh that I could bring news to our old father that thou art
alive, even wert thou the deepest dungeon of Barbary; for his wealth
and my brother's and mine would rescue thee thence! Oh beautiful and
generous Zoraida, that I could repay thy good goodness to a brother!
That I could be present at the new birth of thy soul, and at thy
bridal that would give us all such happiness!

All this and more the Judge uttered with such deep emotion at the
news he had received of his brother that all who heard him shared in
itshowing their sympathy with his sorrow. The curateseeing
thenhow well he had succeeded in carrying out his purpose and the
captain's wisheshad no desire to keep them unhappy any longerso he
rose from the table and going into the room where Zoraida was he
took her by the handLuscindaDorotheaand the Judge's daughter
following her. The captain was waiting to see what the curate would
dowhen the lattertaking him with the other handadvanced with
both of them to where the Judge and the other gentlemen were and said
Let your tears cease to flow, Senor Judge, and the wish of your heart
be gratified as fully as you could desire, for you have before you
your worthy brother and your good sister-in-law. He whom you see here
is the Captain Viedma, and this is the fair Moor who has been so good
to him. The Frenchmen I told you of have reduced them to the state of
poverty you see that you may show the generosity of your kind heart.

The captain ran to embrace his brotherwho placed both hands on his
breast so as to have a good look at himholding him a little way
off but as soon as he had fully recognised him he clasped him in his
arms so closelyshedding such tears of heartfelt joythat most of
those present could not but join in them. The words the brothers
exchangedthe emotion they showed can scarcely be imaginedI

fancymuch less put down in writing. They told each other in a few
words the events of their lives; they showed the true affection of
brothers in all its strength; then the judge embraced Zoraidaputting
all he possessed at her disposal; then he made his daughter embrace
herand the fair Christian and the lovely Moor drew fresh tears
from every eye. And there was Don Quixote observing all these
strange proceedings attentively without uttering a wordand
attributing the whole to chimeras of knight-errantry. Then they agreed
that the captain and Zoraida should return with his brother to
Sevilleand send news to his father of his having been delivered
and foundso as to enable him to come and be present at the
marriage and baptism of Zoraidafor it was impossible for the Judge
to put off his journeyas he was informed that in a month from that
time the fleet was to sail from Seville for New Spainand to miss the
passage would have been a great inconvenience to him. In short
everybody was well pleased and glad at the captive's good fortune; and
as now almost two-thirds of the night were pastthey resolved to
retire to rest for the remainder of it. Don Quixote offered to mount
guard over the castle lest they should be attacked by some giant or
other malevolent scoundrelcovetous of the great treasure of beauty
the castle contained. Those who understood him returned him thanks for
this serviceand they gave the Judge an account of his
extraordinary humourwith which he was not a little amused. Sancho
Panza alone was fuming at the lateness of the hour for retiring to
rest; and he of all was the one that made himself most comfortableas
he stretched himself on the trappings of his asswhichas will be
told farther oncost him so dear.

The ladiesthenhaving retired to their chamberand the others
having disposed themselves with as little discomfort as they could
Don Quixote sallied out of the inn to act as sentinel of the castle as
he had promised. It happenedhoweverthat a little before the
approach of dawn a voice so musical and sweet reached the ears of
the ladies that it forced them all to listen attentivelybut
especially Dorotheawho had been awakeand by whose side Dona
Clara de Viedmafor so the Judge's daughter was calledlay sleeping.
No one could imagine who it was that sang so sweetlyand the voice
was unaccompanied by any instrument. At one moment it seemed to them
as if the singer were in the courtyardat another in the stable;
and as they were all attentionwonderingCardenio came to the door
and saidListen, whoever is not asleep, and you will hear a
muleteer's voice that enchants as it chants.

We are listening to it already, senor,said Dorothea; on which
Cardenio went away; and Dorotheagiving all her attention to itmade
out the words of the song to be these:



Ah meLove's mariner am I
On Love's deep ocean sailing;
I know not where the haven lies
I dare not hope to gain it.

One solitary distant star
Is all I have to guide me
A brighter orb than those of old
That Palinurus lighted.

And vaguely drifting am I borne
I know not where it leads me;
I fix my gaze on it alone
Of all beside it heedless.

But over-cautious prudery
And coyness cold and cruel
When most I need ittheselike clouds
Its longed-for light refuse me.

Bright stargoal of my yearning eyes
As thou above me beamest
When thou shalt hide thee from my sight
I'll know that death is near me.

The singer had got so far when it struck Dorothea that it was not
fair to let Clara miss hearing such a sweet voicesoshaking her
from side to sideshe woke hersaying:

Forgive me, child, for waking thee, but I do so that thou mayest
have the pleasure of hearing the best voice thou hast ever heard,
perhaps, in all thy life.

Clara awoke quite drowsyand not understanding at the moment what
Dorothea saidasked her what it was; she repeated what she had
saidand Clara became attentive at once; but she had hardly heard two
linesas the singer continuedwhen a strange trembling seized her
as if she were suffering from a severe attack of quartan agueand
throwing her arms round Dorothea she said:

Ah, dear lady of my soul and life! why did you wake me? The
greatest kindness fortune could do me now would be to close my eyes
and ears so as neither to see or hear that unhappy musician.

What art thou talking about, child?said Dorothea. "Whythey
say this singer is a muleteer!"

Nay, he is the lord of many places,replied Claraand that one
in my heart which he holds so firmly shall never be taken from him,
unless he be willing to surrender it.

Dorothea was amazed at the ardent language of the girlfor it
seemed to be far beyond such experience of life as her tender years
gave any promise ofso she said to her:

You speak in such a way that I cannot understand you, Senora Clara;
explain yourself more clearly, and tell me what is this you are saying
about hearts and places and this musician whose voice has so moved
you? But do not tell me anything now; I do not want to lose the
pleasure I get from listening to the singer by giving my attention
to your transports, for I perceive he is beginning to sing a new
strain and a new air.

Let him, in Heaven's name,returned Clara; and not to hear him she
stopped both ears with her handsat which Dorothea was again
surprised; but turning her attention to the song she found that it ran
in this fashion:

Sweet Hopemy stay
That onward to the goal of thy intent
Dost make thy way
Heedless of hindrance or impediment

Have thou no fear
If at each step thou findest death is near.

No victory
No joy of triumph doth the faint heart know;
Unblest is he
That a bold front to Fortune dares not show
But soul and sense
In bondage yieldeth up to indolence.

If Love his wares
Do dearly sellhis right must be contest;
What gold compares
With that whereon his stamp he hath imprest?
And all men know
What costeth little that we rate but low.

Love resolute
Knows not the word "impossibility;"
And though my suit
Beset by endless obstacles I see
Yet no despair
Shall hold me bound to earth while heaven is there.

Here the voice ceased and Clara's sobs began afreshall which
excited Dorothea's curiosity to know what could be the cause of
singing so sweet and weeping so bitterso she again asked her what it
was she was going to say before. On this Claraafraid that Luscinda
might overhear herwinding her arms tightly round Dorothea put her
mouth so close to her ear that she could speak without fear of being
heard by anyone elseand said:

This singer, dear senora, is the son of a gentleman of Aragon, lord
of two villages, who lives opposite my father's house at Madrid; and
though my father had curtains to the windows of his house in winter,
and lattice-work in summer, in some way- I know not how- this
gentleman, who was pursuing his studies, saw me, whether in church
or elsewhere, I cannot tell, and, in fact, fell in love with me, and
gave me to know it from the windows of his house, with so many signs
and tears that I was forced to believe him, and even to love him,
without knowing what it was he wanted of me. One of the signs he
used to make me was to link one hand in the other, to show me he
wished to marry me; and though I should have been glad if that could
be, being alone and motherless I knew not whom to open my mind to, and
so I left it as it was, showing him no favour, except when my
father, and his too, were from home, to raise the curtain or the
lattice a little and let him see me plainly, at which he would show
such delight that he seemed as if he were going mad. Meanwhile the
time for my father's departure arrived, which he became aware of,
but not from me, for I had never been able to tell him of it. He
fell sick, of grief I believe, and so the day we were going away I
could not see him to take farewell of him, were it only with the eyes.
But after we had been two days on the road, on entering the posada
of a village a day's journey from this, I saw him at the inn door in
the dress of a muleteer, and so well disguised, that if I did not
carry his image graven on my heart it would have been impossible for
me to recognise him. But I knew him, and I was surprised, and glad; he
watched me, unsuspected by my father, from whom he always hides
himself when he crosses my path on the road, or in the posadas where
we halt; and, as I know what he is, and reflect that for love of me he
makes this journey on foot in all this hardship, I am ready to die
of sorrow; and where he sets foot there I set my eyes. I know not with
what object he has come; or how he could have got away from his

father, who loves him beyond measure, having no other heir, and
because he deserves it, as you will perceive when you see him. And
moreover, I can tell you, all that he sings is out of his own head;
for I have heard them say he is a great scholar and poet; and what is
more, every time I see him or hear him sing I tremble all over, and am
terrified lest my father should recognise him and come to know of our
loves. I have never spoken a word to him in my life; and for all that
I love him so that I could not live without him. This, dear senora, is
all I have to tell you about the musician whose voice has delighted
you so much; and from it alone you might easily perceive he is no
muleteer, but a lord of hearts and towns, as I told you already.

Say no more, Dona Clara,said Dorothea at thisat the same time
kissing her a thousand times oversay no more, I tell you, but
wait till day comes; when I trust in God to arrange this affair of
yours so that it may have the happy ending such an innocent
beginning deserves.

Ah, senora,said Dona Clarawhat end can be hoped for when his
father is of such lofty position, and so wealthy, that he would
think I was not fit to be even a servant to his son, much less wife?
And as to marrying without the knowledge of my father, I would not
do it for all the world. I would not ask anything more than that
this youth should go back and leave me; perhaps with not seeing him,
and the long distance we shall have to travel, the pain I suffer now
may become easier; though I daresay the remedy I propose will do me
very little good. I don't know how the devil this has come about, or
how this love I have for him got in; I such a young girl, and he
such a mere boy; for I verily believe we are both of an age, and I
am not sixteen yet; for I will be sixteen Michaelmas Day, next, my
father says.

Dorothea could not help laughing to hear how like a child Dona Clara
spoke. "Let us go to sleep nowsenora said she, for the little
of the night that I fancy is left to us: God will soon send us
daylightand we will set all to rightsor it will go hard with me."

With this they fell asleepand deep silence reigned all through the
inn. The only persons not asleep were the landlady's daughter and
her servant Maritorneswhoknowing the weak point of Don Quixote's
humourand that he was outside the inn mounting guard in armour and
on horsebackresolvedthe pair of themto play some trick upon him
or at any rate to amuse themselves for a while by listening to his
nonsense. As it so happened there was not a window in the whole inn
that looked outwards except a hole in the wall of a straw-loft through
which they used to throw out the straw. At this hole the two
demi-damsels posted themselvesand observed Don Quixote on his horse
leaning on his pike and from time to time sending forth such deep
and doleful sighsthat he seemed to pluck up his soul by the roots
with each of them; and they could hear himtoosaying in a soft
tenderloving toneOh my lady Dulcinea del Toboso, perfection of
all beauty, summit and crown of discretion, treasure house of grace,
depositary of virtue, and finally, ideal of all that is good,
honourable, and delectable in this world! What is thy grace doing now?
Art thou, perchance, mindful of thy enslaved knight who of his own
free will hath exposed himself to so great perils, and all to serve
thee? Give me tidings of her, oh luminary of the three faces!
Perhaps at this moment, envious of hers, thou art regarding her,
either as she paces to and fro some gallery of her sumptuous
palaces, or leans over some balcony, meditating how, whilst preserving
her purity and greatness, she may mitigate the tortures this
wretched heart of mine endures for her sake, what glory should
recompense my sufferings, what repose my toil, and lastly what death
my life, and what reward my services? And thou, oh sun, that art now

doubtless harnessing thy steeds in haste to rise betimes and come
forth to see my lady; when thou seest her I entreat of thee to
salute her on my behalf: but have a care, when thou shalt see her
and salute her, that thou kiss not her face; for I shall be more
jealous of thee than thou wert of that light-footed ingrate that
made thee sweat and run so on the plains of Thessaly, or on the
banks of the Peneus (for I do