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A Scandal in Bohemia
The Red-headed League
A Case of Identity
The Boscombe Valley Mystery
The Five Orange Pips
The Man with the Twisted Lip
The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle
The Adventure of the Speckled Band
The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb
The Adventure of the Noble Bachelor
The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet
The Adventure of the Copper Beeches


To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard
him mention her under any other name. In his eyes she eclipses
and predominates the whole of her sex. It was not that he felt
any emotion akin to love for Irene Adler. All emotionsand that
one particularlywere abhorrent to his coldprecise but
admirably balanced mind. He wasI take itthe most perfect
reasoning and observing machine that the world has seenbut as a
lover he would have placed himself in a false position. He never
spoke of the softer passionssave with a gibe and a sneer. They
were admirable things for the observer--excellent for drawing the
veil from men's motives and actions. But for the trained teasoner
to admit such intrusions into his own delicate and finely
adjusted temperament was to introduce a distracting factor which
might throw a doubt upon all his mental results. Grit in a
sensitive instrumentor a crack in one of his own high-power
lenseswould not be more disturbing than a strong emotion in a
nature such as his. And yet there was but one woman to himand
that woman was the late Irene Adlerof dubious and questionable

I had seen little of Holmes lately. My marriage had drifted us
away from each other. My own complete happinessand the
home-centred interests which rise up around the man who first
finds himself master of his own establishmentwere sufficient to
absorb all my attentionwhile Holmeswho loathed every form of
society with his whole Bohemian soulremained in our lodgings in
Baker Streetburied among his old booksand alternating from
week to week between cocaine and ambitionthe drowsiness of the
drugand the fierce energy of his own keen nature. He was still
as everdeeply attracted by the study of crimeand occupied his
immense faculties and extraordinary powers of observation in
following out those clewsand clearing up those mysteries which

had been abandoned as hopeless by the official police. From time
to time I heard some vague account of his doings: of his summons
to Odessa in the case of the Trepoff murderof his clearing up
of the singular tragedy of the Atkinson brothers at Trincomalee
and finally of the mission which he had accomplished so
delicately and successfully for the reigning family of Holland.
Beyond these signs of his activityhoweverwhich I merely
shared with all the readers of the daily pressI knew little of
my former friend and companion.

One night--it was on the twentieth of March1888--I was
returning from a journey to a patient (for I had now returned to
civil practice)when my way led me through Baker Street. As I
passed the well-remembered doorwhich must always be associated
in my mind with my wooingand with the dark incidents of the
Study in ScarletI was seized with a keen desire to see Holmes
againand to know how he was employing his extraordinary powers.
His rooms were brilliantly litandeven as I looked upI saw
his tallspare figure pass twice in a dark silhouette against
the blind. He was pacing the room swiftlyeagerlywith his head
sunk upon his chest and his hands clasped behind him. To mewho
knew his every mood and habithis attitude and manner told their
own story. He was at work again. He had risen out of his
drug-created dreams and was hot upon the scent of some new
problem. I rang the bell and was shown up to the chamber which
had formerly been in part my own.

His manner was not effusive. It seldom was; but he was gladI
thinkto see me. With hardly a word spokenbut with a kindly
eyehe waved me to an armchairthrew across his case of cigars
and indicated a spirit case and a gasogene in the corner. Then he
stood before the fire and looked me over in his singular
introspective fashion.

Wedlock suits you,he remarked. "I thinkWatsonthat you have
put on seven and a half pounds since I saw you."

Seven!I answered.

Indeed, I should have thought a little more. Just a trifle more,
I fancy, Watson. And in practice again, I observe. You did not
tell me that you intended to go into harness.

Then, how do you know?

I see it, I deduce it. How do I know that you have been getting
yourself very wet lately, and that you have a most clumsy and
careless servant girl?

My dear Holmes,said Ithis is too much. You would certainly
have been burned, had you lived a few centuries ago. It is true
that I had a country walk on Thursday and came home in a dreadful
mess, but as I have changed my clothes I can't imagine how you
deduce it. As to Mary Jane, she is incorrigible, and my wife has
given her notice, but there, again, I fail to see how you work it

He chuckled to himself and rubbed his longnervous hands

It is simplicity itself,said he; "my eyes tell me that on the
inside of your left shoejust where the firelight strikes it
the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts. Obviously they
have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scraped round

the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it.
Henceyou seemy double deduction that you had been out in vile
weatherand that you had a particularly malignant boot-slitting
specimen of the London slavey. As to your practiceif a
gentleman walks into my rooms smelling of iodoformwith a black
mark of nitrate of silver upon his right forefingerand a bulge
on the right side of his top-hat to show where he has secreted
his stethoscopeI must be dullindeedif I do not pronounce
him to be an active member of the medical profession."

I could not help laughing at the ease with which he explained his
process of deduction. "When I hear you give your reasons I
remarked, the thing always appears to me to be so ridiculously
simple that I could easily do it myselfthough at each
successive instance of your reasoning I am baffled until you
explain your process. And yet I believe that my eyes are as good
as yours."

Quite so,he answeredlighting a cigaretteand throwing
himself down into an armchair. "You seebut you do not observe.
The distinction is clear. For exampleyou have frequently seen
the steps which lead up from the hall to this room."


How often?

Well, some hundreds of times.

Then how many are there?

How many? I don't know.

Quite so! You have not observed. And yet you have seen. That is
just my point. Now, I know that there are seventeen steps,
because I have both seen and observed. By-the-way, since you are
interested in these little problems, and since you are good
enough to chronicle one or two of my trifling experiences, you
may be interested in this.He threw over a sheet of thick
pink-tinted note-paper which had been lying open upon the table.
It came by the last post,said he. "Read it aloud."

The note was undatedand without either signature or address.

There will call upon you to-night, at a quarter to eight
o'clock,it saida gentleman who desires to consult you upon a
matter of the very deepest moment. Your recent services to one of
the royal houses of Europe have shown that you are one who may
safely be trusted with matters which are of an importance which
can hardly be exaggerated. This account of you we have from all
quarters received. Be in your chamber then at that hour, and do
not take it amiss if your visitor wear a mask.

This is indeed a mystery I remarked. What do you imagine that
it means?"

I have no data yet. It is a capital mistake to theorize before
one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit
theories, instead of theories to suit facts. But the note itself.
What do you deduce from it?

I carefully examined the writingand the paper upon which it was

The man who wrote it was presumably well to do,I remarked
endeavoring to imitate my companion's processes. "Such paper
could not be bought under half a crown a packet. It is peculiarly
strong and stiff."

Peculiar--that is the very word,said Holmes. "It is not an
English paper at all. Hold it up to the light."

I did soand saw a large "E" with a small "g a P and a
large G" with a small "t" woven into the texture of the paper.

What do you make of that?asked Holmes.

The name of the maker, no doubt; or his monogram, rather.

Not at all. The 'G' with the small 't' stands for
'Gesellschaft,' which is the German for 'Company.' It is a
customary contraction like our 'Co.' 'P,' of course, stands for
'Papier.' Now for the 'Eg.' Let us glance at our Continental
Gazetteer.He took down a heavy brown volume from his shelves.
Eglow, Eglonitz--here we are, Egria. It is in a German-speaking
country--in Bohemia, not far from Carlsbad. 'Remarkable as being
the scene of the death of Wallenstein, and for its numerous
glass-factories and paper-mills.' Ha, ha, my boy, what do you
make of that?His eyes sparkledand he sent up a great blue
triumphant cloud from his cigarette.

The paper was made in Bohemia,I said.

Precisely. And the man who wrote the note is a German. Do you
note the peculiar construction of the sentence--'This account of
you we have from all quarters received.' A Frenchman or Russian
could not have written that. It is the German who is so
uncourteous to his verbs. It only remains, therefore, to discover
what is wanted by this German who writes upon Bohemian paper and
prefers wearing a mask to showing his face. And here he comes, if
I am not mistaken, to resolve all our doubts.

As he spoke there was the sharp sound of horses' hoofs and
grating wheels against the curbfollowed by a sharp pull at the
bell. Holmes whistled.

A pair, by the sound,said he. "Yes he continued, glancing
out of the window. A nice little brougham and a pair of
beauties. A hundred and fifty guineas apiece. There's money in
this caseWatsonif there is nothing else."

I think that I had better go, Holmes.

Not a bit, Doctor. Stay where you are. I am lost without my
Boswell. And this promises to be interesting. It would be a pity
to miss it.

But your client--

Never mind him. I may want your help, and so may he. Here he
comes. Sit down in that armchair, Doctor, and give us your best

A slow and heavy stepwhich had been heard upon the stairs and
in the passagepaused immediately outside the door. Then there
was a loud and authoritative tap.

Come in!said Holmes.

A man entered who could hardly have been less than six feet six
inches in heightwith the chest and limbs of a Hercules. His
dress was rich with a richness which wouldin Englandbe looked
upon as akin to bad taste. Heavy bands of astrakhan were slashed
across the sleeves and fronts of his double-breasted coatwhile
the deep blue cloak which was thrown over his shoulders was lined
with flame-colored silk and secured at the neck with a brooch
which consisted of a single flaming beryl. Boots which extended
halfway up his calvesand which were trimmed at the tops with
rich brown furcompleted the impression of barbaric opulence
which was suggested by his whole appearance. He carried a
broad-brimmed hat in his handwhile he wore across the upper
part of his faceextending down past the cheekbonesa black
vizard maskwhich he had apparently adjusted that very moment
for his hand was still raised to it as he entered. From the lower
part of the face he appeared to be a man of strong character
with a thickhanging lipand a longstraight chin suggestive
of resolution pushed to the length of obstinacy.

You had my note?he asked with a deep harsh voice and a
strongly marked German accent. "I told you that I would call." He
looked from one to the other of usas if uncertain which to

Pray take a seat,said Holmes. "This is my friend and
colleagueDr. Watsonwho is occasionally good enough to help me
in my cases. Whom have I the honor to address?"

You may address me as the Count Von Kramm, a Bohemian nobleman.
I understand that this gentleman, your friend, is a man of honor
and discretion, whom I may trust with a matter of the most
extreme importance. If not, I should much prefer to communicate
with you alone.

I rose to gobut Holmes caught me by the wrist and pushed me
back into my chair. "It is bothor none said he. You may say
before this gentleman anything which you may say to me."

The Count shrugged his broad shoulders. "Then I must begin said
he, by binding you both to absolute secrecy for two years; at
the end of that time the matter will be of no importance. At
present it is not too much to say that it is of such weight it
may have an influence upon European history."

I promise,said Holmes.

And I.

You will excuse this mask,continued our strange visitor. "The
august person who employs me wishes his agent to be unknown to
youand I may confess at once that the title by which I have
just called myself is not exactly my own."

I was aware of it,said Holmes drily.

The circumstances are of great delicacy, and every precaution
has to be taken to quench what might grow to be an immense
scandal and seriously compromise one of the reigning families of
Europe. To speak plainly, the matter implicates the great House
of Ormstein, hereditary kings of Bohemia.

I was also aware of that,murmured Holmessettling himself
down in his armchair and closing his eyes.

Our visitor glanced with some apparent surprise at the languid
lounging figure of the man who had been no doubt depicted to him
as the most incisive reasoner and most energetic agent in Europe.
Holmes slowly reopened his eyes and looked impatiently at his
gigantic client.

If your Majesty would condescend to state your case,he
remarkedI should be better able to advise you.

The man sprang from his chair and paced up and down the room in
uncontrollable agitation. Thenwith a gesture of desperationhe
tore the mask from his face and hurled it upon the ground. "You
are right he cried; I am the King. Why should I attempt to
conceal it?"

Why, indeed?murmured Holmes. "Your Majesty had not spoken
before I was aware that I was addressing Wilhelm Gottsreich
Sigismond von OrmsteinGrand Duke of Cassel-Felsteinand
hereditary King of Bohemia."

But you can understand,said our strange visitorsitting down
once more and passing his hand over his high white foreheadyou
can understand that I am not accustomed to doing such business in
my own person. Yet the matter was so delicate that I could not
confide it to an agent without putting myself in his power. I
have come incognito from Prague for the purpose of consulting

Then, pray consult,said Holmesshutting his eyes once more.

The facts are briefly these: Some five years ago, during a
lengthy visit to Warsaw, I made the acquaintance of the wellknown
adventuress, Irene Adler. The name is no doubt farmiliar to you.

Kindly look her up in my index, Doctor,murmured Holmes without
opening his eyes. For many years he had adopted a system of
docketing all paragraphs concerning men and thingsso that it
was difficult to name a subject or a person on which he could not
at once furnish information. In this case I found her biography
sandwiched in between that of a Hebrew rabbi and that of a
staff-commander who had written a monograph upon the deep-sea

Let me see!said Holmes. "Hum! Born in New Jersey in the year
1858. Contralto--hum! La Scalahum! Prima donna Imperial Opera
of Warsaw--yes! Retired from operatic stage--ha! Living in
London--quite so! Your Majestyas I understandbecame entangled
with this young personwrote her some compromising lettersand
is now desirous of getting those letters back."

Precisely so. But how--

Was there a secret marriage?


No legal papers or certificates?


Then I fail to follow your Majesty. If this young person should
produce her letters for blackmailing or other purposes, how is
she to prove their authenticity?

There is the writing.
Pooh, pooh! Forgery.

My private note-paper.

My own seal.

My photograph.

We were both in the photograph.

Oh, dear! That is very bad! Your Majesty has indeed committed an
I was mad--insane.

You have compromised yourself seriously.
I was only Crown Prince then. I was young. I am but thirty now.

It must be recovered.
We have tried and failed.

Your Majesty must pay. It must be bought.
She will not sell.

Stolen, then.

Five attempts have been made. Twice burglars in my pay ransacked
her house. Once we diverted her luggage when she travelled. Twice
she has been waylaid. There has been no result.

No sign of it?

Absolutely none.
Holmes laughed. "It is quite a pretty little problem said he.

But a very serious one to me returned the King reproachfully.

Veryindeed. And what does she propose to do with the

To ruin me.
But how?

I am about to be married.
So I have heard.

To Clotilde Lothman von Saxe-Meningen, second daughter of the
King of Scandinavia. You may know the stnct principles of her
family. She is herself the very soul of delicacy. A shadow of a

doubt as to my conduct would bring the matter to an end.

And Irene Adler?

Threatens to send them the photograph. And she will do it. I
know that she will do it. You do not know her, but she has a soul
of steel. She has the face of the most beautiful of women, and
the mind of the most resolute of men. Rather than I should marry
another woman, there are no lengths to which she would not

You are sure that she has not sent it yet?

I am sure.

And why?

Because she has said that she would send it on the day when the
betrothal was publicly proclaimed. That will be next Monday.

Oh, then we have three days yet,said Holmes with a yawn. "That
is very fortunateas I have one or two matters of importance to
look into just at present. Your Majesty willof coursestay in
London for the present?"

Certainly. You will find me at the Langham under the name of the
Count Von Kramm.

Then I shall drop you a line to let you know how we progress.

Pray do so. I shall be all anxiety.

Then, as to money?

You have carte blanche.


I tell you that I would give one of the provinces of my kingdom
to have that photograph.

And for present expenses?

The King took a heavy chamois leather bag from under his cloak
and laid it on the table.

There are three hundred pounds in gold and seven hundred in
notes,he said.

Holmes scribbled a receipt upon a sheet of his note-book and
handed it to him.

And Mademoiselle's address?he asked.

Is Briony Lodge, Serpentine Avenue, St. John's Wood.

Holmes took a note of it. "One other question said he. Was the
photograph a cabinet?"

It was.

Then, good-night, your Majesty, and I trust that we shall soon
have some good news for you. And good-night, Watson,he added
as the wheels of the royal brougham rolled down the street. "If

you wlll be good enough to call to-morrow afternoon at three
o'clock I should like to chat this little matter over with you."

At three o'clock precisely I was at Baker Streetbut Holmes had
not yet returned. The landlady informed me that he had left the
house shortly after eight o'clock in the morning. I sat down
beside the firehoweverwith the intention of awaiting him
however long he might be. I was already deeply interested in his
inquiryforthough it was surrounded by none of the grim and
strange features which were associated with the two crimes which
I have already recordedstillthe nature of the case and the
exalted station of his client gave it a character of its own.
Indeedapart from the nature of the investigation which my
friend had on handthere was something in his masterly grasp of
a situationand his keenincisive reasoningwhich made it a
pleasure to me to study his system of workand to follow the
quicksubtle methods by which he disentangled the most
inextricable mysteries. So accustomed was I to his invariable
success that the very possibility of his failing had ceased to
enter into my head.

It was close upon four before the door openedand a
drunkenlooking groomill-kempt and side-whiskeredwith an
inflamed face and disreputable clotheswalked into the room.
Accustomed as I was to my friend's amazing powers in the use of
disguisesI had to look three times before I was certain that it
was indeed he. With a nod he vanished into the bedroomwhence he
emerged in five minutes tweed-suited and respectableas of old.
Putting his hands into his pocketshe stretched out his legs in
front of the fire and laughed heartily for some minutes.

Well, really!he criedand then he choked and laughed again
until he was obliged to lie backlimp and helplessin the

What is it?

It's quite too funny. I am sure you could never guess how I
employed my morning, or what I ended by doing.

I can't imagine. I suppose that you have been watching the
habits, and perhaps the house, of Miss Irene Adler.

Quite so; but the sequel was rather unusual. I will tell you,
however. I left the house a little after eight o'clock this
morning in the character of a groom out of work. There is a
wonderful sympathy and freemasonry among horsy men. Be one of
them, and you will know all that there is to know. I soon found
Briony Lodge. It is a bijou villa, with a garden at the back. but
built out in front right up to the road, two stories. Chubb lock
to the door. Large sitting-room on the right side, well
furnished, with long windows almost to the floor, and those
preposterous English window fasteners which a child could open.
Behind there was nothing remarkable, save that the passage window
could be reached from the top of the coach-house. I walked round
it and examined it closely from every point of view, but without
noting anything else of interest.

I then lounged down the street and foundas I expectedthat
there was a mews in a lane which runs down by one wall of the
garden. I lent the ostlers a hand in rubbing down their horses

and received in exchange twopencea glass of half and halftwo
fills of shag tobaccoand as much information as I could desire
about Miss Adlerto say nothing of half a dozen other people in
the neighborhood in whom I was not in the least interestedbut
whose biographies I was compelled to listen to."

And what of Irene Adler?I asked.

Oh, she has turned all the men's heads down in that part. She is
the daintiest thing under a bonnet on this planet. So say the
Serpentine-mews, to a man. She lives quietly, sings at concerts,
drives out at five every day, and returns at seven sharp for
dinner. Seldom goes out at other times, except when she sings.
Has only one male visitor, but a good deal of him. He is dark,
handsome, and dashing, never calls less than once a day, and
often twice. He is a Mr. Godfrey Norton, of the Inner Temple. See
the advantages of a cabman as a confidant. They had driven him
home a dozen times from Serpentine-mews, and knew all about him.
When I had listened to all they had to tell, I began to walk up
and down near Briony Lodge once more, and to think over my plan
of campaign.

This Godfrey Norton was evidently an important factor in the
matter. He was a lawyer. That sounded ominous. What was the
relation between themand what the object of his repeated
visits? Was she his clienthis friendor his mistress? If the
formershe had probably transferred the photograph to his
keeping. If the latterit was less likely. On the issue of this
question depended whether I should continue my work at Briony
Lodgeor turn my attention to the gentleman's chambers in the
Temple. It was a delicate point. and it widened the field of my
inquiry. I fear that I bore you with these detailsbut I have to
let you see my little difficultiesif you are to understand the

I am following you closely,I answered.

I was still balancing the matter in my mind when a hansom cab
drove up to Briony Lodge, and a gentleman sprang out. He was a
remarkably handsome man, dark, aquiline, and moustached-evidently
the man of whom I had heard. He appeared to be in a
great hurry, shouted to the cabman to wait, and brushed past the
maid who opened the door with the air of a man who was thoroughly
at home.

He was in the house about half an hourand I could catch
glimpses of him in the windows of the sitting-roompacing up and
downtalking excitedlyand waving his arms. Of her I could see
nothing. Presently he emergedlooking even more flurried than
before. As he stepped up to the cabhe pulled a gold watch from
his pocket and looked at it earnestly'Drive like the devil' he
shouted'first to Gross & Hankey's in Regent Streetand then to
the Church of St. Monica in the Edgeware Road. Half a guinea if
you do it in twenty minutes!'

Away they went, and I was just wondering whether I should not do
well to follow them when up the lane came a neat little landau,
the coachman with his coat only half-buttoned, and his tie under
his ear, while all the tags of his harness were sticking out of
the buckles. It hadn't pulled up before she shot out of the hall
door and into it. I only caught a glimpse of her at the moment,
but she was a lovely woman, with a face that a man might die for.

'The Church of St. MonicaJohn' she cried'and half a

sovereign if you reach it in twenty minutes.'

This was quite too good to lose, Watson. I was just balancing
whether I should run for it, or whether I should perch behind her
landau when a cab came through the street. The driver looked
twice at such a shabby fare, but I jumped in before he could
object. 'The Church of St. Monica,' said I, 'and half a sovereign
if you reach it in twenty minutes.' It was twenty-five minutes to
twelve, and of course it was clear enough what was in the wind.

My cabby drove fast. I don't think I ever drove fasterbut the
others were there before us. The cab and the landau with their
steaming horses were in front of the door when I arrived. I paid
the man and hurried into the church. There was not a soul there
save the two whom I had followed and a surpliced clergymanwho
seemed to be expostulating with them. They were all three
standing in a knot in front of the altar. I lounged up the side
aisle like any other idler who has dropped into a church.
Suddenlyto my surprisethe three at the altar faced round to
meand Godfrey Norton came running as hard as he could towards

Thank God,he cried. "You'll do. Come! Come!"

What then?I asked.

Come, man, come, only three minutes, or it won't be legal.

I was half-dragged up to the altarand before I knew where I was
I found myself mumbling responses which were whispered in my ear.
and vouching for things of which I knew nothingand generally
assisting in the secure tying up of Irene Adlerspinsterto
Godfrey Nortonbachelor. It was all done in an instantand
there was the gentleman thanking me on the one side and the lady
on the otherwhile the clergyman beamed on me in front. It was
the most preposterous position in which I ever found myself in my
lifeand it was the thought of it that started me laughing just
now. It seems that there had been some informality about their
licensethat the clergyman absolutely refused to marry them
without a witness of some sortand that my lucky appearance
saved the bridegroom from having to sally out into the streets in
search of a best man. The bride gave me a sovereignand I mean
to wear it on my watch-chain in memory of the occasion."

This is a very unexpected turn of affairs,said I; "and what

Well, I found my plans very seriously menaced. It looked as if
the pair might take an immediate departure, and so necessitate
very prompt and energetic measures on my part. At the church
door, however, they separated, he driving back to the Temple, and
she to her own house. 'I shall drive out in the park at five as
usual,' she said as she left him. I heard no more. They drove
away in different directions, and I went off to make my own

Which are?

Some cold beef and a glass of beer,he answeredringing the
bell. "I have been too busy to think of foodand I am likely to
be busier still this evening. By the wayDoctorI shall want
your cooperation."

I shall be delighted.

You don't mind breaking the law?

Not in the least.

Nor running a chance of arrest?

Not in a good cause.

Oh, the cause is excellent!

Then I am your man.

I was sure that I might rely on you.

But what is it you wish?

When Mrs. Turner has brought in the tray I will make it clear to
you. Now,he said as he turned hungrily on the simple fare that
our landlady had providedI must discuss it while I eat, for I
have not much time. It is nearly five now. In two hours we must
be on the scene of action. Miss Irene, or Madame, rather, returns
from her drive at seven. We must be at Briony Lodge to meet her.

And what then?

You must leave that to me. I have already arranged what is to
occur. There is only one point on which I must insist. You must
not interfere, come what may. You understand?

I am to be neutral?

To do nothing whatever. There will probably be some small
unpleasantness. Do not join in it. It will end in my being
conveyed into the house. Four or five minutes afterwards the
sitting-room window will open. You are to station yourself close
to that open window.


You are to watch me, for I will be visible to you.


And when I raise my hand--so--you will throw into the room what
I give you to throw, and will, at the same time, raise the cry of
fire. You quite follow me?


It is nothing very formidable,he saidtaking a long cigarshaped
roll from his pocket. "It is an ordinary plumber's smokerocket
fitted with a cap at either end to make it self-lighting.
Your task is confined to that. When you raise your cry of fire
it will be taken up by quite a number of people. You may then
walk to the end of the streetand I will rejoin you in ten
minutes. I hope that I have made myself clear?"

I am to remain neutral, to get near the window, to watch you,
and at the signal to throw in this object, then to raise the cry
of fire, and to wait you at the corner of the street.


Then you may entirely rely on me.

That is excellent. I think, perhaps, it is almost time that I
prepare for the new role I have to play.

He disappeared into his bedroom and returned in a few minutes in
the character of an amiable and simple-minded Nonconformist
clergyman. His broad black hathis baggy trousers. his white
tiehis sympathetic smileand general look of peering and
benevolent curiosity were such as Mr. John Hare alone could have
equalled. It was not merely that Holmes changed his costume. His
expressionhis mannerhis very soul seemed to vary with every
fresh part that he assumed. The stage lost a fine actoreven as
science lost an acute reasonerwhen he became a specialist in

It was a quarter past six when we left Baker Streetand it still
wanted ten minutes to the hour when we found ourselves in
Serpentine Avenue. It was already duskand the lamps were just
being lighted as we paced up and down in front of Briony Lodge
waiting for the coming of its occupant. The house was just such
as I had pictured it from Sherlock Holmes's succinct description
but the locality appeared to be less private than I expected. On
the contraryfor a small street in a quiet neighborhoodit was
remarkably animated. There was a group of shabbily dressed men
smoking and laughing in a cornera scissors-grinder with his
wheeltwo guardsmen who were flirting with a nurse-girland
several well-dressed young men who were lounging up and down with
cigars in their mouths.

You see,remarked Holmesas we paced to and fro in front of
the housethis marriage rather simplifies matters. The
photograph becomes a double-edged weapon now. The chances are
that she would be as averse to its being seen by Mr. Godfrey
Norton, as our client is to its coming to the eyes of his
princess. Now the question is, Where are we to find the

Where, indeed?

It is most unlikely that she carries it about with her. It is
cabinet size. Too large for easy concealment about a woman's
dress. She knows that the King is capable of having her waylaid
and searched. Two attempts of the sort have already been made. We
may take it, then, that she does not carry it about with her.

Where, then?

Her banker or her lawyer. There is that double possibility. But
I am inclined to think neither. Women are naturally secretive,
and they like to do their own secreting. Why should she hand it
over to anyone else? She could trust her own guardianship, but
she could not tell what indirect or political influence might be
brought to bear upon a business man. Besides, remember that she
had resolved to use it within a few days. It must be where she
can lay her hands upon it. It must be in her own house.

But it has twice been burgled.

Pshaw! They did not know how to look.

But how will you look?

I will not look.

What then?

I will get her to show me.

But she will refuse.

She will not be able to. But I hear the rumble of wheels. It is
hcr carriage. Now carry out my orders to the letter.

As he spoke the gleam of the side-lights of a carriage came round
the curve of the avenue. It was a smart little landau which
rattled up to the door of Briony Lodge. As it pulled upone of
the loafing men at the corner dashed forward to open the door in
the hope of earning a copperbut was elbowed away by another
loaferwho had rushed up with the same intention. A fierce
quarrel broke outwhich was increased by the two guardsmenwho
took sides with one of the loungersand by the scissorsgrinder
who was equally hot upon the other side. A blow was struckand
in an instant the ladywho had stepped from her carriagewas
the centre of a little knot of flushed and struggling menwho
struck savagely at each other with their fists and sticks. Holmes
dashed into the crowd to protect the lady; but just as he reached
her he gave a cry and dropped to the groundwith the blood
running freely down his face. At his fall the guardsmen took to
their heels in one direction and the loungers in the otherwhile
a number of better-dressed peoplewho had watched the scuffle
without taking part in itcrowded in to help the lady and to
attend to the injured man. Irene Adleras I will still call her
had hurried up the steps; but she stood at the top with her
superb figure outlined against the lights of the halllooking
back into the street.

Is the poor gentleman much hurt?she asked.

He is dead,cried several voices.

No, no, there's life in him!shouted another. "But he'll be
gone before you can get him to hospital."

He's a brave fellow,said a woman. "They would have had the
lady's purse and watch if it hadn't been for him. They were a
gangand a rough onetoo. Ahhe's breathing now."

He can't lie in the street. May we bring him in, marm?

Surely. Bring him into the sitting-room. There is a comfortable
sofa. This way, please!

Slowly and solemnly he was borne into Briony Lodge and laid out
in the principal roomwhile I still observed the proceedings
from my post by the window. The lamps had been litbut the
blinds had not been drawnso that I could see Holmes as he lay
upon the couch. I do not know whether he was seized with
compunction at that moment for the part he was playingbut I
know that I never felt more heartily ashamed of myself in my life
than when I saw the beautiful creature against whom I was
conspiringor the grace and kindliness with which she waited
upon the injured man. And yet it would be the blackest treachery
to Holmes to draw back now from the part which he had intrusted
to me. I hardened my heartand took the smoke-rocket from under
my ulster. After allI thoughtwe are not injuring her. We are
but preventing her from injuring another.

Holmes had sat up upon the couchand I saw him motion like a man
who is in need of air. A maid rushed across and threw open the
window. At the same instant I saw him raise his hand and at the
signal I tossed my rocket into the room with a cry of "Fire!" The
word was no sooner out of my mouth than the whole crowd of
spectatorswell dressed and ill--gentlemenostlersand
servant-maids--joined in a general shriek of "Fire!" Thick clouds
of smoke curled through the room and out at the open window. I
caught a glimpse of rushing figuresand a moment later the voice
of Holmes from within assuring them that it was a false alarm.
Slipping through the shouting crowd I made my way to the corner
of the streetand in ten minutes was rejoiced to find my
friend's arm in mineand to get away from the scene of uproar.
He walked swiftly and in silence for some few minutes until we
had turned down one of the quiet streets which lead towards the
Edgeware Road.

You did it very nicely, Doctor,he remarked. "Nothing could
have been better. It is all right."

You have the photograph?

I know where it is.

And how did you find out?

She showed me, as I told you she would.

I am still in the dark.

I do not wish to make a mystery,said helaughing. "The matter
was perfectly simple. Youof coursesaw that everyone in the
street was an accomplice. They were all engaged for the evening."

I guessed as much.

Then, when the row broke out, I had a little moist red paint in
the palm of my hand. I rushed forward, fell down. clapped my hand
to my face, and became a piteous spectacle. It is an old trick.

That also I could fathom.

Then they carried me in. She was bound to have me in. What else
could she do? And into her sitting-room. which was the very room
which I suspected. It lay between that and her bedroom, and I was
determined to see which. They laid me on a couch, I motioned for
air, they were compelled to open the window. and you had your

How did that help you?

It was all-important. When a woman thinks that her house is on
fire, her instinct is at once to rush to the thing which she
values most. It is a perfectly overpowering impulse, and I have
more than once taken advantage of it. In the case of the
Darlington substitution scandal it was of use to me, and also in
the Arnsworth Castle business. A married woman grabs at her baby;
an unmarried one reaches for her jewel-box. Now it was clear to
me that our lady of to-day had nothing in the house more precious
to her than what we are in quest of. She would rush to secure it.
The alarm of fire was admirably done. The smoke and shouting were
enough to shake nerves of steel. She responded beautifully. The
photograph is in a recess behind a sliding panel just above the
right bell-pull. She was there in an instant, and I caught a

glimpse of it as she half-drew it out. When I cried out that it
was a false alarm, she replaced it, glanced at the rocket, rushed
from the room, and I have not seen her since. I rose, and, making
my excuses, escaped from the house. I hesitated whether to
attempt to secure the photograph at once; but the coachman had
come in, and as he was watching me narrowly it seemed safer to
wait. A little over-precipitance may ruin all.

And now?I asked.

Our quest is practically finished. I shall call with the King
to-morrow, and with you, if you care to come with us. We will be
shown into the sitting-room to wait for the lady; but it is
probable that when she comes she may find neither us nor the
photograph. It might be a satisfaction to his Majesty to regain
it with his own hands.

And when will you call?

At eight in the morning. She will not be up, so that we shall
have a clear field. Besides, we must be prompt, for this marriage
may mean a complete change in her life and habits. I must wire to
the King without delay.

We had reached Baker Street and had stopped at the door. He was
searching his pockets for the key when someone passing said:

Good-night, Mister Sherlock Holmes.

There were several people on the pavement at the timebut the
greeting appeared to come from a slim youth in an ulster who had
hurried by.

I've heard that voice before,said Holmesstaring down the
dimly lit street. "NowI wonder who the deuce that could have

I slept at Baker Street that nightand we were engaged upon our
toast and coffee in the morning when the King of Bohemia rushed
into the room.

You have really got it!he criedgrasping Sherlock Holmes by
either shoulder and looking eagerly into his face.

Not yet.

But you have hopes?

I have hopes.

Then, come. I am all impatience to be gone.

We must have a cab.

No, my brougham is waiting.

Then that will simplify matters.We descended and started off
once more for Briony Lodge.

Irene Adler is married,remarked Holmes.

Married! When?


But to whom?

To an English lawyer named Norton.

But she could not love him.

I am in hopes that she does.

And why in hopes?

Because it would spare your Majesty all fear of future
annoyance. If the lady loves her husband, she does not love your
Majesty. If she does not love your Majesty, there is no reason
why she should interfere with your Majesty's plan.

It is true. And yet--Well! I wish she had been of my own
station! What a queen she would have made!He relapsed into a
moody silencewhich was not broken until we drew up in
Serpentine Avenue.

The door of Briony Lodge was openand an elderly woman stood
upon the steps. She watched us with a sardonic eye as we stepped
from the brougham.

Mr. Sherlock Holmes, I believe?said she.

I am Mr. Holmes,answered my companionlooking at her with a
questioning and rather startled gaze.

Indeed! My mistress told me that you were likely to call. She
left this morning with her husband by the 5:15 train from Charing
Cross for the Continent.

What!Sherlock Holmes staggered backwhite with chagrin and
surprise. "Do you mean that she has left England?"

Never to return.

And the papers?asked the King hoarsely. "All is lost."

We shall see.He pushed past the servant and rushed into the
drawing-roomfollowed by the King and myself. The furniture was
scattered about in every directionwith dismantled shelves and
open drawersas if the lady had hurriedly ransacked them before
her flight. Holmes rushed at the bell-pulltore back a small
sliding shutterandplunging in his handpulled out a
photograph and a letter. The photograph was of Irene Adler
herself in evening dressthe letter was superscribed to
Sherlock Holmes, Esq. To be left till called for.My friend
tore it open and we all three read it together. It was dated at
midnight of the preceding night and ran in this way:

MY DEAR MR. SHERLOCK HOLMES--You really did it very well. You
took me in completely. Until after the alarm of fireI had not a
suspicion. But thenwhen I found how I had betrayed myselfI
began to think. I had been warned against you months ago. I had
been told that if the King employed an agent it would certainly
be you. And your address had been given me. Yetwith all this
you made me reveal what you wanted to know. Even after I became
suspiciousI found it hard to think evil of such a dearkind

old clergyman. Butyou knowI have been trained as an actress
myself. Male costume is nothing new to me. I often take advantage
of the freedom which it gives. I sent Johnthe coachmanto
watch youran up stairsgot into my walking-clothesas I call
themand came down just as you departed.

WellI followed you to your doorand so made sure that I was
really an object of interest to the celebrated Mr. Sherlock
Holmes. Then Irather imprudentlywished you good-nightand
started for the Temple to see my husband. We both thought the
best resource was flightwhen pursued by so formidable an
antagonist; so you will find the nest empty when you call
to-morrow. As to the photographyour client may rest in peace. I
love and am loved by a better man than he. The King may do what
he will without hindrance from one whom he has cruelly wronged. I
keep it only to safeguard myselfand to preserve a weapon which
will always secure me from any steps which he might take in the
future. I leave a photograph which he might care to possess; and
I remaindear Mr. Sherlock Holmes

Very truly yours

What a woman--oh, what a woman!cried the King of Bohemiawhen
we had all three read this epistle. "Did I not tell you how quick
and resolute she was? Would she not have made an admirable queen?
Is it not a pity that she was not on my level?"

From what I have seen of the lady she seems indeed to be on a
very different level to your Majesty,said Holmes coldly. "I am
sorry that I have not been able to bring your Majesty's business
to a more successful conclusion."

On the contrary, my dear sir,cried the King; "nothing could be
more successful. I know that her word is inviolate. The
photograph is now as safe as if it were in the fire."

I am glad to hear your Majesty say so.

I am immensely indebted to you. Pray tell me in what way I can
reward you. This ring--He slipped an emerald snake ring from
his finger and held it out upon the palm of his hand.

Your Majesty has something which I should value even more
highly,said Holmes.

You have but to name it.

This photograph!

The King stared at him in amazement.

Irene's photograph!he cried. "Certainlyif you wish it."

I thank your Majesty. Then there is no more to be done in the
matter. I have the honor to wish you a very good-morning.He
bowedandturning away without observing the hand which the
King had stretched out to himhe set off in my company for his

And that was how a great scandal threatened to affect the kingdom
of Bohemiaand how the best plans of Mr. Sherlock Holmes were
beaten by a woman's wit. He used to make merry over the
cleverness of womenbut I have not heard him do it of late. And

when he speaks of Irene Adleror when he refers to her
photographit is always under the honorable title of the woman.


I had called upon my friendMr. Sherlock Holmesone day in the
autumn of last year and found him in deep conversation with a
very stoutflorid-facedelderly gentleman with fiery red hair.
With an apology for my intrusionI was about to withdraw when
Holmes pulled me abruptly into the room and closed the door
behind me.

You could not possibly have come at a better time, my dear
Watson,he said cordially.

I was afraid that you were engaged.

So I am. Very much so.

Then I can wait in the next room.

Not at all. This gentleman, Mr. Wilson, has been my partner and
helper in many of my most successful cases, and I have no
doubt that he will be of the utmost use to me in yours also.

The stout gentleman half rose from his chair and gave a bob of
greetingwith a quick little questioning glance from his small
fat-encircled eyes.

Try the settee,said Holmesrelapsing into his armchair and
putting his fingertips togetheras was his custom when in
judicial moods. "I knowmy dear Watsonthat you share my love
of all that is bizarre and outside the conventions and humdrum
routine of everyday life. You have shown your relish for it by
the enthusiasm which has prompted you to chronicleandif you
will excuse my saying sosomewhat to embellish so many of my own
little adventures."

Your cases have indeed been of the greatest interest to me,I

You will remember that I remarked the other day, just before we
went into the very simple problem presented by Miss Mary
Sutherland, that for strange effects and extraordinary
combinations we must go to life itself, which is always far more
daring than any effort of the imagination.

A proposition which I took the liberty of doubting.

You did, Doctor, but none the less you must come round to my
view, for otherwise I shall keep on piling fact upon fact on you
until your reason breaks down under them and acknowledges me to
be right. Now, Mr. Jabez Wilson here has been good enough to call
upon me this morning, and to begin a narrative which promises to
be one of the most singular which I have listened to for some
time. You have heard me remark that the strangest and most unique
things are very often connected not with the larger but with the
smaller crimes, and occasionally, indeed, where there is room for
doubt whether any positive crime has been committed. As far as I
have heard it is impossible for me to say whether the present
case is an instance of crime or not, but the course of events is
certainly among the most singular that I have ever listened to.

Perhaps, Mr. Wilson, you would have the great kindness to
recommence your narrative. I ask you not merely because my friend
Dr. Watson has not heard the opening part but also because the
peculiar nature of the story makes me anxious to have every
possible detail from your lips. As a rule, when I have heard some
slight indication of the course of events, I am able to guide
myself by the thousands of other similar cases which occur to my
memory. In the present instance I am forced to admit that the
facts are, to the best of my belief, unique.

The portly client puffed out his chest with an appearance of some
little pride and pulled a dirty and wrinkled newspaper from the
inside pocket of his greatcoat. As he glanced down the
advertisement columnwith his head thrust forward and the paper
flattened out upon his kneeI took a good look at the man and
endeavoredafter the fashion of my companionto read the
indications which might be presented by his dress or appearance.

I did not gain very muchhoweverby my inspection. Our visitor
bore every mark of being an average commonplace British
tradesmanobesepompousand slow. He wore rather baggy gray
shepherd's check trousersa not over-clean black frock-coat
unbuttoned in the frontand a drab waistcoat with a heavy brassy
Albert chainand a square pierced bit of metal dangling down as
an ornament. A frayed top-hat and a faded brown overcoat with a
wrinkled velvet collar lay upon a chair beside him. Altogether
look as I wouldthere was nothing remarkable about the man save
his blazing red headand the expression of extreme chagrin and
discontent upon his features.

Sherlock Holmes's quick eye took in my occupationand he shook
his head with a smile as he noticed my questioning glances.
Beyond the obvious facts that he has at some time done manual
labour, that he takes snuff, that he is a Freemason, that he has
been in China, and that he has done a considerable amount of
writing lately, I can deduce nothing else.

Mr. Jabez Wilson started up in his chairwith his forefinger
upon the paperbut his eyes upon my companion.

How, in the name of good-fortune, did you know all that, Mr.
Holmes?he asked. "How did you knowfor examplethat I did
manual labour. It's as true as gospelfor I began as a ship's

Your hands, my dear sir. Your right hand is quite a size larger
than your left. You have worked with it, and the muscles are more

Well, the snuff, then, and the Freemasonry?

I won't insult your intelligence by telling you how I read that,
especially as, rather against the strict rules of your order, you
use an arc-and-compass breastpin.

Ah, of course, I forgot that. But the writing?

What else can be indicated by that right cuff so very shiny for
five inches, and the left one with the smooth patch near the
elbow where you rest it upon the desk?

Well, but China?

The fish that you have tattooed immediately above your right

wrist could only have been done in China. I have made a small
study of tattoo marks and have even contributed to the literature
of the subject. That trick of staining the fishes' scales of a
delicate pink is quite peculiar to China. When, in addition, I
see a Chinese coin hanging from your watch-chain, the matter
becomes even more simple.

Mr. Jabez Wilson laughed heavily. "WellI never!" said he. "I
thought at first that you had done something cleverbut I see
that there was nothing in itafter all."

I begin to think, Watson,said Holmesthat I make a mistake
in explaining. 'Omne ignotum pro magnifico,' you know, and my
poor little reputation, such as it is, will suffer shipwreck if I
am so candid. Can you not find the advertisement, Mr. Wilson?

Yes, I have got it now,he answered with his thick red finger
planted halfway down the column. "Here it is. This is what began
it all. You just read it for yourselfsir."

I took the paper from him and read as follows.

TO THE RED-HEADED LEAGUE: On account of the bequest of the late
Ezekiah Hopkinsof LebanonPennsylvaniaU. S. A.there is now
another vacancy open which entitles a member of the League to a
salary of 4 pounds a week for purely nominal services. All
red-headed men who are sound in body and mind and above the age
of twenty-one yearsare eligible. Appiy in person on Mondayat
eleven o'clockto Duncan Rossat the offices of the League7
Pope's CourtFleet Street.

What on earth does this mean?I ejaculated after I had twice
read over the extraordinary announcement.

Holmes chuckled and wriggled in his chairas was his habit when
in high spirits. "It is a little off the beaten trackisn't it?"
said he. "And nowMr. Wilsonoff you go at scratch and tell us
all about yourselfyour householdand the effect which this
advertisement had upon your fortunes. You will first make a note
Doctorof the paper and the date."

It is The Morning Chronicle of April 27, 1890. Just two months

Very good. Now, Mr. Wilson?

Well, it is just as I have been telling you, Mr. Sherlock
Holmes,said Jabez Wilsonmopping his forehead; "I have a small
pawnbroker's business at Coburg Squarenear the City. It's not a
very large affairand of late years it has not done more than
just give me a living. I used to be able to keep two assistants
but now I only keep one; and I would have a job to pay him but
that he is willing to come for half wages so as to learn the

What is the name of this obliging youth?asked Sherlock Holmes.

His name is Vincent Spaulding, and he's not such a youth,
either. It's hard to say his age. I should not wish a smarter
assistant, Mr. Holmes; and I know very well that he could better
himself and earn twice what I am able to give him. But, after
all, if he is satisfied, why should I put ideas in his head?

Why, indeed? You seem most fortunate in having an employee who

comes under the full market price. It is not a common experience
among employers in this age. I don't know that your assistant is
not as remarkable as your advertisement.

Oh, he has his faults, too,said Mr. Wilson. "Never was such a
fellow for photography. Snapping away with a camera when he ought
to be improving his mindand then diving down into the cellar
like a rabbit into its hole to develop his pictures. That is his
main faultbut on the whole he's a good worker. There's no vice
in him."

He is still with you, I presume?

Yes, sir. He and a girl of fourteen, who does a bit of simple
cooking and keeps the place clean--that's all I have in the
house, for I am a widower and never had any family. We live very
quietly, sir, the three of us; and we keep a roof over our heads
and pay our debts, if we do nothing more.

The first thing that put us out was that advertisement.
Spauldinghe came down into the office just this day eight
weekswith this very paper in his handand he says:

'I wish to the Lord, Mr. Wilson, that I was a red-headed man.'

'Why that?' I asks.

'Why,' says he, 'here's another vacancy on the League of the
Red-headed Men. It's worth quite a little fortune to any man who
gets it, and I understand that there are more vacancies than
there are men, so that the trustees are at their wits' end what
to do with the money. If my hair would only change color, here's
a nice little crib all ready for me to step into.'

'Whywhat is itthen?' I asked. You see. Mr. HolmesI am a
very stay-at-home manand as my business came to me instead of
my having to go to itI was often weeks on end without putting
my foot over the door-mat. In that way I didn't know much of what
was going on outsideand I was always glad of a bit of news.

'Have you never heard of the League of the Red-headed Men?' he
asked with his eyes open.


'Why, I wonder at that, for you are eligibile yourself for one
of the vacancies.'

'And what are they worth?' I asked.

'Oh, merely a couple of hundred a year, but the work is slight,
and it need not interfere very much with one's other

Wellyou can easily think that that made me prick up my ears
for the business has not been over-good for some yearsand an
extra couple of hundred would have been very handy.

'Tell me all about it,' said I.

'Well ' said heshowing me the advertisement'you can see for
yourself that the League has a vacancyand there is the address
where you should apply for particulars. As far as I can make out
the League was founded by an American millionaireEzekiah

Hopkinswho was very peculiar in his ways. He was himself
red-headedand he had a great sympathy for all red-headed men;
so when he died it was found that he had left his enormous
fortune in the hands of trusteeswith instructions to apply the
interest to the providing of easy berths to men whose hair is of
that color. From all I hear it is splendid pay and very little to

'But,' said I, 'there would be millions of red-headed men who
would apply.'

'Not so many as you might think' he answered. 'You see it is
really confined to Londonersand to grown men. This American had
started from London when he was youngand he wanted to do the
old town a good turn. ThenagainI have heard it is no use your
applying if your hair is light redor dark redor anything but
real brightblazingfiery red. Nowif you cared to applyMr.
Wilsonyou would just walk in; but perhaps it would hardly be
worth your while to put yourself out of the way for the sake of a
few hundred pounds.'

Now, it is a fact, gentlemen, as you may see for yourselves,
that my hair is of a very full and rich tint, so that it seemed
to me that if there was to be any competition in the matter I
stood as good a chance as any man that I had ever met. Vincent
Spaulding seemed to know so much about it that I thought he might
prove useful, so I just ordered him to put up the shutters for
the day and to come right away with me. He was very willing to
have a holiday, so we shut the business up and started off for
the address that was given us in the advertisement.

I never hope to see such a sight as that againMr. Holmes. From
northsoutheastand west every man who had a shade of red in
his hair had tramped into the city to answer the advertisement.
Fleet Street was choked with red-headed folkand Pope's Court
looked like a coster's orange barrow. I should not have thought
there were so many in the whole country as were brought together
by that single advertisement. Every shade of color they
butas Spaulding saidthere were not many who had the real
vivid flame-colored tint. When I saw how many were waitingI
would have given it up in despair; but Spaulding would not hear
of it. How he did it I could not imaginebut he pushed and
pulled and butted until he got me through the crowdand right up
to the steps which led to the office. There was a double stream
upon the stairsome going up in hopeand some coming back
dejected; but we wedged in as well as we could and soon found
ourselves in the office."

Your experience has been a most entertaining one,remarked
Holmes as his client paused and refreshed his memory with a huge
pinch of snuff. "Pray continue your very interesting statement."

There was nothing in the office but a couple of wooden chairs
and a deal table, behind which sat a small man with a head that
was even redder than mine. He said a few words to each candidate
as he came up, and then he always managed to find some fault in
them which would disqualify them. Getting a vacancy did not seem
to be such a very easy matter, after all. However, when our turn
came the little man was much more favorable to me than to any of
the others, and he closed the door as we entered, so that he
might have a private word with us.

'This is Mr. Jabez Wilson' said my assistant'and he is

willing to fill a vacancy in the League.'

'And he is admirably suited for it,' the other answered. 'He has
every requirement. I cannot recall when I have seen anything so
fine.' He took a step backward, cocked his head on one side, and
gazed at my hair until I felt quite bashful. Then suddenly he
plunged forward, wrung my hand, and congratulated me warmly on my

'It would be injustice to hesitate' said he. 'You will
howeverI am sureexcuse me for taking an obvious precaution.'
With that he seized my hair in both his handsand tugged until I
yelled with the pain. 'There is water in your eyes' said he as
he released me. 'I perceive that all is as it should be. But we
have to be carefulfor we have twice been deceived by wigs and
once by paint. I could tell you tales of cobbler's wax which
would disgust you with human nature.' He stepped over to the
window and shouted through it at the top of his voice that the
vacancy was filled. A groan of disappointment came up from below
and the folk all trooped away in different directions until there
was not a red-head to be seen except my own and that of the

'My name,' said he, 'is Mr. Duncan Ross, and I am myself one of
the pensioners upon the fund left by our noble benefactor. Are
you a married man, Mr. Wilson? Have you a family?'

I answered that I had not.

His face fell immediately.

'Dear me!' he said gravely'that is very serious indeed! I am
sorry to hear you say that. The fund wasof coursefor the
propagation and spread of the red-heads as well as for their
maintenance. It is exceedingly unfortunate that you should be a

My face lengthened at this, Mr. Holmes, for I thought that I was
not to have the vacancy after all; but after thinking it over for
a few minutes he said that it would be all right.

'In the case of another' said he'the objection might be
fatalbut we must stretch a point in favor of a man with such a
head of hair as yours. When shall you be able to enter upon your
new duties?'

'Well, it is a little awkward, for I have a business already,'
said I.

'Ohnever mind about thatMr. Wilson!' said Vincent Spaulding.
'I should be able to look after that for you.'

'What would be the hours?' I asked.

'Ten to two.'

Now a pawnbroker's business is mostly done of an evening, Mr.
Holmes, especially Thursday and Friday evening, which is just
before pay-day; so it would suit me very well to earn a little in
the mornings. Besides, I knew that my assistant was a good man,
and that he would see to anything that turned up.

'That would suit me very well' said I. 'And the pay?'

'Is 4 pounds a week.'

'And the work?'

'Is purely nominal.'

'What do you call purely nominal?'

'Well, you have to be in the office, or at least in the
building, the whole time. If you leave, you forfeit your whole
position forever. The will is very clear upon that point. You
don't comply with the conditions if you budge from the office
during that time.'

'It's only four hours a dayand I should not think of leaving'
said I.

'No excuse will avail,' said Mr. Duncan Ross; 'neither sickness
nor business nor anything else. There you must stay, or you lose
your billet.'

'And the work?'

'Is to copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica. There is the first
volume of it in that press. You must find your own ink, pens, and
blotting-paper, but we provide this table and chair. Will you be
ready to-morrow?'

'Certainly' I answered.

'Then, good-bye, Mr. Jabez Wilson, and let me congratulate you
once more on the important position which you have been fortunate
enough to gain.' He bowed me out of the room and I went home with
my assistant, hardly knowing what to say or do, I was so pleased
at my own good fortune.

WellI thought over the matter all dayand by evening I was in
low spirits again; for I had quite persuaded myself that the
whole affair must be some great hoax or fraudthough what its
object might be I could not imagine. It seemed altogether past
belief that anyone could make such a willor that they would pay
such a sum for doing anything so simple as copying out the
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vincent Spaulding did what he could to
cheer me upbut by bedtime I had reasoned myself out of the
whole thing. Howeverin the morning I determined to have a look
at it anyhowso I bought a penny bottle of inkand with a
quill-penand seven sheets of foolscap paperI started off for
Pope's Court.

Well, to my surprise and delight, everything was as right as
possible. The table was set out ready for me, and Mr. Duncan Ross
was there to see that I got fairly to work. He started me off
upon the letter A, and then he left me; but he would drop in from
time to time to see that all was right with me. At two o'clock he
bade me good-day, complimented me upon the amount that I had
written, and locked the door of the office after me.

This went on day after dayMr. Holmesand on Saturday the
manager came in and planked down four golden sovereigns for my
week's work. It was the same next weekand the same the week
after. Every morning I was there at tenand every afternoon I
left at two. By degrees Mr. Duncan Ross took to coming in only
once of a morningand thenafter a timehe did not come in at
all. Stillof courseI never dared to leave the room for an

instantfor I was not sure when he might comeand the billet
was such a good oneand suited me so wellthat I would not risk
the loss of it.

Eight weeks passed away like this, and I had written about
Abbots and Archery and Armour and Architecture and Attica, and
hoped with diligence that I might get on to the B's before very
long. It cost me something in foolscap, and I had pretty nearly
filled a shelf with my writings. And then suddenly the whole
business came to an end.

To an end?

Yes, sir. And no later than this morning. I went to my work as
usual at ten o'clock, but the door was shut and locked, with a
little square of card-board hammered on to the middle of the
panel with a tack. Here it is, and you can read for yourself.

He held up a piece of white card-board about the size of a sheet
of note-paper. It read in this fashion:




October 91890.

Sherlock Holmes and I surveyed this curt announcement and the
rueful face behind ituntil the comical side of the affair so
completely overtopped every other consideration that we both
burst out into a roar of laughter.

I cannot see that there is anything very funny,cried our
clientflushing up to the roots of his flaming head. "If you can
do nothing better than laugh at meI can go elsewhere."

No, no,cried Holmesshoving him back into the chair from
which he had half risen. "I really wouldn't miss your case for
the world. It is most refreshingly unusual. But there isif you
will excuse my saying sosomething just a little funny about it.
Pray what steps did you take when you found the card upon the

I was staggered, sir. I did not know what to do. Then I called
at the offices round, but none of them seemed to know anything
about it. Finally, I went to the landlord, who is an accountant
living on the ground-floor, and I asked him if he could tell me
what had become of the Red-headed League. He said that he had
never heard of any such body. Then I asked him who Mr. Duncan
Ross was. He answered that the name was new to him.

'Well' said I'the gentleman at No. 4.'

'What, the red-headed man?'


'Oh,' said he, 'his name was William Morris. He was a solicitor
and was using my room as a temporary convenience until his new
premises were ready. He moved out yesterday.'

'Where could I find him?'

'Oh, at his new offices. He did tell me the address. Yes, 17
King Edward Street, near St. Paul's.'

I started offMr. Holmesbut when I got to that address it was
a manufactory of artificial knee-capsand no one in it had ever
heard of either Mr. William Morris or Mr. Duncan Ross."

And what did you do then?asked Holmes.

I went home to Saxe-Coburg Square, and I took the advice of my
assistant. But he could not help me in any way. He could only say
that if I waited I should hear by post. But that was not quite
good enough, Mr. Holmes. I did not wish to lose such a place
without a struggle, so, as I had heard that you were good enough
to give advice to poor folk who were in need of it, I came right
away to you.

And you did very wisely,said Holmes. "Your case is an
exceedingly remarkable oneand I shall be happy to look into it.
From what you have told me I think that it is possible that
graver issues hang from it than might at first sight appear."

Grave enough!said Mr. Jabez Wilson. "WhyI have lost four
pound a week."

As far as you are personally concerned,remarked HolmesI do
not see that you have any grievance against this extraordinary
league. On the contrary, you are, as I understand, richer by some
30 pounds, to say nothing of the minute knowledge which you have
gained on every subject which comes under the letter A. You have
lost nothing by them.

No, sir. But I want to find out about them, and who they are,
and what their object was in playing this prank--if it was a
prank--upon me. It was a pretty expensive joke for them, for it
cost them two and thirty pounds.

We shall endeavor to clear up these points for you. And, first,
one or two questions, Mr. Wilson. This assistant of yours who
first called your attention to the advertisement--how long had he
been with you?

About a month then.

How did he come?

In answer to an advertisement.

Was he the only applicant?

No, I had a dozen.

Why did you pick him?

Because he was handy and would come cheap.

At half-wages, in fact.


What is he like, this Vincent Spaulding?

Small, stout-built, very quick in his ways, no hair on his face,

though he's not short of thirty. Has a white splash of acid upon
his forehead.

Holmes sat up in his chair in considerable excitement. "I thought
as much said he. Have you ever observed that his ears are
pierced for earrings?"

Yes, sir. He told me that a gypsy had done it for him when he
was a lad.

Hum!said Holmessinking back in deep thought. "He is still
with you?"

Oh, yes, sir; I have only just left him.

And has your business been attended to in your absence?

Nothing to complain of, sir. There's never very much to do of a

That will do, Mr. Wilson. I shall be happy to give you an
opinion upon the subject in the course of a day or two. To-day is
Saturday, and I hope that by Monday we may come to a conclusion.

Well, Watson,said Holmes when our visitor had left uswhat
do you make of it all?

I make nothing of it,I answered frankly. "It is a most
mysterious business."

As a rule,said Holmesthe more bizarre a thing is the less
mysterious it proves to be. It is your commonplace, featureless
crimes which are really puzzling, just as a commonplace face is
the most difficult to identify. But I must be prompt over this

What are you going to do, then?I asked.

To smoke,he answered. "It is quite a three pipe problemand I
beg that you won't speak to me for fifty minutes." He curled
himself up in his chairwith his thin knees drawn up to his
hawk-like noseand there he sat with his eyes closed and his
black clay pipe thrusting out like the bill of some strange bird.
I had come to the conclusion that he had dropped asleepand
indeed was nodding myselfwhen he suddenly sprang out of his
chair with the gesture of a man who has made up his mind and put
his pipe down upon the mantelpiece.

Sarasate plays at the St. James's Hall this afternoon,he
remarked. "What do you thinkWatson? Could your patients spare
you for a few hours?"

I have nothing to do to-day. My practice is never very

Then put on your hat and come. I am going through the City
first, and we can have some lunch on the way. I observe that
there is a good deal of German music on the programme, which is
rather more to my taste than Italian or French. It is
introspective, and I want to introspect. Come along!

We travelled by the Underground as far as Aldersgate; and a short
walk took us to Saxe-Coburg Squarethe scene of the singular
story which we had listened to in the morning. It was a poky

littleshabby-genteel placewhere four lines of dingy
two-storied brick houses looked out into a small railed-in
enclosurewhere a lawn of weedy grass and a few clumps of faded
laurel-bushes made a hard fight against a smoke-laden and
uncongenial atmosphere. Three gilt balls and a brown board with
JABEZ WILSONin white lettersupon a corner houseannounced
the place where our red-headed client carried on his business.
Sherlock Holmes stopped in front of it with his head on one side
and looked it all overwith his eyes shining brightly between
puckered lids. Then he walked slowly up the streetand then down
again to the cornerstill looking keenly at the houses. Finally
he returned to the pawnbroker'sandhaving thumped vigorously
upon the pavement with his stick two or three timeshe went up
to the door and knocked. It was instantly opened by a
bright-lookingclean-shaven young fellowwho asked him to step

Thank you,said HolmesI only wished to ask you how you would
go from here to the Strand.

Third right, fourth left,answered the assistant promptly
closing the door.

Smart fellow, that,observed Holmes as we walked away. "He is
in my judgment. the fourth smartest man in Londonand for daring
I am not sure that he has not a claim to be third. I have known
something of him before."

Evidently,said IMr. Wilson's assistant counts for a good
deal in this mystery of the Red-headed League. I am sure that you
inquired your way merely in order that you might see him.

Not him.

What then?

The knees of his trousers.

And what did you see?

What I expected to see.

Why did you beat the pavement?

My dear doctor, this is a time for observation, not for talk. We
are spies in an enemy's country. We know something of Saxe-Coburg
Square. Let us now explore the parts which lie behind it.

The road in which we found ourselves as we turned round the
corner from the retired Saxe-Coburg Square presented as great a
contrast to it as the front of a picture does to the back. It was
one of the main arteries which conveyed the traffic of the City
to the north and west. The roadway was blocked with the immense
stream of commerce flowing in a double tide inward and outward
while the footpaths were black with the hurrying swarm of
pedestrians. It was difficult to realize as we looked at the line
of fine shops and stately business premises that they really
abutted on the other side upon the faded and stagnant square
which we had just quitted.

Let me see,said Holmesstanding at the corner and glancing
along the lineI should like just to remember the order of the
houses here. It is a hobby of mine to have an exact knowledge of
London. There is Mortimer's, the tobacconist, the little

newspaper shop, the Coburg branch of the City and Suburban Bank,
the Vegetarian Restaurant, and McFarlane's carriage-building
depot. That carries us right on to the other block. And now,
Doctor, we've done our work, so it's time we had some play. A
sandwich and a cup of coffee, and then off to violin-land, where
all is sweetness and delicacy and harmony, and there are no
red-headed clients to vex us with their conundrums.

My friend was an enthusiastic musicianbeing himself not only a
very capable perfomer but a composer of no ordinary merit. All
the afternoon he sat in the stalls wrapped in the most perfect
happinessgently waving his longthin fingers in time to the
musicwhile his gently smiling face and his languiddreamy eyes
were as unlike those of Holmesthe sleuth-houndHolmes the
relentlesskeen-wittedready-handed criminal agentas it was
possible to conceive. In his singular character the dual nature
alternately asserted itselfand his extreme exactness and
astuteness representedas I have often thoughtthe reaction
against the poetic and contemplative mood which occasionally
predominated in him. The swing of his nature took him from
extreme languor to devouring energy; andas I knew wellhe was
never so truly formidable as whenfor days on endhe had been
lounging in his armchair amid his improvisations and his
black-letter editions. Then it was that the lust of the chase
would suddenly come upon himand that his brilliant reasoning
power would rise to the level of intuitionuntil those who were
unacquainted with his methods would look askance at him as on a
man whose knowledge was not that of other mortals. When I saw him
that afternoon so enwrapped in the music at St. James's Hall I
felt that an evil time might be coming upon those whom he had set
himself to hunt down.

You want to go home, no doubt, Doctor,he remarked as we

Yes, it would be as well.

And I have some business to do which will take some hours. This
business at Coburg Square is serious.

Why serious?

A considerable crime is in contemplation. I have every reason to
believe that we shall be in time to stop it. But to-day being
Saturday rather complicates matters. I shall want your help

At what time?

Ten will be early enough.

I shall be at Baker Street at ten.

Very well. And, I say, Doctor, there may be some little danger,
so kindly put your army revolver in your pocket.He waved his
handturned on his heeland disappeared in an instant among the

I trust that I am not more dense than my neighborsbut I was
always oppressed with a sense of my own stupidity in my dealings
with Sherlock Holmes. Here I had heard what he had heardI had
seen what he had seenand yet from his words it was evident that
he saw clearly not only what had happened but what was about to
happenwhile to me the whole business was still confused and

grotesque. As I drove home to my house in Kensington I thought
over it allfrom the extraordinary story of the red-headed
copier of the Encyclopaedia down to the visit to Saxe-Coburg
Squareand the ominous words with which he had parted from me.
What was this nocturnal expeditionand why should I go armed?
Where were we goingand what were we to do? I had the hint from
Holmes that this smooth-faced pawnbroker's assistant was a
formidable man--a man who might play a deep game. I tried to
puzzle it outbut gave it up in despair and set the matter aside
until night should bring an explanation.

It was a quarter-past nine when I started from home and made my
way across the Parkand so through Oxford Street to Baker
Street. Two hansoms were standing at the doorand as I entered
the passage I heard the sound of voices from above. On entering
his room I found Holmes in animated conversation with two men
one of whom I recognized as Peter Jonesthe official police
agentwhile the other was a longthinsad-faced manwith a
very shiny hat and oppressively respectable frock-coat.

Ha! Our party is complete,said Holmesbuttoning up his
peajacket and taking his heavy hunting crop from the rack.
Watson, I think you know Mr. Jones, of Scotland Yard? Let me
introduce you to Mr. Merryweather, who is to be our companion in
to-night's adventure.

We're hunting in couples again, Doctor, you see,said Jones in
his consequential way. "Our friend here is a wonderful man for
starting a chase. All he wants is an old dog to help him to do
the running down."

I hope a wild goose may not prove to be the end of our chase,
observed Mr. Merryweather gloomily.

You may place considerable confidence in Mr. Holmes, sir,said
the police agent loftily. "He has his own little methodswhich
areif he won't mind my saying sojust a little too theoretical
and fantasticbut he has the makings of a detective in him. It
is not too much to say that once or twiceas in that business of
the Sholto murder and the Agra treasurehe has been more nearly
correct than the official force."

Oh, if you say so, Mr. Jones, it is all right,said the
stranger with deference. "StillI confess that I miss my rubber.
It is the first Saturday night for seven-and-twenty years that I
have not had my rubber."

I think you will find,said Sherlock Holmesthat you will
play for a higher stake to-night than you have ever done yet, and
that the play will be more exciting. For you, Mr. Merryweather,
the stake will be some 30,000 pounds; and for you, Jones, it will
be the man upon whom you wish to lay your hands.

John Clay, the murderer, thief, smasher, and forger. He's a
young man, Mr. Merryweather, but he is at the head of his
profession, and I would rather have my bracelets on him than on
any criminal in London. He's a remarkable man, is young John
Clay. His grandfather was a royal duke, and he himself has been
to Eton and Oxford. His brain is as his fingers, and
though we meet signs of him at every turn, we never know where to
find the man himself. He'll crack a crib in Scotland one week,
and be raising money to build an orphanage in Cornwall the next.
I've been on his track for years and have never set eyes on him

I hope that I may have the pleasure of introducing you to-night.
I've had one or two little turns also with Mr. John Clay, and I
agree with you that he is at the head of his profession. It is
past ten, however, and quite time that we started. If you two
will take the first hansom, Watson and I will follow in the

Sherlock Holmes was not very communicative during the long drive
and lay back in the cab humming the tunes which he had heard in
the afternoon. We rattled through an endless labyrinth of gas-lit
streets until we emerged into Farrington Street.

We are close there now,my friend remarked. "This fellow
Merryweather is a bank directorand personally interested in the
matter. I thought it as well to have Jones with us also. He is
not a bad fellowthough an absolute imbecile in his profession.
He has one positive virtue. He is as brave as a bulldog and as
tenacious as a lobster if he gets his claws upon anyone. Here we
areand they are waiting for us."

We had reached the same crowded thoroughfare in which we had
found ourselves in the morning. Our cabs were dismissedand
following the guidance of Mr. Merryweatherwe passed down a
narrow passage and through a side doorwhich he opened for us.
Within there was a small corridorwhich ended in a very massive
iron gate. This also was openedand led down a flight of winding
stone stepswhich terminated at another formidable gate. Mr.
Merryweather stopped to light a lanternand then conducted us
down a darkearth-smelling passageand soafter opening a
third doorinto a huge vault or cellarwhich was piled all
round with crates and massive boxes.

You are not very vulnerable from above,Holmes remarked as he
held up the lantern and gazed about him.

Nor from below,said Mr. Merryweatherstriking his stick upon
the flags which lined the floor. "Whydear meit sounds quite
hollow!" he remarkedlooking up in surprise.

I must really ask you to be a little more quiet!said Holmes
severely. "You have already imperilled the whole success of our
expedition. Might I beg that you would have the goodness to sit
down upon one of those boxesand not to interfere?"

The solemn Mr. Merryweather perched himself upon a cratewith a
very injured expression upon his facewhile Holmes fell upon his
knees upon the floor andwith the lantern and a magnifying lens
began to examine minutely the cracks between the stones. A few
seconds sufficed to satisfy himfor he sprang to his feet again
and put his glass in his pocket.

We have at least an hour before us,he remarkedfor they can
hardly take any steps until the good pawnbroker is safely in bed.
Then they will not lose a minute, for the sooner they do their
work the longer time they will have for their escape. We are at
present, Doctor--as no doubt you have divined--in the cellar of
the City branch of one of the principal London banks. Mr.
Merryweather is the chairman of directors, and he will explain to
you that there are reasons why the more daring criminals of
London should take a considerable interest in this cellar at

It is our French gold,whispered the director. "We have had

several warnings that an attempt might be made upon it."

Your French gold?

Yes. We had occasion some months ago to strengthen our resources
and borrowed for that purpose 30,000 napoleons from the Bank of
France. It has become known that we have never had occasion to
unpack the money, and that it is still lying in our cellar. The
crate upon which I sit contains 2,000 napoleons packed between
layers of lead foil. Our reserve of bullion is much larger at
present than is usually kept in a single branch office, and the
directors have had misgivings upon the subject.

Which were very well justified,observed Holmes. "And now it is
time that we arranged our little plans. I expect that within an
hour matters will come to a head. In the meantime Mr.
Merryweatherwe must put the screen over that dark lantern."

And sit in the dark?

I am afraid so. I had brought a pack of cards in my pocket, and
I thought that, as we were a partie carree, you might have your
rubber after all. But I see that the enemy's preparations have
gone so far that we cannot risk the presence of a light. And,
first of all, we must choose our positions. These are daring men,
and though we shall take them at a disadvantage, they may do us
some harm unless we are careful. I shall stand behind this crate,
and do you conceal yourselves behind those. Then, when I flash a
light upon them, close in swiftly. If they fire, Watson, have no
compunction about shooting them down.

I placed my revolvercockedupon the top of the wooden case
behind which I crouched. Holmes shot the slide across the front
of his lantern and left us in pitch darkness--such an absolute
darkness as I have never before experienced. The smell of hot
metal remained to assure us that the light was still thereready
to flash out at a moment's notice. To mewith my nerves worked
up to a pitch of expectancythere was something depressing and
subduing in the sudden gloomand in the cold dank air of the

They have but one retreat,whispered Holmes. "That is back
through the house into Saxe-Coburg Square. I hope that you have
done what I asked youJones?"

l have an inspector and two officers waiting at the front door.

Then we have stopped all the holes. And now we must be silent
and wait.

What a time it seemed! From comparing notes afterwards it was but
an hour and a quarteryet it appeared to me that the night must
have almost gone. and the dawn be breaking above us. My limbs
were weary and stifffor I feared to change my position; yet my
nerves were worked up to the highest pitch of tensionand my
hearing was so acute that I could not only hear the gentle
breathing of my companionsbut I could distinguish the deeper
heavier in-breath of the bulky Jones from the thinsighing note
of the bank director. From my position I could look over the case
in the direction of the floor. Suddenly my eyes caught the glint
of a light.

At first it was but a lurid spark upon the stone pavement. Then
it lengthened out until it became a yellow lineand then

without any warning or sounda gash seemed to open and a hand
appeared; a whitealmost womanly handwhich felt about in the
centre of the little area of light. For a minute or more the
handwith its writhing fingersprotruded out of the floor. Then
it was withdrawn as suddenly as it appearedand all was dark
again save the single lurid spark which marked a chink between
the stones.

Its disappearancehoweverwas but momentary. With a rending
tearing soundone of the broadwhite stones turned over upon
its side and left a squaregaping holethrough which streamed
the light of a lantern. Over the edge there peeped a clean-cut
boyish facewhich looked keenly about itand thenwith a hand
on either side of the aperturedrew itself shoulder-high and
waist-highuntil one knee rested upon the edge. In another
instant he stood at the side of the hole and was hauling after
him a companionlithe and small like himselfwith a pale face
and a shock of very red hair.

It's all clear,he whispered. "Have you the chisel and the
bags? Great Scott! JumpArchiejumpand I'll swing for it!"

Sherlock Holmes had sprung out and seized the intruder by the
collar. The other dived down the holeand I heard the sound of
rending cloth as Jones clutched at his skirts. The light flashed
upon the barrel of a revolverbut Holmes's hunting crop came
down on the man's wristand the pistol clinked upon the stone

It's no use, John Clay,said Holmes blandly. "You have no
chance at all."

So I see,the other answered with the utmost coolness. "I fancy
that my pal is all rightthough I see you have got his

There are three men waiting for him at the door,said Holmes.

Oh, indeed! You seem to have done the thing very completely. I
must compliment you.

And I you,Holmes answered. "Your red-headed idea was very new
and effective."

You'll see your pal again presently,said Jones. "He's quicker
at climbing down holes than I am. Just hold out while I fix the

I beg that you will not touch me with your filthy hands,
remarked our prisoner as the handcuffs clattered upon his wrists.
You may not be aware that I have royal blood in my veins. Have
the goodness, also, when you address me always to say 'sir' and

All right,said Jones with a stare and a snigger. "Wellwould
you pleasesirmarch upstairswhere we can get a cab to carry
your Highness to the police-station?"

That is better,said John Clay serenely. He made a sweeping bow
to the three of us and walked quietly off in the custody of the

Really, Mr. Holmes,said Mr. Merryweather as we followed them
from the cellarI do not know how the bank can thank you or

repay you. There is no doubt that you have detected and defeated
in the most complete manner one of the most determined attempts
at bank robbery that have ever come within my experience.

I have had one or two little scores of my own to settle with Mr.
John Clay,said Holmes. "I have been at some small expense over
this matterwhich I shall expect the bank to refundbut beyond
that I am amply repaid by having had an experience which is in
many ways uniqueand by hearing the very remarkable narrative of
the Red-headed League."

You see, Watson,he explained in the early hours of the morning
as we sat over a glass of whisky and soda in Baker Streetit
was perfectly obvious from the first that the only possible
object of this rather fantastic business of the advertisement of
the League, and the copying of the Encyclopaedia, must be to get
this not over-bright pawnbroker out of the way for a number of
hours every day. It was a curious way of managing it, but,
really, it would be difficult to suggest a better. The method was
no doubt suggested to Clay's ingenious mind by the color of his
accomplice's hair. The 4 pounds a week was a lure which must draw
him, and what was it to them, who were playing for thousands?
They put in the advertisement, one rogue has the temporary
office, the other rogue incites the man to apply for it. and
together they manage to secure his absence every morning in the
week. From the time that I heard of the assistant having come for
half wages, it was obvious to me that he had some strong motive
for securing the situation.

But how could you guess what the motive was?

Had there been women in the house, I should have suspected a
mere vulgar intrigue. That, however, was out of the question. The
man's business was a small one, and there was nothing in his
house which could account for such elaborate preparations, and
such an expenditure as they were at. It must, then, be something
out of the house. What could it be? I thought of the assistant's
fondness for photography, and his trick of vanishing into the
cellar. The cellar! There was the end of this tangled clew. Then
I made inquiries as to this mysterious assistant and found that I
had to deal with one of the coolest and most daring criminals in
London. He was doing something in the cellar--something which
took many hours a day for months on end. What could it be, once
more? I could think of nothing save that he was running a tunnel
to some other building.

So far I had got when we went to visit the scene of action. I
surprised you by beating upon the pavement with my stick. I was
ascertaining whether the cellar stretched out in front or behind.
It was not in front. Then I rang the bellandas I hopedthe
assistant answered it. We have had some skirmishesbut we had
never set eyes upon each other before. I hardly looked at his
face. His knees were what I wished to see. You must yourself have
remarked how wornwrinkledand stained they were. They spoke of
those hours of burrowing. The only remaining point was what they
were burrowing for. I walked round the cornersaw the City and
Suburban Bank abutted on our friend's premisesand felt that I
had solved my problem. When you drove home after the concert I
called upon Scotland Yard and upon the chairman of the bank
directorswith the result that you have seen."

And how could you tell that they would make their attempt
to-night?I asked.

Well, when they closed their League offices that was a sign that
they cared no longer about Mr. Jabez Wilson's presence--in other
words, that they had completed their tunnel. But it was essential
that they should use it soon, as it might be discovered, or the
bullion might be removed. Saturday would suit them better than
any other day, as it would give them two days for their escape.
For all these reasons I expected them to come to-night.

You reasoned it out beautifully,I exclaimed in unfeigned
admiration "It is so long a chainand yet every link rings

It saved me from ennui,he answeredyawning. "Alas! I already
feel it closing in upon me. My life is spent in one long effort
to escape from the commonplaces of existence. These little
problems help me to do so."

And you are a benefactor of the race,said I.

He shrugged his shoulders. "Wellperhapsafter allit is of
some little use he remarked. 'L'homme c'est rien--l'oeuvre
c'est tout' as Gustave Flaubert wrote to George Sand."


My dear fellow,said Sherlock Holmes as we sat on either side
of the fire in his lodgings at Baker Streetlife is infinitely
stranger than anything which the mind of man could invent. We
would not dare to conceive the things which are really mere
commonplaces of existence. If we could fly out of that window
hand in hand, hover over this great city, gently remove the
roofs, and peep in at the queer things which are going on, the
strange coincidences, the plannings, the cross-purposes, the
wonderful chains of events, working through generation, and
leading to the most outre results, it would make all fiction with
its conventionalities and foreseen conclusions most stale and

And yet I am not convinced of it,I answered. "The cases which
come to light in the papers areas a rulebald enoughand
vulgar enough. We have in our police reports realism pushed to
its extreme limitsand yet the result isit must be confessed
neither fascinating nor artistic."

A certain selection and discretion must be used in producing a
realistic effect,remarked Holmes. "This is wanting in the
police reportwhere more stress is laidperhapsupon the
platitudes of the magistrate than upon the detailswhich to an
observer contain the vital essence of the whole matter. Depend
upon itthere is nothing so unnatural as the commonplace."

I smiled and shook my head. "I can quite understand your thinking
so." I said. "Of coursein your position of unofficial adviser
and helper to everybody who is absolutely puzzledthroughout
three continentsyou are brought in contact with all that is
strange and bizarre. But here"--I picked up the morning paper
from the ground--"let us put it to a practical test. Here is the
first heading upon which I come. 'A husband's cruelty to his
wife.' There is half a column of printbut I know without
reading it that it is all perfectly familiar to me. There isof
coursethe other womanthe drinkthe pushthe blowthe

bruisethe sympathetic sister or landlady. The crudest of
writers could invent nothing more crude."

Indeed, your example is an unfortunate one for your argument,
said Holmestaking the paper and glancing his eye down it. "This
is the Dundas separation caseandas it happensI was engaged
in clearing up some small points in connection with it. The
husband was a teetotalerthere was no other womanand the
conduct complained of was that he had drifted into the habit of
winding up every meal by taking out his false teeth and hurling
them at his wifewhichyou will allowis not an action likely
to occur to the imagination of the average story-teller. Take a
pinch of snuffDoctorand acknowledge that I have scored over
you in your example."

He held out his snuffbox of old goldwith a great amethyst in
the centre of the lid. Its splendour was in such contrast to his
homely ways and simple life that I could not help commenting upon

Ah,said heI forgot that I had not seen you for some weeks.
It is a little souvenir from the King of Bohemia in return for my
assistance in the case of the Irene Adler papers.

And the ring?I askedglancing at a remarkable brilliant which
sparkled upon his finger.

It was from the reigning family of Holland, though the matter in
which I served them was of such delicacy that I cannot confide it
even to you, who have been good enough to chronicle one or two of
my little problems.

And have you any on hand just now?I asked with interest.

Some ten or twelve, but none which present any feature of
interest. They are important, you understand, without being
interesting. Indeed, I have found that it is usually in
unimportant matters that there is a field for the observation,
and for the quick analysis of cause and effect which gives the
charm to an investigation. The larger crimes are apt to be the
simpler, for the bigger the crime thc more obvious, as a rule, is
the motive. In these cases, save for one rather intricate matter
which has been referred to me from Marseilles, there is nothing
which presents any features of interest. It is possible, however,
that I may have something better before very many minutes are
over, for this is one of my clients, or I am much mistaken.

He had risen from his chair and was standing between the parted
blinds gazing down into the dull neutral-tinted London street.
Looking over his shoulderI saw that on the pavement opposite
there stood a large woman with a heavy fur boa round her neck
and a large curling red feather in a broad-brimmed hat which was
tilted in a coquettish Duchess of Devonshire fashion over her
ear. From under this great panoply she peeped up in a nervous
hesitating fashion at our windowswhile her body oscillated
backward and forwardand her fingers fidgeted with her glove
buttons. Suddenlywith a plungeas of the swimmer who leaves
the bankshe hurried across the roadand we heard the sharp
clang of the bell.

I have seen those symptoms before,said Holmesthrowing his
cigarette into the fire. "Oscillation upon the pavement always
means an affaire de coeur. She would like advicebut is not sure
that the matter is not too delicate for communication. And yet

even here we may discriminate. When a woman has been seriously
wronged by a man she no longer oscillatesand the usual symptom
is a broken bell wire. Here we may take it that there is a love
matterbut that the maiden is not so much angry as perplexedor
grieved. But here she comes in person to resolve our doubts."

As he spoke there was a tap at the doorand the boy in buttons.
entered to announce Miss Mary Sutherlandwhile the lady herself
loomed behind his small black figure like a full-sailed
merchant-man behind a tiny pilot boat. Sherlock Holmes welcomed
her with the easy courtesy for which he was remarkableand
having closed the door and bowed her into an armchairhe looked
her over in the minute and yet abstracted fashion which was
peculiar to him.

Do you not find,he saidthat with your short sight it is a
little trying to do so much typewriting?

I did at first,she answeredbut now I know where the letters
are without looking.Thensuddenly realizing the full purport
of his wordsshe gave a violent start and looked upwith fear
and astonishment upon her broadgood-humoured face. "You've
heard about meMr. Holmes she cried, else how could you know
all that?"

Never mind,said Holmeslaughing; "it is my business to know
things. Perhaps I have trained myself to see what others
overlook. If notwhy should you come to consult me?"

I came to you, sir, because I heard of you from Mrs. Etherege,
whose husband you found so easy when the police and everyone had
given him up for dead. Oh, Mr. Holmes, I wish you would do as
much for me. I'm not rich, but still I have a hundred a year in
my own right, besides the little that I make by the machine, and
I would give it all to know what has become of Mr. Hosmer Angel.

Why did you come away to consult me in such a hurry?asked
Sherlock Holmeswith his finger-tips together and his eyes to
the ceiling.

Again a startled look came over the somewhat vacuous face of Miss
Mary Sutherland. "YesI did bang out of the house she said,
for it made me angry to see the easy way in which Mr.
Windibank--that ismy father--took it all. He would not go to
the policeand he would not go to youand so at lastas he
would do nothing and kept on saying that there was no harm done
it made me madand I just on with my things and came right away
to you."

Your father,said Holmesyour stepfather, surely, since the
name is different.

Yes, my stepfather. I call him father, though it sounds funny,
too, for he is only five years and two months older than myself.

And your mother is alive?

Oh, yes, mother is alive and well. I wasn't best pleased, Mr.
Holmes, when she married again so soon after father's death, and
a man who was nearly fifteen years younger than herself. Father
was a plumber in the Tottenham Court Road, and he left a tidy
business behind him, which mother carried on with Mr. Hardy, the
foreman; but when Mr. Windibank came he made her sell the
business, for he was very superior, being a traveller in wines.

They got 4700 pounds for the goodwill and interest, which wasn't
near as much as father could have got if he had been alive.

I had expected to see Sherlock Holmes impatient under this
rambling and inconsequential narrativebuton the contrary he
had listened with the greatest concentration of attention.

Your own little income,he askeddoes it come out of the

Oh, no, sir. It is quite separate and was left me by my uncle
Ned in Auckland. It is in New Zealand stock, paying 4 1/2 per
cent. Two thousand five hundred pounds was the amount, but I can
only touch the interest.

You interest me extremely,said Holmes. "And since you draw so
large a sum as a hundred a yearwith what you earn into the
bargainyou no doubt travel a little and indulge yourself in
every way. I believe that a single lady can get on very nicely
upon an income of about 60 pounds."

I could do with much less than that, Mr. Holmes, but you
understand that as long as I live at home I don't wish to be a
burden to them, and so they have the use of the money just while
I am staying with them. Of course, that is only just for the
time. Mr. Windibank draws my interest every quarter and pays it
over to mother, and I find that I can do pretty well with what I
earn at typewriting. It brings me twopence a sheet, and I can
often do from fifteen to twenty sheets in a-day.

You have made your position very clear to me,said Holmes.
This is my friend, Dr. Watson, before whom you can speak as
freely as before myself. Kindly tell us now all about your
connection with Mr. Hosmer Angel.

A flush stole over Miss Sutherland's faceand she picked
nervously at the fringe of her jacket. "I met him first at the
gasfitters' ball she said. They used to send father tickets
when he was aliveand then afterwards they remembered usand
sent them to mother. Mr. Windibank did not wish us to go. He
never did wish us to go anywhere. He would get quite mad if I
wanted so much as to join a Sunday-school treat. But this time I
was set on goingand I would go; for what right had he to
prevent? He said the folk were not fit for us to knowwhen all
father's friends were to be there. And he said that I had nothing
fit to wearwhen I had my purple plush that I had never so much
as taken out of the drawer. At lastwhen nothing else would do
he went off to France upon the business of the firmbut we went
mother and Iwith Mr. Hardywho used to be our foremanand it
was there I met Mr. Hosmer Angel."

I suppose,said Holmesthat when Mr. Windibank came back from
France he was very annoyed at your having gone to the ball.

Oh, well, he was very good about it. He laughed, I remember, and
shrugged his shoulders, and said there was no use denying
anything to a woman, for she would have her way.

I see. Then at the gasfitters' ball you met, as I understand, a
gentleman called Mr. Hosmer Angel.

Yes, sir. I met him that night, and he called next day to ask if
we had got home all safe, and after that we met him--that is to
say, Mr. Holmes, I met him twice for walks, but after that father

came back again, and Mr. Hosmer Angel could not come to the house
any more.


Well, you know father didn't like anything of the sort. He
wouldn't have any visitors if he could help it, and he used to
say that a woman should be happy in her own family circle. But
then, as I used to say to mother, a woman wants her own circle to
begin with, and I had not got mine yet.

But how about Mr. Hosmer Angel? Did he make no attempt to see

Well, father was going off to France again in a week, and Hosmer
wrote and said that it would be safer and better not to see each
other until he had gone. We could write in the meantime, and he
used to write every day. I took the letters in in the morning, so
there was no need for father to know.

Were you engaged to the gentleman at this time?

Oh, yes, Mr. Holmes. We were engaged after the first walk that
we took. Hosmer--Mr. Angel--was a cashier in an office in
Leadenhall Street--and--

What office?

That's the worst of it, Mr. Holmes, I don't know.

Where did he live, then?

He slept on the premises.

And you don't know his address?

No--except that it was Leadenhall Street.

Where did you address your letters, then?

To the Leadenhall Street Post-Office, to be left till called
for. He said that if they were sent to the office he would be
chaffed by all the other clerks about having letters from a lady,
so I offered to typewrite them, like he did his, but he wouldn't
have that, for he said that when I wrote them they seemed to come
from me, but when they were typewritten he always felt that the
machine had come between us. That will just show you how fond he
was of me, Mr. Holmes, and the little things that he would think

It was most suggestive,said Holmes. "It has long been an axiom
of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important.
Can you remember any other little things about Mr. Hosmer Angel?"

He was a very shy man, Mr. Holmes. He would rather walk with me
in the evening than in the daylight, for he said that he hated to
be conspicuous. Very retiring and gentlemanly he was. Even his
voice was gentle. He'd had the quinsy and swollen glands when he
was young, he told me, and it had left him with a weak throat,
and a hesitating, whispering fashion of speech. He was always
well dressed, very neat and plain, but his eyes were weak, just
as mine are, and he wore tinted glasses against the glare.

Well, and what happened when Mr. Windibank, your stepfather,

returned to France?

Mr. Hosmer Angel came to the house again and proposed that we
should marry before father came back. He was in dreadful earnest
and made me swear, with my hands on the Testament, that whatever
happened I would always be true to him. Mother said he was quite
right to make me swear, and that it was a sign of his passion.
Mother was all in his favor from the first and was even fonder
of him than I was. Then, when they talked of marrying within the
week, I began to ask about father; but they both said never to
mind about father, but just to tell him afterwards, and mother
said she would make it all right with him. I didn't quite like
that, Mr. Holmes. It seemed funny that I should ask his leave, as
he was only a few years older than me; but I didn't want to do
anything on the sly, so I wrote to father at Bordeaux, where the
company has its French offices, but the letter came back to me on
the very morning of the wedding.

It missed him, then?

Yes, sir; for he had started to England just before it arrived.

Ha! that was unfortunate. Your wedding was arranged, then, for
the Friday. Was it to be in church?

Yes, sir, but very quietly. It was to be at St. Saviour's, near
King's Cross, and we were to have breakfast afterwards at the St.
Pancras Hotel. Hosmer came for us in a hansom, but as there were
two of us he put us both into it and stepped himself into a
four-wheeler, which happened to be the only other cab in the
street. We got to the church first, and when the four-wheeler
drove up we waited for him to step out, but he never did, and
when the cabman got down from the box and looked there was no one
there! The cabman said that he could not imagine what had become
of him, for he had seen him get in with his own eyes. That was
last Friday, Mr. Holmes, and I have never seen or heard anything
since then to throw any light upon what became of him.

It seems to me that you have been very shamefully treated,said

Oh, no, sir! He was too good and kind to leave me so. Why, all
the morning he was saying to me that, whatever happened, I was to
be true; and that even if something quite unforeseen occurred to
separate us, I was always to remember that I was pledged to him,
and that he would claim his pledge sooner or later. It seemed
strange talk for a wedding-morning, but what has happened since
gives a meaning to it.

Most certainly it does. Your own opinion is, then, that some
unforeseen catastrophe has occurred to him?

Yes, sir. I believe that he foresaw some danger, or else he
would not have talked so. And then I think that what he foresaw

But you have no notion as to what it could have been?


One more question. How did your mother take the matter?

She was angry, and said that I was never to speak of the matter

And your father? Did you tell him?

Yes; and he seemed to think, with me, that something had
happened, and that I should hear of Hosmer again. As he said,
what interest could anyone have in bringing me to the doors of
the church, and then leaving me? Now, if he had borrowed my
money, or if he had married me and got my money settled on him,
there might be some reason, but Hosmer was very independent about
money and never would look at a shilling of mine. And yet, what
could have happened? And why could he not write? Oh, it drives me
half-mad to think of it, and I can't sleep a wink at night.She
pulled a little handkerchief out of her muff and began to sob
heavily into it.

I shall glance into the case for you,said Holmesrisingand
I have no doubt that we shall reach some definite result. Let the
weight of the matter rest upon me now, and do not let your mind
dwell upon it further. Above all, try to let Mr. Hosmer Angel
vanish from your memory, as he has done from your life.

Then you don't think I'll see him again?

I fear not.

Then what has happened to him?

You will leave that question in my hands. I should like an
accurate description of him and any letters of his which you can

I advertised for him in last Saturday's Chronicle,said she.
Here is the slip and here are four letters from him.

Thank you. And your address?

No. 31 Lyon Place, Camberwell.

Mr. Angel's address you never had, I understand. Where is your
father's place of business?

He travels for Westhouse & Marbank, the great claret importers
of Fenchurch Street.

Thank you. You have made your statement very clearly. You will
leave the papers here, and remember the advice which I have given
you. Let the whole incident be a sealed book, and do not allow it
to affect your life.

You are very kind, Mr. Holmes, but I cannot do that. I shall be
true to Hosmer. He shall find me ready when he comes back.

For all the preposterous hat and the vacuous facethere was
something noble in the simple faith of our visitor which
compelled our respect. She laid her little bundle of papers upon
the table and went her waywith a promise to come again whenever
she might be summoned.

Sherlock Holmes sat silent for a few minutes with his fingertips
still pressed togetherhis legs stretched out in front of him
and his gaze directed upward to the ceiling. Then he took down
from the rack the old and oily clay pipewhich was to him as a
counsellorandhaving lit ithe leaned back in his chairwith
the thick blue cloud-wreaths spinning up from himand a look of

infinite languor in his face.

Quite an interesting study, that maiden,he observed. "I found
her more interesting than her little problemwhichby the way
is rather a trite one. You will find parallel casesif you
consult my indexin Andover in '77and there was something of
the sort at The Hague last year. Old as is the ideahowever
there were one or two details which were new to me. But the
maiden herself was most instructive."

You appeared to read a good deal upon her which was quite
invisible to me,I remarked.

Not invisible but unnoticed, Watson. You did not know where to
look, and so you missed all that was important. I can never bring
you to realize the importance of sleeves, the suggestiveness of
thumb-nails, or the great issues that may hang from a boot-lace.
Now, what did you gather from that woman's appearance? Describe

Well, she had a slate-colored, broad-brimmed straw hat, with a
feather of a brickish red. Her jacket was black, with black beads
sewn upon it, and a fringe of little black jet ornaments. Her
dress was brown, rather darker than coffee color, with a little
purple plush at the neck and sleeves. Her gloves were grayish and
were worn through at the right forefinger. Her boots I didn't
observe. She had small round, hanging gold earrings, and a
general air of being fairly well-to-do in a vulgar, comfortable,
easy-going way.

Sherlock Holmes clapped his hands softly together and chuckled.

'Pon my word, Watson, you are coming along wonderfully. You have
really done very well indeed. It is true that you have missed
everything of importance, but you have hit upon the method, and
you have a quick eye for color. Never trust to general
impressions, my boy, but concentrate yourself upon details. My
first glance is always at a woman's sleeve. In a man it is
perhaps better first to take the knee of the trouser. As you
observe, this woman had plush upon her sleeves, which is a most
useful material for showing traces. The double line a little
above the wrist, where the typewritist presses against the table,
was beautifully defined. The sewing-machine, of the hand type,
leaves a similar mark, but only on the left arm, and on the side
of it farthest from the thumb, instead of being right across the
broadest part, as this was. I then glanced at her face, and,
observing the dint of a pince-nez at either side of her nose, I
ventured a remark upon short sight and typewriting, which seemed
to surprise her.

It surprised me.

But, surely, it was obvious. I was then much surprised and
interested on glancing down to observe that, though the boots
which she was wearing were not unlike each other, they were
really odd ones; the one having a slightly decorated toe-cap, and
the other a plain one. One was buttoned only in the two lower
buttons out of five, and the other at the first, third, and
fifth. Now, when you see that a young lady, otherwise neatly
dressed, has come away from home with odd boots, half-buttoned,
it is no great deduction to say that she came away in a hurry.

And what else?I askedkeenly interestedas I always wasby
my friend's incisive reasoning.

I noted, in passing, that she had written a note before leaving
home but after being fully dressed. You observed that her right
glove was torn at the forefinger, but you did not apparently see
that both glove and finger were stained with violet ink. She had
written in a hurry and dipped her pen too deep. It must have been
this morning, or the mark would not remain clear upon the finger.
All this is amusing, though rather elementary, but I must go back
to business, Watson. Would you mind reading me the advertised
description of Mr. Hosmer Angel?

I held the little printed slip to the light.

Missing [it said] on the morning of the fourteenth, a gentleman
named Hosmer Angel. About five ft. seven in. in height;
strongly built, sallow complexion, black hair, a little bald in
the centre, bushy, black side-whiskers and moustache; tinted
glasses, slight infirmity of speech. Was dressed, when last seen,
in black frock-coat faced with silk, black waistcoat, gold Albert
chain, and gray Harris tweed trousers, with brown gaiters over
elastic-sided boots. Known to have been employed in an office in
Leadenhall Street. Anybody bringing--

That will do,said Holmes. "As to the letters he continued,
glancing over them, they are very commonplace. Absolutely no
clew in them to Mr. Angelsave that he quotes Balzac once. There
is one remarkable pointhoweverwhich will no doubt strike

They are typewritten,I remarked.

Not only that, but the signature is typewritten. Look at the
neat little 'Hosmer Angel' at the bottom. There is a date, you
see, but no superscription except Leadenhall Street, which is
rather vague. The point about the signature is very suggestive
--in fact, we may call it conclusive.

Of what?

My dear fellow, is it possible you do not see how strongly it
bears upon the case?

I cannot say that I do unless it were that he wished to be able
to deny his signature if an action for breach of promise were

No, that was not the point. However, I shall write two letters,
which should settle the matter. One is to a firm in the City, the
other is to the young lady's stepfather, Mr. Windibank, asking
him whether he could meet us here at six o'clock tomorrow
evening. It is just as well that we should do business with the
male relatives. And now, Doctor, we can do nothing until the
answers to those letters come, so we may put our little problem
upon the shelf for the interim.

I had had so many reasons to believe in my friend's subtle powers
of reasoning and extraordinary energy in action that I felt that
he must have some solid grounds for the assured and easy
demeanour with which he treated the singular mystery which he had
been called upon to fathom. Once only had I known him to failin
the case of the King of Bohemia and of the Irene Adler
photograph; but when I looked back to the weird business of 'The
Sign of Four'and the extraordinary circumstances connected with
'A Study in Scarlet'I felt that it would be a strange tangle

indeed which he could not unravel.

I left him thenstill puffing at his black clay pipewith the
conviction that when I came again on the next evening I would
find that he held in his hands all the clews which would lead up
to the identity of the disappearing bridegroom of Miss Mary

A professional case of great gravity was engaging my own
attention at the timeand the whole of next day I was busy at
the bedside of the sufferer. It was not until close upon six
o'clock that I found myself free and was able to spring into a
hansom and drive to Baker Streethalf afraid that I might be too
late to assist at the denouement of the little mystery. I found
Sherlock Holmes alonehoweverhalf asleepwith his longthin
form curled up in the recesses of his armchair. A formidable
array of bottles and test-tubeswith the pungent cleanly smell
of hydrochloric acidtold me that he had spent his day in the
chemical work which was so dear to him.

Well, have you solved it?I asked as I entered.

Yes. It was the bisulphate of baryta.

No, no, the mystery!I cried.

Oh, that! I thought of the salt that I have been working upon.
There was never any mystery in the matter, though, as I said
yesterday, some of the details are of interest. The only drawback
is that there is no law, I fear, that can touch the scoundrel.

Who was he, then, and what was his object in deserting Miss

The question was hardly out of my mouthand Holmes had not yet
opened his lips to replywhen we heard a heavy footfall in the
passage and a tap at the door.

This is the girl's stepfather, Mr. James Windibank,said
Holmes. "He has written to me to say that he would be here at
six. Come in!"

The man who entered was a sturdymiddle-sized fellowsome
thirty years of ageclean-shavenand sallow-skinnedwith a
blandinsinuating mannerand a pair of wonderfully sharp and
penetrating gray eyes. He shot a questioning glance at each of
usplaced his shiny top-hat upon the sideboardand with a
slight bow sidled down into the nearest chair.

Good-evening, Mr. James Windibank,said Holmes. "I think that
this typewritten letter is from youin which you made an
appointment with me for six o'clock?"

Yes, sir. I am afraid that I am a little late, but I am not
quite my own master, you know. I am sorry that Miss Sutherland
has troubled you about this little matter, for I think it is far
better not to wash linen of the sort in public. It was quite
against my wishes that she came, but she is a very excitable,
impulsive girl, as you may have noticed, and she is not easily
controlled when she has made up her mind on a point. Of course, I
did not mind you so much, as you are not connected with the
official police, but it is not pleasant to have a family
misfortune like this noised abroad. Besides, it is a useless
expense, for how could you possibly find this Hosmer Angel?

On the contrary,said Holmes quietly; "I have every reason to
believe that I will succeed in discovering Mr. Hosmer Angel."

Mr. Windibank gave a violent start and dropped his gloves. "I am
delighted to hear it he said.

It is a curious thing remarked Holmes, that a typewriter has
really quite as much individuality as a man's handwriting. Unless
they are quite newno two of them write exactly alike. Some
letters get more worn than othersand some wear only on one
side. Nowyou remark in this note of yoursMr. Windibankthat
in every case there is some little slurring over of the 'e' and
a slight defect in the tail of the 'r.' There are fourteen other
characteristicsbut those are the more obvious."

We do all our correspondence with this machine at the office,
and no doubt it is a little worn,our visitor answeredglancing
keenly at Holmes with his bright little eyes.

And now I will show you what is really a very interesting study,
Mr. Windibank,Holmes continued. "I think of writing another
little monograph some of these days on the typewriter and its
relation to crime. It is a subject to which I have devoted some
little attention. I have here four letters which purport to come
from the missing man. They are all typewritten. In each casenot
only are the 'e's' slurred and the 'r's' taillessbut you will
observeif you care to use my magnifying lensthat the fourteen
other characteristics to which I have alluded are there as well."

Mr. Windibank sprang out of his chair and picked up his hat. "I
cannot waste time over this sort of fantastic talkMr. Holmes
he said. If you can catch the mancatch himand let me know
when you have done it."

Certainly,said Holmesstepping over and turning the key in
the door. "I let you knowthenthat I have caught him!"

What! where?shouted Mr. Windibankturning white to his lips
and glancing about him like a rat in a trap.

Oh, it won't do--really it won't,said Holmes suavely. "There
is no possible getting out of itMr. Windibank. It is quite too
transparentand it was a very bad compliment when you said that
it was impossible for me to solve so simple a question. That's
right! Sit down and let us talk it over."

Our visitor collapsed into a chairwith a ghastly face and a
glitter of moisture on his brow. "It--it's not actionable he

I am very much afraid that it is not. But between ourselves
Windibankit was as cruel and selfish and heartless a trick in a
petty way as ever came before me. Nowlet me just run over the
course of eventsand you will contradict me if I go wrong."

The man sat huddled up in his chairwith his head sunk upon his
breastlike one who is utterly crushed. Holmes stuck his feet up
on the corner of the mantelpiece andleaning back with his hands
in his pocketsbegan talkingrather to himselfas it seemed
than to us.

The man married a woman very much older than himself for her
money,said heand he enjoyed the use of the money of the

daughter as long as she lived with them. It was a considerable
sum, for people in their position, and the loss of it would have
made a serious difference. It was worth an effort to preserve it.
The daughter was of a good, amiable disposition, but affectionate
and warm-hearted in her ways, so that it was evident that with
her fair personal advantages, and her little income, she would
not be allowed to remain single long. Now her marriage would
mean, of course, the loss of a hundred a year, so what does her
stepfather do to prevent it? He takes the obvious course of
keeping her at home and forbidding her to seek the company of
people of her own age. But soon he found that that would not
answer forever. She became restive, insisted upon her rights, and
finally announced her positive intention of going to a certain
ball. What does her clever stepfather do then? He conceives an
idea more creditable to his head than to his heart. With the
connivance and assistance of his wife he disguised himself,
covered those keen eyes with tinted glasses, masked the face with
a moustache and a pair of bushy whiskers, sunk that clear voice
into an insinuating whisper, and doubly secure on account of the
girl's short sight, he appears as Mr. Hosmer Angel, and keeps off
other lovers by making love himself.

It was only a joke at first,groaned our visitor. "We never
thought that she would have been so carried away."

Very likely not. However that may be, the young lady was very
decidedly carried away, and, having quite made up her mind that
her stepfather was in France, the suspicion of treachery never
for an instant entered her mind. She was flattered by the
gentleman's attentions, and the effect was increased by the
loudly expressed admiration of her mother. Then Mr. Angel began
to call, for it was obvious that the matter should be pushed as
far as it would go if a real effect were to be produced. There
were meetings, and an engagement, which would finally secure the
girl's affections from turning towards anyone else. But the
deception could not be kept up forever. These pretended journeys
to France were rather cumbrous. The thing to do was clearly to
bring the business to an end in such a dramatic manner that it
would leave a permanent impression upon the young lady's mind and
prevent her from looking upon any other suitor for some time to
come. Hence those vows of fidelity exacted upon a Testament, and
hence also the allusions to a possibility of something happening
on the very morning of the wedding. James Windibank wished Miss
Sutherland to be so bound to Hosmer Angel, and so uncertain as to
his fate, that for ten years to come, at any rate, she would not
listen to another man. As far as the church door he brought her,
and then, as he could go no farther, he conveniently vanished
away by the old trick of stepping in at one door of a
four-wheeler and out at the other. I think that was the chain of
events, Mr. Windibank!

Our visitor had recovered something of his assurance while Holmes
had been talkingand he rose from his chair now with a cold
sneer upon his pale face.

It may be so, or it may not. Mr. Holmes,said hebut if you
are so very sharp you ought to be sharp enough to know that it is
you who are breaking the law now, and not me. I have done nothing
actionable from the first, but as long as you keep that door
locked you lay yourself open to an action for assault and illegal

The law cannot, as you say, touch you,said Holmesunlocking
and throwing open the dooryet there never was a man who

deserved punishment more. If the young lady has a brother or a
friend, he ought to lay a whip across your shoulders. By Jove!
he continuedflushing up at the sight of the bitter sneer upon
the man's faceit is not part of my duties to my client, but
here's a hunting crop handy, and I think I shall just treat
myself to--He took two swift steps to the whipbut before he
could grasp it there was a wild clatter of steps upon the stairs
the heavy hall door bangedand from the window we could see Mr.
James Windibank running at the top of his speed down the road.

There's a cold-blooded scoundrel!said Holmeslaughingas he
threw himself down into his chair once more. "That fellow will
rise from crime to crime until he does something very badand
ends on a gallows. The case hasin some respectsbeen not
entirely devoid of interest."

I cannot now entirely see all the steps of your reasoning,I

Well, of course it was obvious from the first that this Mr.
Hosmer Angel must have some strong object for his curious
conduct, and it was equally clear that the only man who really
profited by the incident, as far as we could see, was the
stepfather. Then the fact that the two men were never together,
but that the one always appeared when the other was away, was
suggestive. So were the tinted spectacles and the curious voice,
which both hinted at a disguise, as did the bushy whiskers. My
suspicions were all confirmed by his peculiar action in
typewriting his signature, which, of course, inferred that his
handwriting was so familiar to her that she would recognize even
the smallest sample of it. You see all these isolated facts,
together with many minor ones, all pointed in the same

And how did you verify them?

Having once spotted my man, it was easy to get corroboration. I
knew the firm for which this man worked. Having taken the printed
description. I eliminated everything from it which could be the
result of a disguise--the whiskers, the glasses, the voice, and I
sent it to the firm, with a request that they would inform me
whether it answered to the description of any of their
travellers. I had already noticed the peculiarities of the
typewriter, and I wrote to the man himself at his business
address asking him if he would come here. As I expected, his
reply was typewritten and revealed the same trivial but
characteristic defects. The same post brought me a letter from
Westhouse & Marbank, of Fenchurch Street, to say that the
description tallied in every respect with that of their employee,
James Windibank. Voila tout!

And Miss Sutherland?

If I tell her she will not believe me. You may remember the old
Persian saying, 'There is danger for him who taketh the tiger
cub, and danger also for whoso snatches a delusion from a woman.'
There is as much sense in Hafiz as in Horace, and as much
knowledge of the world.


We were seated at breakfast one morningmy wife and Iwhen the

maid brought in a telegram. It was from Sherlock Holmes and ran
in this way:

Have you a couple of days to spare? Have just been wired for from
the west of England in connection with Boscombe Valley tragedy.
Shall be glad if you will come with me. Air and scenery perfect.
Leave Paddington by the 11:15.

What do you say, dear?said my wifelooking across at me.
Will you go?

I really don't know what to say. I have a fairly long list at

Oh, Anstruther would do your work for you. You have been looking
a little pale lately. I think that the change would do you good,
and you are always so interested in Mr. Sherlock Holmes's cases.

I should be ungrateful if I were not, seeing what I gained
through one of them,I answered. "But if I am to goI must pack
at oncefor I have only half an hour."

My experience of camp life in Afghanistan had at least had the
effect of making me a prompt and ready traveller. My wants were
few and simpleso that in less than the time stated I was in a
cab with my valiserattling away to Paddington Station. Sherlock
Holmes was pacing up and down the platformhis tallgaunt
figure made even gaunter and taller by his long gray
travelling-cloak and close-fitting cloth cap.

It is really very good of you to come, Watson,said he. "It
makes a considerable difference to mehaving someone with me on
whom I can thoroughly rely. Local aid is always either worthless
or else biassed. If you will keep the two corner seats I shall
get the tickets."

We had the carriage to ourselves save for an immense litter of
papers which Holmes had brought with him. Among these he rummaged
and readwith intervals of note-taking and of meditationuntil
we were past Reading. Then he suddenly rolled them all into a
gigantic ball and tossed them up onto the rack.

Have you heard anything of the case?he asked.

Not a word. I have not seen a paper for some days.

The London press has not had very full accounts. I have just
been looking through all the recent papers in order to master the
particulars. It seems, from what I gather, to be one of those
simple cases which are so extremely difficult.

That sounds a little paradoxical.

But it is profoundly true. Singularity is almost invariably a
clew. The more featureless and commonplace a crime is, the more
difficult it is to bring it home. In this case, however, they
have established a very serious case against the son of the
murdered man.

It is a murder, then?

Well, it is conjectured to be so. I shall take nothing for
granted until I have the opportunity of looking personally into
it. I will explain the state of things to you, as far as I have

been able to understand it, in a very few words.

Boscombe Valley is a country district not very far from Rossin
Herefordshire. The largest landed proprietor in that part is a
Mr. John Turnerwho made his money in Australia and returned
some years ago to the old country. One of the farms which he
heldthat of Hatherleywas let to Mr. Charles McCarthywho was
also an ex-Australian. The men had known each other in the
coloniesso that it was not unnatural that when they came to
settle down they should do so as near each other as possible.
Turner was apparently the richer manso McCarthy became his
tenant but still remainedit seemsupon terms of perfect
equalityas they were frequently together. McCarthy had one son
a lad of eighteenand Turner had an only daughter of the same
agebut neither of them had wives living. They appear to have
avoided the society of the neighboring English families and to
have led retired livesthough both the McCarthys were fond of
sport and were frequently seen at the race-meetings of the
neighborhood. McCarthy kept two servants--a man and a girl.
Turner had a considerable householdsome half-dozen at the
least. That is as much as I have been able to gather about the
families. Now for the facts.

On June 3rd, that is, on Monday last, McCarthy left his house at
Hatherley about three in the afternoon and walked down to the
Boscombe Pool, which is a small lake formed by the spreading out
of the stream which runs down the Boscombe Valley. He had been
out with his serving-man in the morning at Ross, and he had told
the man that he must hurry, as he had an appointment of
importance to keep at three. From that appointment he never came
back alive.

From Hatherley Farm-house to the Boscombe Pool is a quarter of a
mileand two people saw him as he passed over this ground. One
was an old womanwhose name is not mentionedand the other was
William Crowdera game-keeper in the employ of Mr. Turner. Both
these witnesses depose that Mr. McCarthy was walking alone. The
game-keeper adds that within a few minutes of his seeing Mr.
McCarthy pass he had seen his sonMr. James McCarthygoing the
same way with a gun under his arm. To the best of his beliefthe
father was actually in sight at the timeand the son was
following him. He thought no more of the matter until he heard in
the evening of the tragedy that had occurred.

The two McCarthys were seen after the time when William Crowder,
the game-keeper, lost sight of them. The Boscombe Pool is thickly
wooded round, with just a fringe of grass and of reeds round the
edge. A girl of fourteen, Patience Moran, who is the daughter of
the lodge-keeper of the Boscombe Valley estate, was in one of the
woods picking flowers. She states that while she was there she
saw, at the border of the wood and close by the lake, Mr.
McCarthy and his son, and that they appeared to be having a
violent quarrel. She heard Mr. McCarthy the elder using very
strong language to his son, and she saw the latter raise up his
hand as if to strike his father. She was so frightened by their
violence that she ran away and told her mother when she reached
home that she had left the two McCarthys quarrelling near
Boscombe Pool, and that she was afraid that they were going to
fight. She had hardly said the words when young Mr. McCarthy came
running up to the lodge to say that he had found his father dead
in the wood, and to ask for the help of the lodge-keeper. He was
much excited, without either his gun or his hat, and his right
hand and sleeve were observed to be stained with fresh blood. On
following him they found the dead body stretched out upon the

grass beside the pool. The head had been beaten in by repeated
blows of some heavy and blunt weapon. The injuries were such as
might very well have been inflicted by the butt-end of his son's
gun, which was found lying on the grass within a few paces of the
body. Under these circumstances the young man was instantly
arrested, and a verdict of 'wilful murder' having been returned
at the inquest on Tuesday, he was on Wednesday brought before the
magistrates at Ross, who have referred the case to the next
Assizes. Those are the main facts of the case as they came out
before the coroner and the police-court.

I could hardly imagine a more damning case,I remarked. "If
ever circumstantial evidence pointed to a criminal it does so

Circumstantial evidence is a very tricky thing,answered Holmes
thoughtfully. "It may seem to point very straight to one thing
but if you shift your own point of view a littleyou may find it
pointing in an equally uncompromising manner to something
entirely different. It must be confessedhoweverthat the case
looks exceedingly grave against the young manand it is very
possible that he is indeed the culprit. There are several people
in the neighborhoodhoweverand among them Miss Turnerthe
daughter of the neighboring landownerwho believe in his
innocenceand who have retained Lestradewhom you may recollect
in connection with 'A Study in Scarlet'to work out the case in
his interest. Lestradebeing rather puzzledhas referred the
case to meand hence it is that two middle-aged gentlemen are
flying westward at fifty miles an hour instead of quietly
digesting their breakfasts at home."

I am afraid,said Ithat the facts are so obvious that you
will find little credit to be gained out of this case.

There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact,he
answeredlaughing. "Besideswe may chance to hit upon some
other obvious facts which may have been by no means obvious to
Mr. Lestrade. You know me too well to think that I am boasting
when I say that I shall either confirm or destroy his theory by
means which he is quite incapable of employingor even of
understanding. To take the first example to handI very clearly
perceive that in your bedroom the window is upon the right-hand
sideand yet I question whether Mr. Lestrade would have noted
even so self-evident a thing as that."

How on earth--

My dear fellow, I know you well. I know the military neatness
which characterizes you. You shave every morning, and in this
season you shave by the sunlight; but since your shaving is less
and less complete as we get farther back on the left side, until
it becomes positively slovenly as we get round the angle of the
jaw, it is surely very clear that that side is less illuminated
than the other. I could not imagine a man of your habits looking
at himself in an equal light and being satisfied with such a
result. I only quote this as a trivial example of observation and
inference. Therein lies my metier, and it is just possible that
it may be of some service in the investigation which lies before
us. There are one or two minor points which were brought out in
the inquest, and which are worth considering.

What are they?

It appears that his arrest did not take place at once, but after

the return to Hatherley Farm. On the inspector of constabulary
informing him that he was a prisoner, he remarked that he was not
surprised to hear it, and that it was no more than his deserts.
This observation of his had the natural effect of removing any
traces of doubt which might have remained in the minds of the
coroner's jury.

It was a confession,I ejaculated.

No, for it was followed by a protestation of innocence.

Coming on the top of such a damning series of events, it was at
least a most suspicious remark.

On the contrary,said Holmesit is the brightest rift which I
can at present see in the clouds. However innocent he might be,
he could not be such an absolute imbecile as not to see that the
circumstances were very black against him. Had he appeared
surprised at his own arrest, or feigned indignation at it, I
should have looked upon it as highly suspicious, because such
surprise or anger would not be natural under the circumstances,
and yet might appear to be the best policy to a scheming man. His
frank acceptance of the situation marks him as either an innocent
man, or else as a man of considerable self-restraint and
firmness. As to his remark about his deserts, it was also not
unnatural if you consider that he stood beside the dead body of
his father, and that there is no doubt that he had that very day
so far forgotten his filial duty as to bandy words with him, and
even, according to the little girl whose evidence is so
important, to raise his hand as if to strike him. The
self-reproach and contrition which are displayed in his remark
appear to me to be the signs of a healthy mind rather than of a
guilty on.

I shook my head. "Many men have been hanged on far slighter
evidence I remarked.

So they have. And many men have been wrongfully hanged."

What is the young man's own account of the matter?

It is, I am afraid, not very encouraging to his supporters,
though there are one or two points in it which are suggestive.
You will find it here, and may read it for yourself.

He picked out from his bundle a copy of the local Herefordshire
paperand having turned down the sheet he pointed out the
paragraph in which the unfortunate young man had given his own
statement of what had occurred. I settled myself down in the
corner of the carriage and read it very carefully. It ran in this

Mr. James McCarthythe only son of the deceasedwas then called
and gave evidence as follows: "I had been away from home for
three days at Bristoland had only just returned upon the
morning of last Mondaythe 3d. My father was absent from home at
the time of my arrivaland I was informed by the maid that he
had driven over to Ross with John Cobbthe groom. Shortly after
my return I heard the wheels of his trap in the yardand
looking out of my windowI saw him get out and walk rapidly out
of the yardthough I was not aware in which direction he was
going. I then took my gun and strolled out in the direction of
the Boscombe Poolwith the intention of visiting the rabbit
warren which is upon the other side. On my way I saw William

Crowderthe game-keeperas he had stated in his evidence; but
he is mistaken in thinking that I was following my father. I had
no idea that he was in front of me. When about a hundred yards
from the pool I heard a cry of 'Cooee!' which was a usual signal
between my father and myself. I then hurried forwardand found
him standing by the pool. He appeared to be much surprised at
seeing me and asked me rather roughly what I was doing there. A
conversation ensued which led to high words and almost to blows
for my father was a man of a very violent temper. Seeing that his
passion was becoming ungovernableI left him and returned
towards Hatherley Farm. I had not gone more than 150 yards
howeverwhen I heard a hideous outcry behind mewhich caused me
to run back again. I found my father expiring upon the ground
with his head terribly injured. I dropped my gun and held him in
my armsbut he almost instantly expired. I knelt beside him for
some minutesand then made my way to Mr. Turner's lodge-keeper
his house being the nearestto ask for assistance. I saw no one
near my father when I returnedand I have no idea how he came by
his injuries. He was not a popular manbeing somewhat cold and
forbidding in his mannersbut he hadas far as I knowno
active enemies. I know nothing further of the matter."

The Coroner: 'Did your father make any statement to you before
he died?'

Witness: 'He mumbled a few wordsbut I could only catch some
allusion to a rat.'

The Coroner: 'What did you understand by that?'

Witness: 'It conveyed no meaning to me. I thought that he was

The Coroner: 'What was the point upon which you and your father
had this final quarrel?'

Witness: 'I should prefer not to answer.'

The Coroner: 'I am afraid that I must press it.'

Witness: 'It is really impossible for me to tell you. I can
assure you that it has nothing to do with the sad tragedy which

The Coroner: 'That is for the court to decide. I need not point
out to you that your refusal to answer will prejudice your case
considerably in any future proceedings which may arise'

Witness: 'I must still refuse.'

The Coroner: 'I understand that the cry of Cooee" was a common
signal between you and your father?'

Witness: 'It was.'

The Coroner: 'How was itthenthat he uttered it before he saw
youand before he even knew that you had returned from Bristol?'

Witness (with considerable confusion): 'I do not know.'

A Juryman: 'Did you see nothing which aroused your suspiclons
when you returned on hearing the cry and found your father
fatally injured?'

Witness: 'Nothing definite.'

The Coroner: 'What do you mean?'

Witness: 'I was so disturbed and excited as I rushed out into
the open, that I could think of nothing except of my father. Yet
I have a vague impression that as I ran forward something lay
upon the ground to the left of me. It seemed to me to be
something gray in color, a coat of some sort, or a plaid perhaps.
When I rose from my father I looked round for it, but it was

'Do you mean that it disappeared before you went for help?'

'Yes, it was gone.'

'You cannot say what it was?'

'No, I had a feeling something was there.'

'How far from the body?'

'A dozen yards or so.'

'And how far from the edge of the wood?'

'About the same.'

'Then if it was removed it was while you were within a dozen
yards of it?'

'Yes, but with my back towards it.'

This concluded the examination of the witness."

I see,said I as I glanced down the columnthat the coroner
in his concluding remarks was rather severe upon young McCarthy.
He calls attention, and with reason, to the discrepancy about his
father having signalled to him before seeing him also to his
refusal to give details of his conversation with his father, and
his singular account of his father's dying words. They are all,
as he remarks, very much against the son.

Holmes laughed softly to himself and stretched himself out upon
the cushioned seat. "Both you and the coroner have been at some
pains said he, to single out the very strongest points in the
young man's favor. Don't you see that you alternately give him
credit for having too much imaginition and too little? Too
littleif he could not invent a cause of quarrel which would
give him the sympathy of the jury; too muchif he evolved from
his own inner consciousness anything so outre as a dying
reference to a ratand the incident of the vanishing cloth. No
sirI shall approach this case from the point of view that what
this young man says is trueand we shall see whither that
hypothesis will lead us. And now here is my pocket Petrarchand
not another word shall I say of this case until we are on the
scene of action. We lunch at Swindonand I see that we shall be
there in twenty minutes."

It was nearly four o'clock when we at lastafter passing through
the beautiful Stroud Valleyand over the broad gleaming Severn
found ourselves at the pretty little country-town of Ross. A
leanferret-like manfurtive and sly-lookingwas waiting for
us upon the platform. In spite of the light brown dustcoat and

leather-leggings which he wore in deference to his rustic
surroundingsI had no difficulty in recognizing Lestradeof
Scotland Yard. With him we drove to the Hereford Arms where a
room had already been engaged for us.

I have ordered a carriage,said Lestrade as we sat over a cup
of tea. "I knew your energetic natureand that you would not be
happy until you had been on the scene of the crime."

It was very nice and complimentary of you,Holmes answered. "It
is entirely a question of barometric pressure."

Lestrade looked startled. "I do not quite follow he said.

How is the glass? Twenty-nineI see. No windand not a cloud
in the sky. I have a caseful of cigarettes here which need
smokingand the sofa is very much superior to the usual country
hotel abomination. I do not think that it is probable that I
shall use the carriage to-night."

Lestrade laughed indulgently. "You haveno doubtalready formed
your conclusions from the newspapers he said. The case is as
plain as a pikestaffand the more one goes into it the plainer
it becomes. Stillof courseone can't refuse a ladyand such a
very positive onetoo. She has heard of youand would have your
opinionthough I repeatedly told her that there was nothing
which you could do which I had not already done. Whybless my
soul! here is her carriage at the door."

He had hardly spoken before there rushed into the room one of the
most lovely young women that I have ever seen in my life. Her
violet eyes shiningher lips parteda pink flush upon her
cheeksall thought of her natural reserve lost in her
overpowering excitement and concern.

Oh, Mr. Sherlock Holmes!she criedglancing from one to the
other of usand finallywith a woman's quick intuition
fastening upon my companionI am so glad that you have come. I
have driven down to tell you so. I know that James didn't do it.
I know it, and I want you to start upon your work knowing it,
too. Never let yourself doubt upon that point. We have known each
other since we were little children, and I know his faults as no
one else does; but he is too tenderhearted to hurt a fly. Such a
charge is absurd to anyone who really knows him.

I hope we may clear him, Miss Turner,said Sherlock Holmes.
You may rely upon my doing all that I can.

But you have read the evidence. You have formed some conclusion?
Do you not see some loophole, some flaw? Do you not yourself
think that he is innocent?

I think that it is very probable.

There, now!she criedthrowing back her head and looking
defiantly at Lestrade. "You hear! He gives me hopes."

Lestrade shrugged his shoulders. "I am afraid that my colleague
has been a little quick in forming his conclusions he said.

But he is right. Oh! I know that he is right. James never did
it. And about his quarrel with his fatherI am sure that the
reason why he would not speak about it to the coroner was because
I was concerned in it."

In what way?asked Holmes.

It is no time for me to hide anything. James and his father had
many disagreements about me. Mr. McCarthy was very anxious that
there should be a marriage between us. James and I have always
loved each other as brother and sister; but of course he is young
and has seen very little of life yet, and--and--well, he
naturally did not wish to do anything like that yet. So there
were quarrels, and this, I am sure, was one of them.

And your father?asked Holmes. "Was he in favor of such a

No, he was averse to it also. No one but Mr. McCarthy was in
favor of it.A quick blush passed over her fresh young face as
Holmes shot one of his keenquestioning glances at her.

Thank you for this information,said he. "May I see your father
if I call to-morrow?"

I am afraid the doctor won't allow it.

The doctor?

Yes, have you not heard? Poor father has never been strong for
years back, but this has broken him down completely. He has taken
to his bed, and Dr. Willows says that he is a wreck and that his
nlervous system is shattered. Mr. McCarthy was the only man alive
who had known dad in the old days in Victoria.

Ha! ln Victoria! That is important.

Yes, at the mines.

Quite so; at the gold-mines, where, as I understand, Mr. Turner
made his money.

Yes, certainly.

Thank you, Miss Turner. You have been of material assistance to

You will tell me if you have any news to-morrow. No doubt you
will go to the prison to see James. Oh, if you do, Mr. Holmes, do
tell him that I know him to be innocent.

I will, Miss Turner.

I must go home now, for dad is very ill, and he misses me so if
I leave him. Good-bye, and God help you in your undertaking.She
hurried from the room as impulsively as she had enteredand we
heard the wheels of her carriage rattle off down the street.

I am ashamed of you, Holmes,said Lestrade with dignity after a
few minutes' silence. "Why should you raise up hopes which you
are bound to disappoint? I am not over-tender of heartbut I
call it cruel."

I think that I see my way to clearing James McCarthy,said
Holmes. "Have you an order to see him in prison?"

Yes, but only for you and me.

Then I shall reconsider my resolution about going out. We have
still time to take a train to Hereford and see him to-night?


Then let us do so. Watson, I fear that you will find it very
slow, but I shall only be away a couple of hours.

I walked down to the station with themand then wandered through
the streets of the little townfinally returning to the hotel
where I lay upon the sofa and tried to interest myself in a
yellow-backed novel. The puny plot of the story was so thin
howeverwhen compared to the deep mystery through which we were
gropingand I found my attention wander so continually from the
action to the factthat I at last flung it across the room and
gave myself up entirely to a consideration of the events of the
day. Supposing that this unhappy young man's story were
absolutely truethen what hellish thingwhat absolutely
unforeseen and extraordinary calamity could have occurred between
the time when he parted from his fatherand the moment when
drawn back by his screamshe rushed into the glade? It was
something terrible and deadly. What could it be? Might not the
nature of the injuries reveal something to my medical instincts?
I rang the bell and called for the weekly county paperwhich
contained a verbatim account of the inquest. In the surgeon's
deposition it was stated that the posterior third of the left
parietal bone and the left half of the occipital bone hail been
shattered by a heavy blow from a blunt weapon. I marked the spot
upon my own head. Clearly such a blow must have been struck from
behind. That was to some extent in favor of the accusedas when
seen quarrelling he was face to face with his father. Stillit
did not go for very muchfor the older man might have turned his
back before the blow fell. Stillit might be worth while to call
Holmes's attention to it. Then there was the peculiar dying
reference to a rat. What could that mean? It could not be
delirium. A man dying from a sudden blow does not commonly become
delirious. Noit was more likely to be an attempt to explain how
he met his fate. But what could it indicate? I cudgelled my
brains to find some possible explanation. And then the incident
of the gray cloth seen by young McCarthy. If that were true the
murderer must have dropped some part of his dresspresumably his
overcoatin his flightand must have had the hardihood to
return and to carry it away at the instant when the son was
kneeling with his back turned not a dozen paces off. What a
tissue of mysteries and improbabilities the whole thing was! I
did not wonder at Lestrade's opinionand yet I had so much faith
in Sherlock Holmes's insight that I could not lose hope as long
as every fresh fact seemed to strengthen his conviction of young
McCarthy's innocence.

It was late before Sherlock Holmes returned. He came back alone
for Lestrade was staying in lodgings in the town.

The glass still keeps very high,he remarked as he sat down.
It is of importance that it should not rain before we are able
to go over the ground. On the other hand, a man should be at his
very best and keenest for such nice work as that, and I did not
wish to do it when fagged by a long journey. I have seen young

And what did you learn from him?


Could he throw no light?

None at all. I was inclined to think at one time that he knew
who had done it and was screening him or her, but I am convinced
now that he is as puzzled as everyone else. He is not a very
quick-witted youth, though comely to look at and, I should think,
sound at heart.

I cannot admire his taste,I remarkedif it is indeed a fact
that he was averse to a marriage with so charming a young lady as
this Miss Turner.

Ah, thereby hangs a rather painful tale. This fellow is madly,
insanely, in love with her, but some two years ago, when he was
only a lad, and before he really knew her, for she had been away
five years at a boarding-school, what does the idiot do but get
into the clutches of a barmaid in Bristol and marry her at a
registry office? No one knows a word of the matter, but you can
imagine how maddening it must be to him to be upbraided for not
doing what he would give his very eyes to do, but what he knows
to be absolutely impossible. It was sheer frenzy of this sort
which made him throw his hands up into the air when his father,
at their last interview, was goading him on to propose to Miss
Turner. On the other hand, he had no means of supporting himself,
and his father, who was by all accounts a very hard man, would
have thrown him over utterly had he known the truth. It was with
his barmaid wife that he had spent the last three days in
Bristol, and his father did not know where he was. Mark that
point. It is of importance. Good has come out of evil, however,
for the barmaid, finding from the papers that he is in serious
trouble and likely to be hanged, has thrown him over utterly and
has written to him to say that she has a husband already in the
Bermuda Dockyard, so that there is really no tie between them. I
think that that bit of news has consoled young McCarthy for all
that he has suffered.

But if he is innocent, who has done it?

Ah! who? I would call your attention very particularly to two
points. One is that the murdered man had an appointment with
someone at the pool, and that the someone could not have been his
son, for his son was away, and he did not know when he would
return. The second is that the murdered man was heard to cry
'Cooee!' before he knew that his son had returned. Those are the
crucial points upon which the case depends. And now let us talk
about George Meredith, if you please, and we shall leave all
minor matters until to-morrow.

There was no rainas Holmes had foretoldand the morning broke
bright and cloudless. At nine o'clock Lestrade called for us with
the carriageand we set off for Hatherley Farm and the Boscombe

There is serious news this morning,Lestrade observed. "It is
said that Mr. Turnerof the Hallis so ill that his life is
despaired of."

An elderly man, I presume?saild Holmes.

About sixty; but his constitution has been shattered by his life
abroad, and he has been in failing health for some time. This
business has had a very bad effect upon him. He was an old friend
of McCarthy's, and, I may add, a great benefactor to him, for I
have learned that he gave him Hatherley Farm rent free.

Indeed! That is interesting,said Holmes.

Oh, yes! In a hundred other ways he has helped him. Everybody
about here speaks of his kindness to him.

Really! Does it not strike you as a little singular that this
McCarthy, who appears to have had little of his own, and to have
been under such obligations to Turner, should still talk of
marrying his son to Turner's daughter, who is, presumably,
heiress to the estate, and that in such a very cocksure manner,
as if it were merely a case of a proposal and all else would
follow? It is the more strange, since we know that Turner himself
was averse to the idea. The daughter told us as much. Do you not
deduce something from that?

We have got to the deductions and the inferences,said
Lestradewinking at me. "I find it hard enough to tackle facts
Holmeswithout flying away after theories and fancies."

You are right,said Holmes demurely; "you do find it very hard
to tackle the facts."

Anyhow, I have grasped one fact which you seem to find it
difficult to get hold of,replied Lesbiade with some warmth.

And that is--

That McCarthy senior met his death from McCarthy junior and that
all theories to the contrary are the merest moonshine.

Well, moonshine is a brighter thing than fog,said Holmes
laughing. "But I am very much mistaken if this is not Hatherley
Farm upon the left."

Yes, that is it.It was a widespreadcomfortable-looking
buildingtwo-storiedslate-roofedwith great yellow blotches
of lichen upon the gray walls. The drawn blinds and the smokeless
chimneyshowevergave it a stricken lookas though the weight
of this horror still lay heavy upon it. We called at the door
when the maidat Holmes's requestshowed us the boots which her
master wore at the time of his deathand also a pair of the
son'sthough not the pair which he had then had. Having measured
these very carefully from seven or eight different pointsHolmes
desired to be led to the court-yardfrom which we all followed
the winding track which led to Boscombe Pool.

Sherlock Holmes was transformed when he was hot upon such a scent
as this. Men who had only known the quiet thinker and logician of
Baker Street would have failed to recognize him. His face flushed
and darkened. His brows were drawn into two hard black lines
while his eyes shone out from beneath them with a steely glitter.
His face was bent downwardhis shoulders bowedhis lips
compressedand the veins stood out like whipcord in his long
sinewy neck. His nostrils seemed to dilate with a purely animal
lust for the chaseand his mind was so absolutely concentrated
upon the matter before him that a question or remark fell
unheeded upon his earsorat the mostonly provoked a quick
impatient snarl in reply. Swiftly and silently he made his way
along the track which ran through the meadowsand so by way of
the woods to the Boscombe Pool. It was dampmarshy groundas is
all that districtand there were marks of many feetboth upon
the path and amid the short grass which bounded it on either
side. Sometimes Holmes would hurry onsometimes stop deadand

once he made quite a little detour into the meadow. Lestrade and
I walked behind himthe detective indifferent and contemptuous
while I watched my friend with the interest which sprang from the
conviction that every one of his actions was directed towards a
definite end.

The Boscombe Poolwhich is a little reed-girt sheet of water
some fifty yards acrossis situated at the boundary between the
Hatherley Farm and the private park of the wealthy Mr. Turner.
Above the woods which lined it upon the farther side we could see
the redjutting pinnacles which marked the site of the rich
landowner's dwelling. On the Hatherley side of the pool the woods
grew very thickand there was a narrow belt of sodden grass
twenty paces across between the edge of the trees land the reeds
which lined the lake. Lestrade showed us the exact spot at which
the body had been foundandindeedso moist was the ground
that I could plainly see the traces which had been left by the
fall of the stricken man. To Holmesas I could see by his eager
face and peering eyesvery many other things were to be read
upon the trampled grass. He ran roundlike a dog who is picking
up a scentand then turned upon my companion.

What did you go into the pool for?he asked.

I fished about with a rake. I thought there might be some weapon
or other trace. But how on earth--

Oh, tut, tut! I have no time! That left foot of yours with its
inward twist is all over the place. A mole could trace it, and
there it vanishes among the reeds. Oh, how simple it would all
have been had I been here before they came like a herd of buffalo
and wallowed all over it. Here is where the party with the
lodge-keeper came, and they have covered all tracks for six or
eight feet round the body. But here are three separate tracks of
the same feet.He drew out a lens and lay down upon his
waterproof to have a better viewtalking all the time rather to
himself than to us. "These are young McCarthy's feet. Twice he
was walkingand once he ran swiftlyso that the soles are
deeply marked and the heels hardly visible. That bears out his
story. He ran when he saw his father on the ground. Then here are
the father's feet as he paced up and down. What is thisthen? It
is the butt-end of the gun as the son stood listening. And this?
Haha! What have we here? Tiptoes! tiptoes! Squaretooquite
unusual boots! They comethey gothey come again--of course
that was for the cloak. Now where did they come from?" He ran up
and downsometimes losingsometimes finding the track until we
were well within the edge of the wood and under the shadow of a
great beechthe largest tree in the neighborhood. Holmes traced
his way to the farther side of this and lay down once more upon
his face with a little cry of satisfaction. For a long time he
remained thereturning over the leaves and dried sticks
gathering up what seemed to me to be dust into an envelope and
examining with his lens not only the ground but even the bark of
the tree as far as he could reach. A jagged stone was lying among
the mossand this also he carefully examined and retained. Then
he followed a pathway through the wood until he came to the
highroadwhere all traces were lost.

It has been a case of considerable interest,he remarked
returning to his natural manner. "I fancy that this gray house on
the right must be the lodge. I think that I will go in and have a
word with Moranand perhaps write a little note. Having done
thatwe may drive back to our lunchebn. You may walk to the cab
and I shall be with you presently."

It was about ten minutes before we regained our cab and drove
back into RossHolmes still carrying with him the stone which he
had picked up in the wood.

This may interest you, Lestrade,he remarkedholding it out.
The murder was done with it.

I see no marks.

There are none.

How do you know, then?

The grass was growing under it. It had only lain there a few
days. There was no sign of a place whence it had been taken. It
corresponds with the injuries. There is no sign of any other

And the murderer?

Is a tall man, left-handed, limps with the right leg, wears
thick-soled shooting-boots and a gray cloak, smokes Indian
cigars, uses a cigar-holder, and carries a blunt pen-knife in his
pocket. There are several other indications, but these may be
enough to aid us in our search.

Lestrade laughed. "I am afraid that I am still a sceptic he
said. Theories are all very wellbut we have to deal with a
hard-headed British jury."

Nous verrons,answered Holmes calmly. "You work your own
methodand I shall work mine. I shall be busy this afternoon
and shall probably return to London by the evening train."

And leave your case unfinished?

No, finished.

But the mystery?

It is solved.

Who was the criminal, then?

The gentleman I describe.

But who is he?

Surely it would not be difficult to find out. This is not such a
populous neighborhood.

Lestrade shrugged his shoulders. "I am a practical man he said,
and I really cannot undertake to go about the country looking
for a left-handed gentleman with a game leg. I should become the
laughing-stock of Scotland Yard."

All right,said Holmes quietly. "I have given you the chance.
Here are your lodgings. Good-bye. I shall drop you a line before
I leave."

Having left Lestrade at his roomswe drove to our hotelwhere
we found lunch upon the table. Holmes was silent and buried in
thought with a pained expression upon his faceas one who finds

himself in a perplexing position.

Look here, Watson,he said when the cloth was cleared "just sit
down in this chair and let me preach to you for a little. I don't
know quite what to doand I should value your advice. Light a
cigar and let me expound."

Pray do so.

Well, now, in considering this case there are two points about
young McCarthy's narrative which struck us both instantly,
although they impressed me in his favor and you against him. One
was the fact that his father should, according to his account,
cry 'Cooee!' before seeing him. The other was his singular dying
reference to a rat. He mumbled several words, you understand, but
that was all that caught the son's ear. Now from this double
point our research must commence, and we will begin it by
presuming that what the lad says is absolutely true.

What of this 'Cooee!' then?

Well, obviously it could not have been meant for the son. The
son, as far as he knew, was in Bristol. It was mere chance that
he was within earshot. The 'Cooee!' was meant to attract the
attention of whoever it was that he had the appointment with. But
'Cooee' is a distinctly Australian cry, and one which is used
between Australians. There is a strong presumption that the
person whom McCarthy expected to meet him at Boscombe Pool was
someone who had been in Australia.

What of the rat, then?

Sherlock Holmes took a folded paper from his pocket and flattened
it out on the table. "This is a map of the Colony of Victoria
he said. I wired to Bristol for it last night." He put his hand
over part of the map. "What do you read?"

ARAT,I read.

And now?He raised his hand.


Quite so. That was the word the man uttered, and of which his
son only caught the last two syllables. He was trying to utter
the name of his murderer. So and so, of Ballarat.

It is wonderful!I exclaimed.

It is obvious. And now, you see, I had narrowed the field down
considerably. The possession of a gray garment was a third point
which, granting the son's statement to be correct, was a
certainty. We have come now out of mere vagueness to the definite
conception of an Australian from Ballarat with a gray cloak.


And one who was at home in the district, for the pool can only
be approached by the farm or by the estate, where strangers could
hardly wander.

Quite so.

Then comes our expedition of to-day. By an examination of the

ground I gained the trifling details which I gave to that
imbecile Lestrade, as to the personality of the criminal.

But how did you gain them?

You know my method. It is founded upon the observation of

His height I know that you might roughly judge from the length
of his stride. His boots, too, might be told from their traces.

Yes, they were peculiar boots.

But his lameness?

The impression of his right foot was always less distinct than
his left. He put less weight upon it. Why? Because he limped--he
was lame.

But his left-handedness.

You were yourself struck by the nature of the injury as recorded
by the surgeon at the inquest. The blow was struck from
immediately behind, and yet was upon the left side. Now, how can
that be unless it were by a left-handed man? He had stood behind
that tree during the interview between the father and son. He had
even smoked there. I found the ash of a cigar, which my special
knowledge of tobacco ashes enables me to pronounce as an Indian
cigar. I have, as you know, devoted some attention to this, and
written a little monograph on the ashes of 140 different
varieties of pipe, cigar, and cigarette tobacco. Having found the
ash, I then looked round and discovered the stump among the moss
where he had tossed it. It was an Indian cigar, of the variety
which are rolled in Rotterdam.

And the cigar-holder?

I could see that the end had not been in his mouth. Therefore he
used a holder. The tip had been cut off, not bitten off, but the
cut was not a clean one, so I deduced a blunt pen-knife.

Holmes,I saidyou have drawn a net round this man from which
he cannot escape, and you have saved an innocent human life as
truly as if you had cut the cord which was hanging him. I see the
direction in which all this points. The culprit is--

Mr. John Turner,cried the hotel waiteropening the door of
our sitting-roomand ushering in a visitor.

The man who entered was a strange and impressive figure. His
slowlimping step and bowed shoulders gave the appearance of
decrepitudeand yet his harddeep-linedcraggy featuresand
his enormous limbs showed that he was possessed of unusual
strength of body and of character. His tangled beardgrizzled
hairand outstandingdrooping eyebrows combined to give an air
of dignity and power to his appearancebut his face was of an
ashen whitewhile his lips and the corners of his nostrils were
tinged with a shade of blue. It was clear to me at a glance that
he was in the grip of some deadly and chronic disease.

Pray sit down on the sofa,said Holmes gently. "You had my

Yes, the lodge-keeper brought it up. You said that you wished to

see me here to avoid scandal.

I thought people would talk if I went to the Hall.

And why did you wish to see me?He looked across at my
companion with despair in his weary eyesas though his question
was already answered.

Yes,said Holmesanswering the look rather than the words. "It
is so. I know all about McCarthy."

The old man sank his face in his hands. "God help me!" he cried.
But I would not have let the young man come to harm. I give you
my word that I would have spoken out if it went against him at
the Assizes.

I am glad to hear you say so,said Holmes gravely.

I would have spoken now had it not been for my dear girl. It
would break her heart--it will break her heart when she hears
that I am arrested.

It may not come to that,said Holmes.


I am no official agent. I understand that it was your daughter
who required my presence here, and I am acting in her interests.
Young McCarthy must be got off, however.

I am a dying man,said old Turner. "I have had diabetes for
years. My doctor says it is a question whether I shall live a
month. Yet I would rather die under my own roof than in a jail."

Holmes rose and sat down at the table with his pen in his hand
and a bundle of paper before him. "Just tell us the truth he
said. I shall jot down the facts. You will sign itand Watson
here can witness it. Then I could produce your confession at the
last extremity to save young McCarthy. I promise you that I shall
not use it unless it is absolutely needed."

It's as well,said the old man; "it's a question whether I
shall live to the Assizesso it matters little to mebut I
should wish to spare Alice the shock. And now I will make the
thing clear to you; it has been a long time in the actingbut
will not take me long to tell.

You didn't know this dead man, McCarthy. He was a devil
incarnate. I tell you that. God keep you out of the clutches of
such a man as he. His grip has been upon me these twenty years,
and he has blasted my life. I'll tell you first how I came to be
in his power.

It was in the early '60's at the diggings. I was a young chap
thenhot-blooded and recklessready to turn my hand at
anything; I got among bad companionstook to drinkhad no luck
with my claimtook to the bushand in a word became what you
would call over here a highway robber. There were six of usand
we had a wildfree life of itsticking up a station from time
to timeor stopping the wagons on the road to the diggings.
Black Jack of Ballarat was the name I went underand our party
is still remembered in the colony as the Ballarat Gang.

One day a gold convoy came down from Ballarat to Melbourne, and

we lay in wait for it and attacked it. There were six troopers
and six of us, so it was a close thing, but we emptied four of
their saddles at the first volley. Three of our boys were killed,
however, before we got the swag. I put my pistol to the head of
the wagon-driver, who was this very man McCarthy. I wish to the
Lord that I had shot him then, but I spared him, though I saw his
wicked little eyes fixed on my face, as though to remember every
feature. We got away with the gold, became wealthy men, and made
our way over to England without being suspected. There I parted
from my old pals and determined to settle down to a quiet and
respectable life. I bought this estate, which chanced to be in
the market, and I set myself to do a little good with my money,
to make up for the way in which I had earned it. I married, too,
and though my wife died young she left me my dear little Alice.
Even when she was just a baby her wee hand seemed to lead me down
the right path as nothing else had ever done. In a word, I turned
over a new leaf and did my best to make up for the past. All was
going well when McCarthy laid hls grip upon me.

I had gone up to town about an investmentand I met him in
Regent Street with hardly a coat to his back or a boot to his

'Here we are, Jack,' says he, touching me on the arm; 'we'll be
as good as a family to you. There's two of us, me and my son, and
you can have the keeping of us. If you don't--it's a fine,
law-abiding country is England, and there's always a policeman
within hail.'

Welldown they came to the west countrythere was no shaking
them offand there they have lived rent free on my best land
ever since. There was no rest for meno peaceno forgetfulness;
turn where I wouldthere was his cunninggrinning face at my
elbow. It grew worse as Alice grew upfor he soon saw I was more
afraid of her knowing my past than of the police. Whatever he
wanted he must haveand whatever it was I gave him without
questionlandmoneyhousesuntil at last he asked a thing
which I could not give. He asked for Alice.

His son, you see, had grown up, and so had my girl, and as I was
known to be in weak health, it seemed a fine stroke to him that
his lad should step into the whole property. But there I was
firm. I would not have his cursed stock mixed with mine; not that
I had any dislike to the lad, but his blood was in him, and that
was enough. I stood firm. McCarthy threatened. I braved him to do
his worst. We were to meet at the pool midway between our houses
to talk it over.

When we went down there I found him talking with his sonso
smoked a cigar and waited behind a tree until he should be alone.
But as I listened to his talk all that was black and bitter in
me seemed to come uppermost. He was urging his son to marry my
daughter with as little regard for what she might think as if she
were a slut from off the streets. It drove me mad to think that I
and all that I held most dear should be in the power of such a
man as this. Could I not snap the bond? I was already a dying and
a desperate man. Though clear of mind and fairly strong of limb
I knew that my own fate was sealed. But my memory and my girl!
Both could be saved if I could but silence that foul tongue. I
did itMr. Holmes. I would do it again. Deeply as I have sinned
I have led a life of martyrdom to atone for it. But that my girl
should be entangled in the same meshes which held me was more
than I could suffer. I struck him down with no more compunction
than if he had been some foul and venomous beast. His cry brought

back his son; but I had gained the cover of the woodthough I
was forced to go back to fetch the cloak which I had dropped in
my flight. That is the true storygentlemenof all that

Well, it is not for me to judge you,said Holmes as the old man
signed the statement which had been drawn out. "I pray that we
may never be exposed to such a temptation."

I pray not, sir. And what do you intend to do?

In view of your health, nothing. You are yourself aware that you
will soon have to answer for your deed at a higher court than the
Assizes. I will keep your confession, and if McCarthy is
condemned I shall be forced to use it. If not, it shall never be
seen by mortal eye; and your secret, whether you be alive or
dead, shall be safe with us.

Farewell, then,said the old man solemnly. "Your own deathbeds
when they comewill be the easier for the thought of the peace
which you have given to mine." Tottering and shaking in all his
giant framehe stumbled slowly from the room.

God help us!said Holmes after a long silence. "Why does fate
play such tricks with poorhelpless worms? I never hear of such
a case as this that I do not think of Baxter's wordsand say
'Therebut for the grace of Godgoes Sherlock Holmes.'"

James McCarthy was acquitted at the Assizes on the strength of a
number of objections which had been drawn out by Holmes and
submitted to the defending counsel. Old Turner lived for seven
months after our interviewbut he is now dead; and there is
every prospect that the son and daughter may come to live happily
together in ignorance of the black cloud which rests upon their


When I glance over my notes and records of the Sherlock Holmes
cases between the years '82 and '90I am faced by so many which
present strange and interesting features that it is no easy
matter to know which to choose and which to leave. Somehowever
have already gained publicity through the papersand others have
not offered a field for those peculiar qualities which my friend
possessed in so high a degreeand which it is the object of
these papers to illustrate. Sometoohave baffled his
analytical skilland would beas narrativesbeginnings without
an endingwhile others have been but partially cleared upand
have their explanations founded rather upon conjecture and
surmise than on that absolute logical proof which was so dear to
him. There ishoweverone of these last which was so remarkable
in its details and so startling in its results that I am tempted
to give some account of it in spite of the fact that there are
points in connection with it which never have beenand probably
never will beentirely cleared up.

The year '87 furnished us with a long series of cases of greater
or less interestof which I retain the records. Among my
headings under this one twelve months I find an account of the
adventure of the Paradol Chamberof the Amateur Mendicant
Societywho held a luxurious club in the lower vault of a
furniture warehouseof the facts connected with the loss of the

British bark Sophy Andersonof the singular adventures of the
Grice Patersons in the island of Uffaand finally of the
Camberwell poisoning case. In the latteras may be remembered
Sherlock Holmes was ableby winding up the dead man's watchto
prove that it had been wound up two hours beforeand that
therefore the deceased had gone to bed within that time--a
deduction which was of the greatest importance in clearing up the
case. All these I may sketch out at some future datebut none of
them present such singular features as the strange train of
circumstances which I have now taken up my pen to describe.

It was in the latter days of Septemberand the equinoctial gales
had set in with exceptional violence. All day the wind had
screamed and the rain had beaten against the windowsso that
even here in the heart of greathand-made London we were forced
to raise our minds for the instant from the routine of life and
to recognize the presence of those great elemental forces which
shriek at mankind through the bars of his civilizationlike
untamed beasts in a cage. As evening drew inthe storm grew
higher and louderand the wind cried and sobbed like a child in
the chimney. Sherlock Holmes sat moodily at one side of the
fireplace cross-indexing his records of crimewhile I at the
other was deep in one of Clark Russell's fine sea-stories until
the howl of the gale from without seemed to blend with the text
and the splash of the rain to lengthen out into the long swash of
the sea waves. My wife was on a visit to her mother'sand for a
few days I was a dweller once more in my old quarters at Baker

Why,said Iglancing up at my companionthat was surely the
bell. Who could come to-night? Some friend of yours, perhaps?

Except yourself I have none,he answered. "I do not encourage

A client, then?

If so, it is a serious case. Nothing less would bring a man out
on such a day and at such an hour. But I take it that it is more
likely to be some crony of the landlady's.

Sherlock Holmes was wrong in his conjecturehoweverfor there
came a step in the passage and a tapping at the door. He
stretched out his long arm to turn the lamp away from himself and
towards the vacant chair upon which a newcomer must sit.

Come in!said he.

The man who entered was youngsome two-and-twenty at the
outsidewell-groomed and trimly cladwith something of
refinement and delicacy in his bearing. The streaming umbrella
which he held in his handand his long shining waterproof told
of the fierce weather through which he had come. He looked about
him anxiously in the glare of the lampand I could see that his
face was pale and his eyes heavylike those of a man who is
weighed down with some great anxiety.

I owe you an apology,he saidraising his golden pince-nez to
his eyes. "I trust that I am not intruding. I fear that I have
brought some traces of the storm and rain into your snug

Give me your coat and umbrella,said Holmes. "They may rest
here on the hook and will be dry presently. You have come up from

the south-westI see."

Yes, from Horsham.

That clay and chalk mixture which I see upon your toe caps is
quite distinctive.

I have come for advice.

That is easily got.

And help.

That is not always so easy.

I have heard of you, Mr. Holmes. I heard from Major Prendergast
how you saved him in the Tankerville Club scandal.

Ah, of course. He was wrongfully accused of cheating at cards.

He said that you could solve anything.

He said too much.

That you are never beaten.

I have been beaten four times--three times by men, and once by a

But what is that compared with the number of your successes?

It is true that I have been generally successful.

Then you may be so with me.

I beg that you will draw your chair up to the fire and favor me
with some details as to your case.

It is no ordinary one.

None of those which come to me are. I am the last court of

And yet I question, sir, whether, in all your experience, you
have ever listened to a more mysterious and inexplicable chain of
events than those which have happened in my own family.

You fill me with interest,said Holmes. "Pray give us the
essential facts from the commencementand I can afterwards
question you as to those details which seem to me to be most

The young man pulled his chair up and pushed his wet feet out
towards the blaze.

My name,said heis John Openshaw, but my own affairs have,
as far as I can understand, little to do with this awful
business. It is a hereditary matter; so in order to give you an
idea of the facts, I must go back to the commencement of the

You must know that my grandfather had two sons--my uncle Elias
and my father Joseph. My father had a small factory at Coventry
which he enlarged at the time of the invention of bicycling. He

was a patentee of the Openshaw unbreakable tireand his business
met with such success that he was able to sell it and to retire
upon a handsome competence.

My uncle Elias emigrated to America when he was a young man and
became a planter in Florida, where he was reported to have done
very well. At the time of the war he fought in Jackson's army,
and afterwards under Hood, where he rose to be a colonel. When
Lee laid down his arms my uncle returned to his plantation, where
he remained for three or four years. About 1869 or 1870 he came
back to Europe and took a small estate in Sussex, near Horsham.
He had made a very considerable fortune in the States, and his
reason for leaving them was his aversion to the negroes, and his
dislike of the Republican policy in extending the franchise to
them. He was a singular man, fierce and quick-tempered, very
foul-mouthed when he was angry, and of a most retiring
disposition. During all the years that he lived at Horsham, I
doubt if ever he set foot in the town. He had a garden and two or
three fields round his house, and there he would take his
exercise, though very often for weeks on end he would never leave
his room. He drank a great deal of brandy and smoked very
heavily, but he would see no society and did not want any
friends, not even his own brother.

He didn't mind me; in facthe took a fancy to mefor at the
time when he saw me first I was a youngster of twelve or so. This
would be in the year 1878after he had been eight or nine years
in England. He begged my father to let me live with him and he
was very kind to me in his way. When he was sober he used to be
fond of playing backgammon and draughts with meand he would
make me his representative both with the servants and with the
tradespeopleso that by the time that I was sixteen I was quite
master of the house. I kept all the keys and could go where I
liked and do what I likedso long as I did not disturb him in
his privacy. There was one singular exceptionhoweverfor he
had a single rooma lumber-room up among the atticswhich was
invariably lockedand which he would never permit either me or
anyone else to enter. With a boy's curiosity I have peeped
through the keyholebut I was never able to see more than such a
collection of old trunks and bundles as would be expected in such
a room.

One day--it was in March, 1883--a letter with a foreign stamp
lay upon the table in front of the colonel's plate. It was not a
common thing for him to receive letters, for his bills were all
paid in ready money, and he had no friends of any sort. 'From
India!' said he as he took it up, 'Pondicherry postmark! What can
this be?' Opening it hurriedly, out there jumped five little
dried orange pips, which pattered down upon his plate. I began to
laugh at this, but the laugh was struck from my lips at the sight
of his face. His lip had fallen, his eyes were protruding, his
skin the color of putty, and he glared at the envelope which he
still held in his trembling hand, 'K. K. K.!' he shrieked, and
then, 'My God, my God, my sins have overtaken me!'

'What is ituncle?' I cried.

'Death,' said he, and rising from the table he retired to his
room, leaving me palpitating with horror. I took up the envelope
and saw scrawled in red ink upon the inner flap, just above the
gum, the letter K three times repeated. There was nothing else
save the five dried pips. What could be the reason of his
overpowering terror? I left the breakfast-table, and as I
ascended the stair I met him coming down with an old rusty key,

which must have belonged to the attic, in one hand, and a small
brass box, like a cashbox, in the other.

'They may do what they likebut I'll checkmate them still'
said he with an oath. 'Tell Mary that I shall want a fire in my
room to-dayand send down to Fordhamthe Horsham lawyer.'

I did as he ordered, and when the lawyer arrived I was asked to
step up to the room. The fire was burning brightly, and in the
grate there was a mass of black, fluffy ashes, as of burned
paper, while the brass box stood open and empty beside it. As I
glanced at the box I noticed, with a start, that upon the lid was
printed the treble K which I had read in the morning upon the

'I wish youJohn' said my uncle'to witness my will. I leave
my estatewith all its advantages and all its disadvantagesto
my brotheryour fatherwhence it willno doubtdescend to
you. If you can enjoy it in peacewell and good! If you find you
cannottake my advicemy boyand leave it to your deadliest
enemy. I am sorry to give you such a two-edged thingbut I can't
say what turn things are going to take. Kindly sign the paper
where Mr. Fordham shows you.'

I signed the paper as directed, and the lawyer took it away with
him. The singular incident made, as you may think, the deepest
impression upon me, and I pondered over it and turned it every
way in my mind without being able to make anything of it. Yet I
could not shake off the vague feeling of dread which it left
behind, though the sensation grew less keen as the weeks passed
and nothing happened to disturb the usual routine of our lives. I
could see a change in my uncle, however. He drank more than ever,
and he was less inclined for any sort of society. Most of his
time he would spend in his room, with the door locked upon the
inside, but sometimes he would emerge in a sort of drunken frenzy
and would burst out of the house and tear about the garden with a
revolver in his hand, screaming out that he was afraid of no man,
and that he was not to be cooped up, like a sheep in a pen, by
man or devil. When these hot fits were over however, he would
rush tumultuously in at the door and lock and bar it behind him,
like a man who can brazen it out no longer against the terror
which lies at the roots of his soul. At such times I have seen
his face, even on a cold day, glisten with moisture, as though it
were new raised from a basin.

Wellto come to an end of the matterMr. Holmesand not to
abuse your patiencethere came a night when he made one of those
drunken sallies from which he never came back. We found himwhen
we went to search for himface downward in a little
green-scummed poolwhich lay at the foot of the garden. There
was no sign of any violenceand the water was but two feet deep
so that the juryhaving regard to his known eccentricity
brought in a verdict of 'suicide.' But Iwho knew how he winced
from the very thought of deathhad much ado to persuade myself
that he had gone out of his way to meet it. The matter passed
howeverand my father entered into possession of the estateand
of some 14000 poundswhich lay to his credit at the bank."

One moment,Holmes interposedyour statement is, I foresee,
one of the most remarkable to which I have ever listened. Let me
have the date of the reception by your uncle of the letter, and
the date of his supposed suicide.

The letter arrived on March 10, 1883. His death was seven weeks

later, upon the night of May 2d.

Thank you. Pray proceed.

When my father took over the Horsham property, he, at my
request, made a careful examination of the attic, which had been
always locked up. We found the brass box there, although its
contents had been destroyed. On the inside of the cover was a
paper label, with the initials of K. K. K. repeated upon it, and
'Letters, memoranda, receipts, and a register' written beneath.
These, we presume, indicated the nature of the papers which had
been destroyed by Colonel Openshaw. For the rest, there was
nothing of much importance in the attic save a great many
scattered papers and note-books bearing upon my uncle's life in
America. Some of them were of the war time and showed that he had
done his duty well and had borne the repute of a brave soldier.
Others were of a date during the reconstruction of the Southern
states, and were mostly concerned with politics, for he had
evidently taken a strong part in opposing the carpet-bag
politicians who had been sent down from the North.

Wellit was the beginning of '84 when my father came to live at
Horshamand all went as well as possible with us until the
January of '85. On the fourth day after the new year I heard my
father give a sharp cry of surprise as we sat together at the
breakfast-table. There he wassitting with a newly opened
envelope in one hand and five dried orange pips in the
outstretched palm of the other one. He had always laughed at what
he called my cock-and-bull story about the colonelbut he looked
very scared and puzzled now that the same thing had come upon

'Why, what on earth does this mean, John?' he stammered.

My heart had turned to lead. 'It is K. K. K.' said I.

He looked inside the envelope. 'So it is,' he cried. 'Here are
the very letters. But what is this written above them?'

'Put the papers on the sundial' I readpeeping over his

'What papers? What sundial?' he asked.

'The sundial in the garden. There is no other' said I; 'but the
papers must be those that are destroyed.'

'Pooh!' said he, gripping hard at his courage. 'We are in a
civilized land here, and we can't have tomfoolery of this kind.
Where does the thing come from?'

'From Dundee' I answeredglancing at the postmark.

'Some preposterous practical joke,' said he. 'What have I to do
with sundials and papers? I shall take no notice of such

'I should certainly speak to the police' I said.

'And be laughed at for my pains. Nothing of the sort.'

'Then let me do so?'

'No, I forbid you. I won't have a fuss made about such


It was in vain to argue with himfor he was a very obstinate
man. I went abouthoweverwith a heart which was full of

On the third day after the coming of the letter my father went
from home to visit an old friend of his, Major Freebody, who is
in command of one of the forts upon Portsdown Hill. I was glad
that he should go, for it seemed to me that he was farther from
danger when he was away from home. In that, however, I was in
error. Upon the second day of his absence I received a telegram
from the major, imploring me to come at once. My father had
fallen over one of the deep chalk-pits which abound in the
neighborhood, and was lying senseless, with a shattered skull. I
hurried to him, but he passed away without having ever recovered
his consciousness. He had, as it appears, been returning from
Fareham in the twilight, and as the country was unknown to him,
and the chalk-pit unfenced, the jury had no hesitation in
bringing in a verdict of 'death from accidental causes.'
Carefully as I examined every fact connected with his death, I
was unable to find anything which could suggest the idea of
murder. There were no signs of violence, no footmarks, no
robbery, no record of strangers having been seen upon the roads.
And yet I need not tell you that my mind was far from at ease,
and that I was well-nigh certain that some foul plot had been
woven round him.

In this sinister way I came into my inheritance. You will ask me
why I did not dispose of it? I answerbecause I was well
convinced that our troubles were in some way dependent upon an
incident in my uncle's lifeand that the danger would be as
pressing in one house as in another.

It was in January, '85, that my poor father met his end, and two
years and eight months have elapsed since then. During that time
I have lived happily at Horsham, and I had begun to hope that
this curse had passed way from the family, and that it had ended
with the last generation. I had begun to take comfort too soon,
however; yesterday morning the blow fell in the very shape in
which it had come upon my father.

The young man took from his waistcoat a crumpled envelopeand
turning to the table he shook out upon it five little dried
orange pips.

This is the envelope,he continued. "The postmark is
London--eastern division. Within are the very words which were
upon my father's last message: 'K. K. K.'; and then 'Put the
papers on the sundial.'"

What have you done?asked Holmes.



To tell the truth--he sank his face into his thinwhite
hands--"I have felt helpless. I have felt like one of those poor
rabbits when the snake is writhing towards it. I seem to be in
the grasp of some resistlessinexorable evilwhich no foresight
and no precautions can guard against."

Tut! tut!cried Sherlock Holmes. "You must actmanor you are

lost. Nothing but energy can save you. This is no time for

I have seen the police.


But they listened to my story with a smile. I am convinced that
the inspector has formed the opinion that the letters are all
practical jokes, and that the deaths of my relations were really
accidents, as the jury stated, and were not to be connected with
the warnings.

Holmes shook his clenched hands in the air. "Incredible
imbecility!" he cried.

They have, however, allowed me a policeman, who may remain in
the house with me.

Has he come with you to-night?

No. His orders were to stay in the house.

Again Holmes raved in the air.

Why did you come to me,he criedand, above all, why did you
not come at once?

I did not know. It was only to-day that I spoke to Major
Prendergast about my troubles and was advised by him to come to

It is really two days since you had the letter. We should have
acted before this. You have no further evidence, I suppose, than
that which you have placed before us--no suggestive detail which
might help us?

There is one thing,said John Openshaw. He rummaged in his coat
pocketanddrawing out a piece of discoloredblue-tinted
paperhe laid it out upon the table. "I have some remembrance
said he, that on the day when my uncle burned the papers I
observed that the smallunburned margins which lay amid the
ashes were of this particular color. I found this single sheet
upon the floor of his roomand I am inclined to think that it
may be one of the papers which hasperhapsfluttered out from
among the othersand in that way has escaped destruction. Beyond
the mention of pipsI do not see that it helps us much. I think
myself that it is a page from some private diary. The writing is
undoubtedly my uncle's."

Holmes moved the lampand we both bent over the sheet of paper
which showed by its ragged edge that it had indeed been torn from
a book. It was headedMarch, 1869,and beneath were the
following enigmatical notices:

4th. Hudson came. Same old platform.

7th. Set the pips on McCauleyParamoreand John Swainof St.

9th. McCauley cleared.

10th. John Swain cleared.

12th. Visited Paramore. All well.

Thank you!said Holmesfolding up the paper and returning it
to our visitor. "And now you must on no account lose another
instant. We cannot spare time even to discuss what you have told
me. You must get home instantly and act."

What shall I do?

There is but one thing to do. It must be done at once. You must
put this piece of paper which you have shown us into the brass
box which you have described. You must also put in a note to say
that all the other papers were burned by your uncle, and that
this is the only one which remains. You must assert that in such
words as will carry conviction with them. Having done this, you
must at once put the box out upon the sundial, as directed. Do
you understand?


Do not think of revenge, or anything of the sort, at present. I
think that we may gain that by means of the law; but we have our
web to weave, while theirs is already woven. The first
consideration is to remove the pressing danger which threatens
you. The second is to clear up the mystery and to punish the
guilty parties.

I thank you,said the young manrising and pulling on his
overcoat. "You have given me fresh life and hope. I shall
certainly do as you advise."

Do not lose an instant. And, above all, take care of yourself in
the meanwhile, for I do not think that there can be a doubt that
you are threatened by a very real and imminent danger. How do you
go back?

By train from Waterloo."

It is not yet nine. The streets will be crowded, so I trust that
you may be in safety. And yet you cannot guard yourself too

I am armed.

That is well. To-morrow I shall set to work upon your case.

I shall see you at Horsham, then?

No, your secret lies in London. It is there that I shall seek

Then I shall call upon you in a day, or in two days, with news
as to the box and the papers. I shall take your advice in every
particular.He shook hands with us and took his leave. Outside
the wind still screamed and the rain splashed and pattered
against the windows. This strangewild story seemed to have come
to us from amid the mad elements--blown in upon us like a sheet
of sea-weed in a gale--and now to have been reabsorbed by them
once more.

Sherlock Holmes sat for some time in silencewith his head sunk
forward and his eyes bent upon the red glow of the fire. Then he
lit his pipeand leaning back in his chair he watched the blue
smoke-rings as they chased each other up to the ceiling.

I think, Watson,he remarked at lastthat of all our cases we
have had none more fantastic than this.

Save, perhaps, the Sign of Four.

Well, yes. Save, perhaps, that. And yet this John Openshaw seems
to me to be walking amid even greater perils than did the

But have you,I askedformed any definite conception as to
what these perils are?

There can be no question as to their nature,he answered.

Then what are they? Who is this K. K. K., and why does he pursue
this unhappy family?

Sherlock Holmes closed his eyes and placed his elbows upon the
arms of his chairwith his finger-tips together. "The ideal
reasoner he remarked, wouldwhen he had once been shown a
single fact in all its bearingsdeduce from it not only all the
chain of events which led up to it but also all the results which
would follow from it. As Cuvier could correctly describe a whole
animal by the contemplation of a single boneso the observer who
has thoroughly understood one link in a series of incidents
should be able to accurately state all the other onesboth
before and after. We have not yet grasped the results which the
reason alone can attain to. Problems may be solved in the study
which have baffled all those who have sought a solution by the
aid of their senses. To carry the arthoweverto its highest
pitchit is necessary that the reasoner should be able to
utilize all the facts which have come to his knowledge; and this
in itself impliesas you will readily seea possession of all
knowledgewhicheven in these days of free education and
encyclopaediasis a somewhat rare accomplishment. It is not so
impossiblehoweverthat a man should possess all knowledge
which is likely to be useful to him in his workand this I have
endeavored in my case to do. If I remember rightlyyou on one
occasionin the early days of our friendshipdefined my limits
in a very precise fashion."

Yes,I answeredlaughing. "It was a singular document.
Philosophyastronomyand politics were marked at zeroI
remember. Botany variablegeology profound as regards the
mud-stains from any region within fifty miles of townchemistry
eccentricanatomy unsystematicsensational literature and crime
records uniqueviolin-playerboxerswordsmanlawyerand
self-poisoner by cocaine and tobacco. ThoseI thinkwere the
main points of my analysis."

Holmes grinned at the last item. "Well he said, I say nowas
I said thenthat a man should keep his little brain-attic
stocked with all the furniture that he is likely to useand the
rest he can put away in the lumber-room of his librarywhere he
can get it if he wants it. Nowfor such a case as the one which
has been submitted to us to-nightwe need certainly to muster
all our resources. Kindly hand me down the letter K of the
American Encyclopaedia which stands upon the shelf beside you.
Thank you. Now let us consider the situation and see what may be
deduced from it. In the first placewe may start with a strong
presumption that Colonel Openshaw had some very strong reason for
leaving America. Men at his time of life do not change all their
habits and exchange willingly the charming climate of Florida for

the lonely life of an English provincial town. His extreme love
of solitude in England suggests the idea that he was in fear of
someone or somethingso we may assume as a working hypothesis
that it was fear of someone or something which drove him from
America. As to what it was he fearedwe can only deduce that by
considering the formidable letters which were received by himself
and his successors. Did you remark the postmarks of those

The first was from Pondicherry, the second from Dundee, and the
third from London.

From East London. What do you deduce from that?

They are all seaports. That the writer was on board of a ship.

Excellent. We have already a clew. There can be no doubt that
the probability--the strong probability--is that the writer was
on board of a ship. And now let us consider another point. In the
case of Pondicherry, seven weeks elapsed between the threat and
its fulfillment, in Dundee it was only some three or four days.
Does that suggest anything?

A greater distance to travel.

But the letter had also a greater distance to come.

Then I do not see the point.

There is at least a presumption that the vessel in which the man
or men are is a sailing-ship. It looks as if they always send
their singular warning or token before them when starting upon
their mission. You see how quickly the deed followed the sign
when it came from Dundee. If they had come from Pondicherry in a
steamer they would have arrived almost as soon as their letter.
But, as a matter of fact, seven weeks elapsed. I think that those
seven weeks represented the difference between the mailboat which
brought the letter and the sailing vessel which brought the

It is possible.

More than that. It is probable. And now you see the deadly
urgency of this new case, and why I urged young Openshaw to
caution. The blow has always fallen at the end of the time which
it would take the senders to travel the distance. But this one
comes from London, and therefore we cannot count upon delay.

Good God!I cried. "What can it meanthis relentless

The papers which Openshaw carried are obviously of vital
importance to the person or persons in the sailing-ship. I think
that it is quite clear that there must be more than one of them.
A single man could not have carried out two deaths in such a way
as to deceive a coroner's jury. There must have been several in
it, and they must have been men of resource and determination.
Their papers they mean to have, be the holder of them who it may.
In this way you see K. K. K. ceases to be the initials of an
individual and becomes the badge of a society.

But of what society?

Have you never--said Sherlock Holmesbending forward and

sinking his voice--"have you never heard of the Ku Klux Klan?"

I never have.

Holmes turned over the leaves of the book upon his knee. "Here it
is said he presently:

Ku Klux Klan. A name derived from the fanciful resemblance to
the sound produced by cocking a rifle. This terrible secret
society was formed by some ex-Confederate soldiers in the
Southern states after the Civil Warand it rapidly formed local
branches in different parts of the countrynotably in Tennessee
Louisianathe CarolinasGeorgiaand Florida. Its power was
used for political purposesprincipally for the terrorizing of
the negro voters and the murdering and driving from the country
of those who were opposed to its views. Its outrages were usually
preceded by a warning sent to the marked man in some fantastic
but generally recognized shape--a sprig of oak-leaves in some
partsmelon seeds or orange pips in others. On receiving this
the victim might either openly abjure his former waysor might
fly from the country. If he braved the matter outdeath would
unfailingly come upon himand usually in some strange and
unforeseen manner. So perfect was the organization of the
societyand so systematic its methodsthat there is hardly a
case upon record where any man succeeded in braving it with
impunityor in which any of its outrages were traced home to the
perpetrators. For some years the organization flourished in spite
of the efforts of the United States government and of the better
classes of the community in the South. Eventuallyin the year
1869the movement rather suddenly collapsedalthough there have
been sporadic outbreaks of the same sort since that date.

You will observe,said Holmeslaying down the volumethat
the sudden breaking up of the society was coincident with the
disappearance of Openshaw from America with their papers. It may
well have been cause and effect. It is no wonder that he and his
family have some of the more implacable spirits upon their track.
You can understand that this register and diary may implicate
some of the first men in the South, and that there may be many
who will not sleep easy at night until it is recovered.

Then the page we have seen--

Is such as we might expect. It ran, if I remember right, 'sent
the pips to A, B, and C'--that is, sent the society's warning to
them. Then there are successive entries that A and B cleared, or
left the country, and finally that C was visited, with, I fear, a
sinister result for C. Well, I think, Doctor, that we may let
some light into this dark place, and I believe that the only
chance young Openshaw has in the meantime is to do what I have
told him. There is nothing more to be said or to be done
to-night, so hand me over my violin and let us try to forget for
half an hour the miserable weather and the still more miserable
ways of our fellow-men.

It had cleared in the morningand the sun was shining with a
subdued brightness through the dim veil which hangs over the
great city. Sherlock Holmes was already at breakfast when I came

You will excuse me for not waiting for you,said he; "I haveI
foreseea very busy day before me in looking into this case of
young Openshaw's."

What steps will you take?I asked.

It will very much depend upon the results of my first inquiries.
I may have to go down to Horsham, after all.

You will not go there first?

No, I shall commence with the City. Just ring the bell and the
maid will bring up your coffee.

As I waitedI lifted the unopened newspaper from the table and
glanced my eye over it. It rested upon a heading which sent a
chill to my heart.

Holmes,I criedyou are too late.

Ah!said helaying down his cupI feared as much. How was it
done?He spoke calmlybut I could see that he was deeply moved.

My eye caught the name of Openshaw, and the heading 'Tragedy
Near Waterloo Bridge.' Here is the account:

Between nine and ten last night Police-Constable Cookof the H
Divisionon duty near Waterloo Bridgeheard a cry for help and
a splash in the water. The nighthoweverwas extremely dark and
stormyso thatin spite of the help of several passers-byit
was quite impossible to effect a rescue. The alarmhoweverwas
givenandby the aid of the water-policethe body was
eventually recovered. It proved to be that of a young gentleman
whose nameas it appears from an envelope which was found in his
pocketwas John Openshawand whose residence is near Horsham.
It is conjectured that he may have been hurrying down to catch
the last train from Waterloo Stationand that in his haste and
the extreme darkness he missed his path and walked over the edge
of one of the small landing-places for river steamboats. The body
exhibited no traces of violenceand there can be no doubt that
the deceased had been the victim of an unfortunate accident
which should have the effect of calling the attention of the
authorities to the condition of the riverside landing-stages."

We sat in silence for some minutesHolmes more depressed and
shaken than I had ever seen him.

That hurts my pride, Watson,he said at last. "It is a petty
feelingno doubtbut it hurts my pride. It becomes a personal
matter with me nowandif God sends me healthI shall set my
hand upon this gang. That he should come to me for helpand that
I should send him away to his death--!" He sprang from his chair
and paced about the room in uncontrollable agitationwith a
flush upon his sallow cheeks and a nervous clasping and
unclasping of his long thin hands.

They must be cunning devils,he exclaimed at last. "How could
they have decoyed him down there? The Embankment is not on the
direct line to the station. The bridgeno doubtwas too
crowdedeven on such a nightfor their purpose. WellWatson
we shall see who will win in the long run. I am going out now!"

To the police?

No; I shall be my own police. When I have spun the web they may
take the flies, but not before.

All day I was engaged in my professional workand it was late in
the evening before I returned to Baker Street. Sherlock Holmes
had not come back yet. It was nearly ten o'clock before he
enteredlooking pale and worn. He walked up to the sideboard
and tearing a piece from the loaf he devoured it voraciously
washing it down with a long draught of water.

You are hungry,I remarked.

Starving. It had escaped my memory. I have had nothing since


Not a bite. I had no time to think of it.

And how have you succeeded?


You have a clew?

I have them in the hollow of my hand. Young Openshaw shall not
long remain unavenged. Why, Watson, let us put their own devilish
trade-mark upon them. It is well thought of!

What do you mean?

He took an orange from the cupboardand tearing it to pieces he
squeezed out the pips upon the table. Of these he took five and
thrust them into an envelope. On the inside of the flap he wrote
S. H. for J. 0.Then he sealed it and addressed it to "Captain
James CalhounBark Lone StarSavannahGeorgia."

That will await him when he enters port,said hechuckling.
It may give him a sleepless night. He will find it as sure a
precursor of his fate as Openshaw did before him.

And who is this Captain Calhoun?

The leader of the gang. I shall have the others, but he first.

How did you trace it, then?

He took a large sheet of paper from his pocketall covered with
dates and names.

I have spent the whole day,said heover Lloyd's registers
and files of the old papers, following the future career of every
vessel which touched at Pondicherry in January and February in
'83. There were thirty-six ships of fair tonnage which were
reported there during those months. Of these, one, the Lone Star,
instantly attracted my attention, since, although it was reported
as having cleared from London, the name is that which is given to
one of the states of the Union.

Texas, I think.

I was not and am not sure which; but I knew that the ship must
have an American origin.

What then?

I searched the Dundee records, and when I found that the bark

Lone Star was there in January, '85, my suspicion became a
certainty. I then inquired as to the vessels which lay at present
in the port of London.


The Lone Star had arrived here last week. I went down to the
Albert Dock and found that she had been taken down the river by
the early tide this morning, homeward bound to Savannah. I wired
to Gravesend and learned that she had passed some time ago, and
as the wind is easterly I have no doubt that she is now past the
Goodwins and not very far from the Isle of Wight.

What will you do, then?

Oh, I have my hand upon him. He and the two mates, are as I
learn, the only native-born Americans in the ship. The others are
Finns and Germans. I know, also, that they were all three away
from the ship last night. I had it from the stevedore who has
been loading their cargo. By the time that their sailing-ship
reaches Savannah the mail-boat will have carried this letter, and
the cable will have informed the police of Savannah that these
three gentlemen are badly wanted here upon a charge of murder.

There is ever a flawhoweverin the best laid of human plans
and the murderers of John Openshaw were never to receive the
orange pips which would show them that anotheras cunning and as
resolute as themselveswas upon their track. Very long and very
severe were the equinoctial gales that year. We waited long for
news of the Lone Star of Savannahbut none ever reached us. We
did at last hear that somewhere far out in the Atlantic a
shattered stern-post of the boat was seen swinging in the trough
of a wavewith the letters "L. S." carved upon itand that is
all which we shall ever know of the fate of the Lone Star.


Isa Whitneybrother of the late Elias WhitneyD.D.Principal
of the Theological College of St. George'swas much addicted to
opium. The habit grew upon himas I understandfrom some
foolish freak when he was at college; for having read De
Quincey's description of his dreams and sensationshe had
drenched his tobacco with laudanum in an attempt to produce the
same effects. He foundas so many more have donethat the
practice is easier to attain than to get rid ofand for many
years he continued to be a slave to the drugan object of
mingled horror and pity to his friends and relatives. I can see
him nowwith yellowpasty facedrooping lidsand pin-point
pupilsall huddled in a chairthe wreck and ruin of a noble

One night--it was in June'89--there came a ring to my bell
about the hour when a man gives his first yawn and glances at the
clock. I sat up in my chairand my wife laid her needle-work
down in her lap and made a little face of disappointment.

A patient!said she. "You'll have to go out."

I groanedfor I was newly come back from a weary day.

We heard the door opena few hurried wordsand then quick steps
upon the linoleum. Our own door flew openand a ladyclad in

some dark-colored stuffwith a black veilentered the room.

You will excuse my calling so late,she beganand then
suddenly losing her self-controlshe ran forwardthrew her arms
about my wife's neckand sobbed upon her shoulder. "OhI'm in
such trouble!" she cried; "I do so want a little help."

Why,said my wifepulling up her veilit is Kate Whitney.
How you startled me, Kate! I had not an idea who you were when
you came in.

I didn't know what to do, so l came straight to you.That was
always the way. Folk who were in grief came to my wife like birds
to a light-house.

It was very sweet of you to come. Now, you must have some wine
and water, and sit here comfortably and tell us all about it. Or
should you rather that I sent James off to bed?

Oh, no, no! I want the doctor's advice and help, too. It's about
Isa. He has not been home for two days. I am so frightened about

It was not the first time that she had spoken to us of her
husband's troubleto me as a doctorto my wife as an old friend
and school companion. We soothed and comforted her by such words
as we could find. Did she know where her husband was? Was it
possible that we could bring him back to her?

It seems that it was. She had the surest information that of late
he hadwhen the fit was on himmade use of an opium den in the
farthest east of the City. Hitherto his orgies had always been
confined to one dayand he had come backtwitching and
shatteredin the evening. But now the spell had been upon him
eight-and-forty hoursand he lay theredoubtless among the
dregs of the docksbreathing in the poison or sleeping off the
effects. There he was to be foundshe was sure of itat the Bar
of Goldin Upper Swandam Lane. But what was she to do? How could
shea young and timid womanmake her way into such a place and
pluck her husband out from among the ruffians who surrounded him?

There was the caseand of course there was but one way out of
it. Might I not escort her to this place? And thenas a second
thoughtwhy should she come at all? I was Isa Whitney's medical
adviserand as such I had influence over him. I could manage it
better if I were alone. I promised her on my word that I would
send him home in a cab within two hours if he were indeed at the
address which she had given me. And so in ten minutes I had left
my armchair and cheery sitting-room behind meand was speeding
eastward in a hansom on a strange errandas it seemed to me at
the timethough the future only could show how strange it was to

But there was no great difficulty in the first stage of my
adventure. Upper Swandam Lane is a vile alley lurking behind the
high wharves which line the north side of the river to the east
of London Bridge. Between a slop-shop and a gin-shopapproached
by a steep flight of steps leading down to a black gap like the
mouth of a caveI found the den of which I was in search.
Ordering my cab to waitI passed down the stepsworn hollow in
the centre by the ceaseless tread of drunken feet; and by the
light of a flickering oil-lamp above the door I found the latch
and made my way into a longlow roomthick and heavy with the
brown opium smokeand terraced with wooden berthslike the

forecastle of an emigrant ship.

Through the gloom one could dimly catch a glimpse of bodies lying
in strange fantastic posesbowed shouldersbent kneesheads
thrown backand chins pointing upwardwith here and there a
darklack-lustre eye turned upon the newcomer. Out of the black
shadows there glimmered little red circles of lightnow bright
now faintas the burning poison waxed or waned in the bowls of
the metal pipes. The most lay silentbut some muttered to
themselvesand others talked together in a strangelow
monotonous voicetheir conversation coming in gushesand then
suddenly tailing off into silenceeach mumbling out his own
thoughts and paying little heed to the words of his neighbor. At
the farther end was a small brazier of burning charcoalbeside
which on a three-legged wooden stool there sat a tallthin old
manwith his jaw resting upon his two fistsand his elbows upon
his kneesstaring into the fire.

As I entereda sallow Malay attendant had hurried up with a pipe
for me and a supply of the drugbeckoning me to an empty berth.

Thank you. I have not come to stay,said I. "There is a friend
of mine hereMr. Isa Whitneyand I wish to speak with him."

There was a movement and an exclamation from my rightand
peering through the gloom I saw Whitneypalehaggardand
unkemptstaring out at me.

My God! It's Watson,said he. He was in a pitiable state of
reactionwith every nerve in a twitter. "I sayWatsonwhat
o'clock is it?"

Nearly eleven.

Of what day?

Of Friday, June 19th.

Good heavens! I thought it was Wednesday. It is Wednesday. What
d'you want to frighten the chap for?He sank his face onto his
arms and began to sob in a high treble key.

I tell you that it is Friday, man. Your wife has been waiting
this two days for you. You should be ashamed of yourself!

So I am. But you've got mixed, Watson, for I have only been here
a few hours, three pipes, four pipes--I forget how many. But I'll
go home with you. I wouldn't frighten Kate--poor little Kate.
Give me your hand! Have you a cab?

Yes, I have one waiting.

Then I shall go in it. But I must owe something. Find what I
owe, Watson. I am all off color. I can do nothing for myself.

I walked down the narrow passage between the double row of
sleepersholding my breath to keep out the vilestupefying
fumes of the drugand looking about for the manager. As I passed
the tall man who sat by the brazier I felt a sudden pluck at my
skirtand a low voice whisperedWalk past me, and then look
back at me.The words fell quite distinctly upon my ear. I
glanced down. They could only have come from the old man at my
sideand yet he sat now as absorbed as eververy thinvery
wrinkledbent with agean opium pipe dangling down from between

his kneesas though it had dropped in sheer lassitude from his
fingers. I took two steps forward and looked back. It took all my
self-control to prevent me from breaking out into a cry of
astonishment. He had turned his back so that none could see him
but I. His form had filled outhis wrinkles were gonethe dull
eyes had regained their fireand theresitting by the fire and
grinning at my surprisewas none other than Sherlock Holmes. He
made a slight motion to me to approach himand instantlyas he
turned his face half round to the company once moresubsided
into a dodderingloose-lipped senility.

Holmes!I whisperedwhat on earth are you doing in this den?

As low as you can,he answered; "I have excellent ears. If you
would have the great kindness to get rid of that sottish friend
of yours I should be exceedingly glad to have a little talk with

I have a cab outside.

Then pray send him home in it. You may safely trust him, for he
appears to be too limp to get into any mischief. I should
recommend you also to send a note by the cabman to your wife to
say that you have thrown in your lot with me. If you will wait
outside, I shall be with you in five minutes.

It was difficult to refuse any of Sherlock Holmes's requestsfor
they were always so exceedingly definiteand put forward with
such a quiet air of mastery. I felthoweverthat when Whitney
was once confined in the cab my mission was practically
accomplished; and for the restI could not wish anything better
than to be associated with my friend in one of those singular
adventures which were the normal condition of his existence. In a
few minutes I had written my notepaid Whitney's billled him
out to the caband seen him driven through the darkness. In a
very short time a decrepit figure had emerged from the opium den
and I was walking down the street with Sherlock Holmes. For two
streets he shuffled along with a bent back and an uncertain foot.
Thenglancing quickly roundhe straightened himself out and
burst into a hearty fit of laughter.

I suppose, Watson,said hethat you imagine that I have added
opium-smoking to cocaine injections, and all the other little
weaknesses on which you have favored me with your medical

I was certainly surprised to find you there.

But not more so than I to find you.

I came to find a friend.

And I to find an enemy.

An enemy?

Yes; one of my natural enemies, or, shall I say, my natural
prey. Briefly, Watson, I am in the midst of a very remarkable
inquiry, and I have hoped to find a clew in the incoherent
ramblings of these sots, as I have done before now. Had I been
recognized in that den my life would not have been worth an
hour's purchase; for I have used it before now for my own
purposes, and the rascally Lascar who runs it has sworn to have
vengeance upon me. There is a trap-door at the back of that

building, near the corner of Paul's Wharf, which could tell some
strange tales of what has passed through it upon the moonless

What! You do not mean bodies?

Ay, bodies, Watson. We should be rich men if we had 1000 pounds
for every poor devil who has been done to death in that den. It
is the vilest murder-trap on the whole riverside, and I fear that
Neville St. Clair has entered it never to leave it more. But our
trap should be here.He put his two forefingers between his
teeth and whistled shrilly--a signal which was answered by a
similar whistle from the distancefollowed shortly by the rattle
of wheels and the clink of horses' hoofs.

Now, Watson,said Holmesas a tall dog-cart dashed up through
the gloomthrowing out two golden tunnels of yellow light from
its side lanterns. "You'll come with mewon't you?

If I can be of use.

Oh, a trusty comrade is always of use; and a chronicler still
more so. My room at The Cedars is a double-bedded one.

The Cedars?

Yes; that is Mr. St. Clair's house. I am staying there while I
conduct the inquiry.

Where is it, then?

Near Lee, in Kent. We have a seven-mile drive before us.

But I am all in the dark.

Of course you are. You'll know all about it presently. Jump up
here. All right, John; we shall not need you. Here's half a
crown. Look out for me to-morrow, about eleven. Give her her
head. So long, then!

He flicked the horse with his whipand we dashed away through
the endless succession of sombre and deserted streetswhich
widened graduallyuntil we were flying across a broad
balustraded bridgewith the murky river flowing sluggishly
beneath us. Beyond lay another dull wilderness of bricks and
mortarits silence broken only by the heavyregular footfall of
the policemanor the songs and shouts of some belated party of
revellers. A dull wrack was drifting slowly across the skyand a
star or two twinkled dimly here and there through the rifts of
the clouds. Holmes drove in silencewith his head sunk upon his
breastand the air of a man who is lost in thoughtwhile I sat
beside himcurious to learn what this new quest might be which
seemed to tax his powers so sorelyand yet afraid to break in
upon the current of his thoughts. We had driven several miles
and were beginning to get to the fringe of the belt of suburban
villaswhen he shook himselfshrugged his shouldersand lit up
his pipe with the air of a man who has satisfied himself that he
is acting for the best.

You have a grand gift of silence, Watson,said he. "It makes
you quite invaluable as a companion. 'Pon my wordit is a great
thing for me to have someone to talk tofor my own thoughts are
not over-pleasant. I was wondering what I should say to this dear
little woman to-night when she meets me at the door."

You forget that I know nothing about it.

I shall just have time to tell you the facts of the case before
we get to Lee. It seems absurdly simple, and yet, somehow I can
get nothing to go upon. There's plenty of thread, no doubt, but I
can't get the end of it into my hand. Now, I'll state the case
clearly and concisely to you, Watson, and maybe you can see a
spark where all is dark to me.

Proceed, then.

Some years ago--to be definite, in May, 1884--there came to Lee
a gentleman, Neville St. Clair by name, who appeared to have
plenty of money. He took a large villa, laid out the grounds very
nicely, and lived generally in good style. By degrees he made
friends in the neighborhood, and in 1887 he married the daughter
of a local brewer, by whom he now has two children. He had no
occupation, but was interested in several companies and went into
town as a rule in the morning, returning by the 5:14 from Cannon
Street every night. Mr. St. Clair is now thirty-seven years of
age, is a man of temperate habits, a good husband, a very
affectionate father, and a man who is popular with all who know
him. I may add that his whole debts at the present moment, as far
as we have been able to ascertain amount to 88 pounds l0s., while
he has 220 pounds standing to his credit in the Capital and
Counties Bank. There is no reason, therefore, to think that money
troubles have been weighing upon his mind.

Last Monday Mr. Neville St. Clair went into town rather earlier
than usualremarking before he started that he had two important
commissions to performand that he would bring his little boy
home a box of bricks. Nowby the merest chancehis wife
received a telegram upon this same Mondayvery shortly after his
departureto the effect that a small parcel of considerable
value which she had been expecting was waiting for her at the
offices of the Aberdeen Shipping Company. Nowif you are well up
in your Londonyou will know that the office of the company is
in Fresno Streetwhich branches out of Upper Swandam Lanewhere
you found me to-night. Mrs. St. Clair had her lunchstarted for
the Citydid some shoppingproceeded to the company's office
got her packetand found herself at exactly 4:35 walking through
Swandam Lane on her way back to the station. Have you followed me
so far?"

It is very clear.

If you remember, Monday was an exceedingly hot day, and Mrs. St.
Clair walked slowly, glancing about in the hope of seeing a cab,
as she did not like the neighborhood in which she found herself.
While she was walking in this way down Swandam Lane, she suddenly
heard an ejaculation or cry, and was struck cold to see her
husband looking down at her and, as it seemed to her, beckoning
to her from a second-floor window. The window was open, and she
distinctly saw his face, which she describes as being terribly
agitated. He waved his hands frantically to her, and then
vanished from the window so suddenly that it seemed to her that
he had been plucked back by some irresistible force from behind.
One singular point which struck her quick feminine eye was that
although he wore some dark coat, such as he had started to town
in, he had on neither collar nor necktie.

Convinced that something was amiss with himshe rushed down the
steps--for the house was none other than the opium den in which

you found me to-night--and running through the front room she
attempted to ascend the stairs which led to the first floor. At
the foot of the stairshowevershe met this Lascar scoundrel of
whom I have spokenwho thrust her back andaided by a Danewho
acts as assistant therepushed her out into the street. Filled
with the most maddening doubts and fearsshe rushed down the
lane andby rare good-fortunemet in Fresno Street a number of
constables with an inspectorall on their way to their beat. The
inspector and two men accompanied her backand in spite of the
continued resistance of the proprietorthey made their way to
the room in which Mr. St. Clair had last been seen. There was no
sign of him there. In factin the whole of that floor there was
no one to be found save a crippled wretch of hideous aspectwho
it seemsmade his home there. Both he and the Lascar stoutly
swore that no one else had been in the front room during the
afternoon. So determined was their denial that the inspector was
staggeredand had almost come to believe that Mrs. St. Clair had
been deluded whenwith a cryshe sprang at a small deal box
which lay upon the table and tore the lid from it. Out there fell
a cascade of children's bricks. It was the toy which he had
promised to bring home.

This discovery, and the evident confusion which the cripple
showed, made the inspector realize that the matter was serious.
The rooms were carefully examined, and results all pointed to an
abominable crime. The front room was plainly furnished as a
sitting-room and led into a small bedroom, which looked out upon
the back of one of the wharves. Between the wharf and the bedroom
window is a narrow strip, which is dry at low tide but is covered
at high tide with at least four and a half feet of water. The
bedroom window was a broad one and opened from below. On
examination traces of blood were to be seen upon the windowsill,
and several scattered drops were visible upon the wooden floor of
the bedroom. Thrust away behind a curtain in the front room were
all the clothes of Mr. Neville St. Clair, with the exception of
his coat. His boots, his socks, his hat, and his watch--all were
there. There were no signs of violence upon any of these
garments, and there were no other traces of Mr. Neville St.
Clair. Out of the window he must apparently have gone for no
other exit could be discovered, and the ominous bloodstains upon
the sill gave little promise that he could save himself by
swimming, for the tide was at its very highest at the moment of
the tragedy.

And now as to the villains who seemed to be immedlately
implicated in the matter. The Lascar was known to be a man of the
vilest antecedentsbut asby Mrs. St. Clair's storyhe was
known to have been at the foot of the stair within a very few
seconds of her husband's appearance at the windowhe could
hardly have been more than an accessory to the crime. His defense
was one of absolute ignoranceand he protested that he had no
knowledge as to the doings of Hugh Boonehis lodgerand that he
could not account in any way for the presence of the missing
gentleman's clothes.

So much for the Lascar manager. Now for the sinister cripple who
lives upon the second floor of the opium den, and who was
certainly the last human being whose eyes rested upon Neville St.
Clair. His name is Hugh Boone, and his hideous face is one which
is familiar to every man who goes much to the City. He is a
professional beggar, though in order to avoid the police
regulations he pretends to a small trade in wax vestas. Some
little distance down Threadneedle Street, upon the left-hand
side, there is, as you may have remarked, a small angle in the

wall. Here it is that this creature takes his daily seat,
cross-legged with his tiny stock of matches on his lap, and as he
is a piteous spectacle a small rain of charity descends into the
greasy leather cap which lies upon the pavement beside him. I
have watched the fellow more than once before ever I thought of
making his professional acquaintance, and I have been surprised
at the harvest which he has reaped in a short time. His
appearance, you see, is so remarkable that no one can pass him
without observing him. A shock of orange hair, a pale face
disfigured by a horrible scar, which, by its contraction, has
turned up the outer edge of his upper lip, a bulldog chin, and a
pair of very penetrating dark eyes, which present a singular
contrast to the color of his hair, all mark him out from amid
the common crowd of mendicants and so, too, does his wit, for he
is ever ready with a reply to any piece of chaff which may be
thrown at him by the passers-by. This is the man whom we now
learn to have been the lodger at the opium den, and to have been
the last man to see the gentleman of whom we are in quest.

But a cripple!said I. "What could he have done single-handed
against a man in the prime of life?"

He is a cripple in the sense that he walks with a limp; but in
other respects he appears to be a powerful and well-nurtured man.
Surely your medical experience would tell you, Watson, that
weakness in one limb is often compensated for by exceptional
strength in the others.

Pray continue your narrative.

Mrs. St. Clair had fainted at the sight of the blood upon the
window, and she was escorted home in a cab by the police, as her
presence could be of no help to them in their investigations.
Inspector Barton, who had charge of the case, made a very careful
examination of the premises, but without finding anything which
threw any light upon the matter. One mistake had been made in not
arresting Boone instantly, as he was allowed some few minutes
during which he might have communicated with his friend the
Lascar, but this fault was soon remedied, and he was seized and
searched, without anything being found which could incriminate
him. There were, it is true, some blood-stains upon his right
shirt-sleeve, but he pointed to his ring-finger, which had been
cut near the nail, and explained that the bleeding came from
there, adding that he had been to the window not long before, and
that the stains which had been observed there came doubtless from
the same source. He denied strenuously having ever seen Mr.
Neville St. Clair and swore that the presence of the clothes in
his room was as much a mystery to him as to the police. As to
Mrs. St. Clair's assertion that she had actually seen her husband
at the window, he declared that she must have been either mad or
dreaming. He was removed, loudly protesting, to the
police-station, while the inspector remained upon the premises in
the hope that the ebbing tide might afford some fresh clew.

And it didthough they hardly found upon the mud-bank what they
had feared to find. It was Neville St. Clair's coatand not
Neville St. Clairwhich lay uncovered as the tide receded. And
what do you think they found in the pockets?"

I cannot imagine.

No, I don't think you would guess. Every pocket stuffed with
pennies and half-pennies--421 pennies and 270 half-pennies. It
was no wonder that it had not been swept away by the tide. But a

human body is a different matter. There is a fierce eddy between
the wharf and the house. It seemed likely enough that the
weighted coat had remained when the stripped body had been sucked
away into the river.

But I understand that all the other clothes were found in the
room. Would the body be dressed in a coat alone?

No, sir, but the facts might be met speciously enough. Suppose
that this man Boone had thrust Neville St. Clair through the
window, there is no human eye which could have seen the deed.
What would he do then? It would of course instantly strike him
that he must get rid of the tell-tale garments. He would seize
the coat, then, and be in the act of throwing it out, when it
would occur to him that it would swim and not sink. He has little
time, for he has heard the scuffle downstairs when the wife tried
to force her way up, and perhaps he has already heard from his
Lascar confederate that the police are hurrying up the street.
There is not an instant to be lost. He rushes to some secret
hoard, where he has accumulated the fruits of his beggary, and he
stuffs all the coins upon which he can lay his hands into the
pockets to make sure of the coat's sinking. He throws it out, and
would have done the same with the other garments had not he heard
the rush of steps below, and only just had time to close the
window when the police appeared.

It certainly sounds feasible.

Well, we will take it as a working hypothesis for want of a
better. Boone, as I have told you, was arrested and taken to the
station, but it could not be shown that there had ever before
been anything against him. He had for years been known as a
professional beggar, but his life appeared to have been a very
quiet and innocent one. There the matter stands at present, and
the questions which have to be solved--what Neville St. Clair was
doing in the opium den, what happened to him when there, where is
he now, and what Hugh Boone had to do with his disappearance--are
all as far from a solution as ever. I confess that I cannot
recall any case within my experience which looked at the first
glance so simple and yet which presented such difficulties.

While Sherlock Holmes had been detailing this singular series of
eventswe had been whirling through the outskirts of the great
town until the last straggling houses had been left behindand
we rattled along with a country hedge upon either side of us.
Just as he finishedhoweverwe drove through two scattered
villageswhere a few lights still glimmered in the windows.

We are on the outskirts of Lee,said my companion. "We have
touched on three English counties in our short drivestarting in
Middlesexpassing over an angle of Surreyand ending in Kent.
See that light among the trees? That is The Cedarsand beside
that lamp sits a woman whose anxious ears have alreadyI have
little doubtcaught the clink of our horse's feet."

But why are you not conducting the case from Baker Street?I

Because there are many inquiries which must be made out here.
Mrs. St. Clair has most kindly put two rooms at my disposal, and
you may rest assured that she will have nothing but a welcome for
my friend and colleague. I hate to meet her, Watson, when I have
no news of her husband. Here we are. Whoa, there, whoa!

We had pulled up in front of a large villa which stood within its
own grounds. A stable-boy had run out to the horse's headand
springing downI followed Holmes up the smallwinding
gravel-drive which led to the house. As we approachedthe door
flew openand a little blonde woman stood in the openingclad
in some sort of light mousseline de soiewith a touch of fluffy
pink chiffon at her neck and wrists. She stood with her figure
outlined against the flood of lightone hand upon the doorone
half-raised in her eagernessher body slightly benther head
and face protrudedwith eager eyes and parted lipsa standing

Well?she criedwell?And thenseeing that there were two
of usshe gave a cry of hope which sank into a groan as she saw
that my companion shook his head and shrugged his shoulders.

No good news?


No bad?


Thank God for that. But come in. You must be weary, for you have
had a long day.

This is my friend, Dr. Watson. He has been of most vital use to
me in several of my cases, and a lucky chance has made it
possible for me to bring him out and associate him with this

I am delighted to see you,said shepressing my hand warmly.
You will, I am sure, forgive anything that may be wanting in our
arrangements, when you consider the blow which has come so
suddenly upon us.

My dear madam,said II am an old campaigner, and if I were
not I can very well see that no apology is needed. If I can be of
any assistance, either to you or to my friend here, I shall be
indeed happy.

Now, Mr. Sherlock Holmes,said the lady as we entered a
well-lit dining-roomupon the table of which a cold supper had
been laid outI should very much like to ask you one or two
plain questions, to which I beg that you will give a plain

Certainly, madam.

Do not trouble about my feelings. I am not hysterical, nor given
to fainting. I simply wish to hear your real, real opinion.

Upon what point?

In your heart of hearts, do you think that Neville is alive?

Sherlock Holmes seemed to be embarrassed by the question.
Frankly, now!she repeatedstanding upon the rug and looking
keenly down at him as he leaned back in a basket-chair.

Frankly, then, madam, I do not.

You think that he is dead?

I do.


I don't say that. Perhaps.

And on what day did he meet his death?

On Monday.

Then perhaps, Mr. Holmes, you will be good enough to explain how
it is that I have received a letter from him to-day.

Sherlock Holmes sprang out of his chair as if he had been

What!he roared.

Yes, to-day.She stood smilingholding up a little slip of
paper in the air.

May I see it?


He snatched it from her in his eagernessand smoothing it out
upon the table he drew over the lamp and examined it intently. I
had left my chair and was gazing at it over his shoulder. The
envelope was a very coarse one and was stamped with the Gravesend
postmark and with the date of that very dayor rather of the day
beforefor it was considerably after midnight.

Coarse writing,murmured Holmes. "Surely this is not your
husband's writingmadam."

No, but the enclosure is.

I perceive also that whoever addressed the envelope had to go
and inquire as to the address.

How can you tell that?

The name, you see, is in perfectly black ink, which has dried
itself. The rest is of the grayish color, which shows that
blotting-paper has been used. If it had been written straight
off, and then blotted, none would be of a deep black shade. This
man has written the name, and there has then been a pause before
he wrote the address, which can only mean that he was not
familiar with it. It is, of course, a trifle, but there is
nothing so important as trifles. Let us now see the letter. Ha!
there has been an enclosure here!

Yes, there was a ring. His signet-ring.

And you are sure that this is your husband's hand?

One of his hands.


His hand when he wrote hurriedly. It is very unlike his usual
writing, and yet I know it well.

'Dearest do not be frightened. All will come well. There is a
huge error which it may take some little time to rectify.
Wait in patience.--NEVILLE.' Written in pencil upon the fly-leaf
of a book, octavo size, no water-mark. Hum! Posted to-day in
Gravesend by a man with a dirty thumb. Ha! And the flap has been
gummed, if I am not very much in error, by a person who had been
chewing tobacco. And you have no doubt that it is your husband's
hand, madam?

None. Neville wrote those words.

And they were posted to-day at Gravesend. Well, Mrs. St. Clair,
the clouds lighten, though I should not venture to say that the
danger is over.

But he must be alive, Mr. Holmes.

Unless this is a clever forgery to put us on the wrong scent.
The ring, after all, proves nothing. It may have been taken from
him. '

Nono; it isit is his very own writing!"

Very well. It may, however, have been written on Monday and only
posted to-day.

That is possible.

If so, much may have happened between.

Oh, you must not discourage me, Mr. Holmes. I know that all is
well with him. There is so keen a sympathy between us that I
should know if evil came upon him. On the very day that I saw him
last he cut himself in the bedroom, and yet I in the dining-room
rushed upstairs instantly with the utmost certainty that
something had happened. Do you think that I would respond to such
a trifle and yet be ignorant of his death?

I have seen too much not to know that the impression of a woman
may be more valuable than the conclusion of an analytical
reasoner. And in this letter you certainly have a very strong
piece of evidence to corroborate your view. But if your husband
is alive and able to write letters, why should he remain away
from you?

I cannot imagine. It is unthinkable.

And on Monday he made no remarks before leaving you?


And you were surprised to see him in Swandam Lane?

Very much so.

Was the window open?


Then he might have called to you?

He might.

He only, as I understand, gave an inarticulate cry?


A call for help, you thought?

Yes. He waved his hands.

But it might have been a cry of surprise. Astonishment at the
unexpected sight of you might cause him to throw up his hands?

It is possible.

And you thought he was pulled back?

He disappeared so suddenly.

He might have leaped back. You did not see anyone else in the

No, but this horrible man confessed to having been there, and
the Lascar was at the foot of the stairs.

Quite so. Your husband, as far as you could see, had his
ordinary clothes on?

But without his collar or tie. I distinctly saw his bare

Had he ever spoken of Swandam Lane?


Had he ever showed any signs of having taken opium?


Thank you, Mrs. St. Clair. Those are the principal points about
which I wished to be absolutely clear. We shall now have a little
supper and then retire, for we may have a very busy day

A large and comfortable double-bedded room had been placed at our
disposaland I was quickly between the sheetsfor I was weary
after my night of adventure. Sherlock Holmes was a manhowever
whowhen he had an unsolved problem upon his mindwould go for
daysand even for a weekwithout restturning it over
rearranging his factslooking at it from every point of view
until he had either fathomed it or convinced himself that his
data were insufficient. It was soon evident to me that he was now
preparing for an all-night sitting. He took off his coat and
waistcoatput on a large blue dressing-gownand then wandered
about the room collecting pillows from his bed and cushions from
the sofa and armchairs. With these he constructed a sort of
Eastern divanupon which he perched himself cross-leggedwith
an ounce of shag tobacco and a box of matches laid out in front
of him. In the dim light of the lamp I saw him sitting therean
old briar pipe between his lipshis eyes fixed vacantly upon the
corner of the ceilingthe blue smoke curling up from him
silentmotionlesswith the light shining upon his strong-set
aquiline features. So he sat as I dropped off to sleepand so he
sat when a sudden ejaculation caused me to wake upand I found
the summer sun shining into the apartment. The pipe was still
between his lipsthe smoke still curled upwardand the room was
full of a dense tobacco hazebut nothing remained of the heap of

shag which I had seen upon the previous night.

Awake, Watson?he asked.


Game for a morning drive?


Then dress. No one is stirring yet, but I know where the
stable-boy sleeps, and we shall soon have the trap out.He
chuckled to himself as he spokehis eyes twinkledand he seemed
a different man to the sombre thinker of the previous night.

As I dressed I glanced at my watch. It was no wonder that no one
was stirring. It was twenty-five minutes past four. I had hardly
finished when Holmes returned with the news that the boy was
putting in the horse.

I want to test a little theory of mine,said hepulling on his
boots. "I thinkWatsonthat you are now standing in the
presence of one of the most absolute fools in Europe. I deserve
to be kicked from here to Charing Cross. But I think I have the
key of the affair now."

And where is it?I askedsmiling.

In the bathroom,he answered. "OhyesI am not joking he
continued, seeing my look of incredulity. I have just been
thereand I have taken it outand I have got it in this
Gladstone bag. Come onmy boyand we shall see whether it will
not fit the lock."

We made our way downstairs as quietly as possibleand out into
the bright morning sunshine. In the road stood our horse and
trapwith the half-clad stable-boy waiting at the head. We both
sprang inand away we dashed down the London Road. A few country
carts were stirringbearing in vegetables to the metropolisbut
the lines of villas on either side were as silent and lifeless as
some city in a dream.

It has been in some points a singular case,said Holmes
flicking the horse on into a gallop. "I confess that I have been
as blind as a molebut it is better to learn wisdom late than
never to learn it at all."

In town the earliest risers were just beginning to look sleepily
from their windows as we drove through the streets of the Surrey
side. Passing down the Waterloo Bridge Road we crossed over the
riverand dashing up Wellington Street wheeled sharply to the
right and found ourselves in Bow Street. Sherlock Holmes was well
known to the forceand the two constables at the door saluted
him. One of them held the horse's head while the other led us in.

Who is on duty?asked Holmes.

Inspector Bradstreet, sir.

Ah, Bradstreet, how are you?A tallstout official had come
down the stone-flagged passagein a peaked cap and frogged
jacket. "I wish to have a quiet word with youBradstreet."
Certainly, Mr. Holmes. Step into my room here.It was a small
office-like roomwith a huge ledger upon the tableand a

telephone projecting from the wall. The inspector sat down at his

What can I do for you, Mr. Holmes?

I called about that beggarman, Boone--the one who was charged
with being concerned in the disappearance of Mr. Neville St.
Clair, of Lee.

Yes. He was brought up and remanded for further inquiries.

So I heard. You have him here?

In the cells.

Is he quiet?

Oh, he gives no trouble. But he is a dirty scoundrel.


Yes, it is all we can do to make him wash his hands, and his
face is as black as a tinker's. Well, when once his case has been
settled, he will have a regular prison bath; and I think, if you
saw him, you would agree with me that he needed it.

I should like to see him very much.

Would you? That is easily done. Come this way. You can leave
your bag.

No, I think that I'll take it.

Very good. Come this way, if you please.He led us down a
passageopened a barred doorpassed down a winding stairand
brought us to a whitewashed corridor with a line of doors on each

The third on the right is his,said the inspector. "Here it
is!" He quietly shot back a panel in the upper part of the door
and glanced through.

He is asleep,said he. "You can see him very well."

We both put our eyes to the grating. The prisoner lay with his
face towards usin a very deep sleepbreathing slowly and
heavily. He was a middle-sized mancoarsely clad as became his
callingwith a colored shirt protruding through the rent in his
tattered coat. He wasas the inspector had saidextremely
dirtybut the grime which covered his face could not conceal its
repulsive ugliness. A broad wheal from an old scar ran right
across it from eye to chinand by its contraction had turned up
one side of the upper lipso that three teeth were exposed in a
perpetual snarl. A shock of very bright red hair grew low over
his eyes and forehead.

He's a beauty, isn't he?said the inspector.

He certainly needs a wash,remarked Holmes. "I had an idea that
he mightand I took the liberty of bringing the tools with me."
He opened the Gladstone bag as he spokeand took outto my
astonishmenta very large bath-sponge.

He! he! You are a funny one,chuckled the inspector.

Now, if you will have the great goodness to open that door very
quietly, we will soon make him cut a much more respectable

Well, I don't know why not,said the inspector. "He doesn't
look a credit to the Bow Street cellsdoes he?" He slipped his
key into the lockand we all very quietly entered the cell. The
sleeper half turnedand then settled down once more into a deep
slumber. Holmes stooped to the waterjugmoistened his sponge
and then rubbed it twice vigorously across and down the
prisoner's face.

Let me introduce you,he shoutedto Mr. Neville St. Clair, of
Lee, in the county of Kent.

Never in my life have I seen such a sight. The man's face peeled
off under the sponge like the bark from a tree. Gone was the
coarse brown tint! Gonetoowas the horrid scar which had
seamed it acrossand the twisted lip which had given the
repulsive sneer to the face! A twitch brought away the tangled
red hairand theresitting up in his bedwas a pale
sad-facedrefined-looking manblack-haired and smooth-skinned
rubbing his eyes and staring about him with sleepy bewilderment.
Then suddenly realizing the exposurehe broke into a scream and
threw himself down with his face to the pillow.

Great heavens!cried the inspectorit is, indeed, the missing
man. I know him from the photograph.

The prisoner turned with the reckless air of a man who abandons
himself to his destiny. "Be it so said he. And pray what am I
charged with?"

With making away with Mr. Neville St.-- Oh, come, you can't be
charged with that unless they make a case of attempted suicide of
it,said the inspector with a grin. "WellI have been
twenty-seven years in the forcebut this really takes the cake."

If I am Mr. Neville St. Clair, then it is obvious that no crime
has been committed, and that, therefore, I am illegally

No crime, but a very great error has been committed,said
Holmes. "You would have done better to have trusted you wife."

It was not the wife; it was the children,groaned the prisoner.
God help me, I would not have them ashamed of their father. My
God! What an exposure! What can I do?

Sherlock Holmes sat down beside him on the couch and patted him
kindly on the shoulder.

If you leave it to a court of law to clear the matter up,said
heof course you can hardly avoid publicity. On the other hand,
if you convince the police authorities that there is no possible
case against you, I do not know that there is any reason that the
details should find their way into the papers. Inspector
Bradstreet would, I am sure, make notes upon anything which you
might tell us and submit it to the proper authorities. The case
would then never go into court at all.

God bless you!cried the prisoner passionately. "I would have
endured imprisonmentayeven executionrather than have left

my miserable secret as a family blot to my children.

You are the first who have ever heard my story. My father was a
school-master in Chesterfield, where I received an excellent
education. I travelled in my youth, took to the stage, and
finally became a reporter on an evening paper in London. One day
my editor wished to have a series of articles upon begging in the
metropolis, and I volunteered to supply them. There was the point
from which all my adventures started. It was only by trying
begging as an amateur that I could get the facts upon which to
base my articles. When an actor I had, of course, learned all the
secrets of making up, and had been famous in the greenroom for
my skill. I took advantage now of my attainments. I painted my
face, and to make myself as pitiable as possible I made a good
scar and fixed one side of my lip in a twist by the aid of a
small slip of flesh-colored plaster. Then with a red head of
hair, and an appropriate dress, I took my station in the business
part of the city, ostensibly as a match-seller but really as a
beggar. For seven hours I plied my trade, and when I returned
home in the evening I found to my surprise that I had received no
less than 26s. 4d.

I wrote my articles and thought little more of the matter until
some time laterI backed a bill for a friend and had a writ
served upon me for 25 pounds. I was at my wit's end where to get
the moneybut a sudden idea came to me. I begged a fortnight's
grace from the creditorasked for a holiday from my employers
and spent the time in begging in the City under my disguise. In
ten days I had the money and had paid the debt.

Well, you can imagine how hard it was to settle down to arduous
work at 2 pounds a week when I knew that I could earn as much in
a day by smearing my face with a little paint, laying my cap on
the ground, and sitting still. It was a long fight between my
pride and the money, but the dollars won at last, and I threw up
reporting and sat day after day in the corner which I had first
chosen, inspiring pity by my ghastly face and filling my pockets
with coppers. Only one man knew my secret. He was the keeper of a
low den in which I used to lodge in Swandam Lane, where I could
every morning emerge as a squalid beggar and in the evenings
transform myself into a well-dressed man about town. This fellow,
a Lascar, was well paid by me for his rooms, so that I knew that
my secret was safe in his possession.

Wellvery soon I found that I was saving considerable sums of
money. I do not mean that any beggar in the streets of London
could earn 700 pounds a year--which is less than my average
takings--but I had exceptional advantages in my power of making
upand also in a facility of reparteewhich improved by
practice and made me quite a recognized character in the City.
All day a stream of penniesvaried by silverpoured in upon me
and it was a very bad day in which I failed to take 2 pounds.

As I grew richer I grew more ambitious, took a house in the
country, and eventually married, without anyone having a
suspicion as to my real occupation. My dear wife knew that I had
business in the City. She little knew what.

Last Monday I had finished for the day and was dressing in my
room above the opium den when I looked out of my window and saw
to my horror and astonishmentthat my wife was standing in the
streetwith her eyes fixed full upon me. I gave a cry of
surprisethrew up my arms to cover my faceandrushing to my
confidantthe Lascarentreated him to prevent anyone from

coming up to me. I heard her voice downstairsbut I knew that
she could not ascend. Swiftly I threw off my clothespulled on
those of a beggarand put on my pigments and wig. Even a wife's
eyes could not pierce so complete a disguise. But then it
occurred to me that there might be a search in the roomand that
the clothes might betray me. I threw open the windowreopening
by my violence a small cut which I had inflicted upon myself in
the bedroom that morning. Then I seized my coatwhich was
weighted by the coppers which I had just transferred to it from
the leather bag in which I carried my takings. I hurled it out of
the windowand it disappeared into the Thames. The other clothes
would have followedbut at that moment there was a rush of
constables up the stairand a few minutes after I foundrather
I confessto my reliefthat instead of being identified as Mr.
Neville St. ClairI was arrested as his murderer.

I do not know that there is anything else for me to explain. I
was determined to preserve my disguise as long as possible, and
hence my preference for a dirty face. Knowing that my wife would
be terribly anxious, I slipped off my ring and confided it to the
Lascar at a moment when no constable was watching me, together
with a hurried scrawl, telling her that she had no cause to

That note only reached her yesterday,said Holmes.

Good God! What a week she must have spent!

The police have watched this Lascar,said Inspector Bradstreet
and I can quite understand that he might find it difficult to
post a letter unobserved. Probably he handed it to some sailor
customer of his, who forgot all about it for some days.

That was it,said Holmesnodding approvingly; "I have no doubt
of it. But have you never been prosecuted for begging?"

Many times; but what was a fine to me?

It must stop here, however,said Bradstreet. "If the police are
to hush this thing upthere must be no more of Hugh Boone."

I have sworn it by the most solemn oaths which a man can take.

In that case I think that it is probable that no further steps
may be taken. But if you are found again, then all must come out.
I am sure, Mr. Holmes, that we are very moch indebted to you for
having cleared the matter up. I wish I knew how you reach your

I reached this one,said my friendby sitting upon five
pillows and consuming an ounce of shag. I think, Watson, that if
we drive to Baker Street we shall just be in time for breakfast.


I had called upon my friend Sherlock Holmes upon the second
morning after Christmaswith the intention of wishing him the
compliments of the season. He was lounging upon the sofa in a
purple dressing-gowna pipe-rack within his reach upon the
rightand a pile of crumpled morning papersevidently newly
studiednear at hand. Beside the couch was a wooden chairand
on the angle of the back hung a very seedy and disreputable

hard-felt hatmuch the worse for wearand cracked in several
places. A lens and a forceps lying upon the seat of the chair
suggested that the hat had been suspended in this manner for the
purpose of examination.

You are engaged,said I; "perhaps I interrupt you."

Not at all. I am glad to have a friend with whom I can discuss
my results. The matter is a perfectly trivial one--he jerked his
thumb in the direction of the old hat--"but there are points in
connection with it which are not entirely devoid of interest and
even of instruction."

I seated myself in his armchair and warmed my hands before his
crackling firefor a sharp frost had set inand the windows
were thick with the ice crystals. "I suppose I remarked, that
homely as it looksthis thing has some deadly story linked on to
it--that it is the clew which will guide you in the solution of
some mystery and the punishment of some crime."

No, no. No crime,said Sherlock Holmeslaughing. "Only one of
those whimsical little incidents which will happen when you have
four million human beings all jostling each other within the
space of a few square miles. Amid the action and reaction of so
dense a swarm of humanityevery possible combination of events
may be expected to take placeand many a little problem will be
presented which may be striking and bizarre without being
criminal. We have already had experience of such."

So much so,l remarkedthat of the last six cases which I
have added to my notes, three have been entirely free of any
legal crime.

Precisely. You allude to my attempt to recover the Irene Adler
papers, to the singular case of Miss Mary Sutherland, and to the
adventure of the man with the twisted lip. Well, I have no doubt
that this small matter will fall into the same innocent category.
You know Peterson, the commissionaire?


It is to him that this trophy belongs.

It is his hat.

No, no, he found it. Its owner is unknown. I beg that you will
look upon it not as a battered billycock but as an intellectual
problem. And, first, as to how it came here. It arrived upon
Christmas morning, in company with a good fat goose, which is, I
have no doubt, roasting at this moment in front of Peterson's
fire. The facts are these: about four o'clock on Christmas
morning, Peterson, who, as you know, is a very honest fellow, was
returning from some small jollification and was making his way
homeward down Tottenham Court Road. In front of him he saw, in
the gaslight, a tallish man, walking with a slight stagger, and
carrying a white goose slung over his shoulder. As he reached the
corner of Goodge Street, a row broke out between this stranger
and a little knot of roughs. One of the latter knocked off the
man's hat, on which he raised his stick to defend himself and,
swinging it over his head, smashed the shop window behind him.
Peterson had rushed forward to protect the stranger from his
assailants; but the man, shocked at having broken the window, and
seeing an official-looking person in uniform rushing towards him,
dropped his goose, took to his heels, and vanished amid the

labyrinth of small streets which lie at the back of Tottenham
Court Road. The roughs had also fled at the appearance of
Peterson, so that he was left in possession of the field of
battle, and also of the spoils of victory in the shape of this
battered hat and a most unimpeachable Christmas goose.

Which surely he restored to their owner?

My dear fellow, there lies the problem. It is true that 'For
Mrs. Henry Baker' was printed upon a small card which was tied to
the bird's left leg, and it is also true that the initials 'H.
B.' are legible upon the lining of this hat, but as there are
some thousands of Bakers, and some hundreds of Henry Bakers in
this city of ours, it is not easy to restore lost property to any
one of them.

What, then, did Peterson do?

He brought round both hat and goose to me on Christmas morning,
knowing that even the smallest problems are of interest to me.
The goose we retained until this morning, when there were signs
that, in spite of the slight frost, it would be well that it
should be eaten without unnecessary delay. Its finder has carried
it off, therefore, to fulfil the ultimate destiny of a goose,
while I continue to retain the hat of the unknown gentleman who
lost his Christmas dinner.

Did he not advertise?


Then, what clew could you have as to his identity?

Only as much as we can deduce.

From his hat?


But you are joking. What can you gather from this old battered

Here is my lens. You know my methods. What can you gather
yourself as to the individuality of the man who has worn this

I took the tattered object in my hands and turned it over rather
ruefully. It was a very ordinary black hat of the usual round
shapehard and much the worse for wear. The lining had been of
red silkbut was a good deal discolored. There was no maker's
name; butas Holmes had remarkedthe initials "H. B." were
scrawled upon one side. It was pierced in the brim for a
hat-securerbut the elastic was missing. For the restit was
crackedexceedingly dustyand spotted in several places
although there seemed to have been some attempt to hide the
discolored patches by smearing them with ink.

I can see nothing,said Ihanding it back to my friend.

On the contrary, Watson, you can see everything. You fail,
however, to reason from what you see. You are too timid in
drawing your inferences.

Then, pray tell me what it is that you can infer from this hat?

He picked it up and gazed at it in the peculiar introspective
fashion which was characteristic of him. "It is perhaps less
suggestive than it might have been he remarked, and yet there
are a few inferences which are very distinctand a few others
which represent at least a strong balance of probability. That
the man was highly intellectual is of course obvious upon the
face of itand also that he was fairly well-to-do within the
last three yearsalthough he has now fallen upon evil days. He
had foresightbut has less now than formerlypointing to a
moral retrogressionwhichwhen taken with the decline of his
fortunesseems to indicate some evil influenceprobably drink
at work upon him. This may account also for the obvious fact that
his wife has ceased to love him."

My dear Holmes!

He has, however, retained some degree of self-respect,he
continueddisregarding my remonstrance. "He is a man who leads a
sedentary lifegoes out littleis out of training entirelyis
middle-agedhas grizzled hair which he has had cut within the
last few daysand which he anoints with lime-cream. These are
the more patent facts which are to be deduced from his hat. Also
by the waythat it is extremely improbable that he has gas laid
on in his house."

You are certainly joking, Holmes.

Not in the least. Is it possible that even now, when I give you
these results, you are unable to see how they are attained?

I have no doubt that I am very stupid, but I must confess that I
am unable to follow you. For example, how did you deduce that
this man was intellectual?

For answer Holmes clapped the hat upon his head. It came right
over the forehead and settled upon the bridge of his nose. "It is
a question of cubic capacity said he; a man with so large a
brain must have something in it."

The decline of his fortunes, then?

This hat is three years old. These flat brims curled at the edge
came in then. It is a hat of the very best quality. Look at the
band of ribbed silk and the excellent lining. If this man could
afford to buy so expensive a hat three years ago, and has had no
hat since, then he has assuredly gone down in the world.

Well, that is clear enough, certainly. But how about the
foresight and the moral retrogression?

Sherlock Holmes laughed. "Here is the foresight said he putting
his finger upon the little disc and loop of the hat-securer.
They are never sold upon hats. If this man ordered oneit is a
sign of a certain amount of foresightsince he went out of his
way to take this precaution against the wind. But since we see
that he has broken the elastic and has not troubled to replace
itit is obvious that he has less foresight now than formerly
which is a distinct proof of a weakening nature. On the other
handhe has endeavored to conceal some of these stains upon the
felt by daubing them with inkwhich is a sign that he has not
entirely lost his self-respect."

Your reasoning is certainly plausible.

The further points, that he is middle-aged, that his hair is
grizzled, that it has been recently cut, and that he uses
limecream, are all to be gathered from a close examination of the
lower part of the lining. The lens discloses a large number of
hair-ends, clean cut by the scissors of the barber. They all
appear to be adhesive, and there is a distinct odour of
lime-cream. This dust, you will observe, is not the gritty, gray
dust of the street but the fluffy brown dust of the house,
showing that it has been hung up indoors most of the time, while
the marks of moisture upon the inside are proof positive that the
wearer perspired very freely, and could therefore, hardly be in
the best of training.

But his wife--you said that she had ceased to love him.

This hat has not been brushed for weeks. When I see you, my dear
Watson, with a week's accumulation of dust upon your hat, and
when your wife allows you to go out in such a state, I shall fear
that you also have been unfortunate enough to lose your wife's

But he might be a bachelor.

Nay, he was bringing home the goose as a peace-offering to his
wife. Remember the card upon the bird's leg.

You have an answer to everything. But how on earth do you deduce
that the gas is not laid on in his house?

One tallow stain, or even two, might come by chance; but when I
see no less than five, I think that there can be little doubt
that the individual must be brought into frequent contact with
burning tallow--walks upstairs at night probably with his hat in
one hand and a guttering candle in the other. Anyhow, he never
got tallow-stains from a gas-jet. Are you satisfied?

Well, it is very ingenious,said Ilaughing; "but sinceas
you said just nowthere has been no crime committedand no harm
done save the loss of a gooseall this seems to be rather a
waste of energy."

Sherlock Holmes had opened his mouth to replywhen the door flew
openand Petersonthe commissionairerushed into the apartment
with flushed cheeks and the face of a man who is dazed with

The goose, Mr. Holmes! The goose, sir!he gasped.

Eh? What of it, then? Has it returned to life and flapped off
through the kitchen window?Holmes twisted himself round upon
the sofa to get a fairer view of the man's excited face.

See here, sir! See what my wife found in its crop!He held out
his hand and displayed upon the centre of the palm a brilliantly
scintillating blue stonerather smaller than a bean in sizebut
of such purity and radiance that it twinkled like an electric
point in the dark hollow of his hand.

Sherlock Holmes sat up with a whistle. "By JovePeterson!" said
hethis is treasure trove indeed. I suppose you know what you
have got?

A diamond, sir? A precious stone. It cuts into glass as though

it were putty.

It's more than a precious stone. It is the precious stone.

Not the Countess of Morcar's blue carbuncle!I ejaculated.

Precisely so. I ought to know its size and shape, seeing that I
have read the advertisement about it in The Times every day
lately. It is absolutely unique, and its value can only be
conjectured, but the reward offered of 1000 pounds is certainly
not within a twentieth part of the market price.

A thousand pounds! Great Lord of mercy!The commissionaire
plumped down into a chair and stared from one to the other of us.

That is the reward, and I have reason to know that there are
sentimental considerations in the background which would induce
the Countess to part with half her fortune if she could but
recover the gem.

It was lost, if I remember aright, at the Hotel Cosmopolitan,I

Precisely so, on December 22d, just five days ago. John Horner,
a plumber, was accused of having abstracted it from the lady's
jewel-case. The evidence against him was so strong that the case
has been referred to the Assizes. I have some account of the
matter here, I believe.He rummaged amid his newspapers
glancing over the datesuntil at last he smoothed one out
doubled it overand read the following paragraph:

Hotel Cosmopolitan Jewel Robbery. John Horner, 26, plumber, was
brought up upon the charge of having upon the 22d inst.,
abstracted from the jewel-case of the Countess of Morcar the
valuable gem known as the blue carbuncle. James Ryder,
upper-attendant at the hotel, gave his evidence to the effect
that he had shown Horner up to the dressing-room of the Countess
of Morcar upon the day of the robbery in order that he might
solder the second bar of the grate, which was loose. He had
remained with Horner some little time, but had finally been
called away. On returning, he found that Horner had disappeared,
that the bureau had been forced open, and that the small morocco
casket in which, as it afterwards transpired, the Countess was
accustomed to keep her jewel, was lying empty upon the
dressing-table. Ryder instantly gave the alarm, and Horner was
arrested the same evening; but the stone could not be found
either upon his person or in his rooms. Catherine Cusack, maid to
the Countess, deposed to having heard Ryder's cry of dismay on
discovering the robbery, and to having rushed into the room,
where she found matters as described by the last witness.
Inspector Bradstreet, B division, gave evidence as to the arrest
of Horner, who struggled frantically, and protested his innocence
in the strongest terms. Evidence of a previous conviction for
robbery having been given against the prisoner, the magistrate
refused to deal summarily with the offence, but referred it to
the Assizes. Horner, who had shown signs of intense emotion
during the proceedings, fainted away at the conclusion and was
carried out of court.

Hum! So much for the police-court said Holmes thoughtfully,
tossing aside the paper. The question for us now to solve is the
sequence of events leading from a rifled jewel-case at one end to
the crop of a goose in Tottenham Court Road at the other. You
seeWatsonour little deductions have suddenly assumed a much

more important and less innocent aspect. Here is the stone; the
stone came from the gooseand the goose came from Mr. Henry
Bakerthe gentleman with the bad hat and all the other
characteristics with which I have bored you. So now we must set
ourselves very seriously to finding this gentleman and
ascertaining what part he has played in this little mystery. To
do thiswe must try the simplest means firstand these lie
undoubtedly in an advertisement in all the evening papers. If
this failI shall have recourse to other methods."

What will you say?

Give me a pencil and that slip of paper. Now, then: 'Found at
the corner of Goodge Street, a goose and a black felt hat. Mr.
Henry Baker can have the same by applying at 6:30 this evening at
221B, Baker Street.' That is clear and concise.

Very. But will he see it?

Well, he is sure to keep an eye on the papers, since, to a poor
man, the loss was a heavy one. He was clearly so scared by his
mischance in breaking the window and by the approach of Peterson
that he thought of nothing but flight, but since then he must
have bitterly regretted the impulse which caused him to drop his
bird. Then, again, the introduction of his name will cause him to
see it, for everyone who knows him will direct his attention to
it. Here you are, Peterson, run down to the advertising agency
and have this put in the evening papers.

In which, sir?

Oh, in the Globe, Star, Pall Mall, St. James's, Evening News
Standard, Echo, and any others that occur to you.

Very well, sir. And this stone?

Ah, yes, I shall keep the stone. Thank you. And, I say,
Peterson, just buy a goose on your way back and leave it here
with me, for we must have one to give to this gentleman in place
of the one which your family is now devouring.

When the commissionaire had goneHolmes took up the stone and
held it against the light. "It's a bonny thing said he. Just
see how it glints and sparkles. Of course it is a nucleus and
focus of crime. Every good stone is. They are the devil's pet
baits. In the larger and older jewels every facet may stand for a
bloody deed. This stone is not yet twenty years old. It was found
in the banks of the Amoy River in southem China and is remarkable
in having every characteristic of the carbunclesave that it is
blue in shade instead of ruby red. In spite of its youthit has
already a sinister history. There have been two murdersa
vitriol-throwinga suicideand several robberies brought about
for the sake of this forty-grain weight of crystallized charcoal.
Who would think that so pretty a toy would be a purveyor to the
gallows and the prison? I'll lock it up in my strong box now and
drop a line to the Countess to say that we have it."

Do you think that this man Horner is innocent?

I cannot tell.

Well, then, do you imagine that this other one, Henry Baker, had
anything to do with the matter?

It is, I think, much more likely that Henry Baker is an
absolutely innocent man, who had no idea that the bird which he
was carrying was of considerably more value than if it were made
of solid gold. That, however, I shall determine by a very simple
test if we have an answer to our advertisement.

And you can do nothing until then?


In that case I shall continue my professional round. But I shall
come back in the evening at the hour you have mentioned, for I
should like to see the solution of so tangled a business.

Very glad to see you. I dine at seven. There is a woodcock, I
believe. By the way, in view of recent occurrences, perhaps I
ought to ask Mrs. Hudson to examine its crop.

I had been delayed at a caseand it was a little after half-past
six when I found myself in Baker Street once more. As I
approached the house I saw a tall man in a Scotch bonnet with a
coat which was buttoned up to his chin waiting outside in the
bright semicircle which was thrown from the fanlight. Just as l
arrived the door was openedand we were shown up together to
Holmes's room.

Mr. Henry Baker, I believe,said herising from his armchair
and greeting his visitor with the easy air of geniality which he
could so readily assume. "Pray take this chair by the fireMr.
Baker. It is a cold nightand I observe that your circulation is
more adapted for summer than for winter. AhWatsonyou have
just come at the right time. Is that your hatMr. Baker?"

Yes, sir, that is undoubtedly my hat.

He was a large man with rounded shouldersa massive headand a
broadintelligent facesloping down to a pointed beard of
grizzled brown. A touch of red in nose and cheekswith a slight
tremor of his extended handrecalled Holmes's surmise as to his
habits. His rusty black frock-coat was buttoned right up in
frontwith the collar turned upand his lank wrists protruded
from his sleeves without a sign of cuff or shirt. He spoke in a
slow staccato fashionchoosing his words with careand gave the
impression generally of a man of learning and letters who had had
ill-usage at the hands of fortune.

We have retained these things for some days,said Holmes
because we expected to see an advertisement from you giving your
address. I am at a loss to know now why you did not advertise.

Our visitor gave a rather shamefaced laugh. "Shillings have not
been so plentiful with me as they once were he remarked. I had
no doubt that the gang of roughs who assaulted me had carried off
both my hat and the bird. I did not care to spend more money in a
hopeless attempt at recovering them."

Very naturally. By the way, about the bird, we were compelled to
eat it.

To eat it!Our visitor half rose from his chair in his

Yes, it would have been of no use to anyone had we not done so.
But I presume that this other goose upon the sideboard, which is

about the same weight and perfectly fresh, will answer your
purpose equally well?

Oh, certainly, certainly,answered Mr. Baker with a sigh of

Of course, we still have the feathers, legs, crop, and so on of
your own bird, so if you wish--

The man burst into a hearty laugh. "They might be useful to me as
relics of my adventure said he, but beyond that I can hardly
see what use the disjecta membra of my late acquaintance are
going to be to me. NosirI think thatwith your permissionI
will confine my attentions to the excellent bird which I perceive
upon the sideboard."

Sherlock Holmes glanced sharply across at me with a slight shrug
of his shoulders.

There is your hat, then, and there your bird,said he. "By the
waywould it bore you to tell me where you got the other one
from? I am somewhat of a fowl fancierand I have seldom seen a
better grown goose."

Certainly, sir,said Bakerwho had risen and tucked his newly
gained property under his arm. "There are a few of us who
frequent the Alpha Innnear the Museum--we are to be found in
the Museum itself during the dayyou understand. This year our
good hostWindigate by nameinstituted a goose clubby which
on consideration of some few pence every weekwe were each to
receive a bird at Christmas. My pence were duly paidand the
rest is familiar to you. I am much indebted to yousirfor a
Scotch bonnet is fitted neither to my years nor my gravity." With
a comical pomposity of manner he bowed solemnly to both of us and
strode off upon his way.

So much for Mr. Henry Baker,said Holmes when he had closed the
door behind him. "It is quite certain that he knows nothing
whatever about the matter. Are you hungryWatson?"

Not particularly.

Then I suggest that we turn our dinner into a supper and follow
up this clew while it is still hot.

By all means.

It was a bitter nightso we drew on our ulsters and wrapped
cravats about our throats. Outsidethe stars were shining coldly
in a cloudless skyand the breath of the passers-by blew out
into smoke like so many pistol shots. Our footfalls rang out
crisply and loudly as we swung through the doctors' quarter
Wimpole StreetHarley Streetand so through Wigmore Street into
Oxford Street. In a quarter of an hour we were in Bloomsbury at
the Alpha Innwhich is a small public-house at the corner of one
of the streets which runs down into Holborn. Holmes pushed open
the door of the private bar and ordered two glasses of beer from
the ruddy-facedwhite-aproned landlord.

Your beer should be excellent if it is as good as your geese,
said he.

My geese!The man seemed surprised.

Yes. I was speaking only half an hour ago to Mr. Henry Baker,
who was a member of your goose club.

Ah! yes, I see. But you see, sir, them's not our geese.

Indeed! Whose, then?

Well, I got the two dozen from a salesman in Covent Garden.

Indeed? I know some of them. Which was it?

Breckinridge is his name.

Ah! I don't know him. Well, here's your good health landlord,
and prosperity to your house. Good-night.

Now for Mr. Breckinridge he continued, buttoning up his coat
as we came out into the frosty air. RememberWatson that though
we have so homely a thing as a goose at one end of this chainwe
have at the other a man who will certainly get seven years' penal
servitude unless we can establish his innocence. It is possible
that our inquiry may but confirm his guilt butin any casewe
have a line of investigation which has been missed by the police
and which a singular chance has placed in our hands. Let us
follow it out to the bitter end. Faces to the souththenand
quick march!"

We passed across Holborndown Endell Streetand so through a
zigzag of slums to Covent Garden Market. One of the largest
stalls bore the name of Breckinridge upon itand the proprietor
a horsy-looking manwith a sharp face and trim side-whiskers was
helping a boy to put up the shutters.

Good-evening. It's a cold night,said Holmes.

The salesman nodded and shot a questioning glance at my

Sold out of geese, I see,continued Holmespointing at the
bare slabs of marble.

Let you have five hundred to-morrow morning.

That's no good.

Well, there are some on the stall with the gas-flare.

Ah, but I was recommended to you.

Who by?

The landlord of the Alpha.

Oh, yes; I sent him a couple of dozen.

Fine birds they were, too. Now where did you get them from?

To my surprise the question provoked a burst of anger from the

Now, then, mister,said hewith his head cocked and his arms
akimbowhat are you driving at? Let's have it straight, now.

It is straight enough. I should like to know who sold you the

geese which you supplied to the Alpha.

Well then, I shan't tell you. So now!

Oh, it is a matter of no importance; but I don't know why you
should be so warm over such a trifle.

Warm! You'd be as warm, maybe, if you were as pestered as I am.
When I pay good money for a good article there should be an end
of the business; but it's 'Where are the geese?' and 'Who did you
sell the geese to?' and 'What will you take for the geese?' One
would think they were the only geese in the world, to hear the
fuss that is made over them.

Well, I have no connection with any other people who have been
making inquiries,said Holmes carelessly. "If you won't tell us
the bet is offthat is all. But I'm always ready to back my
opinion on a matter of fowlsand I have a fiver on it that the
bird I ate is country bred."

Well, then, you've lost your fiver, for it's town bred,snapped
the salesman.

It's nothing of the kind.

I say it is.

I don't believe it.

D'you think you know more about fowls than I, who have handled
them ever since I was a nipper? I tell you, all those birds that
went to the Alpha were town bred.

You'll never persuade me to believe that.

Will you bet, then?

It's merely taking your money, for I know that I am right. But
I'll have a sovereign on with you, just to teach you not to be

The salesman chuckled grimly. "Bring me the booksBill said

The small boy brought round a small thin volume and a great
greasy-backed one, laying them out together beneath the hanging

Now thenMr. Cocksure said the salesman, I thought that I
was out of geesebut before I finish you'll find that there is
still one left in my shop. You see this little book?"


That's the list of the folk from whom I buy. D'you see? Well,
then, here on this page are the country folk, and the numbers
after their names are where their accounts are in the big ledger.
Now, then! You see this other page in red ink? Well, that is a
list of my town suppliers. Now, look at that third name. Just
read it out to me.

Mrs. Oakshott, 117, Brixton Road--249,read Holmes.

Quite so. Now turn that up in the ledger.

Holmes turned to the page indicated. "Here you are'Mrs.
Oakshott117Brixton Roadegg and poultry supplier."

Now, then, what's the last entry?

'December 22d. Twenty-four geese at 7s. 6d.'

Quite so. There you are. And underneath?

'Sold to Mr. Windigate of the Alpha, at 12s.'

What have you to say now?

Sherlock Holmes looked deeply chagrined. He drew a sovereign from
his pocket and threw it down upon the slabturning away with the
air of a man whose disgust is too deep for words. A few yards off
he stopped under a lamp-post and laughed in the heartynoiseless
fashion which was peculiar to him.

When you see a man with whiskers of that cut and the 'Pink 'un'
protruding out of his pocket, you can always draw him by a bet,
said he. "I daresay that if I had put 100 pounds down in front of
himthat man would not have given me such complete information
as was drawn from him by the idea that he was doing me on a
wager. WellWatsonwe areI fancynearing the end of our
questand the only point which remains to be determined is
whether we should go on to this Mrs. Oakshott to-nightor
whether we should reserve it for to-morrow. It is clear from what
that surly fellow said that there are others besides ourselves
who are anxious about the matterand I should--"

His remarks were suddenly cut short by a loud hubbub which broke
out from the stall which we had just left. Turning round we saw a
little rat-faced fellow standing in the centre of the circle of
yellow light which was thrown by the swinging lampwhile
Breckinridgethe salesmanframed in the door of his stallwas
shaking his fists fiercely at the cringing figure.

I've had enough of you and your geese,he shouted. "I wish you
were all at the devil together. If you come pestering me any more
with your silly talk I'll set the dog at you. You bring Mrs.
Oakshott here and I'll answer herbut what have you to do with
it? Did I buy the geese off you?"

No; but one of them was mine all the same,whined the little

Well, then, ask Mrs. Oakshott for it.

She told me to ask you.

Well, you can ask the King of Proosia, for all I care. I've had
enough of it. Get out of this!He rushed fiercely forwardand
the inquirer flitted away into the darkness.

Ha! this may save us a visit to Brixton Road,whispered Holmes.
Come with me, and we will see what is to be made of this
fellow.Striding through the scattered knots of people who
lounged round the flaring stallsmy companion speedily overtook
the little man and touched him upon the shoulder. He sprang
roundand I could see in the gas-light that every vestige of
color had been driven from his face.

Who are you, then? What do you want?he asked in a quavering

You will excuse me,said Holmes blandlybut I could not help
overhearing the questions which you put to the salesman just now.
I think that I could be of assistance to you.

You? Who are you? How could you know anything of the matter?

My name is Sherlock Holmes. It is my business to know what other
people don't know.

But you can know nothing of this?

Excuse me, I know everything of it. You are endeavoring to
trace some geese which were sold by Mrs. Oakshott, of Brixton
Road, to a salesman named Breckinridge, by him in turn to Mr.
Windigate, of the Alpha, and by him to his club, of which Mr.
Henry Baker is a member.

Oh, sir, you are the very man whom I have longed to meet,cried
the little fellow with outstretched hands and quivering fingers.
I can hardly explain to you how interested I am in this matter.

Sherlock Holmes hailed a four-wheeler which was passing. "In that
case we had better discuss it in a cosy room rather than in this
wind-swept market-place said he. But pray tell mebefore we
go fartherwho it is that I have the pleasure of assisting."

The man hesitated for an instant. "My name is John Robinson he
answered with a sidelong glance.

Nono; the real name said Holmes sweetly. It is always
awkward doing business with an alias."

A flush sprang to the white cheeks of the stranger. "Well then
said he, my real name is James Ryder."

Precisely so. Head attendant at the Hotel Cosmopolitan. Pray
step into the cab, and I shall soon be able to tell you
everything which you would wish to know.

The little man stood glancing from one to the other of us with
half-frightenedhalf-hopeful eyesas one who is not sure
whether he is on the verge of a windfall or of a catastrophe.
Then he stepped into the caband in half an hour we were back in
the sitting-room at Baker Street. Nothing had been said during
our drivebut the highthin breathing of our new companionand
the claspings and unclaspings of his handsspoke of the nervous
tension within him.

Here we are!said Holmes cheerily as we filed into the room.
The fire looks very seasonable in this weather. You look cold,
Mr. Ryder. Pray take the basket-chair. I will just put on my
slippers before we settle this little matter of yours. Now, then!
You want to know what became of those geese?

Yes, sir.

Or rather, I fancy, of that goose. It was one bird, I imagine in
which you were interested--white, with a black bar across the

Ryder quivered with emotion. "Ohsir he cried, can you tell

me where it went to?"

It came here.


Yes, and a most remarkable bird it proved. I don't wonder that
you should take an interest in it. It laid an egg after it was
dead--the bonniest, brightest little blue egg that ever was seen.
I have it here in my museum.

Our visitor staggered to his feet and clutched the mantelpiece
with his right hand. Holmes unlocked his strong-box and held up
the blue carbunclewhich shone out like a starwith a cold
brilliantmany-pointed radiance. Ryder stood glaring with a
drawn faceuncertain whether to claim or to disown it.

The game's up, Ryder,said Holmes quietly. "Hold upmanor
you'll be into the fire! Give him an arm back into his chair
Watson. He's not got blood enough to go in for felony with
impunity. Give him a dash of brandy. So! Now he looks a little
more human. What a shrimp it isto be sure!"

For a moment he had staggered and nearly fallenbut the brandy
brought a tinge of color into his cheeksand he sat staring
with frightened eyes at his accuser.

I have almost every link in my hands, and all the proofs which I
could possibly need, so there is little which you need tell me.
Still, that little may as well be cleared up to make the case
complete. You had heard, Ryder, of this blue stone of the
Countess of Morcar's?

It was Catherine Cusack who told me of it,said he in a
crackling voice.

I see--her ladyship's waiting-maid. Well, the temptation of
sudden wealth so easily acquired was too much for you, as it has
been for better men before you; but you were not very scrupulous
in the means you used. It seems to me, Ryder, that there is the
making of a very pretty villain in you. You knew that this man
Horner, the plumber, had been concerned in some such matter
before, and that suspicion would rest the more readily upon him.
What did you do, then? You made some small job in my lady's
room--you and your confederate Cusack--and you managed that he
should be the man sent for. Then, when he had left, you rifled
the jewel-case, raised the alarm, and had this unfortunate man
arrested. You then--

Ryder threw himself down suddenly upon the rug and clutched at my
companion's knees. "For God's sakehave mercy!" he shrieked.
Think of my father! of my mother! It would break their hearts. I
never went wrong before! I never will again. I swear it. I'll
swear it on a Bible. Oh, don't bring it into court! For Christ's
sake, don't!

Get back into your chair!said Holmes sternly. "It is very well
to cringe and crawl nowbut you thought little enough of this
poor Horner in the dock for a crime of which he knew nothing."

I will fly, Mr. Holmes. I will leave the country, sir. Then the
charge against him will break down.

Hum! We will talk about that. And now let us hear a true account

of the next act. How came the stone into the goose, and how came
the goose into the open market? Tell us the truth, for there lies
your only hope of safety.

Ryder passed his tongue over his parched lips. "I will tell you
it just as it happenedsir said he. When Horner had been
arrestedit seemed to me that it would be best for me to get
away with the stone at oncefor I did not know at what moment
the police might not take it into their heads to search me and my
room. There was no place about the hotel where it would be safe.
I went outas if on some commissionand I made for my sister's
house. She had married a man named Oakshottand lived in Brixton
Roadwhere she fattened fowls for the market. All the way there
every man I met seemed to me to be a policeman or a detective;
andfor all that it was a cold nightthe sweat was pouring down
my face before I came to the Brixton Road. My sister asked me
what was the matterand why I was so pale; but I told her that I
had been upset by the jewel robbery at the hotel. Then I went
into the back yard and smoked a pipe and wondered what it would
be best to do.

I had a friend once called Maudsley, who went to the bad, and
has just been serving his time in Pentonville. One day he had met
me, and fell into talk about the ways of thieves, and how they
could get rid of what they stole. I knew that he would be true to
me, for I knew one or two things about him; so I made up my mind
to go right on to Kilburn, where he lived, and take him into my
confidence. He would show me how to turn the stone into money.
But how to get to him in safety? I thought of the agonies I had
gone through in coming from the hotel. I might at any moment be
seized and searched, and there would be the stone in my waistcoat
pocket. I was leaning against the wall at the time and looking at
the geese which were waddling about round my feet, and suddenly
an idea came into my head which showed me how I could beat the
best detective that ever lived.

My sister had told me some weeks before that I might have the
pick of her geese for a Christmas presentand I knew that she
was always as good as her word. I would take my goose nowand in
it I would carry my stone to Kilburn. There was a little shed in
the yardand behind this I drove one of the birds--a fine big
onewhitewith a barred tail. I caught itand prying its bill
openI thrust the stone down its throat as far as my finger
could reach. The bird gave a gulpand I felt the stone pass
along its gullet and down into its crop. But the creature flapped
and struggledand out came my sister to know what was the
matter. As I turned to speak to her the brute broke loose and
fluttered off among the others.

'Whatever were you doing with that bird, Jem?' says she.

'Well' said I'you said you'd give me one for Christmasand I
was feeling which was the fattest.'

'Oh,' says she, 'we've set yours aside for you--Jem's bird, we
call it. It's the big white one over yonder. There's twenty-six
of them, which makes one for you, and one for us, and two dozen
for the market.'

'Thank youMaggie' says I; 'but if it is all the same to you
I'd rather have that one I was handling just now.'

'The other is a good three pound heavier,' said she, 'and we
fattened it expressly for you.'

'Never mind. I'll have the otherand I'll take it now' said I.

'Oh, just as you like,' said she, a little huffed. 'Which is it
you want, then?'

'That white one with the barred tailright in the middle of the

'Oh, very well. Kill it and take it with you.'

WellI did what she saidMr. Holmesand I carried the bird
all the way to Kilburn. I told my pal what I had donefor he was
a man that it was easy to tell a thing like that to. He laughed
until he chokedand we got a knife and opened the goose. My
heart turned to waterfor there was no sign of the stoneand I
knew that some terrible mistake had occurred. I left the bird
rushed back to my sister'sand hurried into the back yard. There
was not a bird to be seen there.

'Where are they all, Maggie?' I cried.

'Gone to the dealer'sJem.'

'Which dealer's?'

'Breckinridgeof Covent Garden.'

'But was there another with a barred tail?' I asked, 'the same
as the one I chose?'

'YesJem; there were two barred-tailed onesand I could never
tell them apart.'

Well, then, of course I saw it all, and I ran off as hard as my
feet would carry me to this man Breckinridge; but he had sold the
lot at once, and not one word would he tell me as to where they
had gone. You heard him yourselves to-night. Well, he has always
answered me like that. My sister thinks that I am going mad.
Sometimes I think that I am myself. And now--and now I am myself
a branded thief, without ever having touched the wealth for which
I sold my character. God help me! God help me!He burst into
convulsive sobbingwith his face buried in his hands.

There was a long silencebroken only by his heavy breathing and
by the measured tapping of Sherlock Holmes's finger-tips upon the
edge of the table. Then my friend rose and threw open the door.

Get out!said he.

What, sir! Oh, Heaven bless you!

No more words. Get out!

And no more words were needed. There was a rusha clatter upon
the stairsthe bang of a doorand the crisp rattle of running
footfalls from the street.

After all, Watson,said Holmesreaching up his hand for his
clay pipeI am not retained by the police to supply their
deficiencies. If Horner were in danger it would be another thing;
but this fellow will not appear against him, and the case must
collapse. I suppose that I am commuting a felony. but it is just
possible that I am saving a soul. This fellow will not go wrong

again; he is too terribly frightened. Send him to jail now, and
you make him a jail-bird for life. Besides, it is the season of
forgiveness. Chance has put in our way a most singular and
whimsical problem, and its solution is its own reward. If you
will have the goodness to touch the bell, Doctor, we will begin
another investigation, in which, also a bird will be the chief


On glancing over my notes of the seventy odd cases in which I
have during the last eight years studied the methods of my friend
Sherlock HolmesI find many tragicsome comica large number
merely strangebut none commonplace; forworking as he did
rather for the love of his art than for the acquirement of
wealthhe refused to associate himself with any investigation
which did not tend towards the unusualand even the fantastic.
Of all these varied caseshoweverI cannot recall any which
presented more singular features than that which was associated
with the well-known Surrey family of the Roylotts of Stoke Moran.
The events in question occurred in the early days of my
association with Holmeswhen we were sharing rooms as bachelors
in Baker Street. It is possible that I might have placed them
upon record beforebut a promise of secrecy was made at the
timefrom which I have only been freed during the last month by
the untimely death of the lady to whom the pledge was given. It
is perhaps as well that the facts should now come to lightfor I
have reasons to know that there are widespread rumours as to the
death of Dr. Grimesby Roylott which tend to make the matter even
more terrible than the truth.

It was early in April in the year '83 that I woke one morning to
find Sherlock Holmes standingfully dressedby the side of my
bed. He was a late riseras a ruleand as the clock on the
mantelpiece showed me that it was only a quarter-past sevenI
blinked up at him in some surpriseand perhaps just a little
resentmentfor I was myself regular in my habits.

Very sorry to knock you up, Watson,said hebut it's the
common lot this morning. Mrs. Hudson has been knocked up, she
retorted upon me, and I on you.

What is it, then--a fire?

No; a client. It seems that a young lady has arrived in a
considerable state of excitement, who insists upon seeing me. She
is waiting now in the sitting-room. Now, when young ladies wander
about the metropolis at this hour of the morning, and knock
sleepy people up out of their beds, I presume that it is
something very pressing which they have to communicate. Should it
prove to be an interesting case, you would, I am sure, wish to
follow it from the outset. I thought, at any rate, that I should
call you and give you the chance.

My dear fellow, I would not miss it for anything.

I had no keener pleasure than in following Holmes in his
professional investigationsand in admiring the rapid
deductionsas swift as intuitionsand yet always founded on a
logical basis wlth which he unravelled the problems which were
submitted to him. I rapidly threw on my clothes and was ready in
a few minutes to accompany my friend down to the sitting-room. A

lady dressed in black and heavily veiledwho had been sitting in
the windowrose as we entered.

Good-morning, madam,said Holmes cheerily. "My name is Sherlock
Holmes. This is my intimate friend and associateDr. Watson
before whom you can speak as freely as before myself. Ha! I am
glad to see that Mrs. Hudson has had the good sense to light the
fire. Pray draw up to itand I shall order you a cup of hot
coffeefor I observe that you are shivering."

lt is not cold which makes me shiver,said the woman in a low
voicechanging her seat as requested.

What, then?

It is fear, Mr. Holmes. It is terror.She raised her veil as
she spokeand we could see that she was indeed in a pitiable
state of agitationher face all drawn and graywith restless
frightened eyeslike those of some hunted animal. Her features
and figure were those of a woman of thirtybut her hair was shot
with premature grayand her expression was weary and haggard.
Sherlock Holmes ran her over with one of his quick
all-comprehensive glances.

You must not fear,said he soothinglybending forward and
patting her forearm. "We shall soon set matters rightI have no
doubt. You have come in by train this morningI see."

You know me, then?

No, but I observe the second half of a return ticket in the palm
of your left glove. You must have started early, and yet you had
a good drive in a dog-cart, along heavy roads, before you reached
the station.

The lady gave a violent start and stared in bewilderment at my

There is no mystery, my dear madam,said hesmiling. "The left
arm of your jacket is spattered with mud in no less than seven
places. The marks are perfectly fresh. There is no vehicle save a
dog-cart which throws up mud in that wayand then only when you
sit on the left-hand side of the driver."

Whatever your reasons may be, you are perfectly correct,said
she. "I started from home before sixreached Leatherhead at
twenty pastand came in by the first train to Waterloo. SirI
can stand this strain no longer; I shall go mad if it continues.
I have no one to turn to--nonesave only onewho cares for me
and hepoor fellowcan be of little aid. I have heard of you
Mr. Holmes; I have heard of you from Mrs. Farintoshwhom you
helped in the hour of her sore need. It was from her that I had
your address. Ohsirdo you not think that you could help me
tooand at least throw a little light through the dense darkness
which surrounds me? At present it is out of my power to reward
you for your servicesbut in a month or six weeks I shall be
marriedwith the control of my own incomeand then at least you
shall not find me ungrateful."

Holmes turned to his desk andunlocking itdrew out a small
case-bookwhich he consulted.

Farintosh,said he. "Ah yesI recall the case; it was
concerned with an opal tiara. I think it was before your time

Watson. I can only saymadamthat I shall be happy to devote
the same care to your case as I did to that of your friend. As to
rewardmy profession is its own reward; but you are at liberty
to defray whatever expenses I may be put toat the time which
suits you best. And now I beg that you will lay before us
everything that may help us in forming an opinion upon the

Alas!replied our visitorthe very horror of my situation
lies in the fact that my fears are so vague, and my suspicions
depend so entirely upon small points, which might seem trivial to
another, that even he to whom of all others I have a right to
look for help and advice looks upon all that I tell him about it
as the fancies of a nervous woman. He does not say so, but I can
read it from his soothing answers and averted eyes. But I have
heard, Mr. Holmes, that you can see deeply into the manifold
wickedness of the human heart. You may advise me how to walk amid
the dangers which encompass me.

I am all attention, madam.

My name is Helen Stoner, and I am living with my stepfather, who
is the last survivor of one of the oldest Saxon families in
England, the Roylotts of Stoke Moran, on the western border of

Holmes nodded his head. "The name is familiar to me said he.

The family was at one time among the richest in Englandand the
estates extended over the borders into Berkshire in the north
and Hampshire in the west. In the last centuryhoweverfour
successive heirs were of a dissolute and wasteful disposition
and the family ruin was eventually completed by a gambler in the
days of the Regency. Nothing was left save a few acres of ground
and the two-hundred-year-old housewhich is itself crushed under
a heavy mortgage. The last squire dragged out his existence
thereliving the horrible life of an aristocratic pauper; but
his only sonmy stepfatherseeing that he must adapt himself to
the new conditionsobtained an advance from a relativewhich
enabled him to take a medical degree and went out to Calcutta
whereby his professional skill and his force of characterhe
established a large practice. In a fit of angerhowevercaused
by some robberies which had been perpetrated in the househe
beat his native butler to death and narrowly escaped a capital
sentence. As it washe suffered a long term of imprisonment and
afterwards returned to England a morose and disappointed man.

When Dr. Roylott was in India he married my mother, Mrs. Stoner,
the young widow of Major-General Stoner, of the Bengal Artillery.
My sister Julia and I were twins, and we were only two years old
at the time of my mother's re-marriage. She had a considerable
sum of money--not less than 1000 pounds a year--and this she
bequeathed to Dr. Roylott entirely while we resided with him,
with a provision that a certain annual sum should be allowed to
each of us in the event of our marriage. Shortly after our return
to England my mother died--she was killed eight years ago in a
railway accident near Crewe. Dr. Roylott then abandoned his
attempts to establish himself in practice in London and took us
to live with him in the old ancestral house at Stoke Moran. The
money which my mother had left was enough for all our wants, and
there seemed to be no obstacle to our happiness.

But a terrible change came over our stepfather about this time.
Instead of making friends and exchanging visits with our

neighborswho had at first been overjoyed to see a Roylott of
Stoke Moran back in the old family seathe shut himself up in
his house and seldom came out save to indulge in ferocious
quarrels with whoever might cross his path. Violence of temper
approaching to mania has been hereditary in the men of the
familyand in my stepfather's case it hadI believebeen
intensified by his long residence in the tropics. A series of
disgraceful brawls took placetwo of which ended in the
police-courtuntil at last he became the terror of the village
and the folks would fly at his approachfor he is a man of
immense strengthand absolutely uncontrollable in his anger.

Last week he hurled the local blacksmith over a parapet into a
stream, and it was only by paying over all the money which I
could gather together that I was able to avert another public
exposure. He had no friends at all save the wandering gypsies,
and he would give these vagabonds leave to encamp upon the few
acres of bramble-covered land which represent the family estate,
and would accept in return the hospitality of their tents,
wandering away with them sometimes for weeks on end. He has a
passion also for Indian animals, which are sent over to him by a
correspondent, and he has at this moment a cheetah and a baboon,
which wander freely over his grounds and are feared by the
villagers almost as much as their master.

You can imagine from what I say that my poor sister Julia and I
had no great pleasure in our lives. No servant would stay with
usand for a long time we did all the work of the house. She was
but thirty at the time of her deathand yet her hair had already
begun to whiteneven as mine has."

Your sister is dead, then?

She died just two years ago, and it is of her death that I wish
to speak to you. You can understand that, living the life which I
have described, we were little likely to see anyone of our own
age and position. We had, however, an aunt, my mother's maiden
sister, Miss Honoria Westphail, who lives near Harrow, and we
were occasionally allowed to pay short visits at this lady's
house. Julia went there at Christmas two years ago, and met there
a half-pay major of marines, to whom she became engaged. My
stepfather learned of the engagement when my sister returned and
offered no objection to the marriage; but wlthin a fortnight of
the day which had been fixed for the wedding, the terrible event
occurred which has deprived me of my only companion.

Sherlock Holmes had been leaning back in his chair with his eyes
closed and his head sunk in a cushionbut he half opened hls
lids now and glanced across at his visitor.

Pray be precise as to details,said he.

It is easy for me to be so, for every event of that dreadful
time is seared into my memory. The manor-house is, as I have
already said, very old, and only one wing is now inhabited. The
bedrooms in this wing are on the ground floor, the sitting-rooms
being in the central block of the buildings. Of these bedrooms
the first is Dr. Roylott's, the second my sister's, and the third
my own. There is no communication between them, but they all open
out into the same corridor. Do I make myself plain?

Perfectly so.

The windows of the three rooms open out upon the lawn. That

fatal night Dr. Roylott had gone to his room early, though we
knew that he had not retired to rest, for my sister was troubled
by the smell of the strong Indian cigars which it was his custom
to smoke. She left her room, therefore, and came into mine, where
she sat for some time, chatting about her approaching wedding. At
eleven o'clock she rose to leave me, but she paused at the door
and looked back.

'Tell meHelen' said she'have you ever heard anyone whistle
in the dead of the night?'

'Never,' said I.

'I suppose that you could not possibly whistleyourselfin
your sleep?'

'Certainly not. But why?'

'Because during the last few nights I have alwaysabout three
in the morningheard a lowclear whistle. I am a light sleeper
and it has awakened me. I cannot tell where it came from perhaps
from the next roomperhaps from the lawn. I thought that I would
just ask you whether you had heard it.'

'No, I have not. It must be those wretched gypsies in the

'Very likely. And yet if it were on the lawnI wonder that you
did not hear it also.'

'Ah, but I sleep more heavily than you.'

'Wellit is of no great consequenceat any rate.' She smiled
back at meclosed my doorand a few moments later I heard her
key turn in the lock."

Indeed,said Holmes. "Was it your custom always to lock
yourselves in at night?"


And why?

I think that I mentioned to you that the doctor kept a cheetah
and a baboon. We had no feeling of security unless our doors were

Quite so. Pray proceed with your statement.

I could not sleep that night. A vague feeling of impending
misfortune impressed me. My sister and I, you will recollect,
were twins, and you know how subtle are the links which bind two
souls which are so closely allied. It was a wild night. The wind
was howling outside, and the rain was beating and splashing
against the windows. Suddenly, amid all the hubbub of the gale,
there burst forth the wild scream of a terrified woman. I knew
that it was my sister's voice. I sprang from my bed, wrapped a
shawl round me, and rushed into the corridor. As I opened my door
I seemed to hear a low whistle, such as my sister described, and
a few moments later a clanging sound, as if a mass of metal had
fallen. As I ran down the passage, my sister's door was unlocked,
and revolved slowly upon its hinges. I stared at it
horror-stricken, not knowing what was about to issue from it. By
the light of the corridor-lamp I saw my sister appear at the

opening, her face blanched with terror, her hands groping for
help, her whole figure swaying to and fro like that of a
drunkard. I ran to her and threw my arms round her, but at that
moment her knees seemed to give way and she fell to the ground.
She writhed as one who is in terrible pain, and her limbs were
dreadfully convulsed. At first I thought that she had not
recognized me, but as I bent over her she suddenly shrieked out
in a voice which I shall never forget, 'Oh, my God! Helen! It was
the band! The speckled band!' There was something else which she
would fain have said, and she stabbed with her finger into the
air in the direction of the doctor's room, but a fresh convulsion
seized her and choked her words. I rushed out, calling loudly for
my stepfather, and I met him hastening from his room in his
dressing-gown. When he reached my sister's side she was
unconscious, and though he poured brandy down her throat and sent
for medical aid from the village, all efforts were in vain, for
she slowly sank and died without having recovered her
consciousness. Such was the dreadful end of my beloved sister.

One moment,said Holmesare you sure about this whistle and
metallic sound? Could you swear to it?

That was what the county coroner asked me at the inquiry. It is
my strong impression that I heard it, and yet, among the crash of
the gale and the creaking of an old house, I may possibly have
been deceived.

Was your sister dressed?

No, she was in her night-dress. In her right hand was found the
charred stump of a match, and in her left a match-box.

Showing that she had struck a light and looked about her when
the alarm took place. That is important. And what conclusions did
the coroner come to?

He investigated the case with great care, for Dr. Roylott's
conduct had long been notorious in the county, but he was unable
to find any satisfactory cause of death. My evidence showed that
the door had been fastened upon the inner side, and the windows
were blocked by old-fashioned shutters with broad iron bars,
which were secured every night. The walls were carefully sounded,
and were shown to be quite solid all round, and the flooring was
also thoroughly examined, with the same result. The chimney is
wide, but is barred up by four large staples. It is certain,
therefore, that my sister was quite alone when she met her end.
Besides, there were no marks of any violence upon her.

How about poison?

The doctors examined her for it, but without success.

What do you think that this unfortunate lady died of, then?

It is my belief that she died of pure fear and nervous shock,
though what it was that frightened her I cannot imagine.

Were there gypsies in the plantation at the time?

Yes, there are nearly always some there.

Ah, and what did you gather from this allusion to a band--a
speckled band?

Sometimes I have thought that it was merely the wild talk of
delirium, sometimes that it may have referred to some band of
people, perhaps to these very gypsies in the plantation. I do not
know whether the spotted handkerchiefs which so many of them wear
over their heads might have suggested the strange adjective which
she used.

Holmes shook his head like a man who is far from being satisfied.

These are very deep waters,said he; "pray go on with your

Two years have passed since then, and my life has been until
lately lonelier than ever. A month ago, however, a dear friend,
whom I have known for many years, has done me the honor to ask
my hand in marriage. His name is Armitage--Percy Armitage--the
second son of Mr. Armitage, of Crane Water, near Reading. My
stepfather has offered no opposition to the match, and we are to
be married in the course of the spring. Two days ago some repairs
were started in the west wing of the building, and my bedroom
wall has been pierced, so that I have had to move into the
chamber in which my sister died, and to sleep in the very bed in
which she slept. Imagine, then, my thrill of terror when last
night, as I lay awake, thinking over her terrible fate, I
suddenly heard in the silence of the night the low whistle which
had been the herald of her own death. I sprang up and lit the
lamp, but nothing was to be seen in the room. I was too shaken to
go to bed again, however, so I dressed, and as soon as it was
daylight I slipped down, got a dog-cart at the Crown Inn, which
is opposite, and drove to Leatherhead, from whence I have come on
this morning with the one object of seeing you and asking your

You have done wisely,said my friend. "But have you told me

Yes, all.

Miss Roylott, you have not. You are screening your stepfather.

Why, what do you mean?

For answer Holmes pushed back the frill of black lace which
fringed the hand that lay upon our visitor's knee. Five little
livid spotsthe marks of four fingers and a thumbwere printed
upon the white wrist.

You have been cruelly used,said Holmes.

The lady colored deeply and covered over her injured wrist. "He
is a hard man she said, and perhaps he hardly knows his own

There was a long silenceduring which Holmes leaned his chin
upon his hands and stared into the crackling fire.

This is a very deep business,he said at last. "There are a
thousand details which I should desire to know before I decide
upon our course of action. Yet we have not a moment to lose. If
we were to come to Stoke Moran to-daywould it be possible for
us to see over these rooms without the knowledge of your

As it happens, he spoke of coming into town to-day upon some

most important business. It is probable that he will be away all
day, and that there would be nothing to disturb you. We have a
housekeeper now, but she is old and foolish, and I could easily
get her out of the way.

Excellent. You are not averse to this trip, Watson?

By no means.

Then we shall both come. What are you going to do yourself?

I have one or two things which I would wish to do now that I am
in town. But I shall return by the twelve o'clock train, so as to
be there in time for your coming.

And you may expect us early in the afternoon. I have myself some
small business matters to attend to. Will you not wait and

No, I must go. My heart is lightened already since I have
confided my trouble to you. I shall look forward to seeing you
again this afternoon.She dropped her thick black veil over her
face and glided from the room.

And what do you think of it all, Watson?asked Sherlock Holmes
leaning back in his chair.

It seems to me to be a most dark and sinister business.

Dark enough and sinister enough.

Yet if the lady is correct in saying that the flooring and walls
are sound, and that the door, window, and chimney are impassable,
then her sister must have been undoubtedly alone when she met her
mysterious end.

What becomes, then, of these nocturnal whistles, and what of the
very peculiar words of the dying woman?

I cannot think.

When you combine the ideas of whistles at night, the presence of
a band of gypsies who are on intimate terms with this old doctor,
the fact that we have every reason to believe that the doctor has
an interest in preventing his stepdaughter's marriage, the dying
allusion to a band, and, finally, the fact that Miss Helen Stoner
heard a metallic clang, which might have been caused by one of
those metal bars that secured the shutters falling back into its
place, I think that there is good ground to think that the
mystery may be cleared along those lines.

But what, then, did the gypsies do?

I cannot imagine.

I see many objections to any such theory.

And so do I. It is precisely for that reason that we are going
to Stoke Moran this day. I want to see whether the objections are
fatal, or if they may be explained away. But what in the name of
the devil!

The ejaculation had been drawn from my companion by the fact that
our door had been suddenly dashed openand that a huge man had

framed himself in the aperture. His costume was a peculiar
mixture of the professional and of the agriculturalhaving a
black top-hata long frock-coatand a pair of high gaiters
with a hunting-crop swinging in his hand. So tall was he that his
hat actually brushed the cross bar of the doorwayand his
breadth seemed to span it across from side to side. A large face
seared with a thousand wrinklesburned yellow with the sunand
marked with every evil passionwas turned from one to the other
of uswhile his deep-setbile-shot eyesand his highthin
fleshless nosegave him somewhat the resemblance to a fierce old
bird of prey.

Which of you is Holmes?asked this apparition.

My name, sir; but you have the advantage of me,said my
companion quietly.

I am Dr. Grimesby Roylott, of Stoke Moran.

Indeed, Doctor,said Holmes blandly. "Pray take a seat."

I will do nothing of the kind. My stepdaughter has been here. I
have traced her. What has she been saying to you?

It is a little cold for the time of the year,said Holmes.

What has she been saying to you?screamed the old man

But I have heard that the crocuses promise well,continued my
companion imperturbably.

Ha! You put me off, do you?said our new visitortaking a step
forward and shaking his hunting-crop. "I know youyou scoundrel!
I have heard of you before. You are Holmesthe meddler."

My friend smiled.

Holmes, the busybody!

His smile broadened.

Holmes, the Scotland Yard Jack-in-office!

Holmes chuckled heartily. "Your conversation is most
entertaining said he. When you go out close the doorfor
there is a decided draught."

I will go when I have said my say. Don't you dare to meddle with
my affairs. I know that Miss Stoner has been here. I traced her!
I am a dangerous man to fall foul of! See here.He stepped
swiftly forwardseized the pokerand bent it into a curve with
his huge brown hands.

See that you keep yourself out of my grip,he snarledand
hurling the twisted poker into the fireplace he strode out of the

He seems a very amiable person,said Holmeslaughing. "I am
not quite so bulkybut if he had remained I might have shown him
that my grip was not much more feeble than his own." As he spoke
he picked up the steel poker andwith a sudden effort
straightened it out again.

Fancy his having the insolence to confound me with the official
detective force! This incident gives zest to our investigation,
however, and I only trust that our little friend will not suffer
from her imprudence in allowing this brute to trace her. And now,
Watson, we shall order breakfast, and afterwards I shall walk
down to Doctors' Commons, where I hope to get some data which may
help us in this matter.

It was nearly one o'clock when Sherlock Holmes returned from his
excursion. He held in his hand a sheet of blue paperscrawled
over with notes and figures.

I have seen the will of the deceased wife,said he. "To
determine its exact meaning I have been obliged to work out the
present prices of the investments with which it is concerned. The
total incomewhich at the time of the wife's death was little
short of 1100 poundsis nowthrough the fall in agricultural
pricesnot more than 750 pounds. Each daughter can claim an
income of 250 poundsin case of marriage. It is evident
thereforethat if both girls had marriedthis beauty would have
had a mere pittancewhile even one of them would cripple him to
a very serious extent. My morning's work has not been wasted
since it has proved that he has the very strongest motives for
standing in the way of anything of the sort. And nowWatson
this is too serious for dawdlingespecially as the old man is
aware that we are interesting ourselves in his affairs; so if you
are readywe shall call a cab and drive to Waterloo. I should be
very much obliged if you would slip your revolver into your
pocket. An Eley's No. 2 is an excellent argument with gentlemen
who can twist steel pokers into knots. That and a tooth-brush
areI thinkall that we need."

At Waterloo we were fortunate in catching a train for
Leatherheadwhere we hired a trap at the station inn and drove
for four or five miles through the lovely Surrey laries. It was a
perfect daywith a bright sun and a few fleecy clouds in the
heavens. The trees and wayside hedges were just throwing out
their first green shootsand the air was full of the pleasant
smell of the moist earth. To me at least there was a strange
contrast between the sweet promise of the spring and this
sinister quest upon which we were engaged. My companion sat in
the front of the traphis arms foldedhis hat pulled down over
his eyesand his chin sunk upon his breastburied in the
deepest thought. Suddenlyhoweverhe startedtapped me on the
shoulderand pointed over the meadows

Look there!said he.

A heavily timbered park stretched up in a gentle slope
thickening mto a grove at the highest point. From amid the
branches there jutted out the gray gables and high roof-tree of a
very old mansion.

Stoke Moran?said he.

Yes, sir, that be the house of Dr. Grimesby Roylott,remarked
the driver.

There is some building going on there,said Holmes; "that is
where we are going."

There's the village,said the driverpointing to a cluster of
roofs some distance to the left; "but if you want to get to the

houseyou'll find it shorter to get over this stileand so by
the foot-path over the fields. There it iswhere the lady is

And the lady, I fancy, is Miss Stoner,observed Holmesshading
his eyes. "YesI think we had better do as you suggest."

We got offpaid our fareand the trap rattled back on its way
to Leatherhead.

I thought it as well,said Holmes as we climbed the stile
that this fellow should think we had come here as architects, or
on some definite business. It may stop his gossip.
Good-afternoon, Miss Stoner. You see that we have been as good as
our word.

Our client of the morning had hurried forward to meet us with a
face which spoke her joy. "I have been waiting so eagerly for
you she cried, shaking hands with us warmly. All has turned
out splendidly. Dr. Roylott has gone to townand it is unlikely
that he will be back before evening."

We have had the pleasure of making the doctor's acquaintance,
said Holmesand in a few words he sketched out what had
occurred. Miss Stoner turned white to the lips as she listened.

Good heavens!she criedhe has followed me, then.

So it appears.

He is so cunning that I never know when I am safe from him. What
will he say when he returns?

He must guard himself, for he may find that there is someone
more cunning than himself upon his track. You must lock yourself
up from him to-night. If he is violent, we shall take you away to
your aunt's at Harrow. Now, we must make the best use of our
time, so kindly take us at once to the rooms which we are to

The building was of graylichen-blotched stonewith a high
central portion and two curving wingslike the claws of a crab
thrown out on each side. In one of these wings the windows were
broken and blocked with wooden boardswhile the roof was partly
caved ina picture of ruin. The central portion was in little
better repairbut the right-hand block was comparatively modern
and the blinds in the windowswith the blue smoke curling up
from the chimneysshowed that this was where the family resided.
Some scaffolding had been erected against the end walland the
stone-work had been broken intobut there were no signs of any
workmen at the moment of our visit. Holmes walked slowly up and
down the ill-trimmed lawn and examined with deep attention the
outsides of the windows.

This, I take it, belongs to the room in which you used to sleep,
the centre one to your sister's, and the one next to the main
building to Dr. Roylott's chamber?

Exactly so. But I am now sleeping in the middle one.

Pending the alterations, as I understand. By the way, there does
not seem to be any very pressing need for repairs at that end

There were none. I believe that it was an excuse to move me from
my room.

Ah! that is suggestive. Now, on the other side of this narrow
wing runs the corridor from which these three rooms open. There
are windows in it, of course?

Yes, but very small ones. Too narrow for anyone to pass

As you both locked your doors at night, your rooms were
unapproachable from that side. Now, would you have the kindness
to go into your room and bar your shutters?

Miss Stoner did soand Holmesafter a careful examination
through the open windowendeavored in every way to force the
shutter openbut without success. There was no slit through
which a knife could be passed to raise the bar. Then with his
lens he tested the hingesbut they were of solid ironbuilt
firmly into the massive masonry. "Hum!" said hescratching his
chin in some perplexitymy theory certainly presents some
difficulties. No one could pass these shutters if they were
bolted. Well, we shall see if the inside throws any light upon
the matter.

A small side door led into the whitewashed corridor from which
the three bedrooms opened. Holmes refused to examine the third
chamberso we passed at once to the secondthat in which Miss
Stoner was now sleepingand in which her sister had met with her
fate. It was a homely little roomwith a low ceiling and a
gaping fireplaceafter the fashion of old country-houses. A
brown chest of drawers stood in one cornera narrow
white-counterpaned bed in anotherand a dressing-table on the
left-hand side of the window. These articleswith two small
wicker-work chairsmade up all the furniture in the room save
for a square of Wilton carpet in the centre. The boards round and
the panelling of the walls were of brownworm-eaten oakso old
and discolored that it may have dated from the original building
of the house. Holmes drew one of the chairs into a corner and sat
silentwhile his eyes travelled round and round and up and down
taking in every detail of the apartment.

Where does that bell communicate with?he asked at last
pointing to a thick belt-rope which hung down beside the bedthe
tassel actually lying upon the pillow.

It goes to the housekeeper's room.

It looks newer than the other things?

Yes, it was only put there a couple of years ago.

Your sister asked for it, I suppose?

No, I never heard of her using it. We used always to get what we
wanted for ourselves.

Indeed, it seemed unnecessary to put so nice a bell-pull there.
You will excuse me for a few minutes while I satisfy myself as to
this floor.He threw himself down upon his face with his lens in
his hand and crawled swiftly backward and forwardexamining
minutely the cracks between the boards. Then he did the same with
the wood-work with which the chamber was panelled. Finally he
walked over to the bed and spent some time in staring at it and

in running his eye up and down the wall. Finally he took the
bell-rope in his hand and gave it a brisk tug.

Why, it's a dummy,said he.

Won't it ring?

No, it is not even attached to a wire. This is very interesting.
You can see now that it is fastened to a hook just above where
the little opening for the ventilator is.

How very absurd! I never noticed that before.

Very strange!muttered Holmespulling at the rope. "There are
one or two very singular points about this room. For example
what a fool a builder must be to open a ventilator into another
roomwhenwith the same troublehe might have communicated
with the outside air!"

That is also quite modern,said the lady.

Done about the same time as the bell-rope?remarked Holmes.

Yes, there were several little changes carried out about that

They seem to have been of a most interesting character--dummy
bell-ropes, and ventilators which do not ventilate. With your
permission, Miss Stoner, we shall now carry our researches into
the inner apartment.

Dr. Grimesby Roylott's chamber was larger than that of his
step-daughterbut was as plainly furnished. A camp-beda small
wooden shelf full of booksmostly of a technical character an
armchair beside the beda plain wooden chair against the walla
round tableand a large iron safe were the principal things
which met the eye. Holmes walked slowly round and examined each
and all of them with the keenest interest.

What's in here?he askedtapping the safe.

My stepfather's business papers.

Oh! you have seen inside, then?

Only once, some years ago. I remember that it was full of

There isn't a cat in it, for example?

No. What a strange idea!

Well, look at this!He took up a small saucer of milk which
stood on the top of it.

No; we don't keep a cat. But there is a cheetah and a baboon.

Ah, yes, of course! Well, a cheetah is just a big cat, and yet a
saucer of milk does not go very far in satisfying its wants, I
daresay. There is one point which I should wish to determine.He
squatted down in front of the wooden chair and examined the seat
of it with the greatest attention.

Thank you. That is quite settled,said herising and putting

his lens in his pocket. "Hello! Here is something interesting!"

The object which had caught his eye was a small dog lash hung on
one corner of the bed. The lashhoweverwas curled upon itself
and tied so as to make a loop of whipcord.

What do you make of that, Watson?

It's a common enough lash. But I don't know why if should be

That is not quite so common, is it? Ah, me! it's a wicked world,
and when a clever man turns his brains to crime it is the worst
of all. I think that I have seen enough now, Miss Stoner, and
with your permission we shall walk out upon the lawn.

I had never seen my friend's face so grim or his brow so dark as
it was when we turned from the scene of this investigation. We
had walked several times up and down the lawnneither Miss
Stoner nor myself liking to break in upon his thoughts before he
roused himself from his reverie.

It is very essential, Miss Stoner,said hethat you should
absolutely follow my advice in every respect.

I shall most certainly do so.

The matter is too serious for any hesitation. Your life may
depend upon your compliance.

I assure you that I am in your hands.

In the first place, both my friend and I must spend the night in
your room.

Both Miss Stoner and I gazed at him in astonishment.

Yes, it must be so. Let me explain. I believe that that is the
village inn over there?

Yes, that is the Crown.

Very good. Your windows would be visible from there?


You must confine yourself to your room, on pretence of a
headache, when your stepfather comes back. Then when you hear him
retire for the night, you must open the shutters of your window,
undo the hasp, put your lamp there as a signal to us, and then
withdraw quietly with everything which you are likely to want
into the room which you used to occupy. I have no doubt that, in
spite of the repairs, you could manage there for one night.

Oh, yes, easily.

The rest you will leave in our hands.

But what will you do?

We shall spend the night in your room, and we shall investigate
the cause of this noise which has disturbed you.

I believe, Mr. Holmes, that you have already made up your mind,

said Miss Stonerlaying her hand upon my companion's sleeve.

Perhaps I have.

Then, for pity's sake, tell me what was the cause of my sister's

I should prefer to have clearer proofs before I speak.

You can at least tell me whether my own thought is correct, and
if she died from some sudden fright.

No, I do not think so. I think that there was probably some more
tangible cause. And now, Miss Stoner, we must leave you for if
Dr. Roylott returned and saw us our journey would be in vain.
Good-bye, and be brave, for if you will do what I have told you
you may rest assured that we shall soon drive away the dangers
that threaten you.

Sherlock Holmes and I had no difficulty in engaging a bedroom and
sitting-room at the Crown Inn. They were on the upper floorand
from our window we could command a view of the avenue gateand
of the inhabited wing of Stoke Moran Manor House. At dusk we saw
Dr. Grimesby Roylott drive pasthis huge form looming up beside
the little figure of the lad who drove him. The boy had some
slight difficulty in undoing the heavy iron gatesand we heard
the hoarse roar of the doctor's voice and saw the fury with which
he shook his clinched fists at him. The trap drove onand a few
minutes later we saw a sudden light spring up among the trees as
the lamp was lit in one of the sitting-rooms.

Do you know, Watson,said Holmes as we sat together in the
gathering darknessI have really some scruples as to taking you
to-night. There is a distinct element of danger.

Can I be of assistance?

Your presence might be invaluable.

Then I shall certainly come.

It is very kind of you.

You speak of danger. You have evidently seen more in these rooms
than was visible to me.

No, but I fancy that I may have deduced a little more. I imagine
that you saw all that I did.

I saw nothing remarkable save the bell-rope, and what purpose
that could answer I confess is more than I can imagine.

You saw the ventilator, too?

Yes, but I do not think that it is such a very unusual thing to
have a small opening between two rooms. It was so small that a
rat could hardly pass through.

I knew that we should find a ventilator before ever we came to
Stoke Moran.

My dear Holmes!

Oh, yes, I did. You remember in her statement she said that her

sister could smell Dr. Roylott's cigar. Now, of course that
suggested at once that there must be a communication between the
two rooms. It could only be a small one, or it would have been
remarked upon at the coroner's inquiry. I deduced a ventilator.

But what harm can there be in that?

Well, there is at least a curious coincidence of dates. A
ventilator is made, a cord is hung, and a lady who sleeps in the
bed dies. Does not that strike you?

I cannot as yet see any connection.

Did you observe anything very peculiar about that bed?


It was clamped to the floor. Did you ever see a bed fastened
like that before?

I cannot say that I have.

The lady could not move her bed. It must always be in the same
relative position to the ventilator and to the rope--or so we may
call it, since it was clearly never meant for a bell-pull.

Holmes,I criedI seem to see dimly what you are hinting at.
We are only just in time to prevent some subtle and horrible

Subtle enough and horrible enough. When a doctor does go wrong
he is the first of criminals. He has nerve and he has knowledge.
Palmer and Pritchard were among the heads of their profession.
This man strikes even deeper, but I think, Watson, that we shall
be able to strike deeper still. But we shall have horrors enough
before the night is over; for goodness' sake let us have a quiet
pipe and turn our minds for a few hours to something more

About nine o'clock the light among the trees was extinguished
and all was dark in the direction of the Manor House. Two hours
passed slowly awayand thensuddenlyjust at the stroke of
elevena single bright light shone out right in front of us.

That is our signal,said Holmesspringing to his feet; "it
comes from the middle window."

As we passed out he exchanged a few words with the landlord
explaining that we were going on a late visit to an acquaintance
and that it was possible that we might spend the night there. A
moment later we were out on the dark roada chill wind blowing
in our facesand one yellow light twinkling in front of us
through the gloom to guide us on our sombre errand.

There was little difficulty in entering the groundsfor
unrepaired breaches gaped in the old park wall. Making our way
among the treeswe reached the lawncrossed itand were about
to enter through the window when out from a clump of laurel
bushes there darted what seemed to be a hideous and distorted
childwho threw itself upon the grass with writhing limbs and
then ran swiftly across the lawn into the darkness.

My God!I whispered; "did you see it?"

Holmes was for the moment as startled as I. His hand closed like
a vise upon my wrist in his agitation. Then he broke into a low
laugh and put his lips to my ear.

It is a nice household,he murmured. "That is the baboon."

I had forgotten the strange pets which the doctor affected. There
was a cheetahtoo; perhaps we might find it upon our shoulders
at any moment. I confess that I felt easier in my mind when
after following Holmes's example and slipping off my shoesI
found myself inside the bedroom. My companion noiselessly closed
the shuttersmoved the lamp onto the tableand cast his eyes
round the room. All was as we had seen it in the daytime. Then
creeping up to me and making a trumpet of his handhe whispered
into my ear again so gently that it was all that I could do to
distinguish the words:

The least sound would be fatal to our plans.

I nodded to show that I had heard.

We must sit without light. He would see it through the

I nodded again.

Do not go asleep; your very life may depend upon it. Have your
pistol ready in case we should need it. I will sit on the side of
the bed, and you in that chair.

I took out my revolver and laid it on the corner of the table.

Holmes had brought up a long thin caneand this he placed upon
the bed beside him. By it he laid the box of matches and the
stump of a candle. Then he turned down the lampand we were left
in darkness.

How shall I ever forget that dreadful vigil? I could not hear a
soundnot even the drawing of a breathand yet I knew that my
companion sat open-eyedwithin a few feet of mein the same
state of nervous tension in which I was myself. The shutters cut
off the least ray of lightand we waited in absolute darkness.

From outside came the occasional cry of a night-birdand once at
our very window a long drawn catlike whinewhich told us that
the cheetah was indeed at liberty. Far away we could hear the
deep tones of the parish clockwhich boomed out every quarter of
an hour. How long they seemedthose quarters! Twelve struckand
one and two and threeand still we sat waiting silently for
whatever might befall.

Suddenly there was the momentary gleam of a light up in the
direction of the ventilatorwhich vanished immediatelybut was
succeeded by a strong smell of burning oil and heated metal.
Someone in the next room had lit a dark-lantern. I heard a gentle
sound of movementand then all was silent once morethough the
smell grew stronger. For half an hour I sat with straining ears.
Then suddenly another sound became audible--a very gentle
soothing soundlike that of a small jet of steam escaping
continually from a kettle. The instant that we heard itHolmes
sprang from the bedstruck a matchand lashed furiously with
his cane at the bell-pull.

You see it, Watson?he yelled. "You see it?"

But I saw nothing. At the moment when Holmes struck the light I
heard a lowclear whistlebut the sudden glare flashing into my
weary eyes made it impossible for me to tell what it was at which
my friend lashed so savagely. I couldhoweversee that his face
was deadly pale and filled with horror and loathing. He had
ceased to strike and was gazing up at the ventilator when
suddenly there broke from the silence of the night the most
horrible cry to which I have ever listened. It swelled up louder
and loudera hoarse yell of pain and fear and anger all mingled
in the one dreadful shriek. They say that away down in the
villageand even in the distant parsonagethat cry raised the
sleepers from their beds. It struck cold to our heartsand I
stood gazing at Holmesand he at meuntil the last echoes of it
had died away into the silence from which it rose.

What can it mean?I gasped.

It means that it is all over,Holmes answered. "And perhaps
after allit is for the best. Take your pistoland we will
enter Dr. Roylott's room."

With a grave face he lit the lamp and led the way down the
corridor. Twice he struck at the chamber door without any reply
from within. Then he turned the handle and enteredI at his
heelswith the cocked pistol in my hand.

It was a singular sight which met our eyes. On the table stood a
dark-lantern with the shutter half openthrowing a brilliant
beam of light upon the iron safethe door of which was ajar.
Beside this tableon the wooden chairsat Dr. Grimesby Roylott
clad in a long gray dressing-gownhis bare ankles protruding
beneathand his feet thrust into red heelless Turkish slippers.
Across his lap lay the short stock with the long lash which we
had noticed during the day. His chin was cocked upward and his
eyes were fixed in a dreadfulrigid stare at the corner of the
ceiling. Round his brow he had a peculiar yellow bandwith
brownish speckleswhich seemed to be bound tightly round his
head. As we entered he made neither sound nor motion.

The band! the speckled band!whispered Holmes.

I took a step forward. In an instant his strange headgear began
to moveand there reared itself from among his hair the squat
diamond-shaped head and puffed neck of a loathsome serpent.

It is a swamp adder!cried Holmes; "the deadliest snake in
India. He has died within ten seconds of being bitten. Violence
doesin truthrecoil upon the violentand the schemer falls
into the pit which he digs for another. Let us thrust this
creature back into its denand we can then remove Miss Stoner to
some place of shelter and let the county police know what has

As he spoke he drew the dog-whip swiftly from the dead man's lap
and throwing the noose round the reptile's neck he drew it from
its horrid perch andcarrying it at arm's lengththrew it into
the iron safewhich he closed upon it.

Such are the true facts of the death of Dr. Grimesby Roylottof
Stoke Moran. It is not necessary that I should prolong a
narrative which has already run to too great a length by telling
how we broke the sad news to the terrified girlhow we conveyed

her by the morning train to the care of her good aunt at Harrow
of how the slow process of official inquiry came to the
conclusion that the doctor met his fate while indiscreetly
playing with a dangerous pet. The little which I had yet to learn
of the case was told me by Sherlock Holmes as we travelled back
next day.

I had,said hecome to an entirely erroneous conclusion which
shows, my dear Watson, how dangerous it always is to reason from
insufficient data. The presence of the gypsies, and the use of
the word 'band,' which was used by the poor girl, no doubt to
explain the appearance which she had caught a hurried glimpse of
by the light of her match, were sufficient to put me upon an
entirely wrong scent. I can only claim the merit that I instantly
reconsidered my position when, however, it became clear to me
that whatever danger threatened an occupant of the room could not
come either from the window or the door. My attention was
speedily drawn, as I have already remarked to you, to this
ventilator, and to the bell-rope which hung down to the bed. The
discovery that this was a dummy, and that the bed was clamped to
the floor, instantly gave rise to the suspicion that the rope was
there as a bridge for something passing through the hole and
coming to the bed. The idea of a snake instantly occurred to me,
and when I coupled it with my knowledge that the doctor was
furnished with a supply of creatures from India, I felt that I
was probably on the right track. The idea of using a form of
poison which could not possibly be discovered by any chemical
test was just such a one as would occur to a clever and ruthless
man who had had an Eastern training. The rapidity with which such
a poison would take effect would also, from his point of view, be
an advantage. It would be a sharp-eyed coroner, indeed, who could
distinguish the two little dark punctures which would show where
the poison fangs had done their work. Then I thought of the
whistle. Of course he must recall the snake before the morning
light revealed it to the victim. He had trained it, probably by
the use of the milk which we saw, to return to him when summoned.
He would put it through this ventilator at the hour that he
thought best, with the certainty that it would crawl down the
rope and land on the bed. It might or might not bite the
occupant, perhaps she might escape every night for a week, but
sooner or later she must fall a victim.

I had come to these conclusions before ever I had entered his
room. An inspection of his chair showed me that he had been in
the habit of standing on itwhich of course would be necessary
in order that he should reach the ventilator. The sight of the
safethe saucer of milkand the loop of whipcord were enough to
finally dispel any doubts which may have remained. The metallic
clang heard by Miss Stoner was obviously caused by her stepfather
hastily closing the door of his safe upon its terrible occupant.
Having once made up my mindyou know the steps which I took in
order to put the matter to the proof. I heard the creature hiss
as I have no doubt that you did alsoand I instantly lit the
light and attacked it."

With the result of driving it through the ventilator.

And also with the result of causing it to turn upon its master
at the other side. Some of the blows of my cane came home and
roused its snakish temper, so that it flew upon the first person
it saw. In this way I am no doubt indirectly responsible for Dr.
Grimesby Roylott's death, and I cannot say that it is likely to
weigh very heavily upon my conscience.


Of all the problems which have been submitted to my friendMr.
Sherlock Holmesfor solution during the years of our intimacy
there were only two which I was the means of introducing to his
notice--that of Mr. Hatherley's thumband that of Colonel
Warburton's madness. Of these the latter may have afforded a
finer field for an acute and original observerbut the other was
so strange in its inception and so dramatic in its details that
it may be the more worthy of being placed upon recordeven if it
gave my friend fewer openings for those deductive methods of
reasoning by which he achieved such remarkable results. The story
hasI believebeen told more than once in the newspapersbut
like all such narrativesits effect is much less striking when
set forth en bloc in a single half-column of print than when the
facts slowly evolve before your own eyesand the mystery clears
gradually away as each new discovery furnishes a step which leads
on to the complete truth. At the time the circumstances made a
deep impression upon meand the lapse of two years has hardly
served to weaken the effect.

It was in the summer of '89not long after my marriagethat the
events occurred which I am now about to summarize. I had returned
to civil practice and had finally abandoned Holmes in his Baker
Street roomsalthough I continually visited him and occasionally
even persuaded him to forgo his Bohemian habits so far as to come
and visit us. My practice had steadily increasedand as I
happened to live at no very great distance from Paddington
StationI got a few patients from among the officials. One of
thesewhom I had cured of a painful and lingering diseasewas
never weary of advertising my virtues and of endeavoring to send
me on every sufferer over whom he might have any influence.

One morningat a little before seven o'clockI was awakened by
the maid tapping at the door to announce that two men had come
from Paddington and were waiting in the consulting-room. I
dressed hurriedlyfor I knew by experience that railway cases
were seldom trivialand hastened downstairs. As I descendedmy
old allythe guardcame out of the room and closed the door
tightly behind him.

I've got him here,he whisperedjerking his thumb over his
shoulder; "he's all right."

What is it, then?I askedfor his manner suggested that it was
some strange creature which he had caged up in my room.

It's a new patient,he whispered. "I thought I'd bring him
round myself; then he couldn't slip away. There he isall safe
and sound. I must go nowDoctor; I have my dootiesjust the
same as you." And off he wentthis trusty toutwithout even
giving me time to thank him.

I entered my consulting-room and found a gentleman seated by the
table. He was quietly dressed in a suit of heather tweed with a
soft cloth cap which he had laid down upon my books. Round one of
his hands he had a handkerchief wrappedwhich was mottled all
over with bloodstains. He was youngnot more than
five-and-twentyI should saywith a strongmasculine face; but
he was exceedingly pale and gave me the impression of a man who
was suffering from some strong agitationwhich it took all his
strength of mind to control.

I am sorry to knock you up so early, Doctor,said hebut I
have had a very serious accident during the night. I came in by
train this morning, and on inquiring at Paddington as to where I
might find a doctor, a worthy fellow very kindly escorted me
here. I gave the maid a card, but I see that she has left it upon
the side-table.

I took it up and glanced at it. "Mr. Victor Hatherleyhydraulic
engineer16A. Victoria Street (3d floor)." That was the name
styleand abode of my morning visitor. "I regret that I have
kept you waiting said I, sitting down in my library-chair. You
are fresh from a night journeyI understandwhich is in itself
a monotonous occupation."

Oh, my night could not be called monotonous,said heand
laughed. He laughed very heartilywith a highringing note
leaning back in his chair and shaking his sides. All my medical
instincts rose up against that laugh.

Stop it!I cried; "pull yourself together!" and I poured out
some water from a caraffe.

It was uselesshowever. He was off in one of those hysterical
outbursts which come upon a strong nature when some great crisis
is over and gone. Presently he came to himself once morevery
weary and pale-looking.

I have been making a fool of myself,he gasped.

Not at all. Drink this.I dashed some brandy into the water
and the color began to come back to his bloodless cheeks.

That's better!said he. "And nowDoctorperhaps you would
kindly attend to my thumbor rather to the place where my thumb
used to be."

He unwound the handkerchief and held out his hand. It gave even
my hardened nerves a shudder to look at it. There were four
protruding fingers and a horrid redspongy surface where the
thumb should have been. It had been hacked or torn right out from
the roots.

Good heavens!I criedthis is a terrible injury. It must have
bled considerably.

Yes, it did. I fainted when it was done, and I think that I must
have been senseless for a long time. When I came to I found that
it was still bleeding, so I tied one end of my handkerchief very
tightly round the wrist and braced it up with a twig.

Excellent! You should have been a surgeon.

It is a question of hydraulics, you see, and came within my own

This has been done,said Iexamining the woundby a very
heavy and sharp instrument.

A thing like a cleaver,said he.

An accident, I presume?

By no means.

What! a murderous attack?

Very murderous indeed.

You horrify me.

I sponged the woundcleaned itdressed itand finally covered
it over with cotton wadding and carbolized bandages. He lay back
without wincingthough he bit his lip from time to time.

How is that?I asked when I had finished.

Capital! Between your brandy and your bandage, I feel a new man.
I was very weak, but I have had a good deal to go through.

Perhaps you had better not speak of the matter. It is evidently
trying to your nerves.

Oh, no, not now. I shall have to tell my tale to the police;
but, between ourselves, if it were not for the convincing
evidence of this wound of mine, I should be surprised if they
believed my statement, for it is a very extraordinary one, and I
have not much in the way of proof with which to back it up; and,
even if they believe me, the clews which I can give them are so
vague that it is a question whether justice will be done.

Ha!cried Iif it is anything in the nature of a problem
which you desire to see solved, I should strongly recommend you
to come to my friend, Mr. Sherlock Holmes, before you go to the
official police.

Oh, I have heard of that fellow,answered my visitorand I
should be very glad if he would take the matter up, though of
course I must use the official police as well. Would you give me
an introduction to him?

I'll do better. I'll take you round to him myself.

I should be immensely obliged to you.

We'll call a cab and go together. We shall just be in time to
have a little breakfast with him. Do you feel equal to it?

Yes; I shall not feel easy until I have told my story.

Then my servant will call a cab, and I shall be with you in an
instant.I rushed upstairsexplained the matter shortly to my
wifeand in five minutes was inside a hansomdriving with my
new acquaintance to Baker Street.

Sherlock Holmes wasas I expectedlounging about his
sittingroom in his dressing-gownreading the agony column of The
Times and smoking his before-breakfast pipewhich was composed
of all the plugs and dottles left from his smokes of the day
beforeall carefully dried and collected on the corner of the
mantelpiece. He received us in his quietly genial fashion
ordered fresh rashers and eggsand joined us in a hearty meal.
When it was concluded he settled our new acquaintance upon the
sofaplaced a pillow beneath his headand laid a glass of
brandy and water within his reach.

It is easy to see that your experience has been no common one,
Mr. Hatherley,said he. "Praylie down there and make yourself

absolutely at home. Tell us what you canbut stop when you are
tired and keep up your strength with a little stimulant."

Thank you,said my patient. "but I have felt another man since
the doctor bandaged meand I think that your breakfast has
completed the cure. I shall take up as little of your valuable
time as possibleso I shall start at once upon my peculiar

Holmes sat in his big armchair with the wearyheavy-lidded
expression which veiled his keen and eager naturewhile I sat
opposite to himand we listened in silence to the strange story
which our visitor detailed to us.

You must know,said hethat I am an orphan and a bachelor,
residing alone in lodgings in London. By profession I am a
hydraulic engineer, and I have had considerable experience of my
work during the seven years that I was apprenticed to Venner &
Matheson, the well-known firm, of Greenwich. Two years ago,
having served my time, and having also come into a fair sum of
money through my poor father's death, I determined to start in
business for myself and took professional chambers in Victoria

I suppose that everyone finds his first independent start in
business a dreary experience. To me it has been exceptionally so.
During two years I have had three consultations and one small
joband that is absolutely all that my profession has brought
me. My gross takings amount to 27 pounds 10s. Every dayfrom
nine in the morning until four in the afternoonI waited in my
little denuntil at last my heart began to sinkand I came to
believe that I should never have any practice at all.

Yesterday, however, just as I was thinking of leaving the
office, my clerk entered to say there was a gentleman waiting who
wished to see me upon business. He brought up a card, too, with
the name of 'Colonel Lysander Stark' engraved upon it. Close at
his heels came the colonel himself, a man rather over the middle
size, but of an exceeding thinness. I do not think that I have
ever seen so thin a man. His whole face sharpened away into nose
and chin, and the skin of his cheeks was drawn quite tense over
his outstanding bones. Yet this emaciation seemed to be his
natural habit, and due to no disease, for his eye was bright, his
step brisk, and his bearing assured. He was plainly but neatly
dressed, and his age, I should judge, would be nearer forty than

'Mr. Hatherley?' said hewith something of a German accent.
'You have been recommended to meMr. Hatherleyas being a man
who is not only proficient in his profession but is also discreet
and capable of preserving a secret.'

I bowed, feeling as flattered as any young man would at such an
address. 'May I ask who it was who gave me so good a character?'

'Wellperhaps it is better that I should not tell you that just
at this moment. I have it from the same source that you are both
an orphan and a bachelor and are residing alone in London.'

'That is quite correct,' I answered; 'but you will excuse me if
I say that I cannot see how all this bears upon my professional
qualifications. I understand that it was on a professional matter
that you wished to speak to me?'

'Undoubtedly so. But you will find that all I say is really to
the point. I have a professional commission for youbut absolute
secrecy is quite essential--absolute secrecyyou understandand
of course we may expect that more from a man who is alone than
from one who lives in the bosom of his family.'

'If I promise to keep a secret,' said I, 'you may absolutely
depend upon my doing so.'

He looked very hard at me as I spokeand it seemed to me that I
had never seen so suspicious and questioning an eye.

'Do you promise, then?' said he at last.

'YesI promise.'

'Absolute and complete silence before, during, and after? No
reference to the matter at all, either in word or writing?'

'I have already given you my word.'

'Very good.' He suddenly sprang up, and darting like lightning
across the room he flung open the door. The passage outside was

'That's all right' said hecoming back. 'I know the clerks are
sometimes curious as to their master's affairs. Now we can talk
in safety.' He drew up his chair very close to mine and began to
stare at me again with the same questioning and thoughtful look.

A feeling of repulsion, and of something akin to fear had begun
to rise within me at the strange antics of this fleshless man.
Even my dread of losing a client could not restrain me from
showing my impatience.

'I beg that you will state your businesssir' said I; 'my time
is of value.' Heaven forgive me for that last sentencebut the
words came to my lips.

'How would fifty guineas for a night's work suit you?' he asked.

'Most admirably.'

'I say a night's work, but an hour's would be nearer the mark. I
simply want your opinion about a hydraulic stamping machine which
has got out of gear. If you show us what is wrong we shall soon
set it right ourselves. What do you think of such a commission as

'The work appears to be light and the pay munificent.'

'Precisely so. We shall want you to come to-night by the last

'Where to?'

'To Eyford, in Berkshire. It is a little place near the borders
of Oxfordshire, and within seven miles of Reading. There is a
train from Paddington which would bring you there at about

'Very good.'

'I shall come down in a carriage to meet you.'

'There is a drivethen?'

'Yes, our little place is quite out in the country. It is a good
seven miles from Eyford Station.'

'Then we can hardly get there before midnight. I suppose there
would be no chance of a train back. I should be compelled to stop
the night.'

'Yes, we could easily give you a shake-down.'

'That is very awkward. Could I not come at some more convenient

'We have judged it best that you should come late. It is to
recompense you for any inconvenience that we are paying to you, a
young and unknown man, a fee which would buy an opinion from the
very heads of your profession. Still, of course, if you would
like to draw out of the business, there is plenty of time to do

I thought of the fifty guineasand of how very useful they
would be to me. 'Not at all' said I'I shall be very happy to
accommodate myself to your wishes. I should likehoweverto
understand a little more clearly what it is that you wish me to

'Quite so. It is very natural that the pledge of secrecy which
we have exacted from you should have aroused your curiosity. I
have no wish to commit you to anything without your having it all
laid before you. I suppose that we are absolutely safe from


'Then the matter stands thus. You are probably aware that
fuller's-earth is a valuable product, and that it is only found
in one or two places in England?'

'I have heard so.'

'Some little time ago I bought a small place--a very small
place--within ten miles of Reading. I was fortunate enough to
discover that there was a deposit of fuller's-earth in one of my
fields. On examining it, however, I found that this deposit was a
comparatively small one, and that it formed a link between two
very much larger ones upon the right and left--both of them,
however, in the grounds of my neighbors. These good people were
absolutely ignorant that their land contained that which was
quite as valuable as a gold-mine. Naturally, it was to my
interest to buy their land before they discovered its true value,
but unfortunately I had no capital by which I could do this. I
took a few of my friends into the secret, however, and they
suggested that we should quietly and secretly work our own little
deposit and that in this way we should earn the money which would
enable us to buy the neighboring fields. This we have now been
doing for some time, and in order to help us in our operations we
erected a hydraulic press. This press, as I have already
explained, has got out of order, and we wish your advice upon the
subject. We guard our secret very jealously, however, and if it
once became known that we had hydraulic engineers coming to our
little house, it would soon rouse inquiry, and then, if the facts
came out, it would be good-bye to any chance of getting these

fields and carrying out our plans. That is why I have made you
promise me that you will not tell a human being that you are
going to Eyford to-night. I hope that I make it all plain?'

'I quite follow you' said I. 'The only point which I could not
quite understand was what use you could make of a hydraulic press
in excavating fuller's-earthwhichas I understandis dug out
like gravel from a pit.'

'Ah!' said he carelessly, 'we have our own process. We compress
the earth into bricks, so as to remove them without revealing
what they are. But that is a mere detail. I have taken you fully
into my confidence now, Mr. Hatherley, and I have shown you how I
trust you.' He rose as he spoke. 'I shall expect you, then, at
Eyford at 11:15.'

'I shall certainly be there.'

'And not a word to a soul.' He looked at me with a last long,
questioning gaze, and then, pressing my hand in a cold, dank
grasp, he hurried from the room.

Wellwhen I came to think it all over in cool blood I was very
much astonishedas you may both thinkat this sudden commission
which had been intrusted to me. On the one handof courseI was
gladfor the fee was at least tenfold what I should have asked
had I set a price upon my own servicesand it was possible that
this order might lead to other ones. On the other handthe face
and manner of my patron had made an unpleasant impression upon
meand I could not think that his explanation of the
fuller's-earth was sufficient to explain the necessity for my
coming at midnightand his extreme anxiety lest I should tell
anyone of my errand. HoweverI threw all fears to the windsate
a hearty supperdrove to Paddingtonand started offhaving
obeyed to the letter the injunction as to holding my tongue.

At Reading I had to change not only my carriage but my station.
However, I was in time for the last train to Eyford, and I
reached the little dim-lit station aher eleven o'clock. I was the
only passenger who got out there, and there was no one upon the
platform save a single sleepy porter with a lantern. As I passed
out through the wicket gate, however, I found my acquaintance of
the morning waiting in the shadow upon the other side. Without a
word he grasped my arm and hurried me into a carriage, the door
of which was standing open. He drew up the windows on either
side, tapped on the wood-work, and away we went as fast as the
horse could go.

One horse?interjected Holmes.

Yes, only one.

Did you observe the color?

Yes, I saw it by the side-lights when I was stepping into the
carriage. It was a chestnut.

Tired-looking or fresh?

Oh, fresh and glossy.

Thank you. I am sorry to have interrupted you. Pray continue
your most interesting statement.

Away we went then, and we drove for at least an hour. Colonel
Lysander Stark had said that it was only seven miles, but I
should think, from the rate that we seemed to go, and from the
time that we took, that it must have been nearer twelve. He sat
at my side in silence all the time, and I was aware, more than
once when I glanced in his direction, that he was looking at me
with great intensity. The country roads seem to be not very good
in that part of the world, for we lurched and jolted terribly. I
tried to look out of the windows to see something of where we
were, but they were made of frosted glass, and I could make out
nothing save the occasional bright blur of a passing light. Now
and then I hazarded some remark to break the monotony of the
journey, but the colonel answered only in monosyllables, and the
conversation soon flagged. At last, however, the bumping of the
road was exchanged for the crisp smoothness of a gravel-drive,
and the carriage came to a stand. Colonel Lysander Stark sprang
out, and, as I followed after him, pulled me swiftly into a porch
which gaped in front of us. We stepped, as it were, right out of
the carriage and into the hall, so that I failed to catch the
most fleeting glance of the front of the house. The instant that
I had crossed the threshold the door slammed heavily behind us,
and I heard faintly the rattle of the wheels as the carriage
drove away.

It was pitch dark inside the houseand the colonel fumbled
about looking for matches and muttering under his breath.
Suddenly a door opened at the other end of the passageand a
longgolden bar of light shot out in our direction. It grew
broaderand a woman appeared with a lamp in her handwhich she
held above her headpushing her face forward and peering at us.
I could see that she was prettyand from the gloss with which
the light shone upon her dark dress I knew that it was a rich
material. She spoke a few words in a foreign tongue in a tone as
though asking a questionand when my companion answered in a
gruff monosyllable she gave such a start that the lamp nearly
fell from her hand. Colonel Stark went up to herwhispered
something in her earand thenpushing her back into the room
from whence she had comehe walked towards me again with the
lamp in his hand.

'Perhaps you will have the kindness to wait in this room for a
few minutes,' said he, throwing open another door. It was a
quiet, little, plainly furnished room, with a round table in the
centre, on which several German books were scattered. Colonel
Stark laid down the lamp on the top of a harmonium beside the
door. 'I shall not keep you waiting an instant,' said he, and
vanished into the darkness.

I glanced at the books upon the tableand in spite of my
ignorance of German I could see that two of them were treatises
on sciencethe others being volumes of poetry. Then I walked
across to the windowhoping that I might catch some glimpse of
the country-sidebut an oak shutterheavily barredwas folded
across it. It was a wonderfully silent house. There was an old
clock ticking loudly somewhere in the passagebut otherwise
everything was deadly still. A vague feeling of uneasiness began
to steal over me. Who were these German peopleand what were
they doing living in this strangeout-of-the-way place? And
where was the place? I was ten miles or so from Eyfordthat was
all I knewbut whether northsoutheastor west I had no
idea. For that matterReadingand possibly other large towns
were within that radiusso the place might not be so secluded
after all. Yet it was quite certainfrom the absolute stillness
that we were in the country. I paced up and down the room

humming a tune under my breath to keep up my spirits and feeling
that I was thoroughly earning my fifty-guinea fee.

Suddenly, without any preliminary sound in the midst of the
utter stillness, the door of my room swung slowly open. The woman
was standing in the aperture, the darkness of the hall behind
her, the yellow light from my lamp beating upon her eager and
beautiful face. I could see at a glance that she was sick with
fear, and the sight sent a chill to my own heart. She held up one
shaking finger to warn me to be silent, and she shot a few
whispered words of broken English at me, her eyes glancing back,
like those of a frightened horse, into the gloom behind her.

'I would go' said shetrying hardas it seemed to meto
speak calmly; 'I would go. I should not stay here. There is no
good for you to do.'

'But, madam,' said I, 'I have not yet done what I came for. I
cannot possibly leave until I have seen the machine.'

'It is not worth your while to wait' she went on. 'You can pass
through the door; no one hinders.' And thenseeing that I smiled
and shook my headshe suddenly threw aside her constraint and
made a step forwardwith her hands wrung together. 'For the love
of Heaven!' she whispered'get away from here before it is too

But I am somewhat headstrong by nature, and the more ready to
engage in an affair when there is some obstacle in the way. I
thought of my fifty-guinea fee, of my wearisome journey, and of
the unpleasant night which seemed to be before me. Was it all to
go for nothing? Why should I slink away without having carried
out my commission, and without the payment which was my due? This
woman might, for all I knew, be a monomaniac. With a stout
bearing, therefore, though her manner had shaken me more than I
cared to confess, I still shook my head and declared my intention
of remaining where I was. She was about to renew her entreaties
when a door slammed overhead, and the sound of several footsteps
was heard upon the stairs. She listened for an instant, threw up
her hands with a despairing gesture, and vanished as suddenly and
as noiselessly as she had come.

The newcomers were Colonel Lysander Stark and a short thick man
with a chinchilla beard growing out of the creases of his double
chinwho was introduced to me as Mr. Ferguson.

'This is my secretary and manager,' said the colonel. 'By the
way, I was under the impression that I left this door shut just
now. I fear that you have felt the draught.'

'On the contrary' said I'I opened the door myself because I
felt the room to be a little close.'

He shot one of his suspicious looks at me. 'Perhaps we had
better proceed to business, then,' said he. 'Mr. Ferguson and I
will take you up to see the machine.'

'I had better put my hat onI suppose.'

'Oh, no, it is in the house.'

'Whatyou dig fuller's-earth in the house?'

'No, no. This is only where we compress it. But never mind that.

All we wish you to do is to examine the machine and to let us
know what is wrong with it.'

We went upstairs togetherthe colonel first with the lampthe
fat manager and I behind him. It was a labyrinth of an old house
with corridorspassagesnarrow winding staircasesand little
low doorsthe thresholds of which were hollowed out by the
generations who had crossed them. There were no carpets and no
signs of any furniture above the ground floorwhile the plaster
was peeling off the wallsand the damp was breaking through in
greenunhealthy blotches. I tried to put on as unconcerned an
air as possiblebut I had not forgotten the warnings of the
ladyeven though I disregarded themand I kept a keen eye upon
my two companions. Ferguson appeared to be a morose and silent
manbut I could see from the little that he said that he was at
least a fellow-countryman.

Colonel Lysander Stark stopped at last before a low door, which
he unlocked. Within was a small, square room, in which the three
of us could hardly get at one time. Ferguson remained outside,
and the colonel ushered me in.

'We are now' said he'actually within the hydraulic pressand
it would be a particularly unpleasant thing for us if anyone were
to turn it on. The ceiling of this small chamber is really the
end of the descending pistonand it comes down with the force of
many tons upon this metal floor. There are small lateral columns
of water outside which receive the forceand which transmit and
multiply it in the manner which is familiar to you. The machine
goes readily enoughbut there is some stiffness in the working
of itand it has lost a little of its force. Perhaps you will
have the goodness to look it over and to show us how we can set
it right.'

I took the lamp from him, and I examined the machine very
thoroughly. It was indeed a gigantic one, and capable of
exercising enormous pressure. When I passed outside, however, and
pressed down the levers which controlled it, I knew at once by
the whishing sound that there was a slight leakage, which allowed
a regurgitation of water through one of the side cylinders. An
examination showed that one of the india-rubber bands which was
round the head of a driving-rod had shrunk so as not quite to
fill the socket along which it worked. This was clearly the cause
of the loss of power, and I pointed it out to my companions, who
followed my remarks very carefully and asked several practical
questions as to how they should proceed to set it right. When I
had made it clear to them, I returned to the main chamber of the
machine and took a good look at it to satisfy my own curiosity.
It was obvious at a glance that the story of the fuller's-earth
was the merest fabrication, for it would be absurd to suppose
that so powerful an engine could be designed for so inadequate a
purpose. The walls were of wood, but the floor consisted of a
large iron trough, and when I came to examine it I could see a
crust of metallic deposit all over it. I had stooped and was
scraping at this to see exactly what it was when I heard a
muttered exclamation in German and saw the cadaverous face of the
colonel looking down at me.

'What are you doing there?' he asked.

I felt angry at having been tricked by so elaborate a story as
that which he had told me. 'I was admiring your fuller's-earth,'
said I; 'I think that I should be better able to advise you as to
your machine if I knew what the exact purpose was for which it

was used.'

The instant that I uttered the words I regretted the rashness of
my speech. His face set hardand a baleful light sprang up in
his gray eyes.

'Very well,' said he, 'you shall know all about the machine.' He
took a step backward, slammed the little door, and turned the key
in the lock. I rushed towards it and pulled at the handle, but it
was quite secure, and did not give in the least to my kicks and
shoves. 'Hello!' I yelled. 'Hello! Colonel! Let me out!'

And then suddenly in the silence I heard a sound which sent my
heart into my mouth. It was the clank of the levers and the swish
of the leaking cylinder. He had set the engine at work. The lamp
still stood upon the floor where I had placed it when examining
the trough. By its light I saw that the black ceiling was coming
down upon meslowlyjerkilybutas none knew better than
myselfwith a force which must within a minute grind me to a
shapeless pulp. I threw myselfscreamingagainst the doorand
dragged with my nails at the lock. I implored the colonel to let
me outbut the remorseless clanking of the levers drowned my
cries. The ceiling was only a foot or two above my headand with
my hand upraised I could feel its hardrough surface. Then it
flashed through my mind that the pain of my death would depend
very much upon the position in which I met it. If I lay on my
face the weight would come upon my spineand I shuddered to
think of that dreadful snap. Easier the other wayperhaps; and
yethad I the nerve to lie and look up at that deadly black
shadow wavering down upon me? Already I was unable to stand
erectwhen my eye caught something which brought a gush of hope
back to my heart.

I have said that though the floor and ceiling were of iron, the
walls were of wood. As I gave a last hurried glance around, I saw
a thin line of yellow light between two of the boards, which
broadened and broadened as a small panel was pushed backward. For
an instant I could hardly believe that here was indeed a door
which led away from death. The next instant I threw myself
through, and lay half-fainting upon the other side. The panel had
closed again behind me, but the crash of the lamp, and a few
moments afterwards the clang of the two slabs of metal, told me
how narrow had been my escape.

I was recalled to myself by a frantic plucking at my wristand
I found myself lying upon the stone floor of a narrow corridor
while a woman bent over me and tugged at me with her left hand
while she held a candle in her right. It was the same good friend
whose warning I had so foolishly rejected.

'Come! come!' she cried breathlessly. 'They will be here in a
moment. They will see that you are not there. Oh, do not waste
the so-precious time, but come!'

This timeat leastI did not scorn her advice. I staggered to
my feet and ran with her along the corridor and down a winding
stair. The latter led to another broad passageand just as we
reached it we heard the sound of running feet and the shouting of
two voicesone answering the other from the floor on which we
were and from the one beneath. My guide stopped and looked about
her like one who is at her wit's end. Then she threw open a door
which led into a bedroomthrough the window of which the moon
was shining brightly.

'It is your only chance,' said she. 'It is high, but it may be
that you can jump it.'

As she spoke a light sprang into view at the further end of the
passageand I saw the lean figure of Colonel Lysander Stark
rushing forward with a lantern in one hand and a weapon like a
butcher's cleaver in the other. I rushed across the bedroom
flung open the windowand looked out. How quiet and sweet and
wholesome the garden looked in the moonlightand it could not be
more than thirty feet down. I clambered out upon the sillbut I
hesitated to jump until I should have heard what passed between
my saviour and the ruffian who pursued me. If she were ill-used
then at any risks I was determined to go back to her assistance.
The thought had hardly flashed through my mind before he was at
the doorpushing his way past her; but she threw her arms round
him and tried to hold him back.

'Fritz! Fritz!' she cried in English, 'remember your promise
after the last time. You said it should not be again. He will be
silent! Oh, he will be silent!'

'You are madElise!' he shoutedstruggling to break away from
her. 'You will be the ruin of us. He has seen too much. Let me
passI say!' He dashed her to one sideandrushing to the
windowcut at me with his heavy weapon. I had let myself goand
was hanging by the hands to the sillwhen his blow fell. I was
conscious of a dull painmy grip loosenedand I fell into the
garden below.

I was shaken but not hurt by the fall; so I picked myself up and
rushed off among the bushes as hard as I could run, for I
understood that I was far from being out of danger yet. Suddenly,
however, as I ran, a deadly dizziness and sickness came over me.
I glanced down at my hand, which was throbbing painfully, and
then, for the first time, saw that my thumb had been cut off and
that the blood was pouring from my wound. I endeavored to tie my
handkerchief round it, but there came a sudden buzzing in my
ears, and next moment I fell in a dead faint among the

How long I remained unconscious I cannot tell. It must have been
a very long timefor the moon had sunkand a bright morning was
breaking when I came to myself. My clothes were all sodden with
dewand my coat-sleeve was drenched with blood from my wounded
thumb. The smarting of it recalled in an instant all the
particulars of my night's adventureand I sprang to my feet with
the feeling that I might hardly yet be safe from my pursuers. But
to my astonishmentwhen I came to look round meneither house
nor garden were to be seen. I had been lying in an angle of the
hedge close by the highroadand just a little lower down was a
long buildingwhich provedupon my approaching itto be the
very station at which I had arrived upon the previous night. Were
it not for the ugly wound upon my handall that had passed
during those dreadful hours might have been an evil dream.

Half dazed, I went into the station and asked about the morning
train. There would be one to Reading in less than an hour. The
same porter was on duty, I found, as had been there when I
arrived. I inquired of him whether he had ever heard of Colonel
Lysander Stark. The name was strange to him. Had he observed a
carriage the night before waiting for me? No, he had not. Was
there a police-station anywhere near? There was one about three
miles off.

It was too far for me to goweak and ill as I was. I determined
to wait until I got back to town before telling my story to the
police. It was a little past six when I arrivedso I went first
to have my wound dressedand then the doctor was kind enough to
bring me along here. I put the case into your hands and shall do
exactly what you advise."

We both sat in silence for some little time after listening to
this extraordinary narrative. Then Sherlock Holmes pulled down
from the shelf one of the ponderous commonplace books in which he
placed his cuttings.

Here is an advertisement which will interest you,said he. "It
appeared in all the papers about a year ago. Listen to this:
'Loston the 9th inst.Mr. Jeremiah Haylingaged
twenty-sixa hydraulic engineer. Left his lodgings at ten
o'clock at nightand has not been heard of since. Was
dressed in' etc.etc. Ha! That represents the last time that
the colonel needed to have his machine overhauledI fancy."

Good heavens!cried my patient. "Then that explains what the
girl said."

Undoubtedly. It is quite clear that the colonel was a cool and
desperate man, who was absolutely determined that nothing should
stand in the way of his little game, like those out-and-out
pirates who will leave no survivor from a captured ship. Well,
every moment now is precious, so if you feel equal to it we shall
go down to Scotland Yard at once as a preliminary to starting for

Some three hours or so afterwards we were all in the train
togetherbound from Reading to the little Berkshire village.
There were Sherlock Holmesthe hydraulic engineerInspector
Bradstreetof Scotland Yarda plain-clothes manand myself.
Bradstreet had spread an ordnance map of the county out upon the
seat and was busy with his compasses drawing a circle with Eyford
for its centre.

There you are,said he. "That circle is drawn at a radius of
ten miles from the village. The place we want must be somewhere
near that line. You said ten milesI thinksir."

It was an hour's good drive.

And you think that they brought you back all that way when you
were unconscious?

They must have done so. I have a confused memory, too, of having
been lifted and conveyed somewhere.

What I cannot understand,said Iis why they should have
spared you when they found you lying fainting in the garden.
Perhaps the villain was softened by the woman's entreaties.

I hardly think that likely. I never saw a more inexorable face
in my life.

Oh, we shall soon clear up all that,said Bradstreet. "WellI
have drawn my circleand I only wish I knew at what point upon
it the folk that we are in search of are to be found."

I think I could lay my finger on it,said Holmes quietly.

Really, now!cried the inspectoryou have formed your
opinion! Come, now, we shall see who agrees with you. I say it is
south, for the country is more deserted there.

And I say east,said my patient.

I am for west,remarked the plain-clothes man. "There are
several quiet little villages up there."

And I am for north,said Ibecause there are no hills there,
and our friend says that he did not notice the carriage go up

Come,cried the inspectorlaughing; "it's a very pretty
diversity of opinion. We have boxed the compass among us. Who do
you give your casting vote to?"

You are all wrong.

But we can't all be.

Oh, yes, you can. This is my point.He placed his finger in the
centre of the circle. "This is where we shall find them."

But the twelve-mile drive?gasped Hatherley.

Six out and six back. Nothing simpler. You say yourself that the
horse was fresh and glossy when you got in. How could it be that
if it had gone twelve miles over heavy roads?

Indeed, it is a likely ruse enough,observed Bradstreet
thoughtfully. "Of course there can be no doubt as to the nature
of this gang."

None at all,said Holmes. "They are coiners on a large scale
and have used the machine to form the amalgam which has taken the
place of silver."

We have known for some time that a clever gang was at work,
said the inspector. "They have been turning out half-crowns by
the thousand. We even traced them as far as Readingbut could
get no fartherfor they had covered their traces in a way that
showed that they were very old hands. But nowthanks to this
lucky chanceI think that we have got them right enough."

But the inspector was mistakenfor those criminals were not
destined to fall into the hands of justice. As we rolled into
Eyford Station we saw a gigantic column of smoke which streamed
up from behind a small clump of trees in the neighborhood and
hung like an immense ostrich feather over the landscape.

A house on fire?asked Bradstreet as the train steamed off
again on its way.

Yes, sir!said the station-master.

When did it break out?

I hear that it was during the night, sir, but it has got worse,
and the whole place is in a blaze.

Whose house is it?

Dr. Becher's.

Tell me,broke in the engineeris Dr. Becher a German, very
thin, with a long, sharp nose?

The station-master laughed heartily. "NosirDr. Becher is an
Englishmanand there isn't a man in the parish who has a
better-lined waistcoat. But he has a gentleman staying with him
a patientas I understandwho is a foreignerand he looks as
if a little good Berkshire beef would do him no harm."

The station-master had not finished his speech before we were all
hastening in the direction of the fire. The road topped a low
hilland there was a great widespread whitewashed building in
front of usspouting fire at every chink and windowwhile in
the garden in front three fire-engines were vainly striving to
keep the flames under.

That's it!cried Hatherleyin intense excitement. "There is
the gravel-driveand there are the rose-bushes where I lay. That
second window is the one that I jumped from."

Well, at least,said Holmesyou have had your revenge upon
them. There can be no question that it was your oil-lamp which,
when it was crushed in the press, set fire to the wooden walls,
though no doubt they were too excited in the chase after you to
observe it at the time. Now keep your eyes open in this crowd for
your friends of last night, though I very much fear that they are
a good hundred miles off by now.

And Holmes's fears came to be realizedfor from that day to this
no word has ever been heard either of the beautiful womanthe
sinister Germanor the morose Englishman. Early that morning a
peasant had met a cart containing several people and some very
bulky boxes driving rapidly in the direction of Readingbut
there all traces of the fugitives disappearedand even Holmes's
ingenuity failed ever to discover the least clew as to their

The firemen had been much perturbed at the strange arrangements
which they had found withinand still more so by discovering a
newly severed human thumb upon a window-sill of the second floor.
About sunsethowevertheir efforts were at last successfuland
they subdued the flamesbut not before the roof had fallen in
and the whole place been reduced to such absolute ruin thatsave
some twisted cylinders and iron pipingnot a trace remained of
the machinery which had cost our unfortunate acquaintance so
dearly. Large masses of nickel and of tin were discovered stored
in an out-housebut no coins were to be foundwhich may have
explained the presence of those bulky boxes which have been
already referred to.

How our hydraulic engineer had been conveyed from the garden to
the spot where he recovered his senses might have remained
forever a mystery were it not for the soft mouldwhich told us a
very plain tale. He had evidently been carried down by two
personsone of whom had remarkably small feet and the other
unusually large ones. On the wholeit was most probable that the
silent Englishmanbeing less bold or less murderous than his
companionhad assisted the woman to bear the unconscious man out
of the way of danger.

Well,said our engineer ruefully as we took our seats to return
once more to Londonit has been a pretty business for me! I
have lost my thumb and I have lost a fifty-guinea fee, and what

have I gained?

Experience,said Holmeslaughing. "Indirectly it may be of
valueyou know; you have only to put it into words to gain the
reputation of being excellent company for the remainder of your


The Lord St. Simon marriageand its curious terminationhave
long ceased to be a subject of interest in those exalted circles
in which the unfortunate bridegroom moves. Fresh scandals have
eclipsed itand their more piquant details have drawn the
gossips away from this four-year-old drama. As I have reason to
believehoweverthat the full facts have never been revealed to
the general publicand as my friend Sherlock Holmes had a
considerable share in clearing the matter upI feel that no
memoir of him would be complete without some little sketch of
this remarkable episode.

It was a few weeks before my own marriageduring the days when I
was still sharing rooms with Holmes in Baker Streetthat he came
home from an afternoon stroll to find a letter on the table
waiting for him. I had remained indoors all dayfor the weather
had taken a sudden turn to rainwith high autumnal windsand
the Jezail bullet which I had brought back in one of my limbs as
a relic of my Afghan campaign throbbed with dull persistence.
With my body in one easy-chair and my legs upon anotherI had
surrounded myself with a cloud of newspapers until at last
saturated with the news of the dayI tossed them all aside and
lay listlesswatching the huge crest and monogram upon the
envelope upon the table and wondering lazily who my friend's
noble correspondent could be.

Here is a very fashionable epistle,I remarked as he entered.
Your morning letters, if I remember right, were from a
fish-monger and a tide-waiter.

Yes, my correspondence has certainly the charm of variety,he
answeredsmilingand the humbler are usually the more
interesting. This looks like one of those unwelcome social
summonses which call upon a man either to be bored or to lie.

He broke the seal and glanced over the contents.

Oh, come, it may prove to be something of interest, after all.

Not social, then?

No, distinctly professional.

And from a noble client?

One of the highest in England.

My dear fellow. I congratulate you.

I assure you, Watson, without affectation, that the status of my
client is a matter of less moment to me than the interest of his
case. It is just possible, however, that that also may not be
wanting in this new investigation. You have been reading the
papers diligently of late, have you not?

It looks like it,said I ruefullypointing to a huge bundle in
the corner. "I have had nothing else to do."

It is fortunate, for you will perhaps be able to post me up. I
read nothing except the criminal news and the agony column. The
latter is always instructive. But if you have followed recent
events so closely you must have read about Lord St. Simon and his

Oh, yes, with the deepest interest.

That is well. The letter which I hold in my hand is from Lord
St. Simon. I will read it to you, and in return you must turn
over these papers and let me have whatever bears upon the matter.
This is what he says:

'MY DEAR MR. SHERLOCK HOLMES:--"Lord Backwater tells me that I
may place implicit reliance upon your judgment and discretion. I
have determinedthereforeto call upon you and to consult you
in reference to the very painful event which has occurred in
connection with my wedding. Mr. Lestradeof Scotland Yardis
acting already in the matterbut he assures me that he sees no
objection to your cooperationand that he even thinks that
it might be of some assistance. I will call at four o'clock in
the afternoonandshould you have any other engagement at that
timeI hope that you will postpone itas this matter is of
paramount importance. Yours faithfullyST. SIMON.'

It is dated from Grosvenor Mansions, written with a quill pen,
and the noble lord has had the misfortune to get a smear of ink
upon the outer side of his right little finger,remarked Holmes
as he folded up the epistle.

He says four o'clock. It is three now. He will be here in an

Then I have just time, with your assistance, to get clear upon
the subject. Turn over those papers and arrange the extracts in
their order of time, while I take a glance as to who our client
is.He picked a red-covered volume from a line of books of
reference beside the mantelpiece. "Here he is said he, sitting
down and flattening it out upon his knee. Lord Robert Walsingham
de Vere St. Simonsecond son of the Duke of Balmoral. Hum! Arms:
Azurethree caltrops in chief over a fess sable. Born in 1846.
He's forty-one years of agewhich is mature for marriage. Was
Under-Secretary for the colonies in a late administration. The
Dukehis fatherwas at one time Secretary for Foreign Affairs.
They inherit Plantagenet blood by direct descentand Tudor on
the distaff side. Ha! Wellthere is nothing very instructive in
all this. I think that I must turn to you Watsonfor something
more solid."

I have very little difficulty in finding what I want,said I
for the facts are quite recent, and the matter struck me as
remarkable. I feared to refer them to you, however, as I knew
that you had an inquiry on hand and that you disliked the
intrusion of other matters.

Oh, you mean the little problem of the Grosvenor Square
furniture van. That is quite cleared up now--though, indeed, it
was obvious from the first. Pray give me the results of your
newspaper selections.

Here is the first notice which I can find. It is in the personal
column of the Morning Post, and dates, as you see, some weeks
back: 'A marriage has been arranged,' it says, 'and will, if
rumour is correct, very shortly take place, between Lord Robert
St. Simon, second son of the Duke of Balmoral, and Miss Hatty
Doran, the only daughter of Aloysius Doran. Esq., of San
Francisco, Cal., U.S.A.' That is all.

Terse and to the point,remarked Holmesstretching his long
thin legs towards the fire.

There was a paragraph amplifying this in one of the society
papers of the same week. Ah, here it is: 'There will soon be a
call for protection in the marriage market, for the present
free-trade principle appears to tell heavily against our home
product. One by one the management of the noble houses of Great
Britain is passing into the hands of our fair cousins from across
the Atlantic. An important addition has been made during the last
week to the list of the prizes which have been borne away by
these charming invaders. Lord St. Simon, who has shown himself
for over twenty years proof against the little god's arrows, has
now definitely announced his approaching marriage with Miss Hatty
Doran, the fascinating daughter of a California millionaire. Miss
Doran, whose graceful figure and striking face attracted much
attention at the Westbury House festivities, is an only child,
and it is currently reported that her dowry will run to
considerably over the six figures, with expectancies for the
future. As it is an open secret that the Duke of Balmoral has
been compelled to sell his pictures within the last few years,
and as Lord St. Simon has no property of his own save the small
estate of Birchmoor, it is obvious that the Californian heiress
is not the only gainer by an alliance which will enable her to
make the easy and common transition from a Republican lady to a
British peeress.'

Anything else?asked Holmesyawning.

Oh, yes; plenty. Then there is another note in the Morning Post
to say that the mariage would be an absolutely quiet one, that it
would be at St. George's, Hanover Square, that only half a dozen
intimate friends would be invited, and that the party would
return to the furnished house at Lancaster Gate which has been
taken by Mr. Aloysius Doran. Two days later--that is, on
Wednesday last--there is a curt announcement that the wedding had
taken place, and that the honeymoon would be passed at Lord
Backwater's place, near Petersfield. Those are all the notices
which appeared before the disappearance of the bride.

Before the what?asked Holmes with a start.

The vanishing of the lady.

When did she vanish, then?

At the wedding breakfast.

Indeed. This is more interesting than it promised to be; quite
dramatic, in fact.

Yes; it struck me as being a little out of the common.

They often vanish before the ceremony, and occasionally during
the honeymoon; but I cannot call to mind anything quite so prompt
as this. Pray let me have the details.

I warn you that they are very incomplete.

Perhaps we may make them less so.

Such as they are, they are set forth in a single article of a
morning paper of yesterday, which I will read to you. It is
headed, 'Singular Occurrence at a Fashionable Wedding':

'The family of Lord Robert St. Simon has been thrown into the
greatest consternation by the strange and painful episodes which
have taken place in connection with his wedding. The ceremonyas
shortly announced in the papers of yesterdayoccurred on the
previous morning; but it is only now that it has been possible to
confirm the strange rumours which have been so persistently
floating about. In spite of the attempts of the friends to hush
the matter upso much public attention has now been drawn to it
that no good purpose can be served by affecting to disregard what
is a common subject for conversation.

'The ceremony, which was performed at St. George's, Hanover
Square, was a very quiet one, no one being present save the
father of the bride, Mr. Aloysius Doran, the Duchess of Balmoral,
Lord Backwater, Lord Eustace, and Lady Clara St. Simon (the
younger brother and sister of the bridegroom), and Lady Alicia
Whittington. The whole party proceeded afterwards to the house of
Mr. Aloysius Doran, at Lancaster Gate, where breakfast had been
prepared. It appears that some little trouble was caused by a
woman, whose name has not been ascertained, who endeavored to
force her way into the house after the bridal party, alleging
that she had some claim upon Lord St. Simon. It was only after a
painful and prolonged scene that she was ejected by the butler
and the footman. The bride, who had fortunately entered the house
before this unpleasant interruption, had sat down to breakfast
with the rest, when she complained of a sudden indisposition and
retired to her room. Her prolonged absence having caused some
comment, her father followed her, but learned from her maid that
she had only come up to her chamber for an instant, caught up an
ulster and bonnet, and hurried down to the passage. One of the
footmen declared that he had seen a lady leave the house thus
apparelled, but had refused to credit that it was his mistress,
believing her to be with the company. On ascertaining that his
daughter had disappeared, Mr. Aloysius Doran, in conjunction with
the bridegroom, instantly put themselves in communication with
the police, and very energetic inquiries are being made, which
will probably result in a speedy clearing up of this very
singular business. Up to a late hour last night, however, nothing
had transpired as to the whereabouts of the missing lady. There
are rumours of foul play in the matter, and it is said that the
police have caused the arrest of the woman who had caused the
original disturbance, in the belief that, from jealousy or some
other motive, she may have been concerned in the strange
disappearance of the bride.'

And is that all?

Only one little item in another of the morning papers, but it is
a suggestive one.

And it is--

That Miss Flora Millar, the lady who had caused the disturbance,
has actually been arrested. It appears that she was formerly a
danseuse at the Allegro, and that she has known the bridegroom

for some years. There are no further particulars, and the whole
case is in your hands now--so far as it has been set forth in the
public press.

And an exceedingly interesting case it appears to be. I would
not have missed it for worlds. But there is a ring at the bell,
Watson, and as the clock makes it a few minutes after four, I
have no doubt that this will prove to be our noble client. Do not
dream of going, Watson, for I very much prefer having a witness,
if only as a check to my own memory.

Lord Robert St. Simon,announced our page-boythrowing open
the door. A gentleman enteredwith a pleasantcultured face
high-nosed and palewith something perhaps of petulance about
the mouthand with the steadywell-opened eye of a man whose
pleasant lot it had ever been to command and to be obeyed. His
manner was briskand yet his general appearance gave an undue
impression of agefor he had a slight forward stoop and a little
bend of the knees as he walked. His hairtooas he swept off
his very curly-brimmed hatwas grizzled round the edges and thin
upon the top. As to his dressit was careful to the verge of
foppishnesswith high collarblack frock-coatwhite waistcoat
yellow glovespatent-leather shoesand light-colored gaiters.
He advanced slowly into the roomturning his head from left to
rightand swinging in his right hand the cord which held his
golden eyeglasses.

Good-day, Lord St. Simon,said Holmesrising and bowing. "Pray
take the basket-chair. This is my friend and colleagueDr.
Watson. Draw up a little to the fireand we will talk this
matter over."

A most painful matter to me, as you can most readily imagine,
Mr. Holmes. I have been cut to the quick. I understand that you
have already managed several delicate cases of this sort sir,
though I presume that they were hardly from the same class of

No, I am descending.

I beg pardon.

My last client of the sort was a king.

Oh, really! I had no idea. And which king?

The King of Scandinavia.

What! Had he lost his wife?

You can understand,said Holmes suavelythat I extend to the
affairs of my other clients the same secrecy which I promise to
you in yours.

Of course! Very right! very right! I'm sure I beg pardon. As to
my own case, I am ready to give you any information which may
assist you in forming an opinion.

Thank you. I have already learned all that is in the public
prints, nothing more. I presume that I may take it as correct-this
article, for example, as to the disappearance of the bride.

Lord St. Simon glanced over it. "Yesit is correctas far as it

But it needs a great deal of supplementing before anyone could
offer an opinion. I think that I may arrive at my facts most
directly by questioning you.

Pray do so.

When did you first meet Miss Hatty Doran?

In San Francisco, a year ago.

You were travelling in the States?


Did you become engaged then?


But you were on a friendly footing?

I was amused by her society, and she could see that I was

Her father is very rich?

He is said to be the richest man on the Pacific slope.

And how did he make his money?

In mining. He had nothing a few years ago. Then he struck gold,
invested it, and came up by leaps and bounds.

Now, what is your own impression as to the young lady's--your
wife's character?

The nobleman swung his glasses a little faster and stared down
into the fire. "You seeMr. Holmes said he, my wife was
twenty before her father became a rich man. During that time she
ran free in a mining camp and wandered through woods or
mountainsso that her education has come from Nature rather than
from the schoolmaster. She is what we call in England a tomboy
with a strong naturewild and freeunfettered by any sort of
traditions. She is impetuous--volcanicI was about to say. She
is swift in making up her mind and fearless in carrying out her
resolutions. On the other handI would not have given her the
name which I have the honor to bear"--he gave a little stately
cough--"had not I thought her to be at bottom a noble woman. I
believe that she is capable of heroic self-sacrifice and that
anything dishonorable would be repugnant to her."

Have you her photograph?

I brought this with me.He opened a locket and showed us the
full face of a very lovely woman. It was not a photograph but an
ivory miniatureand the artist had brought out the full effect
of the lustrous black hairthe large dark eyesand the
exquisite mouth. Holmes gazed long and earnestly at it. Then he
closed the locket and handed it back to Lord St. Simon.

The young lady came to London, then, and you renewed your

Yes, her father brought her over for this last London season. I

met her several times, became engaged to her, and have now
married her.

She brought, I understand, a considerable dowry?

A fair dowry. Not more than is usual in my family.

And this, of course, remains to you, since the marriage is a
fait accompli?

I really have made no inquiries on the subject.

Very naturally not. Did you see Miss Doran on the day before the


Was she in good spirits?

Never better. She kept talking of what we should do in our
future lives.

Indeed! That is very interesting. And on the morning of the

She was as bright as possible--at least until after the

And did you observe any change in her then?

Well, to tell the truth, I saw then the first signs that I had
ever seen that her temper was just a little sharp. The incident
however, was too trivial to relate and can have no possible
bearing upon the case.

Pray let us have it, for all that.

Oh, it is childish. She dropped her bouquet as we went towards
the vestry. She was passing the front pew at the time, and it
fell over into the pew. There was a moment's delay, but the
gentleman in the pew handed it up to her again, and it did not
appear to be the worse for the fall. Yet when I spoke to her of
the matter, she answered me abruptly; and in the carriage, on our
way home, she seemed absurdly agitated over this trifling cause.

Indeed! You say that there was a gentleman in the pew. Some of
the general public were present, then?

Oh, yes. It is impossible to exclude them when the church is

This gentleman was not one of your wife's friends?

No, no; I call him a gentleman by courtesy, but he was quite a
common-looking person. I hardly noticed his appearance. But
really I think that we are wandering rather far from the point.

Lady St. Simon, then, returned from the wedding in a less
cheerful frame of mind than she had gone to it. What did she do
on re-entering her father's house?

I saw her in conversation with her maid.

And who is her maid?

Alice is her name. She is an American and came from California
with her.

A confidential servant?

A little too much so. It seemed to me that her mistress allowed
her to take great liberties. Still, of course, in America they
look upon these things in a different way.

How long did she speak to this Alice?

Oh, a few minutes. I had something else to think of.

You did not overhear what they said?

Lady St. Simon said something about 'jumping a claim.' She was
accustomed to use slang of the kind. I have no idea what she

American slang is very expressive sometimes. And what did your
wife do when she finished speaking to her maid?

She walked into the breakfast-room.

On your arm?

No, alone. She was very independent in little matters like that.
Then, after we had sat down for ten minutes or so, she rose
hurriedly, muttered some words of apology, and left the room. She
never came back.

But this maid, Alice, as I understand, deposes that she went to
her room, covered her bride's dress with a long ulster, put on a
bonnet, and went out.

Quite so. And she was afterwards seen walking into Hyde Park in
company with Flora Millar, a woman who is now in custody, and who
had already made a disturbance at Mr. Doran's house that

Ah, yes. I should like a few particulars as to this young lady,
and your relations to her.

Lord St. Simon shrugged his shoulders and raised his eyebrows.
We have been on a friendly footing for some years--I may say on
a very friendly footing. She used to be at the Allegro. I have
not treated her ungenerously, and she had no just cause of
complaint against me, but you know what women are, Mr. Holmes.
Flora was a dear little thing, but exceedingly hot-headed and
devotedly attached to me. She wrote me dreadful letters when she
heard that I was about to be married, and, to tell the truth, the
reason why I had the marriage celebrated so quietly was that I
feared lest there might be a scandal in the church. She came to
Mr. Doran's door just after we returned, and she endeavored to
push her way in, uttering very abusive expressions towards my
wife, and even threatening her, but I had foreseen the
possibility of something of the sort, and I had two police
fellows there in private clothes, who soon pushed her out again.
She was quiet when she saw that there was no good in making a

Did your wife hear all this?

No, thank goodness, she did not.

And she was seen walking with this very woman afterwards?

Yes. That is what Mr. Lestrade, of Scotland Yard, looks upon as
so serious. It is thought that Flora decoyed my wife out and laid
some terrible trap for her.

Well, it is a possible supposition.

You think so, too?

I did not say a probable one. But you do not yourself look upon
this as likely?

I do not think Flora would hurt a fly.

Still, jealousy is a strange transformer of characters. Pray
what is your own theory as to what took place?

Well, really, I came to seek a theory, not to propound one. I
have given you all the facts. Since you ask me, however, I may
say that it has occurred to me as possible that the excitement of
this affair, the consciousness that she had made so immense a
social stride, had the effect of causing some little nervous
disturbance in my wife.

In short, that she had become suddenly deranged?

Well, really, when I consider that she has turned her back--I
will not say upon me, but upon so much that many have aspired to
without success--I can hardly explain it in any other fashion.

Well, certainly that is also a conceivable hypothesis,said
Holmessmiling. "And nowLord St. SimonI think that I have
nearly all my data. May I ask whether you were seated at the
breakfast-table so that you could see out of the window?"

We could see the other side of the road and the Park.

Quite so. Then I do not think that I need to detain you longer.
I shall communicate with you.

Should you be fortunate enough to solve this problem,said our

I have solved it.

Eh? What was that?

I say that I have solved it.

Where, then, is my wife?

That is a detail which I shall speedily supply.

Lord St. Simon shook his head. "I am afraid that it will take
wiser heads than yours or mine he remarked, and bowing in a
stately, old-fashioned manner he departed.

It is very good of Lord St. Simon to honor my head by putting
it on a level with his own said Sherlock Holmes, laughing. I
think that I shall have a whisky and soda and a cigar after all
this cross-questioning. I had formed my conclusions as to the

case before our client came into the room."

My dear Holmes!

I have notes of several similar cases, though none, as I
remarked before, which were quite as prompt. My whole examination
served to turn my conjecture into a certainty. Circumstantial
evidence is occasionally very convincing, as when you find a
trout in the milk, to quote Thoreau's example.

But I have heard all that you have heard.

Without, however, the knowledge of pre-existing cases which
serves me so well. There was a parallel instance in Aberdeen some
years back, and something on very much the same lines at Munich
the year after the Franco-Prussian War. It is one of these
cases--but, hello, here is Lestrade! Good-afternoon, Lestrade!
You will find an extra tumbler upon the sideboard,and there are
cigars in the box.

The official detective was attired in a pea-jacket and cravat
which gave him a decidedly nautical appearanceand he carried a
black canvas bag in his hand. With a short greeting he seated
himself and lit the cigar which had been offered to him.

What's up, then?asked Holmes with a twinkle in his eye. "You
look dissatisfied."

And I feel dissatisfied. It is this infernal St. Simon marriage
case. I can make neither head nor tail of the business.

Really! You surprise me.

Who ever heard of such a mixed affair? Every clew seems to slip
through my fingers. I have been at work upon it all day.

And very wet it seems to have made you,said Holmes laying his
hand upon the arm of the pea-jacket.

Yes, I have been dragging the Serpentine.

In heaven's name, what for?

In search of the body of Lady St. Simon.

Sherlock Holmes leaned back in his chair and laughed heartily.

Have you dragged the basin of Trafalgar Square fountain?he

Why? What do you mean?

Because you have just as good a chance of finding this lady in
the one as in the other.

Lestrade shot an angry glance at my companion. "I suppose you
know all about it he snarled.

WellI have only just heard the factsbut my mind is made up."

Oh, indeed! Then you think that the Serpentine plays no part in
the maner?

I think it very unlikely.

Then perhaps you will kindly explain how it is that we found
this in it?He opened his bag as he spokeand tumbled onto the
floor a wedding-dress of watered silka pair of white satin
shoes and a bride's wreath and veilall discolored and soaked
in water. "There said he, putting a new wedding-ring upon the
top of the pile. There is a little nut for you to crackMaster

Oh, indeed!said my friendblowing blue rings into the air.
You dragged them from the Serpentine?

No. They were found floating near the margin by a park-keeper.
They have been identified as her clothes, and it seemed to me
that if the clothes were there the body would not be far off.

By the same brilliant reasoning, every man's body is to be found
in the neighborhood of his wardrobe. And pray what did you hope
to arrive at through this?

At some evidence implicating Flora Millar in the disappearance.

I am afraid that you will find it difficult.

Are you, indeed, now?cried Lestrade with some bitterness. "I
am afraidHolmesthat you are not very practical with your
deductions and your inferences. You have made two blunders in as
many minutes. This dress does implicate Miss Flora Millar."

And how?

In the dress is a pocket. In the pocket is a card-case. In the
card-case is a note. And here is the very note.He slapped it
down upon the table in front of him. "Listen to this: 'You will
see me when all is ready. Come at once. F.H.M.' Now my theory all
along has been that Lady St. Simon was decoyed away by Flora
Millarand that shewith confederatesno doubtwas
responsible for her disappearance. Heresigned with her
initialsis the very note which was no doubt quietly slipped
into her hand at the door and which lured her within their

Very good, Lestrade,said Holmeslaughing. "You really are
very fine indeed. Let me see it." He took up the paper in a
listless waybut his attention instantly became rivetedand he
gave a little cry of satisfaction. "This is indeed important
said he.

Ha! you find it so?"

Extremely so. I congratulate you warmly.

Lestrade rose in his triumph and bent his head to look. "Why he
shrieked, you're looking at the wrong side!"

On the contrary, this is the right side.

The right side? You're mad! Here is the note written in pencil
over here.

And over here is what appears to be the fragment of a hotel
bill, which interests me deeply.

There's nothing in it. I looked at it before,said Lestrade.

'Oct. 4th, rooms 8s., breakfast 2s. 6d., cocktail 1s., lunch 2s.
6d., glass sherry, 8d.' I see nothing in that.

Very likely not. It is most important, all the same. As to the
note, it is important also, or at least the initials are, so I
congratulate you again.

I've wasted time enough,said Lestraderising. "I believe in
hard work and not in sitting by the fire spinning fine theories.
Good-dayMr. Holmesand we shall see which gets to the bottom
of the matter first." He gathered up the garmentsthrust them
into the bagand made for the door.

Just one hint to you, Lestrade,drawled Holmes before his rival
vanished; "I will tell you the true solution of the matter. Lady
St. Simon is a myth. There is notand there never has beenany
such person."

Lestrade looked sadly at my companion. Then he turned to me
tapped his forehead three timesshook his head solemnlyand
hurried away.

He had hardly shut the door behind him when Holmes rose to put on
his overcoat. "There is something in what the fellow says about
outdoor work he remarked, so I thinkWatsonthat I must
leave you to your papers for a little."

It was after five o'clock when Sherlock Holmes left mebut I had
no time to be lonelyfor within an hour there arrived a
confectioner's man with a very large flat box. This he unpacked
with the help of a youth whom he had brought with himand
presentlyto my very great astonishmenta quite epicurean
little cold supper began to be laid out upon our humble
lodging-house mahogany. There were a couple of brace of cold
woodcocka pheasanta pate de foie gras pie with a group of
ancient and cobwebby bottles. Having laid out all these luxuries
my two visitors vanished awaylike the genii of the Arabian
Nightswith no explanation save that the things had been paid
for and were ordered to this address.

Just before nine o'clock Sherlock Holmes stepped briskly into the
room. His features were gravely setbut there was a light in his
eye which made me think that he had not been disappointed in his

They have laid the supper, then,he saidrubbing his hands.

You seem to expect company. They have laid for five.

Yes, I fancy we may have some company dropping in,said he. "I
am surprised that Lord St. Simon has not already arrived. Ha! I
fancy that I hear his step now upon the stairs."

It was indeed our visitor of the afternoon who came bustling in
dangling his glasses more vigorously than everand with a very
perturbed expression upon his aristocratic features.

My messenger reached you, then?asked Holmes.

Yes, and I confess that the contents startled me beyond measure.
Have you good authority for what you say?

The best possible.

Lord St. Simon sank into a chair and passed his hand over his

What will the Duke say,he murmuredwhen he hears that one of
the family has been subjected to such humiliation?

It is the purest accident. I cannot allow that there is any

Ah, you look on these things from another standpoint.

I fail to see that anyone is to blame. I can hardly see how the
lady could have acted otherwise, though her abrupt method of
doing it was undoubtedly to be regretted. Having no mother, she
had no one to advise her at such a crisis.

It was a slight, sir, a public slight,said Lord St. Simon
tapping his fingers upon the table.

You must make allowance for this poor girl, placed in so
unprecedented a position.

I will make no allowance. I am very angry indeed, and I have
been shamefully used.

I think that I heard a ring,said Holmes. "Yesthere are steps
on the landing. If I cannot persuade you to take a lenient view
of the matterLord St. SimonI have brought an advocate here
who may be more successful." He opened the door and ushered in a
lady and gentleman. "Lord St. Simon said he allow me to
introduce you to Mr. and Mrs. Francis Hay Moulton. The ladyI
thinkyou have already met."

At the sight of these newcomers our client had sprung from his
seat and stood very erectwith his eyes cast down and his hand
thrust into the breast of his frock-coata picture of offended
dignity. The lady had taken a quick step forward and had held out
her hand to himbut he still refused to raise his eyes. It was
as well for his resolutionperhapsfor her pleading face was
one which it was hard to resist.

You're angry, Robert,said she. "WellI guess you have every
cause to be."

Pray make no apology to me,said Lord St. Simon bitterly.

Oh, yes, I know that I have treated you real bad and that I
should have spoken to you before I went; but I was kind of
rattled, and from the time when I saw Frank here again I just
didn't know what I was doing or saying. I only wonder I didn't
fall down and do a faint right there before the altar.

Perhaps, Mrs. Moulton, you would like my friend and me to leave
the room while you explain this matter?

If I may give an opinion,remarked the strange gentleman
we've had just a little too much secrecy over this business
already. For my part, I should like all Europe and America to
hear the rights of it.He was a smallwirysunburnt man
clean-shavenwith a sharp face and alert manner.

Then I'll tell our story right away,said the lady. "Frank here
and I met in '84in McQuire's campnear the Rockieswhere pa
was working a claim. We were engaged to each otherFrank and I;

but then one day father struck a rich pocket and made a pile
while poor Frank here had a claim that petered out and came to
nothing. The richer pa grew the poorer was Frank; so at last pa
wouldn't hear of our engagement lasting any longerand he took
me away to 'Frisco. Frank wouldn't throw up his handthough; so
he followed me thereand he saw me without pa knowing anything
about it. It would only have made him mad to knowso we just
fixed it all up for ourselves. Frank said that he would go and
make his piletooand never come back to claim me until he had
as much as pa. So then I promised to wait for him to the end of
time and pledged myself not to marry anyone else while he lived.
'Why shouldn't we be married right awaythen' said he'and
then I will feel sure of you; and I won't claim to be your
husband until I come back?' Wellwe talked it overand he had
fixed it all up so nicelywith a clergyman all ready in waiting
that we just did it right there; and then Frank went off to seek
his fortuneand I went back to pa.

The next I heard of Frank was that he was in Montana, and then
he went prospecting in Arizona, and then I heard of him from New
Mexico. After that came a long newspaper story about how a
miners' camp had been attacked by Apache Indians, and there was
my Frank's name among the killed. I fainted dead away, and I was
very sick for months after. Pa thought I had a decline and took
me to half the doctors in 'Frisco. Not a word of news came for a
year and more, so that I never doubted that Frank was really
dead. Then Lord St. Simon came to 'Frisco, and we came to London,
and a marriage was arranged, and pa was very pleased, but I felt
all the time that no man on this earth would ever take the place
in my heart that had been given to my poor Frank.

Stillif I had married Lord St. Simonof course I'd have done
my duty by him. We can't command our lovebut we can our
actions. I went to the altar with him with the intention to make
him just as good a wife as it was in me to be. But you may
imagine what I felt whenjust as I came to the altar railsI
glanced back and saw Frank standing and looking at me out of the
first pew. I thought it was his ghost at first; but when I looked
again there he was stillwith a kind of question in his eyesas
if to ask me whether I were glad or sorry to see him. I wonder I
didn't drop. I know that everything was turning roundand the
words of the clergyman were just like the buzz of a bee in my
ear. I didn't know what to do. Should I stop the service and make
a scene in the church? I glanced at him againand he seemed to
know what I was thinkingfor he raised his finger to his lips to
tell me to be still. Then I saw him scribble on a piece of paper
and I knew that he was writing me a note. As I passed his pew on
the way out I dropped my bouquet over to himand he slipped the
note into my hand when he returned me the flowers. It was only a
line asking me to join him when he made the sign to me to do so.
Of course I never doubted for a moment that my first duty was now
to himand I determined to do just whatever he might direct.

When I got back I told my maid, who had known him in California,
and had always been his friend. I ordered her to say nothing, but
to get a few things packed and my ulster ready. I know I ought to
have spoken to Lord St. Simon, but it was dreadful hard before
his mother and all those great people. I just made up my mind to
run away and explain afterwards. I hadn't been at the table ten
minutes before I saw Frank out of the window at the other side of
the road. He beckoned to me and then began walking into the Park.
I slipped out, put on my things, and followed him. Some woman
came talking something or other about Lord St. Simon to
me--seemed to me from the little I heard as if he had a little

secret of his own before marriage also--but I managed to get away
from her and soon overtook Frank. We got into a cab together, and
away we drove to some lodgings he had taken in Gordon Square, and
that was my true wedding after all those years of waiting. Frank
had been a prisoner among the Apaches, had escaped, came on to
'Frisco, found that I had given him up for dead and had gone to
England, followed me there, and had come upon me at last on the
very morning of my second wedding.

I saw it in a paper,explained the American. "It gave the name
and the church but not where the lady lived."

Then we had a talk as to what we should do, and Frank was all
for openness, but I was so ashamed of it all that I felt as if I
should like to vanish away and never see any of them again--just
sending a line to pa, perhaps, to show him that I was alive. It
was awful to me to think of all those lords and ladies sitting
round that breakfast-table and waiting for me to come back. So
Frank took my wedding-clothes and things and made a bundle of
them, so that I should not be traced, and dropped them away
somewhere where no one could find them. It is likely that we
should have gone on to Paris to-morrow, only that this good
gentleman, Mr. Holmes, came round to us this evening, though how
he found us is more than I can think, and he showed us very
clearly and kindly that I was wrong and that Frank was right, and
that we should be putting ourselves in the wrong if we were so
secret. Then he offered to give us a chance of talking to Lord
St. Simon alone, and so we came right away round to his rooms at
once. Now, Robert, you have heard it all, and I am very sorry if
I have given you pain, and I hope that you do not think very
meanly of me.

Lord St. Simon had by no means relaxed his rigid attitudebut
had listened with a frowning brow and a compressed lip to this
long narrative.

Excuse me,he saidbut it is not my custom to discuss my most
intimate personal affairs in this public manner.

Then you won't forgive me? You won't shake hands before I go?

Oh, certainly, if it would give you any pleasure.He put out
his hand and coldly grasped that which she extended to him.

I had hoped,suggested Holmesthat you would have joined us
in a friendly supper.

I think that there you ask a little too much,responded his
Lordship. "I may be forced to acquiesce in these recent
developmentsbut I can hardly be expected to make merry over
them. I think that with your permission I will now wish you all a
very good-night." He included us all in a sweeping bow and
stalked out of the room.

Then I trust that you at least will honor me with your
company,said Sherlock Holmes. "It is always a joy to meet an
AmericanMr. Moultonfor I am one of those who believe that the
folly of a monarch and the blundering of a minister in far-gone
years will not prevent our children from being some day citizens
of the same world-wide country under a flag which shall be a
quartering of the Union Jack with the Stars and Stripes."

The case has been an interesting one,remarked Holmes when our

visitors had left usbecause it serves to show very clearly how
simple the explanation may be of an affair which at first sight
seems to be almost inexplicable. Nothing could be more natural
than the sequence of events as narrated by this lady, and nothing
stranger than the result when viewed, for instance by Mr.
Lestrade, of Scotland Yard.

You were not yourself at fault at all, then?

From the first, two facts were very obvious to me, the one that
the lady had been quite willing to undergo the wedding ceremony,
the other that she had repented of it within a few minutes of
returning home. Obviously something had occurred during the
morning, then, to cause her to change her mind. What could that
something be? She could not have spoken to anyone when she was
out, for she had been in the company of the bridegroom. Had she
seen someone, then? If she had, it must be someone from America
because she had spent so short a time in this country that she
could hardly have allowed anyone to acquire so deep an influence
over her that the mere sight of him would induce her to change
her plans so completely. You see we have already arrived, by a
process of exclusion, at the idea that she might have seen an
American. Then who could this American be, and why should he
possess so much influence over her? It might be a lover; it might
be a husband. Her young womanhood had, I knew, been spent in
rough scenes and under strange conditions. So far I had got
before I ever heard Lord St. Simon's narrative. When he told us
of a man in a pew, of the change in the bride's manner, of so
transparent a device for obtaining a note as the dropping of a
bouquet, of her resort to her confidential maid, and of her very
significant allusion to claim-jumping--which in miners' parlance
means taking possession of that which another person has a prior
claim to--the whole situation became absolutely clear. She had
gone off with a man, and the man was either a lover or was a
previous husband--the chances being in favor of the latter.

And how in the world did you find them?

It might have been difficult, but friend Lestrade held
information in his hands the value of which he did not himself
know. The initials were, of course, of the highest importance,
but more valuable still was it to know that within a week he had
settled his bill at one of the most select London hotels.

How did you deduce the select?

By the select prices. Eight shillings for a bed and eight-pence
for a glass of sherry pointed to one of the most expensive
hotels. There are not many in London which charge at that rate.
In the second one which I visited in Northumberland Avenue, I
learned by an inspection of the book that Francis H. Moulton, an
American gentleman, had left only the day before, and on looking
over the entries against him, I came upon the very items which I
had seen in the duplicate bill. His letters were to be forwarded
to 226 Gordon Square; so thither I travelled, and being fortunate
enough to find the loving couple at home, I ventured to give them
some paternal advice and to point out to them that it would be
better in every way that they should make their position a little
clearer both to the general public and to Lord St. Simon in
particular. I invited them to meet him here, and, as you see, I
made him keep the appointment.

But with no very good result,I remarked. "His conduct was
certainly not very gracious."

Ah, Watson,said Holmessmilingperhaps you would not be
very gracious either, if, after all the trouble of wooing and
wedding, you found yourself deprived in an instant of wife and of
fortune. I think that we may judge Lord St. Simon very mercifully
and thank our stars that we are never likely to find ourselves in
the same position. Draw your chair up and hand me my violin, for
the only problem we have still to solve is how to while away
these bleak autumnal evenings.


Holmes,said I as I stood one morning in our bow-window looking
down the streethere is a madman coming along. It seems rather
sad that his relatives should allow him to come out alone.

My friend rose lazily from his armchair and stood with his hands
in the pockets of his dressing-gownlooking over my shoulder. It
was a brightcrisp February morningand the snow of the day
before still lay deep upon the groundshimmering brightly in the
wintry sun. Down the centre of Baker Street it had been ploughed
into a brown crumbly band by the trafficbut at either side and
on the heaped-up edges of the foot-paths it still lay as white as
when it fell. The gray pavement had been cleaned and scrapedbut
was still dangerously slipperyso that there were fewer
passengers than usual. Indeedfrom the direction of the
Metropolitan Station no one was coming save the single gentleman
whose eccentric conduct had drawn my attention.

He was a man of about fiftytallportlyand imposingwith a
massivestrongly marked face and a commanding figure. He was
dressed in a sombre yet rich stylein black frock-coatshining
hatneat brown gaitersand well-cut pearl-gray trousers. Yet
his actions were in absurd contrast to the dignity of his dress
and featuresfor he was running hardwith occasional little
springssuch as a weary man gives who is little accustomed to
set any tax upon his legs. As he ran he jerked his hands up and
downwaggled his headand writhed his face into the most
extraordinary contortions.

What on earth can be the matter with him?I asked. "He is
looking up at the numbers of the houses."

I believe that he is coming here,said Holmesrubbing his


Yes; I rather think he is coming to consult me professionally. I
think that I recognize the symptoms. Ha! did I not tell you?As
he spokethe manpuffing and blowingrushed at our door and
pulled at our bell until the whole house resounded with the

A few moments later he was in our roomstill puffingstill
gesticulatingbut with so fixed a look of grief and despair in
his eyes that our smiles were turned in an instant to horror and
pity. For a while he could not get his words outbut swayed his
body and plucked at his hair like one who has been driven to the
extreme limits of his reason. Thensuddenly springing to his
feethe beat his head against the wall with such force that we
both rushed upon him and tore him away to the centre of the room.

Sherlock Holmes pushed him down into the easy-chair andsitting
beside himpatted his hand and chatted with him in the easy
soothing tones which he knew so well how to employ.

You have come to me to tell your story, have you not?said he.
You are fatigued with your haste. Pray wait until you have
recovered yourself, and then I shall be most happy to look into
any little problem which you may submit to me.

The man sat for a minute or more with a heaving chestfighting
against his emotion. Then he passed his handkerchief over his
browset his lips tightand turned his face towards us.

No doubt you think me mad?said he.

I see that you have had some great trouble,responded Holmes.

God knows I have!--a trouble which is enough to unseat my
reason, so sudden and so terrible is it. Public disgrace I might
have faced, although I am a man whose character has never yet
borne a stain. Private affliction also is the lot of every man;
but the two coming together, and in so frightful a form, have
been enough to shake my very soul. Besides, it is not I alone.
The very noblest in the land may suffer unless some way be found
out of this horrible affair.

Pray compose yourself, sir,said Holmesand let me have a
clear account of who you are and what it is that has befallen

My name,answered our visitoris probably familiar to your
ears. I am Alexander Holder, of the banking firm of Holder &
Stevenson, of Threadneedle Street.

The name was indeed well known to us as belonging to the senior
partner in the second largest private banking concern in the City
of London. What could have happenedthento bring one of the
foremost citizens of London to this most pitiable pass? We
waitedall curiosityuntil with another effort he braced
himself to tell his story.

I feel that time is of value,said he; "that is why I hastened
here when the police inspector suggested that I should secure
your cooperation. I came to Baker Street by the Underground and
hurried from there on footfor the cabs go slowly through this
snow. That is why I was so out of breathfor I am a man who
takes very little exercise. I feel better nowand I will put the
facts before you as shortly and yet as clearly as I can.

It is, of course, well known to you that in a successful banking
business as much depends upon our being able to find remunerative
investments for our funds as upon our increasing our connection
and the number of our depositors. One of our most lucrative means
of laying out money is in the shape of loans, where the security
is unimpeachable. We have done a good deal in this direction
during the last few years, and there are many noble families to
whom we have advanced large sums upon the security of their
pictures, libraries, or plate.

Yesterday morning I was seated in my office at the bank when a
card was brought in to me by one of the clerks. I started when I
saw the namefor it was that of none other than--wellperhaps
even to you I had better say no more than that it was a name
which is a household word all over the earth--one of the highest

noblestmost exalted names in England. I was overwhelmed by the
honor and attemptedwhen he enteredto say sobut he plunged
at once into business with the air of a man who wishes to hurry
quickly through a disagreeable task.

'Mr. Holder,' said he, 'I have been informed that you are in the
habit of advancing money.'

'The firm does so when the security is good.' I answered.

'It is absolutely essential to me,' said he, 'that I should have
50,000 pounds at once. I could, of course, borrow so trifling a
sum ten times over from my friends, but I much prefer to make it
a matter of business and to carry out that business myself. In my
position you can readily understand that it is unwise to place
one's self under obligations.'

'For how longmay I askdo you want this sum?' I asked.

'Next Monday I have a large sum due to me, and I shall then most
certainly repay what you advance, with whatever interest you
think it right to charge. But it is very essential to me that the
money should be paid at once.'

'I should be happy to advance it without further parley from my
own private purse' said I'were it not that the strain would be
rather more than it could bear. Ifon the other handI am to do
it in the name of the firmthen in justice to my partner I must
insist thateven in your caseevery businesslike precaution
should be taken.'

'I should much prefer to have it so,' said he, raising up a
square, black morocco case which he had laid beside his chair.
'You have doubtless heard of the Beryl Coronet?'

'One of the most precious public possessions of the empire'
said I.

'Precisely.' He opened the case, and there, imbedded in soft,
flesh-colored velvet, lay the magnificent piece of jewellery
which he had named. 'There are thirty-nine enormous beryls,' said
he, 'and the price of the gold chasing is incalculable. The
lowest estimate would put the worth of the coronet at double the
sum which I have asked. I am prepared to leave it with you as my

I took the precious case into my hands and looked in some
perplexity from it to my illustrious client.

'You doubt its value?' he asked.

'Not at all. I only doubt --'

'The propriety of my leaving it. You may set your mind at rest
about that. I should not dream of doing so were it not absolutely
certain that I should be able in four days to reclaim it. It is a
pure matter of form. Is the security sufficient?'


'You understand, Mr. Holder, that I am giving you a strong proof
of the confidence which I have in you, founded upon all that I
have heard of you. I rely upon you not only to be discreet and to
refrain from all gossip upon the matter but, above all, to

preserve this coronet with every possible precaution because I
need not say that a great public scandal would be caused if any
harm were to befall it. Any injury to it would be almost as
serious as its complete loss, for there are no beryls in the
world to match these, and it would be impossible to replace them.
I leave it with you, however, with every confidence, and I shall
call for it in person on Monday morning.'

Seeing that my client was anxious to leaveI said no more but
calling for my cashierI ordered him to pay over fifty 1000
pound notes. When I was alone once morehoweverwith the
precious case lying upon the table in front of meI could not
but think with some misgivings of the immense responsibility
which it entailed upon me. There could be no doubt thatas it
was a national possessiona horrible scandal would ensue if any
misfortune should occur to it. I already regretted having ever
consented to take charge of it. Howeverit was too late to alter
the matter nowso I locked it up in my private safe and turned
once more to my work.

When evening came I felt that it would be an imprudence to leave
so precious a thing in the office behind me. Bankers' safes had
been forced before now, and why should not mine be? If so, how
terrible would be the position in which I should find myself! I
determined, therefore, that for the next few days I would always
carry the case backward and forward with me, so that it might
never be really out of my reach. With this intention, I called a
cab and drove out to my house at Streatham, carrying the jewel
with me. I did not breathe freely until I had taken it upstairs
and locked it in the bureau of my dressing-room.

And now a word as to my householdMr. Holmesfor I wish you to
thoroughly understand the situation. My groom and my page sleep
out of the houseand may be set aside altogether. I have three
maid-servants who have been with me a number of years and whose
absolute reliability is quite above suspicion. AnotherLucy
Parrthe second waiting-maidhas only been in my service a few
months. She came with an excellent characterhoweverand has
always given me satisfaction. She is a very pretty girl and has
attracted admirers who have occasionally hung about the place.
That is the only drawback which we have found to herbut we
believe her to be a thoroughly good girl in every way.

So much for the servants. My family itself is so small that it
will not take me long to describe it. I am a widower and have an
only son, Arthur. He has been a disappointment to me, Mr.
Holmes-- a grievous disappointment. I have no doubt that I am
myself to blame. People tell me that I have spoiled him. Very
likely I have. When my dear wife died I felt that he was all I
had to love. I could not bear to see the smile fade even for a
moment from his face. I have never denied him a wish. Perhaps it
would have been better for both of us had I been sterner, but I
meant it for the best.

It was naturally my intention that he should succeed me in my
businessbut he was not of a business turn. He was wild
waywardandto speak the truthI could not trust him in the
handling of large sums of money. When he was young he became a
member of an aristocratic cluband therehaving charming
mannershe was soon the intimate of a number of men with long
purses and expensive habits. He learned to play heavily at cards
and to squander money on the turfuntil he had again and again
to come to me and implore me to give him an advance upon his
allowancethat he might settle his debts of honor. He tried

more than once to break away from the dangerous company which he
was keepingbut each time the influence of his friendSir
George Burnwellwas enough to draw him back again.

And, indeed, I could not wonder that such a man as Sir George
Burnwell should gain an influence over him, for he has frequently
brought him to my house, and I have found myself that I could
hardly resist the fascination of his manner. He is older than
Arthur, a man of the world to his finger-tips, one who had been
everywhere, seen everything, a brilliant talker, and a man of
great personal beauty. Yet when I think of him in cold blood, far
away from the glamour of his presence, I am convinced from his
cynical speech and the look which I have caught in his eyes that
he is one who should be deeply distrusted. So I think, and so,
too, thinks my little Mary, who has a woman's quick insight into

And now there is only she to be described. She is my niece; but
when my brother died five years ago and left her alone in the
world I adopted herand have looked upon her ever since as my
daughter. She is a sunbeam in my house--sweetlovingbeautiful
a wonderful manager and housekeeperyet as tender and quiet and
gentle as a woman could be. She is my right hand. I do not know
what I could do without her. In only one matter has she ever gone
against my wishes. Twice my boy has asked her to marry himfor
he loves her devotedlybut each time she has refused him. I
think that if anyone could have drawn him into the right path it
would have been sheand that his marriage might have changed his
whole life; but nowalas! it is too late--forever too late!

Now, Mr. Holmes, you know the people who live under my roof, and
I shall continue with my miserable story.

When we were taking coffee in the drawing-room that night after
dinnerI told Arthur and Mary my experienceand of the precious
treasure which we had under our roofsuppressing only the name
of my client. Lucy Parrwho had brought in the coffeehadI am
sureleft the room; but I cannot swear that the door was closed.
Mary and Arthur were much interested and wished to see the famous
coronetbut I thought it better not to disturb it.

'Where have you put it?' asked Arthur.

'In my own bureau.'

'Well, I hope to goodness the house won't be burgled during the
night.' said he.

'It is locked up' I answered.

'Oh, any old key will fit that bureau. When I was a youngster I
have opened it myself with the key of the box-room cupboard.'

He often had a wild way of talkingso that I thought little of
what he said. He followed me to my roomhoweverthat night with
a very grave face.

'Look here, dad,' said he with his eyes cast down, 'can you let
me have 200 pounds?'

'NoI cannot!' I answered sharply. 'I have been far too
generous with you in money matters.'

'You have been very kind,' said he, 'but I must have this money,

or else I can never show my face inside the club again.'

'And a very good thingtoo!' I cried.

'Yes, but you would not have me leave it a dishonored man,'
said he. 'I could not bear the disgrace. I must raise the money
in some way, and if you will not let me have it, then I must try
other means.'

I was very angryfor this was the third demand during the
month. 'You shall not have a farthing from me' I criedon which
he bowed and left the room without another word.

When he was gone I unlocked my bureau, made sure that my
treasure was safe, and locked it again. Then I started to go
round the house to see that all was secure--a duty which I
usually leave to Mary but which I thought it well to perform
myself that night. As I came down the stairs I saw Mary herself
at the side window of the hall, which she closed and fastened as
I approached.

'Tell medad' said shelookingI thoughta little
disturbed'did you give Lucythe maidleave to go out

'Certainly not.'

'She came in just now by the back door. I have no doubt that she
has only been to the side gate to see someonebut I think that
it is hardly safe and should be stopped.'

'You must speak to her in the morning, or I will if you prefer
it. Are you sure that everything is fastened?'

'Quite suredad.'

'Then. good-night.' I kissed her and went up to my bedroom
again, where I was soon asleep.

I am endeavoring to tell you everythingMr. Holmeswhich may
have any bearing upon the casebut I beg that you will question
me upon any point which I do not make clear."

On the contrary, your statement is singularly lucid.

I come to a part of my story now in which I should wish to be
particularly so. I am not a very heavy sleeper, and the anxiety
in my mind tended, no doubt, to make me even less so than usual.
About two in the morning, then, I was awakened by some sound in
the house. It had ceased ere I was wide awake, but it had left an
impression behind it as though a window had gently closed
somewhere. I lay listening with all my ears. Suddenly, to my
horror, there was a distinct sound of footsteps moving softly in
the next room. I slipped out of bed, all palpitating with fear,
and peeped round the comer of my dressing-room door.

'Arthur!' I screamed'you villain! you thief! How dare you
touch that coronet?'

The gas was half up, as I had left it, and my unhappy boy,
dressed only in his shirt and trousers, was standing beside the
light, holding the coronet in his hands. He appeared to be
wrenching at it, or bending it with all his strength. At my cry
he dropped it from his grasp and turned as pale as death. I

snatched it up and examined it. One of the gold corners, with
three of the beryls in it, was missing.

'You blackguard!' I shoutedbeside myself with rage. 'You have
destroyed it! You have dishonored me forever! Where are the
jewels which you have stolen?'

'Stolen!' he cried.

'Yesthief!' I roaredshaking him by the shoulder.

'There are none missing. There cannot be any missing,' said he.

'There are three missing. And you know where they are. Must I
call you a liar as well as a thief? Did I not see you trying to
tear off another piece?'

'You have called me names enough,' said he, 'I will not stand it
any longer. I shall not say another word about this business,
since you have chosen to insult me. I will leave your house in
the morning and make my own way in the world.'

'You shall leave it in the hands of the police!' I cried
half-mad with grief and rage. 'I shall have this matter probed to
the bottom.'

'You shall learn nothing from me,' said he with a passion such
as I should not have thought was in his nature. 'If you choose to
call the police, let the police find what they can.'

By this time the whole house was astirfor I had raised my
voice in my anger. Mary was the first to rush into my roomand
at the sight of the coronet and of Arthur's faceshe read the
whole story andwith a screamfell down senseless on the
ground. I sent the house-maid for the police and put the
investigation into their hands at once. When the inspector and a
constable entered the houseArthurwho had stood sullenly with
his arms foldedasked me whether it was my intention to charge
him with theft. I answered that it had ceased to be a private
matterbut had become a public onesince the ruined coronet was
national property. I was determined that the law should have its
way in everything.

'At least,' said he, 'you will not have me arrested at once. It
would be to your advantage as well as mine if I might leave the
house for five minutes.'

'That you may get awayor perhaps that you may conceal what you
have stolen' said I. And thenrealizing the dreadful position
in which I was placedI implored him to remember that not only
my honor but that of one who was far greater than I was at
stake; and that he threatened to raise a scandal which would
convulse the nation. He might avert it all if he would but tell
me what he had done with the three missing stones.

'You may as well face the matter,' said I; 'you have been caught
in the act, and no confession could make your guilt more heinous.
If you but make such reparation as is in your power, by telling
us where the beryls are, all shall be forgiven and forgotten.'

'Keep your forgiveness for those who ask for it' he answered
turning away from me with a sneer. I saw that he was too hardened
for any words of mine to influence him. There was but one way for
it. I called in the inspector and gave him into custody. A search

was made at once not only of his person but of his room and of
every portion of the house where he could possibly have concealed
the gems; but no trace of them could be foundnor would the
wretched boy open his mouth for all our persuasions and our
threats. This morning he was removed to a celland Iafter
going through all the police formalitieshave hurried round to
you to implore you to use your skill in unravelling the matter.
The police have openly confessed that they can at present make
nothing of it. You may go to any expense which you think
necessary. I have already offered a reward of 1000 pounds. My
Godwhat shall I do! I have lost my honormy gemsand my son
in one night. Ohwhat shall I do!"

He put a hand on either side of his head and rocked himself to
and frodroning to himself like a child whose grief has got
beyond words.

Sherlock Holmes sat silent for some few minuteswith his brows
knitted and his eyes fixed upon the fire.

Do you receive much company?he asked.

None save my partner with his family and an occasional friend of
Arthur's. Sir George Burnwell has been several times lately. No
one else, I think.

Do you go out much in society?

Arthur does. Mary and I stay at home. We neither of us care for

That is unusual in a young girl.

She is of a quiet nature. Besides, she is not so very young. She
is four-and-twenty.

This matter, from what you say, seems to have been a shock to
her also.

Terrible! She is even more affected than I.

You have neither of you any doubt as to your son's guilt?

How can we have when I saw him with my own eyes with the coronet
in his hands.

I hardly consider that a conclusive proof. Was the remainder of
the coronet at all injured?

Yes, it was twisted.

Do you not think, then, that he might have been trying to
straighten it?

God bless you! You are doing what you can for him and for me.
But it is too heavy a task. What was he doing there at all? If
his purpose were innocent, why did he not say so?

Precisely. And if it were guilty, why did he not invent a lie?
His silence appears to me to cut both ways. There are several
singular points about the case. What did the police think of the
noise which awoke you from your sleep?

They considered that it might be caused by Arthur's closing his

bedroom door.

A likely story! As if a man bent on felony would slam his door
so as to wake a household. What did they say, then, of the
disappearance of these gems?

They are still sounding the planking and probing the furniture
in the hope of finding them.

Have they thought of looking outside the house?

Yes, they have shown extraordinary energy. The whole garden has
already been minutely examined.

Now, my dear sir,said Holmes. "is it not obvious to you now
that this matter really strikes very much deeper than either you
or the police were at first inclined to think? It appeared to you
to be a simple case; to me it seems exceedingly complex. Consider
what is involved by your theory. You suppose that your son came
down from his bedwentat great riskto your dressing-room
opened your bureautook out your coronetbroke off by main
force a small portion of itwent off to some other place
concealed three gems out of the thirty-nine. with such skill that
nobody can find themand then returned with the other thirty-six
into the room in which he exposed himself to the greatest danger
of being discovered. I ask you nowis such a theory tenable?"

But what other is there?cried the banker with a gesture of
despair. "If his motives were innocentwhy does he not explain

It is our task to find that out,replied Holmes; "so nowif
you pleaseMr. Holderwe will set off for Streatham together
and devote an hour to glancing a little more closely into

My friend insisted upon my accompanying them in their expedition
which I was eager enough to dofor my curiosity and sympathy
were deeply stirred by the story to which we had listened. I
confess that the guilt of the banker's son appeared to me to be
as obvious as it did to his unhappy fatherbut still I had such
faith in Holmes's judgment that I felt that there must be some
grounds for hope as long as he was dissatisfied with the accepted
explanation. He hardly spoke a word the whole way out to the
southern suburbbut sat with his chin upon his breast and his
hat drawn over his eyessunk in the deepest thought. Our client
appeared to have taken fresh heart at the little glimpse of hope
which had been presented to himand he even broke into a
desultory chat with me over his business affairs. A short railway
journey and a shorter walk brought us to Fairbankthe modest
residence of the great financier.

Fairbank was a good-sized square house of white stonestanding
back a little from the road. A double carriage-sweepwith a
snow-clad lawnstretched down in front to two large iron gates
which closed the entrance. On the right side was a small wooden
thicketwhich led into a narrow path between two neat hedges
stretching from the road to the kitchen doorand forming the
tradesmen's entrance. On the left ran a lane which led to the
stablesand was not itself within the grounds at allbeing a
publicthough little usedthoroughfare. Holmes left us standing
at the door and walked slowly all round the houseacross the
frontdown the tradesmen's pathand so round by the garden
behind into the stable lane. So long was he that Mr. Holder and I

went into the dining-room and waited by the fire until he should
return. We were sitting there in silence when the door opened and
a young lady came in. She was rather above the middle height
slimwith dark hair and eyeswhich seemed the darker against
the absolute pallor of her skin. I do not think that I have ever
seen such deadly paleness in a woman's face. Her lipstoowere
bloodlessbut her eyes were flushed with crying. As she swept
silently into the room she impressed me with a greater sense of
grief than the banker had done in the morningand it was the
more striking in her as she was evidently a woman of strong
characterwith immense capacity for self-restraint. Disregarding
my presenceshe went straight to her uncle and passed her hand
over his head with a sweet womanly caress.

You have given orders that Arthur should be liberated, have you
not, dad?she asked.

No, no, my girl, the matter must be probed to the bottom.

But I am so sure that he is innocent. You know what woman's
instincts are. I know that he has done no harm and that you will
be sorry for having acted so harshly.

Why is he silent, then, if he is innocent?

Who knows? Perhaps because he was so angry that you should
suspect him.

How could I help suspecting him, when I actually saw him with
the coronet in his hand?

Oh, but he had only picked it up to look at it. Oh, do, do take
my word for it that he is innocent. Let the matter drop and say
no more. It is so dreadful to think of our dear Arthur in

I shall never let it drop until the gems are found--never, Mary!
Your affection for Arthur blinds you as to the awful consequences
to me. Far from hushing the thing up, I have brought a gentleman
down from London to inquire more deeply into it.

This gentleman?she askedfacing round to me.

No, his friend. He wished us to leave him alone. He is round in
the stable lane now.

The stable lane?She raised her dark eyebrows. "What can he
hope to find there? Ah! thisI supposeis he. I trustsir
that you will succeed in provingwhat I feel sure is the truth
that my cousin Arthur is innocent of this crime."

I fully share your opinion, and I trust, with you, that we may
prove it,returned Holmesgoing back to the mat to knock the
snow from his shoes. "I believe I have the honor of addressing
Miss Mary Holder. Might I ask you a question or two?"

Pray do, sir, if it may help to clear this horrible affair up.

You heard nothing yourself last night?

Nothing, until my uncle here began to speak loudly. I heard
that, and I came down.

You shut up the windows and doors the night before. Did you

fasten all the windows?


Were they all fastened this morning?


You have a maid who has a sweetheart? I think that you remarked
to your uncle last night that she had been out to see him?

Yes, and she was the girl who waited in the drawing-room. and
who may have heard uncle's remarks about the coronet.

I see. You infer that she may have gone out to tell her
sweetheart, and that the two may have planned the robbery.

But what is the good of all these vague theories,cried the
banker impatientlywhen I have told you that I saw Arthur with
the coronet in his hands?

Wait a little, Mr. Holder. We must come back to that. About this
girl, Miss Holder. You saw her return by the kitchen door, I

Yes; when I went to see if the door was fastened for the night I
met her slipping in. I saw the man, too, in the gloom.

Do you know him?

Oh, yes! he is the green-grocer who brings our vegetables round.
His name is Francis Prosper.

He stood,said Holmesto the left of the door--that is to
say, farther up the path than is necessary to reach the door?

Yes, he did.

And he is a man with a wooden leg?

Something like fear sprang up in the young lady's expressive
black eyes. "Whyyou are like a magician said she. How do you
know that?" She smiledbut there was no answering smile in
Holmes's thineager face.

I should be very glad now to go upstairs,said he. "I shall
probably wish to go over the outside of the house again. Perhaps
I had better take a look at the lower windows before I go up."

He walked swiftly round from one to the otherpausing only at
the large one which looked from the hall onto the stable lane.
This he opened and made a very careful examination of the sill
with his powerful magnifying lens. "Now we shall go upstairs
said he at last.

The banker's dressing-room was a plainly furnished little
chamber, with a gray carpet, a large bureau, and a long mirror.
Holmes went to the bureau first and looked hard at the lock.

Which key was used to open it?" he asked.

That which my son himself indicated--that of the cupboard of the

Have you it here?

That is it on the dressing-table.

Sherlock Holmes took it up and opened the bureau.

It is a noiseless lock,said he. "It is no wonder that it did
not wake you. This caseI presumecontains the coronet. We must
have a look at it." He opened the caseand taking out the diadem
he laid it upon the table. It was a magnificent specimen of the
jeweller's artand the thirty-six stones were the finest that I
have ever seen. At one side of the coronet was a cracked edge
where a corner holding three gems had been torn away.

Now, Mr. Holder,said Holmeshere is the corner which
corresponds to that which has been so unfortunately lost. Might I
beg that you will break it off.

The banker recoiled in horror. "I should not dream of trying
said he.

Then I will." Holmes suddenly bent his strength upon itbut
without result. "I feel it give a little said he; butthough
I am exceptionally strong in the fingersit would take me all my
time to break it. An ordinary man could not do it. Nowwhat do
you think would happen if I did break itMr. Holder? There would
be a noise like a pistol shot. Do you tell me that all this
happened within a few yards of your bed and that you heard
nothing of it?"

I do not know what to think. It is all dark to me.

But perhaps it may grow lighter as we go. What do you think,
Miss Holder?

I confess that I still share my uncle's perplexity.

Your son had no shoes or slippers on when you saw him?

He had nothing on save only his trousers and shirt.

Thank you. We have certainly been favored with extraordinary
luck during this inquiry, and it will be entirely our own fault
if we do not succeed in clearing the matter up. With your
pemmission, Mr. Holder, I shall now continue my investigations

He went aloneat his own requestfor he explained that any
unnecessary footmarks might make his task more difficult. For an
hour or more he was at workreturning at last with his feet
heavy with snow and his features as inscrutable as ever.

I think that I have seen now all that there is to see, Mr.
Holder,said he; "I can serve you best by returning to my

But the gems, Mr. Holmes. Where are they?

I cannot tell.

The banker wrung his hands. "I shall never see them again!" he
cried. "And my son? You give me hopes?"

My opinion is in no way altered.

Then, for God's sake, what was this dark business which was
acted in my house last night?

If you can call upon me at my Baker Street rooms to-morrow
morning between nine and ten I shall be happy to do what I can to
make it clearer. I understand that you give me carte blanche to
act for you, provided only that I get back the gems, and that you
place no limit on the sum I may draw.

I would give my fortune to have them back.

Very good. I shall look into the matter between this and then.
Good-bye; it is just possible that I may have to come over here
again before evening.

It was obvious to me that my companion's mind was now made up
about the casealthough what his conclusions were was more than
I could even dimly imagine. Several times during our homeward
journey I endeavored to sound him upon the pointbut he always
glided away to some other topicuntil at last I gave it over in
despair. It was not yet three when we found ourselves in our
rooms once more. He hurried to his chamber and was down again in
a few minutes dressed as a common loafer. With his collar turned
uphis shinyseedy coathis red cravatand his worn bootshe
was a perfect sample of the class.

I think that this should do,said heglancing into the glass
above the fireplace. "I only wish that you could come with me
Watsonbut I fear that it won't do. I may be on the trail in
this matteror I may be following a will-o'-the-wispbut I
shall soon know which it is. I hope that I may be back in a few
hours." He cut a slice of beef from the joint upon the sideboard
sandwiched it between two rounds of breadand thrusting this
rude meal into his pocket he started off upon his expedition.

I had just finished my tea when he returnedevidently in
excellent spiritsswinging an old elastic-sided boot in his
hand. He chucked it down into a corner and helped himself to a
cup of tea.

I only looked in as I passed,said he. "I am going right on."

Where to?

Oh, to the other side of the West End. It may be some time
before I get back. Don't wait up for me in case I should be

How are you getting on?

Oh, so so. Nothing to complain of. I have been out to Streatham
since I saw you last, but I did not call at the house. It is a
very sweet little problem, and I would not have missed it for a
good deal. However, I must not sit gossiping here, but must get
these disreputable clothes off and return to my highly
respectable self.

I could see by his manner that he had stronger reasons for
satisfaction than his words alone would imply. His eyes twinkled
and there was even a touch of color upon his sallow cheeks. He
hastened upstairsand a few minutes later I heard the slam of
the hall doorwhich told me that he was off once more upon his
congenial hunt.

I waited until midnightbut there was no sign of his returnso
I retired to my room. It was no uncommon thing for him to be away
for days and nights on end when he was hot upon a scentso that
his lateness caused me no surprise. I do not know at what hour he
came inbut when I came down to breakfast in the morning there
he was with a cup of coffee in one hand and the paper in the
otheras fresh and trim as possible.

You will excuse my beginning without you, Watson,said hebut
you remember that our client has rather an early appointment this

Why, it is after nine now,I answered. "I should not be
surprised if that were he. I thought I heard a ring."

It wasindeedour friend the financier. I was shocked by the
change which had come over himfor his face which was naturally
of a broad and massive mouldwas now pinched and fallen in
while his hair seemed to me at least a shade whiter. He entered
with a weariness and lethargy which was even more painful than
his violence of the morning beforeand he dropped heavily into
the armchair which I pushed forward for him.

I do not know what I have done to be so severely tried,said
he. "Only two days ago I was a happy and prosperous manwithout
a care in the world. Now I am left to a lonely and dishonored
age. One sorrow comes close upon the heels of another. My niece
Maryhas deserted me."

Deserted you?

Yes. Her bed this morning had not been slept in, her room was
empty, and a note for me lay upon the hall table. I had said to
her last night, in sorrow and not in anger, that if she had
married my boy all might have been well with him. Perhaps it was
thoughtless of me to say so. It is to that remark that she refers
in this note:

'MY DEAREST UNCLE:--I feel that I have brought trouble upon you
and that if I had acted differently this terrible misfortune
might never have occurred. I cannotwith this thought in my
mindever again be happy under your roofand I feel that I must
leave you forever. Do not worry about my futurefor that is
provided for; andabove alldo not search for mefor it will
be fruitless labour and an ill-service to me. In life or in
deathI am ever your loving MARY.'

What could she mean by that note, Mr. Holmes? Do you think it
points to suicide?

No, no, nothing of the kind. It is perhaps the best possible
solution. I trust, Mr. Holder, that you are nearing the end of
your troubles.

Ha! You say so! You have heard something, Mr. Holmes; you have
learned something! Where are the gems?

You would not think 1000 pounds apiece an excessive sum for

I would pay ten.

That would be unnecessary. Three thousand will cover the matter.

And there is a little reward, I fancy. Have you your check-book?
Here is a pen. Better make it out for 4000 pounds.

With a dazed face the banker made out the required check. Holmes
walked over to his desktook out a little triangular piece of
gold with three gems in itand threw it down upon the table.

With a shriek of joy our client clutched it up.

You have it!he gasped. "I am saved! I am saved!"

The reaction of joy was as passionate as his grief had beenand
he hugged his recovered gems to his bosom.

There is one other thing you owe, Mr. Holder,said Sherlock
Holmes rather sternly.

Owe!He caught up a pen. "Name the sumand I will pay it."

No, the debt is not to me. You owe a very humble apology to that
noble lad, your son, who has carried himself in this matter as I
should be proud to see my own son do, should I ever chance to
have one.

Then it was not Arthur who took them?

I told you yesterday, and I repeat to-day, that it was not.

You are sure of it! Then let us hurry to him at once to let him
know that the truth is known.

He knows it already. When I had cleared it all up I had an
interview with him, and finding that he would not tell me the
story, I told it to him, on which he had to confess that I was
right and to add the very few details which were not yet quite
clear to me. Your news of this morning, however, may open his

For heaven's sake, tell me, then, what is this extraordinary
mystery !

I will do so, and I will show you the steps by which I reached
it. And let me say to you, first, that which it is hardest for me
to say and for you to hear: there has been an understanding
between Sir George Burnwell and your niece Mary. They have now
fled together.

My Mary? Impossible!

It is unfortunately more than possible; it is certain. Neither
you nor your son knew the true character of this man when you
admitted him into your family circle. He is one of the most
dangerous men in England--a ruined gambler, an absolutely
desperate villain, a man without heart or conscience. Your niece
knew nothing of such men. When he breathed his vows to her, as he
had done to a hundred before her, she flattered herself that she
alone had touched his heart. The devil knows best what he said,
but at least she became his tool and was in the habit of seeing
him nearly every evening.

I cannot, and I will not, believe it!cried the banker with an
ashen face.

I will tell you, then, what occurred in your house last night.

Your niece, when you had, as she thought, gone to your room.
slipped down and talked to her lover through the window which
leads into the stable lane. His footmarks had pressed right
through the snow, so long had he stood there. She told him of the
coronet. His wicked lust for gold kindled at the news, and he
bent her to his will. I have no doubt that she loved you, but
there are women in whom the love of a lover extinguishes all
other loves, and I think that she must have been one. She had
hardly listened to his instructions when she saw you coming
downstairs, on which she closed the window rapidly and told you
about one of the servants' escapade with her wooden-legged lover,
which was all perfectly true.

Your boyArthurwent to bed after his interview with you but
he slept badly on account of his uneasiness about his club debts.
In the middle of the night he heard a soft tread pass his door
so he rose andlooking outwas surprised to see his cousin
walking very stealthily along the passage until she disappeared
into your dressing-room. Petrified with astonishment. the lad
slipped on some clothes and waited there in the dark to see what
would come of this strange affair. Presently she emerged from the
room againand in the light of the passage-lamp your son saw
that she carried the precious coronet in her hands. She passed
down the stairsand hethrilling with horrorran along and
slipped behind the curtain near your doorwhence he could see
what passed in the hall beneath. He saw her stealthily open the
windowhand out the coronet to someone in the gloomand then
closing it once more hurry back to her roompassing quite close
to where he stood hid behind the curtain.

As long as she was on the scene he could not take any action
without a horrible exposure of the woman whom he loved. But the
instant that she was gone he realized how crushing a misfortune
this would be for you, and how all-important it was to set it
right. He rushed down, just as he was, in his bare feet, opened
the window, sprang out into the snow, and ran down the lane,
where he could see a dark figure in the moonlight. Sir George
Burnwell tried to get away, but Arthur caught him, and there was
a struggle between them, your lad tugging at one side of the
coronet, and his opponent at the other. In the scuffle, your son
struck Sir George and cut him over the eye. Then something
suddenly snapped, and your son, finding that he had the coronet
in his hands, rushed back, closed the window, ascended to your
room, and had just observed that the coronet had been twisted in
the struggle and was endeavoring to straighten it when you
appeared upon the scene.

Is it possible?gasped the banker.

You then roused his anger by calling him names at a moment when
he felt that he had deserved your warmest thanks. He could not
explain the true state of affairs without betraying one who
certainly deserved little enough consideration at his hands. He
took the more chivalrous view, however, and preserved her

And that was why she shrieked and fainted when she saw the
coronet,cried Mr. Holder. "Ohmy God! what a blind fool I have
been! And his asking to be allowed to go out for five minutes!
The dear fellow wanted to see if the missing piece were at the
scene of the struggle. How cruelly I have misjudged him!'

When I arrived at the house,continued HolmesI at once went
very carefully round it to observe if there were any traces in

the snow which might help me. I knew that none had fallen since
the evening before, and also that there had been a strong frost
to preserve impressions. I passed along the tradesmen's path, but
found it all trampled down and indistinguishable. Just beyond it,
however, at the far side of the kitchen door, a woman had stood
and talked with a man, whose round impressions on one side showed
that he had a wooden leg. I could even tell that they had been
disturbed, for the woman had run back swiftly to the door, as was
shown by the deep toe and light heel marks, while Wooden-leg had
waited a little, and then had gone away. I thought at the time
that this might be the maid and her sweetheart, of whom you had
already spoken to me, and inquiry showed it was so. I passed
round the garden without seeing anything more than random tracks,
which I took to be the police; but when I got into the stable
lane a very long and complex story was written in the snow in
front of me.

There was a double line of tracks of a booted manand a second
double line which I saw with delight belonged to a man with naked
feet. I was at once convinced from what you had told me that the
latter was your son. The first had walked both waysbut the
other had run swiftlyand as his tread was marked in places over
the depression of the bootit was obvious that he had passed
after the other. I followed them up and found they led to the
hall windowwhere Boots had worn all the snow away while
waiting. Then I walked to the other endwhich was a hundred
yards or more down the lane. I saw where Boots had faced round
where the snow was cut up as though there had been a struggle
andfinallywhere a few drops of blood had fallento show me
that I was not mistaken. Boots had then run down the laneand
another little smudge of blood showed that it was he who had been
hurt. When he came to the highroad at the other endI found that
the pavement had been clearedso there was an end to that clew.

On entering the house, however, I examined, as you remember, the
sill and framework of the hall window with my lens, and I could
at once see that someone had passed out. I could distinguish the
outline of an instep where the wet foot had been placed in coming
in. I was then beginning to be able to form an opinion as to what
had occurred. A man had waited outside the window; someone had
brought the gems; the deed had been overseen by your son; he had
pursued the thief; had struggled with him; they had each tugged
at the coronet, their united strength causing injuries which
neither alone could have effected. He had returned with the
prize, but had left a fragment in the grasp of his opponent. So
far I was clear. The question now was, who was the man and who
was it brought him the coronet?

It is an old maxim of mine that when you have excluded the
impossiblewhatever remainshowever improbablemust be the
truth. NowI knew that it was not you who had brought it down
so there only remained your niece and the maids. But if it were
the maidswhy should your son allow himself to be accused in
their place? There could be no possible reason. As he loved his
cousinhoweverthere was an excellent explanation why he should
retain her secret--the more so as the secret was a disgraceful
one. When I remembered that you had seen her at that windowand
how she had fainted on seeing the coronet againmy conjecture
became a certainty.

And who could it be who was her confederate? A lover evidently,
for who else could outweigh the love and gratitude which she must
feel to you? I knew that you went out little, and that your
circle of friends was a very limited one. But among them was Sir

George Burnwell. I had heard of him before as being a man of evil
reputation among women. It must have been he who wore those boots
and retained the missing gems. Even though he knew that Arthur
had discovered him, he might still flatter himself that he was
safe, for the lad could not say a word without compromising his
own family.

Wellyour own good sense will suggest what measures I took
next. I went in the shape of a loafer to Sir George's house
managed to pick up an acquaintance with his valetlearned that
his master had cut his head the night beforeandfinallyat
the expense of six shillingsmade all sure by buying a pair of
his cast-off shoes. With these I journeyed down to Streatham and
saw that they exactly fitted the tracks."

I saw an ill-dressed vagabond in the lane yesterday evening,
said Mr. Holder.

Precisely. It was I. I found that I had my man, so I came home
and changed my clothes. It was a delicate part which I had to
play then, for I saw that a prosecution must be avoided to avert
scandal, and I knew that so astute a villain would see that our
hands were tied in the matter. I went and saw him. At first, of
course, he denied everything. But when I gave him every
particular that had occurred, he tried to bluster and took down a
life-preserver from the wall. I knew my man, however, and I
clapped a pistol to his head before he could strike. Then he
became a little more reasonable. I told him that we would give
him a price for the stones he held 1000 pounds apiece. That
brought out the first signs of grief that he had shown. 'Why,
dash it all!' said he, 'I've let them go at six hundred for the
three!' I soon managed to get the address of the receiver who had
them, on promising him that there would be no prosecution. Off I
set to him, and after much chaffering I got our stones at 1000
pounds apiece. Then I looked in upon your son, told him that all
was right, and eventually got to my bed about two o'clock, after
what I may call a really hard day's work.

A day which has saved England from a great public scandal,said
the bankerrising. "SirI cannot find words to thank youbut
you shall not find me ungrateful for what you have done. Your
skill has indeed exceeded all that I have heard of it. And now I
must fly to my dear boy to apologize to him for the wrong which I
have done him. As to what you tell me of poor Maryit goes to my
very heart. Not even your skill can inform me where she is now."

I think that we may safely say,returned Holmesthat she is
wherever Sir George Burnwell is. It is equally certain, too, that
whatever her sins are, they will soon receive a more than
sufficient punishment.


To the man who loves art for its own sake,remarked Sherlock
Holmestossing aside the advertisement sheet of the Daily
Telegraphit is frequently in its least important and lowliest
manifestations that the keenest pleasure is to be derived. It is
pleasant to me to observe, Watson, that you have so far grasped
this truth that in these little records of our cases which you
have been good enough to draw up, and, I am bound to say,
occasionally to embellish, you have given prominence not so much
to the many causes celebres and sensational trials in which I

have figured but rather to those incidents which may have been
trivial in themselves, but which have given room for those
faculties of deduction and of logical synthesis which I have made
my special province.

And yet,said IsmilingI cannot quite hold myself absolved
from the charge of sensationalism which has been urged against my

You have erred, perhaps,he observedtaking up a glowing
cinder with the tongs and lighting with it the long cherry-wood
pipe which was wont to replace his clay when he was in a
disputatious rather than a meditative mood--"you have erred
perhaps in attempting to put color and life into each of your
statements instead of confining yourself to the task of placing
upon record that severe reasoning from cause to effect which is
really the only notable feature about the thing."

It seems to me that I have done you full justice in the matter,
I remarked with some coldnessfor I was repelled by the egotism
which I had more than once observed to be a strong factor in my
friend's singular character.

No, it is not selfishness or conceit,said heansweringas
was his wontmy thoughts rather than my words. "If I claim full
justice for my artit is because it is an impersonal thing--a
thing beyond myself. Crime is common. Logic is rare. Therefore it
is upon the logic rather than upon the crime that you should
dwell. You have degraded what should have been a course of
lectures into a series of tales."

It was a cold morning of the early springand we sat after
breakfast on either side of a cheery fire in the old room at
Baker Street. A thick fog rolled down between the lines of
dun-colored housesand the opposing windows loomed like dark
shapeless blurs through the heavy yellow wreaths. Our gas was lit
and shone on the white cloth and glimmer of china and metalfor
the table had not been cleared yet. Sherlock Holmes had been
silent all the morningdipping continuously into the
advertisement columns of a succession of papers until at last
having apparently given up his searchhe had emerged in no very
sweet temper to lecture me upon my literary shortcomings.

At the same time,he remarked after a pauseduring which he
had sat puffing at his long pipe and gazing down into the fire
you can hardly be open to a charge of sensationalism, for out of
these cases which you have been so kind as to interest yourself
in, a fair proportion do not treat of crime, in its legal sense,
at all. The small matter in which I endeavored to help the King
of Bohemia, the singular experience of Miss Mary Sutherland, the
problem connected with the man with the twisted lip, and the
incident of the noble bachelor, were all matters which are
outside the pale of the law. But in avoiding the sensational, I
fear that you may have bordered on the trivial.

The end may have been so,I answeredbut the methods I hold
to have been novel and of interest.

Pshaw, my dear fellow, what do the public, the great unobservant
public, who could hardly tell a weaver by his tooth or a
compositor by his left thumb, care about the finer shades of
analysis and deduction! But, indeed, if you are trivial. I cannot
blame you, for the days of the great cases are past. Man, or at
least criminal man, has lost all enterprise and originality. As

to my own little practice, it seems to be degenerating into an
agency for recovering lost lead pencils and giving advice to
young ladies from boarding-schools. I think that I have touched
bottom at last, however. This note I had this morning marks my
zero-point, I fancy. Read it!He tossed a crumpled letter across
to me.

It was dated from Montague Place upon the preceding eveningand
ran thus:

DEAR MR. HOLMES:--I am very anxious to consult you as to whether
I should or should not accept a situation which has been offered
to me as governess. I shall call at half-past ten to-morrow if I
do not inconvenience you.

Yours faithfully, VIOLET HUNTER.

Do you know the young lady?I asked.

Not I.

It is half-past ten now.

Yes, and I have no doubt that is her ring.

It may turn out to be of more interest than you think. You
remember that the affair of the blue carbuncle, which appeared to
be a mere whim at first, developed into a serious investigation.
It may be so in this case, also.

Well, let us hope so. But our doubts will very soon be solved,
for here, unless I am much mistaken, is the person in question.

As he spoke the door opened and a young lady entered the room.
She was plainly but neatly dressedwith a brightquick face
freckled like a plover's eggand with the brisk manner of a
woman who has had her own way to make in the world.

You will excuse my troubling you, I am sure,said sheas my
companion rose to greet herbut I have had a very strange
experience, and as I have no parents or relations of any sort
from whom I could ask advice, I thought that perhaps you would be
kind enough to tell me what I should do.

Pray take a seat, Miss Hunter. I shall be happy to do anything
that I can to serve you.

I could see that Holmes was favorably impressed by the manner
and speech of his new client. He looked her over in his searching
fashionand then composed himselfwith his lids drooping and
his finger-tips togetherto listen to her story.

I have been a governess for five years,said shein the
family of Colonel Spence Munro, but two months ago the colonel
received an appointment at Halifax, in Nova Scotia, and took his
children over to America with him, so that I found myself without
a situation. I advertised, and I answered advertisements, but
without success. At last the little money which I had saved began
to run short, and I was at my wit's end as to what I should do.

There is a well-known agency for governesses in the West End
called Westaway'sand there I used to call about once a week in
order to see whether anything had turned up which might suit me.
Westaway was the name of the founder of the businessbut it is
really managed by Miss Stoper. She sits in her own little office

and the ladies who are seeking employment wait in an anteroom
and are then shown in one by onewhen she consults her ledgers
and sees whether she has anything which would suit them.

Well, when I called last week I was shown into the little office
as usual, but I found that Miss Stoper was not alone. A
prodigiously stout man with a very smiling face and a great heavy
chin which rolled down in fold upon fold over his throat sat at
her elbow with a pair of glasses on his nose, looking very
earnestly at the ladies who entered. As I came in he gave quite a
jump in his chair and turned quickly to Miss Stoper.

'That will do' said he; 'I could not ask for anything better.
Capital! capital!' He seemed quite enthusiastic and rubbed his
hands together in the most genial fashion. He was such a
comfortable-looking man that it was quite a pleasure to look at

'You are looking for a situation, miss?' he asked.


'As governess?'


'And what salary do you ask?'

'I had 4 pounds a month in my last place with Colonel Spence

'Oh, tut, tut! sweating--rank sweating!' he cried, throwing his
fat hands out into the air like a man who is in a boiling
passion. 'How could anyone offer so pitiful a sum to a lady with
such attractions and accomplishments?'

'My accomplishmentssirmay be less than you imagine' said I.
'A little Frencha little Germanmusicand drawing --'

'Tut, tut!' he cried. 'This is all quite beside the question.
The point is, have you or have you not the bearing and deportment
of a lady? There it is in a nutshell. If you have not, you are
not fined for the rearing of a child who may some day play a
considerable part in the history of the country. But if you have
why, then, how could any gentleman ask you to condescend to
accept anything under the three figures? Your salary with me,
madam, would commence at 100 pounds a year.'

You may imagineMr. Holmesthat to medestitute as I was
such an offer seemed almost too good to be true. The gentleman
howeverseeing perhaps the look of incredulity upon my face
opened a pocket-book and took out a note.

'It is also my custom,' said he, smiling in the most pleasant
fashion until his eyes were just two little shining slits amid
the white creases of his face, 'to advance to my young ladies
half their salary beforehand, so that they may meet any little
expenses of their journey and their wardrobe.'

It seemed to me that I had never met so fascinating and so
thoughtful a man. As I was already in debt to my tradesmenthe
advance was a great convenienceand yet there was something
unnatural about the whole transaction which made me wish to know
a little more before I quite committed myself.

'May I ask where you live, sir?' said I.

'Hampshire. Charming rural place. The Copper Beechesfive miles
on the far side of Winchester. It is the most lovely countrymy
dear young ladyand the dearest old country-house.'

'And my duties, sir? I should be glad to know what they would

'One child--one dear little romper just six years old. Ohif
you could see him killing cockroaches with a slipper! Smack!
smack! smack! Three gone before you could wink!' He leaned back
in his chair and laughed his eyes into his head again.

I was a little startled at the nature of the child's amusement,
but the father's laughter made me think that perhaps he was

'My sole dutiesthen' I asked'are to take charge of a single

'No, no, not the sole, not the sole, my dear young lady,' he
cried. 'Your duty would be, as I am sure your good sense would
suggest, to obey any little commands my wife might give, provided
always that they were such commands as a lady might with
propriety obey. You see no difficulty, heh?'

'I should be happy to make myself useful.'

'Quite so. In dress now, for example. We are faddy people, you
know--faddy but kind-hearted. If you were asked to wear any dress
which we might give you, you would not object to our little whim.

'No' said Iconsiderably astonished at his words.

'Or to sit here, or sit there, that would not be offensive to


'Or to cut your hair quite short before you come to us?'

I could hardly believe my ears. As you may observeMr. Holmes
my hair is somewhat luxuriantand of a rather peculiar tint of
chestnut. It has been considered artistic. I could not dream of
sacrificing it in this offhand fashion.

'I am afraid that that is quite impossible,' said I. He had been
watching me eagerly out of his small eyes, and I could see a
shadow pass over his face as I spoke.

'I am afraid that it is quite essential' said he. 'It is a
little fancy of my wife'sand ladies' fanciesyou knowmadam
ladies' fancies must be consulted. And so you won't cut your

'No, sir, I really could not,' I answered firmly.

'Ahvery well; then that quite settles the matter. It is a
pitybecause in other respects you would really have done very
nicely. In that caseMiss StoperI had best inspect a few more
of your young ladies.'

The manageress had sat all this while busy with her papers
without a word to either of us, but she glanced at me now with so
much annoyance upon her face that I could not help suspecting
that she had lost a handsome commission through my refusal.

'Do you desire your name to be kept upon the books?' she asked.

'If you please, Miss Stoper.'

'Wellreallyit seems rather uselesssince you refuse the
most excellent offers in this fashion' said she sharply. 'You
can hardly expect us to exert ourselves to find another such
opening for you. Good-day to youMiss Hunter.' She struck a gong
upon the tableand I was shown out by the page.

Well, Mr. Holmes, when I got back to my lodgings and found
little enough in the cupboard, and two or three bills upon the
table. I began to ask myself whether I had not done a very
foolish thing. After all, if these people had strange fads and
expected obedience on the most extraordinary matters, they were
at least ready to pay for their eccentricity. Very few
governesses in England are getting 100 pounds a year. Besides,
what use was my hair to me? Many people are improved by wearing
it short and perhaps I should be among the number. Next day I was
inciined to think that I had made a mistake, and by the day after
I was sure of it. I had almost overcome my pride so far as to go
back to the agency and inquire whether the place was still open
when I received this letter from the gentleman himself. I have it
here and I will read it to you:

'The Copper Beechesnear Winchester.
'DEAR MISS HUNTER:--Miss Stoper has very kindly given me your
addressand I write from here to ask you whether you have
reconsidered your decision. My wife is very anxious that you
should comefor she has been much attracted by my description of
you. We are willing to give 30 pounds a quarteror 120 pounds a
yearso as to recompense you for any little inconvenience which
our fads may cause you. They are not very exactingafter all. My
wife is fond of a particular shade of electric blue and would
like you to wear such a dress indoors in the morning. You need
nothowevergo to the expense of purchasing oneas we have one
belonging to my dear daughter Alice (now in Philadelphia)which
wouldI should thinkfit you very well. Thenas to sitting
here or thereor amusing yourself in any manner indicatedthat
need cause you no inconvenience. As regards your hairit is no
doubt a pityespecially as I could not help remarking its beauty
during our short interviewbut I am afraid that I must remain
firm upon this pointand I only hope that the increased salary
may recompense you for the loss. Your dutiesas far as the child
is concernedare very light. Now do try to comeand I shall
meet you with the dog-cart at Winchester. Let me know your train.
Yours faithfully, JEPHRO RUCASTLE.'

That is the letter which I have just receivedMr. Holmesand
my mind is made up that I will accept it. I thoughthowever
that before taking the final step I should like to submit the
whole matter to your consideration."

Well, Miss Hunter, if your mind is made up, that settles the
question,said Holmessmiling.

But you would not advise me to refuse?

I confess that it is not the situation which I should like to
see a sister of mine apply for.

What is the meaning of it all, Mr. Holmes?

Ah, I have no data. I cannot tell. Perhaps you have yourself
formed some opinion?

Well, there seems to me to be only one possible solution. Mr.
Rucastle seemed to be a very kind, good-natured man. Is it not
possible that his wife is a lunatic, that he desires to keep the
matter quiet for fear she should be taken to an asylum, and that
he humours her fancies in every way in order to prevent an

That is a possible solution--in fact, as matters stand, it is
the most probable one. But in any case it does not seem to be a
nice household for a young lady.

But the money, Mr. Holmes the money!

Well, yes, of course the pay is good--too good. That is what
makes me uneasy. Why should they give you 120 pounds a year, when
they could have their pick for 40 pounds? There must be some
strong reason behind.

I thought that if I told you the circumstances you would
understand afterwards if I wanted your help. I should feel so
much stronger if I felt that you were at the back of me.

Oh, you may carry that feeling away with you. I assure you that
your little problem promises to be the most interesting which has
come my way for some months. There is something distinctly novel
about some of the features. If you should find yourself in doubt
or in danger--

Danger! What danger do you foresee?

Holmes shook his head gravely. "It would cease to be a danger if
we could define it said he. But at any timeday or nighta
telegram would bring me down to your help."

That is enough.She rose briskly from her chair with the
anxiety all swept from her face. "I shall go down to Hampshire
quite easy in my mind now. I shall write to Mr. Rucastle at once
sacrifice my poor hair to-nightand start for Winchester
to-morrow." With a few grateful words to Holmes she bade us both
good-night and bustled off upon her way.

At least,said I as we heard her quickfirm steps descending
the stairsshe seems to be a young lady who is very well able
to take care of herself.

And she would need to be,said Holmes gravely. "I am much
mistaken if we do not hear from her before many days are past."

It was not very long before my friend's prediction was fulfilled.
A fortnight went byduring which I frequently found my thoughts
turning in her direction and wondering what strange side-alley of
human experience this lonely woman had strayed into. The unusual
salarythe curious conditionsthe light dutiesall pointed to
something abnormalthough whether a fad or a plotor whether
the man were a philanthropist or a villainit was quite beyond
my powers to determine. As to HolmesI observed that he sat

frequently for half an hour on endwith knitted brows and an
abstracted airbut he swept the matter away with a wave of his
hand when I mentioned it. "Data! data! data!" he cried
impatiently. "I can't make bricks without clay." And yet he would
always wind up by muttering that no sister of his should ever
have accepted such a situation.

The telegram which we eventually received came late one night
just as I was thinking of turning in and Holmes was settling down
to one of those all-night chemical researches which he frequently
indulged inwhen I would leave him stooping over a retort and a
test-tube at night and find him in the same position when I came
down to breakfast in the morning. He opened the yellow envelope
and thenglancing at the messagethrew it across to me.

Just look up the trains in Bradshaw,said heand turned back
to his chemical studies.

The summons was a brief and urgent one.

Please be at the Black Swan Hotel at Winchester at midday
to-morrow,it said."Do come! I am at my wit's end. HUNTER."

Will you come with me?asked Holmesglancing up.

I should wish to.

Just look it up, then.

There is a train at half-past nine,said Iglancing over my
Bradshaw. "It is due at Winchester at 11:30."

That will do very nicely. Then perhaps I had better postpone my
analysis of the acetones, as we may need to be at our best in the

By eleven o'clock the next day we were well upon our way to the
old English capital. Holmes had been buried in the morning papers
all the way downbut after we had passed the Hampshire border he
threw them down and began to admire the scenery. It was an ideal
spring daya light blue skyflecked with little fleecy white
clouds drifting across from west to east. The sun was shining
very brightlyand yet there was an exhilarating nip in the air
which set an edge to a man's energy. All over the countryside
away to the rolling hills around Aldershotthe little red and
gray roofs of the farm-steadings peeped out from amid the light
green of the new foliage.

Are they not fresh and beautiful?I cried with all the
enthusiasm of a man fresh from the fogs of Baker Street.

But Holmes shook his head gravely.

Do you know, Watson,said hethat it is one of the curses of
a mind with a turn like mine that I must look at everything with
reference to my own special subject. You look at these scattered
houses, and you are impressed by their beauty. I look at them,
and the only thought which comes to me is a feeling of their
isolation and of the impunity with which crime may be committed

Good heavens!I cried. "Who would associate crime with these
dear old homesteads?"

They always fill me with a certain horror. It is my belief,
Watson, founded upon my experience, that the lowest and vilest
alleys in London do not present a more dreadful record of sin
than does the smiling and beautiful countryside.

You horrify me!

But the reason is very obvious. The pressure of public opinion
can do in the town what the law cannot accomplish. There is no
lane so vile that the scream of a tortured child, or the thud of
a drunkard's blow, does not beget sympathy and indignation among
the neighbors, and then the whole machinery of justice is ever
so close that a word of complaint can set it going, and there is
but a step between the crime and the dock. But look at these
lonely houses, each in its own fields, filled for the most part
with poor ignorant folk who know little of the law. Think of the
deeds of hellish cruelty, the hidden wickedness which may go on,
year in, year out, in such places, and none the wiser. Had this
lady who appeals to us for help gone to live in Winchester, I
should never have had a fear for her. It is the five miles of
country which makes the danger. Still, it is clear that she is
not personally threatened.

No. If she can come to Winchester to meet us she can get away.

Quite so. She has her freedom.

What CAN be the matter, then? Can you suggest no explanation?

I have devised seven separate explanations, each of which would
cover the facts as far as we know them. But which of these is
correct can only be determined by the fresh information which we
shall no doubt find waiting for us. Well, there is the tower of
the cathedral, and we shall soon learn all that Miss Hunter has
to tell.

The Black Swan is an inn of repute in the High Streetat no
distance from the stationand there we found the young lady
waiting for us. She had engaged a sitting-roomand our lunch
awaited us upon the table.

I am so delighted that you have come,she said earnestly. "It
is so very kind of you both; but indeed I do not know what I
should do. Your advice will be altogether invaluable to me."

Pray tell us what has happened to you.

I will do so, and I must be quick, for I have promised Mr.
Rucastle to be back before three. I got his leave to come into
town this morning, though he little knew for what purpose.

Let us have everything in its due order.Holmes thrust his long
thin legs out towards the fire and composed himself to listen.

In the first place, I may say that I have met, on the whole,
with no actual ill-treatment from Mr. and Mrs. Rucastle. It is
only fair to them to say that. But I cannot understand them, and
I am not easy in my mind about them.

What can you not understand?

Their reasons for their conduct. But you shall have it all just
as it occurred. When I came down, Mr. Rucastle met me here and
drove me in his dog-cart to the Copper Beeches. It is, as he

said, beautifully situated, but it is not beautiful in itself,
for it is a large square block of a house, whitewashed, but all
stained and streaked with damp and bad weather. There are grounds
round it, woods on three sides, and on the fourth a field which
slopes down to the Southampton highroad, which curves past about
a hundred yards from the front door. This ground in front belongs
to the house, but the woods all round are part of Lord
Southerton's preserves. A clump of copper beeches immediately in
front of the hall door has given its name to the place.

I was driven over by my employerwho was as amiable as ever
and was introduced by him that evening to his wife and the child.
There was no truthMr. Holmesin the conjecture which seemed to
us to be probable in your rooms at Baker Street. Mrs. Rucastle is
not mad. I found her to be a silentpale-faced womanmuch
younger than her husbandnot more than thirtyI should think
while he can hardly be less than forty-five. From their
conversation I have gathered that they have been married about
seven yearsthat he was a widowerand that his only child by
the first wife was the daughter who has gone to Philadelphia. Mr.
Rucastle told me in private that the reason why she had left them
was that she had an unreasoning aversion to her stepmother. As
the daughter could not have been less than twentyI can quite
imagine that her position must have been uncomfortable with her
father's young wife.

Mrs. Rucastle seemed to me to be colorless in mind as well as
in feature. She impressed me neither favorably nor the reverse.
She was a nonentity. It was easy to see that she was passionately
devoted both to her husband and to her little son. Her light gray
eyes wandered continually from one to the other, noting every
little want and forestalling it if possible. He was kind to her
also in his bluff, boisterous fashion, and on the whole they
seemed to be a happy couple. And yet she had some secret sorrow,
this woman. She would often be lost in deep thought, with the
saddest look upon her face. More than once I have surprised her
in tears. I have thought sometimes that it was the disposition of
her child which weighed upon her mind, for I have never met so
utterly spoiled and so ill-natured a little creature. He is small
for his age, with a head which is quite disproportionately large.
His whole life appears to be spent in an alternation between
savage fits of passion and gloomy intervals of sulking. Giving
pain to any creature weaker than himself seems to be his one idea
of amusement, and he shows quite remarkable talent in planning
the capture of mice, little birds, and insects. But I would
rather not talk about the creature, Mr. Holmes, and, indeed, he
has little to do with my story.

I am glad of all details,remarked my friendwhether they
seem to you to be relevant or not.

I shall try not to miss anything of importance. The one
unpleasant thing about the house, which struck me at once, was
the appearance and conduct of the servants. There are only two, a
man and his wife. Toller, for that is his name, is a rough,
uncouth man, with grizzled hair and whiskers, and a perpetual
smell of drink. Twice since I have been with them he has been
quite drunk, and yet Mr. Rucastle seemed to take no notice of it.
His wife is a very tall and strong woman with a sour face, as
silent as Mrs. Rucastle and much less amiable. They are a most
unpleasant couple, but fortunately I spend most of my time in the
nursery and my own room, which are next to each other in one
corner of the building.

For two days after my arrival at the Copper Beeches my life was
very quiet; on the thirdMrs. Rucastle came down just after
breakfast and whispered something to her husband.

'Oh, yes,' said he, turning to me, 'we are very much obliged to
you, Miss Hunter, for falling in with our whims so far as to cut
your hair. I assure you that it has not detracted in the tiniest
iota from your appearance. We shall now see how the electric-blue
dress will become you. You will find it laid out upon the bed in
your room, and if you would be so good as to put it on we should
both be extremely obliged.'

The dress which I found waiting for me was of a peculiar shade
of blue. It was of excellent materiala sort of beigebut it
bore unmistakable signs of having been worn before. It could not
have been a better fit if I had been measured for it. Both Mr.
and Mrs. Rucastle expressed a delight at the look of itwhich
seemed quite exaggerated in its vehemence. They were waiting for
me in the drawing-roomwhich is a very large roomstretching
along the entire front of the housewith three long windows
reaching down to the floor. A chair had been placed close to the
central windowwith its back turned towards it. In this I was
asked to sitand then Mr. Rucastlewalking up and down on the
other side of the roombegan to tell me a series of the funniest
stories that I have ever listened to. You cannot imagine how
comical he wasand I laughed until I was quite weary. Mrs.
Rucastlehoweverwho has evidently no sense of humournever so
much as smiledbut sat with her hands in her lapand a sad
anxious look upon her face. After an hour or soMr. Rucastle
suddenly remarked that it was time to commence the duties of the
dayand that I might change my dress and go to little Edward in
the nursery.

Two days later this same performance was gone through under
exactly similar circumstances. Again I changed my dress, again I
sat in the window, and again I laughed very heartily at the funny
stories of which my employer had an immense repertoire, and which
he told inimitably. Then he handed me a yellow-backed novel, and
moving my chair a little sideways, that my own shadow might not
fall upon the page, he begged me to read aloud to him. I read for
about ten minutes, beginning in the heart of a chapter, and then
suddenly, in the middle of a sentence, he ordered me to cease and
to change my dress.

You can easily imagineMr. Holmeshow curious I became as to
what the meaning of this extraordinary performance could possibly
be. They were always very carefulI observedto turn my face
away from the windowso that I became consumed with the desire
to see what was going on behind my back. At first it seemed to be
impossiblebut I soon devised a means. My hand-mirror had been
brokenso a happy thought seized meand I concealed a piece of
the glass in my handkerchief. On the next occasionin the midst
of my laughterI put my handkerchief up to my eyesand was able
with a little management to see all that there was behind me. I
confess that I was disappointed. There was nothing. At least that
was my first impression. At the second glancehoweverI
perceived that there was a man standing in the Southampton Road
a small bearded man in a gray suitwho seemed to be looking in
my direction. The road is an important highwayand there are
usually people there. This manhoweverwas leaning against the
railings which bordered our field and was looking earnestly up. I
lowered my handkerchief and glanced at Mrs. Rucastle to find her
eyes fixed upon me with a most searching gaze. She said nothing
but I am convinced that she had divined that I had a mirror in my

hand and had seen what was behind me. She rose at once.

'Jephro,' said she, 'there is an impertinent fellow upon the
road there who stares up at Miss Hunter.'

'No friend of yoursMiss Hunter?' he asked.

'No, I know no one in these parts.'

'Dear me! How very impertinent! Kindly turn round and motion to
him to go away.'

'Surely it would be better to take no notice.'

'Nonowe should have him loitering here always. Kindly turn
round and wave him away like that.'

I did as I was told, and at the same instant Mrs. Rucastle drew
down the blind. That was a week ago, and from that time I have
not sat again in the window, nor have I worn the blue dress, nor
seen the man in the road.

Pray continue,said Holmes. "Your narrative promises to be a
most interesting one."

You will find it rather disconnected, I fear, and there may
prove to be little relation between the different incidents of
which I speak. On the very first day that I was at the Copper
Beeches, Mr. Rucastle took me to a small outhouse which stands
near the kitchen door. As we approached it I heard the sharp
rattling of a chain, and the sound as of a large animal moving

'Look in here!' said Mr. Rucastleshowing me a slit between two
planks. 'Is he not a beauty?'

I looked through and was conscious of two glowing eyes, and of a
vague figure huddled up in the darkness.

'Don't be frightened' said my employerlaughing at the start
which I had given. 'It's only Carlomy mastiff. I call him mine
but really old Tollermy groomis the only man who can do
anything with him. We feed him once a dayand not too much then
so that he is always as keen as mustard. Toller lets him loose
every nightand God help the trespasser whom he lays his fangs
upon. For goodness' sake don't you ever on any pretext set your
foot over the threshold at nightfor it's as much as your life
is worth.'

The warning was no idle one, for two nights later I happened to
look out of my bedroom window about two o'clock in the morning.
It was a beautiful moonlight night, and the lawn in front of the
house was silvered over and almost as bright as day. I was
standing, rapt in the peaceful beauty of the scene, when I was
aware that something was moving under the shadow of the copper
beeches. As it emerged into the moonshine I saw what it was. It
was a giant dog, as large as a calf, tawny tinted, with hanging
jowl, black muzzle, and huge projecting bones. It walked slowly
across the lawn and vanished into the shadow upon the other side.
That dreadful sentinel sent a chill to my heart which I do not
think that any burglar could have done.

And now I have a very strange experience to tell you. I hadas
you knowcut off my hair in Londonand I had placed it in a

great coil at the bottom of my trunk. One eveningafter the
child was in bedI began to amuse myself by examining the
furniture of my room and by rearranging my own little things.
There was an old chest of drawers in the roomthe two upper ones
empty and openthe lower one locked. I had filled the first two
with my linen. and as I had still much to pack away I was
naturally annoyed at not having the use of the third drawer. It
struck me that it might have been fastened by a mere oversight
so I took out my bunch of keys and tried to open it. The very
first key fitted to perfectionand I drew the drawer open. There
was only one thing in itbut I am sure that you would never
guess what it was. It was my coil of hair.

I took it up and examined it. It was of the same peculiar tint,
and the same thickness. But then the impossibility of the thing
obtruded itself upon me. How could my hair have been locked in
the drawer? With trembling hands I undid my trunk, turned out the
contents, and drew from the bonom my own hair. I laid the two
tresses together, and I assure you that they were identical. Was
it not extraordinary? Puzzle as I would, I could make nothing at
all of what it meant. I returned the strange hair to the drawer,
and I said nothing of the matter to the Rucastles as I felt that
I had put myself in the wrong by opening a drawer which they had

I am naturally observantas you may have remarkedMr. Holmes
and I soon had a pretty good plan of the whole house in my head.
There was one winghoweverwhich appeared not to be inhabited
at all. A door which faced that which led into the quarters of
the Tollers opened into this suitebut it was invariably locked.
One dayhoweveras I ascended the stairI met Mr. Rucastle
coming out through this doorhis keys in his handand a look on
his face which made him a very different person to the round
jovial man to whom I was accustomed. His cheeks were redhis
brow was all crinkled with angerand the veins stood out at his
temples with passion. He locked the door and hurried past me
without a word or a look.

This aroused my curiosity, so when I went out for a walk in the
grounds with my charge, I strolled round to the side from which I
could see the windows of this part of the house. There were four
of them in a row, three of which were simply dirty, while the
fourth was shuttered up. They were evidently all deserted. As I
strolled up and down, glancing at them occasionally, Mr. Rucastle
came out to me, looking as merry and jovial as ever.

'Ah!' said he'you must not think me rude if I passed you
without a wordmy dear young lady. I was preoccupied with
business matters.'

I assured him that I was not offended. 'By the way,' said I,
'you seem to have quite a suite of spare rooms up there, and one
of them has the shutters up.'

He looked surprised andas it seemed to mea little startled
at my remark.

'Photography is one of my hobbies,' said he. 'I have made my
dark room up there. But, dear me! what an observant young lady we
have come upon. Who would have believed it? Who would have ever
believed it?' He spoke in a jesting tone, but there was no jest
in his eyes as he looked at me. I read suspicion there and
annoyance, but no jest.

WellMr. Holmesfrom the moment that I understood that there
was something about that suite of rooms which I was not to know
I was all on fire to go over them. It was not mere curiosity
though I have my share of that. It was more a feeling of duty--a
feeling that some good might come from my penetrating to this
place. They talk of woman's instinct; perhaps it was woman's
instinct which gave me that feeling. At any rateit was there
and I was keenly on the lookout for any chance to pass the
forbidden door.

It was only yesterday that the chance came. I may tell you that,
besides Mr. Rucastle, both Toller and his wife find something to
do in these deserted rooms, and I once saw him carrying a large
black linen bag with him through the door. Recently he has been
drinking hard, and yesterday evening he was very drunk; and when
I came upstairs there was the key in the door. I have no doubt at
all that he had left it there. Mr. and Mrs. Rucastle were both
downstairs, and the child was with them, so that I had an
admirable opportunity. I turned the key gently in the lock,
opened the door, and slipped through.

There was a little passage in front of meunpapered and
uncarpetedwhich turned at a right angle at the farther end.
Round this corner were three doors in a linethe first and third
of which were open. They each led into an empty roomdusty and
cheerlesswith two windows in the one and one in the otherso
thick with dirt that the evening light glimmered dimly through
them. The centre door was closedand across the outside of it
had been fastened one of the broad bars of an iron bedpadlocked
at one end to a ring in the walland fastened at the other with
stout cord. The door itself was locked as welland the key was
not there. This barricaded door corresponded clearly with the
shuttered window outsideand yet I could see by the glimmer from
beneath it that the room was not in darkness. Evidently there was
a skylight which let in light from above. As I stood in the
passage gazing at the sinister door and wondering what secret it
might veilI suddenly heard the sound of steps within the room
and saw a shadow pass backward and forward against the little
slit of dim light which shone out from under the door. A mad
unreasoning terror rose up in me at the sightMr. Holmes. My
overstrung nerves failed me suddenlyand I turned and ran--ran
as though some dreadful hand were behind me clutching at the
skirt of my dress. I rushed down the passagethrough the door
and straight into the arms of Mr. Rucastlewho was waiting

'So,' said he, smiling, 'it was you, then. I thought that it
must be when I saw the door open.'

'OhI am so frightened!' I panted.

'My dear young lady! my dear young lady!'--you cannot think how
caressing and soothing his manner was--'and what has frightened
you, my dear young lady?'

But his voice was just a little too coaxing. He overdid it. I
was keenly on my guard against him.

'I was foolish enough to go into the empty wing,' I answered.
'But it is so lonely and eerie in this dim light that I was
frightened and ran out again. Oh, it is so dreadfully still in

'Only that?' said helooking at me keenly.

'Why, what did you think?' I asked.

'Why do you think that I lock this door?'

'I am sure that I do not know.'

'It is to keep people out who have no business there. Do you
see?' He was still smiling in the most amiable manner.

'I am sure if I had known--'

'Wellthenyou know now. And if you ever put your foot over
that threshold again'--here in an instant the smile hardened into
a grin of rageand he glared down at me with the face of a
demon--'I'll throw you to the mastiff.'

I was so terrified that I do not know what I did. I suppose that
I must have rushed past him into my room. I remember nothing
until I found myself lying on my bed trembling all over. Then I
thought of you, Mr. Holmes. I could not live there longer without
some advice. I was frightened of the house, of the man of the
woman, of the servants, even of the child. They were all horrible
to me. If I could only bring you down all would be well. Of
course I might have fled from the house, but my curiosity was
almost as strong as my fears. My mind was soon made up. I would
send you a wire. I put on my hat and cloak, went down to the
office, which is about half a mile from the house, and then
returned, feeling very much easier. A horrible doubt came into my
mind as I approached the door lest the dog might be loose, but I
remembered that Toller had drunk himself into a state of
insensibility that evening, and I knew that he was the only one
in the household who had any influence with the savage creature,
or who would venture to set him free. I slipped in in safety and
lay awake half the night in my joy at the thought of seeing you.
I had no difficulty in getting leave to come into Winchester this
morning, but I must be back before three o'clock, for Mr. and
Mrs. Rucastle are going on a visit, and will be away all the
evening, so that I must look after the child. Now I have told you
all my adventures, Mr. Holmes, and I should be very glad if you
could tell me what it all means, and, above all, what I should

Holmes and I had listened spellbound to this extraordinary story.
My friend rose now and paced up and down the roomhis hands in
his pocketsand an expression of the most profound gravity upon
his face.

Is Toller still drunk?he asked.

Yes. I heard his wife tell Mrs. Rucastle that she could do
nothing with him.

That is well. And the Rucastles go out to-night?


Is there a cellar with a good strong lock?

Yes, the wine-cellar.

You seem to me to have acted all through this matter like a very
brave and sensible girl, Miss Hunter. Do you think that you could
perform one more feat? I should not ask it of you if I did not

think you a quite exceptional woman.

I will try. What is it?

We shall be at the Copper Beeches by seven o'clock, my friend
and I. The Rucastles will be gone by that time, and Toller will,
we hope, be incapable. There only remains Mrs. Toller, who might
give the alarm. If you could send her into the cellar on some
errand, and then turn the key upon her, you would facilitate
matters immensely.

I will do it.

Excellent! We shall then look thoroughly into the affair. Of
course there is only one feasible explanation. You have been
brought there to personate someone, and the real person is
imprisoned in this chamber. That is obvious. As to who this
prisoner is, I have no doubt that it is the daughter, Miss Alice
Rucastle, if I remember right, who was said to have gone to
America. You were chosen, doubtless, as resembling her in height,
figure, and the color of your hair. Hers had been cut off, very
possibly in some illness through which she has passed, and so, of
course, yours had to be sacrificed also. By a curious chance you
came upon her tresses. The man in the road was undoubtedly some
friend of hers--possibly her fiance--and no doubt, as you wore
the girl's dress and were so like her, he was convinced from your
laughter, whenever he saw you, and afterwards from your gesture,
that Miss Rucastle was perfectly happy, and that she no longer
desired his attentions. The dog is let loose at night to prevent
him from endeavoring to communicate with her. So much is fairly
clear. The most serious point in the case is the disposition of
the child.

What on earth has that to do with it?I ejaculated.

My dear Watson, you as a medical man are continually gaining
light as to the tendencies of a child by the study of the
parents. Don't you see that the converse is equally valid. I have
frequently gained my first real insight into the character of
parents by studying their children. This child's disposition is
abnormally cruel, merely for cruelty's sake, and whether he
derives this from his smiling father, as I should suspect, or
from his mother, it bodes evil for the poor girl who is in their

I am sure that you are right, Mr. Holmes,cried our client. "A
thousand things come back to me which make me certain that you
have hit it. Ohlet us lose not an instant in bringing help to
this poor creature."

We must be circumspect, for we are dealing with a very cunning
man. We can do nothing until seven o'clock. At that hour we shall
be with you, and it will not be long before we solve the

We were as good as our wordfor it was just seven when we
reached the Copper Beecheshaving put up our trap at a wayside
public-house. The group of treeswith their dark leaves shining
like burnished metal in the light of the setting sunwere
sufficient to mark the house even had Miss Hunter not been
standing smiling on the door-step.

Have you managed it?asked Holmes.

A loud thudding noise came from somewhere downstairs. "That is
Mrs. Toller in the cellar said she. Her husband lies snoring
on the kitchen rug. Here are his keyswhich are the duplicates
of Mr. Rucastle's."

You have done well indeed!cried Holmes with enthusiasm. "Now
lead the wayand we shall soon see the end of this black

We passed up the stairunlocked the doorfollowed on down a
passageand found ourselves in front of the barricade which Miss
Hunter had described. Holmes cut the cord and removed the
transverse bar. Then he tried the various keys in the lockbut
without success. No sound came from withinand at the silence
Holmes's face clouded over.

I trust that we are not too late,said he. "I thinkMiss
Hunterthat we had better go in without you. NowWatsonput
your shoulder to itand we shall see whether we cannot make our
way in."

It was an old rickety door and gave at once before our united
strength. Together we rushed into the room. It was empty. There
was no furniture save a little pallet beda small tableand a
basketful of linen. The skylight above was openand the prisoner

There has been some villainy here,said Holmes; "this beauty
has guessed Miss Hunter's intentions and has carried his victim

But how?

Through the skylight. We shall soon see how he managed it.He
swung himself up onto the roof. "Ahyes he cried, here's the
end of a long light ladder against the eaves. That is how he did

But it is impossible,said Miss Hunter; "the ladder was not
there when the Rucastles went away."

He has come back and done it. I tell you that he is a clever and
dangerous man. I should not be very much surprised if this were
he whose step I hear now upon the stair. I think, Watson, that it
would be as well for you to have your pistol ready.

The words were hardly out of his mouth before a man appeared at
the door of the rooma very fat and burly manwith a heavy
stick in his hand. Miss Hunter screamed and shrunk against the
wall at the sight of himbut Sherlock Holmes sprang forward and
confronted him.

You villain!said hewhere's your daughter?

The fat man cast his eyes roundand then up at the open

It is for me to ask you that,he shriekedyou thieves! Spies
and thieves! I have caught you, have I? You are in my power. I'll
serve you!He turned and clattered down the stairs as hard as he
could go.

He's gone for the dog!cried Miss Hunter.

I have my revolver,said I.

Better close the front door,cried Holmesand we all rushed
down the stairs together. We had hardly reached the hall when we
heard the baying of a houndand then a scream of agonywith a
horrible worrying sound which it was dreadful to listen to. An
elderly man with a red face and shaking limbs came staggering out
at a side door.

My God!he cried. "Someone has loosed the dog. It's not been
fed for two days. Quickquickor it'll be too late!"

Holmes and I rushed out and round the angle of the housewith
Toller hurrying behind us. There was the huge famished bruteits
black muzzle buried in Rucastle's throatwhile he writhed and
screamed upon the ground. Running upI blew its brains outand
it fell over with its keen white teeth still meeting in the great
creases of his neck. With much labour we separated them and
carried himliving but horribly mangledinto the house. We laid
him upon the drawing-room sofaand having dispatched the sobered
Toller to bear the news to his wifeI did what I could to
relieve his pain. We were all assembled round him when the door
openedand a tallgaunt woman entered the room.

Mrs. Toller!cried Miss Hunter.

Yes, miss. Mr. Rucastle let me out when he came back before he
went up to you. Ah, miss, it is a pity you didn't let me know
what you were planning, for I would have told you that your pains
were wasted.

Ha!said Holmeslooking keenly at her. "It is clear that Mrs.
Toller knows more about this matter than anyone else."

Yes, sir, I do, and I am ready enough to tell what I know.

Then, pray, sit down, and let us hear it for there are several
points on which I must confess that I am still in the dark.

I will soon make it clear to you,said she; "and I'd have done
so before now if I could ha' got out from the cellar. If there's
police-court business over thisyou'll remember that I was the
one that stood your friendand that I was Miss Alice's friend

She was never happy at home, Miss Alice wasn't, from the time
that her father married again. She was slighted like and had no
say in anything, but it never really became bad for her until
after she met Mr. Fowler at a friend's house. As well as I could
learn, Miss Alice had rights of her own by will, but she was so
quiet and patient, she was, that she never said a word about them
but just left everything in Mr. Rucastle's hands. He knew he was
safe with her; but when there was a chance of a husband coming
forward, who would ask for all that the law would give him, then
her father thought it time to put a stop on it. He wanted her to
sign a paper, so that whether she married or not, he could use
her money. When she wouldn't do it, he kept on worrying her until
she got brain-fever, and for six weeks was at death's door. Then
she got better at last, all worn to a shadow, and with her
beautiful hair cut off; but that didn't make no change in her
young man, and he stuck to her as true as man could be.

Ah,said HolmesI think that what you have been good enough
to tell us makes the matter fairly clear, and that I can deduce

all that remains. Mr. Rucastle then, I presume, took to this
system of imprisonment?

Yes, sir.

And brought Miss Hunter down from London in order to get rid of
the disagreeable persistence of Mr. Fowler.

That was it, sir.

But Mr. Fowler being a persevering man, as a good seaman should
be, blockaded the house, and having met you succeeded by certain
arguments, metallic or otherwise, in convincing you that your
interests were the same as his.

Mr. Fowler was a very kind-spoken, free-handed gentleman,said
Mrs. Toller serenely.

And in this way he managed that your good man should have no
want of drink, and that a ladder should be ready at the moment
when your master had gone out.

You have it, sir, just as it happened.

I am sure we owe you an apology, Mrs. Toller,said Holmesfor
you have certainly cleared up everything which puzzled us. And
here comes the country surgeon and Mrs. Rucastle, so I think.
Watson, that we had best escort Miss Hunter back to Winchester,
as it seems to me that our locus standi now is rather a
questionable one.

And thus was solved the mystery of the sinister house with the
copper beeches in front of the door. Mr. Rucastle survivedbut
was always a broken mankept alive solely through the care of
his devoted wife. They still live with their old servantswho
probably know so much of Rucastle's past life that he finds it
difficult to part from them. Mr. Fowler and Miss Rucastle were
marriedby special licensein Southampton the day after their
flightand he is now the holder of a government appointment in
the island of Mauritius. As to Miss Violet Huntermy friend
Holmesrather to my disappointmentmanifested no further
interest in her when once she had ceased to be the centre of one
of his problemsand she is now the head of a private school at
Walsallwhere I believe that she has met with considerable success.